• Advanced search

Journal of Neuroscience

Advanced Search

  • Articles, Systems/Circuits Coordinated Interaction between Hippocampal Sharp-Wave Ripples and Anterior Cingulate Unit Activity Dong V. Wang and Satoshi Ikemoto Journal of Neuroscience 12 October 2016, 36 (41) 10663-10672; https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1042-16.2016
  • Articles, Cellular/Molecular Alcohol Regulates BK Surface Expression via Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Cristina Velázquez-Marrero , Alexandra Burgos , José O. García , Stephanie Palacio , Héctor G. Marrero , Alexandra Bernardo , Juliana Pérez-Laspiur , Marla Rivera-Oliver , Garrett Seale and Steven N. Treistman Journal of Neuroscience 12 October 2016, 36 (41) 10625-10639; https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0491-16.2016
  • Articles, Systems/Circuits Spatiotemporal Distribution of Location and Object Effects in Primary Motor Cortex Neurons during Reach-to-Grasp Adam G. Rouse and Marc H. Schieber Journal of Neuroscience 12 October 2016, 36 (41) 10640-10653; https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1716-16.2016
  • Articles, Behavioral/Cognitive Reward Expectancy Strengthens CA1 Theta and Beta Band Synchronization and Hippocampal-Ventral Striatal Coupling Carien S. Lansink , Guido T. Meijer , Jan V. Lankelma , Martin A. Vinck , Jadin C. Jackson and Cyriel M.A. Pennartz Journal of Neuroscience 12 October 2016, 36 (41) 10598-10610; https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0682-16.2016
  • Articles, Behavioral/Cognitive Memory Retrieval Has a Dynamic Influence on the Maintenance Mechanisms That Are Sensitive to ζ-Inhibitory Peptide (ZIP) David Levitan , Yaihara Fortis-Santiago , Joshua A. Figueroa , Emily E. Reid , Takashi Yoshida , Nicholas C. Barry , Abigail Russo and Donald B. Katz Journal of Neuroscience 12 October 2016, 36 (41) 10654-10662; https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1568-16.2016
  • Featured Article Articles, Cellular/Molecular Sustained G q -Protein Signaling Disrupts Striatal Circuits via JNK Luigi Bellocchio , Andrea Ruiz-Calvo , Anna Chiarlone , Magali Cabanas , Eva Resel , Jean-René Cazalets , Cristina Blázquez , Yoon H. Cho , Ismael Galve-Roperh and Manuel Guzmán Journal of Neuroscience 12 October 2016, 36 (41) 10611-10624; https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1192-16.2016
  • Articles, Systems/Circuits Responses to Predictable versus Random Temporally Complex Stimuli from Single Units in Auditory Thalamus: Impact of Aging and Anesthesia Rui Cai , Ben D. Richardson and Donald M. Caspary Journal of Neuroscience 12 October 2016, 36 (41) 10696-10706; https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1454-16.2016
  • Articles, Cellular/Molecular Monomeric Alpha-Synuclein Exerts a Physiological Role on Brain ATP Synthase Marthe H.R. Ludtmann , Plamena R. Angelova , Natalia N. Ninkina , Sonia Gandhi , Vladimir L. Buchman and Andrey Y. Abramov Journal of Neuroscience 12 October 2016, 36 (41) 10510-10521; https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1659-16.2016
  • Articles, Systems/Circuits Neurophysiological Evidence for a Cortical Contribution to the Wakefulness-Related Drive to Breathe Explaining Hypocapnia-Resistant Ventilation in Humans Matthieu Dubois , Cécile Chenivesse , Mathieu Raux , Adrian Morales-Robles , Marie-Cécile Nierat , Gilles Garcia , Xavier Navarro-Sune , Mario Chavez , Jacques Martinerie and Thomas Similowski Journal of Neuroscience 12 October 2016, 36 (41) 10673-10682; https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2376-16.2016
  • Articles, Behavioral/Cognitive The Neural Dynamics of Attentional Selection in Natural Scenes Daniel Kaiser , Nikolaas N. Oosterhof and Marius V. Peelen Journal of Neuroscience 12 October 2016, 36 (41) 10522-10528; https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1385-16.2016

research papers on neurobiology

Molecular Neurobiology

  • Provides thorough and constructive peer review managed by our Editor-in-Chief and Associate editors.
  • Offers attractive turnaround times for research publication.
  • Committed to high levels of author satisfaction, with strong publication return rates.
  • Serves as essential reading for neuroscientists at the cutting edge of their field.
  • Benedict C. Albensi

research papers on neurobiology

Latest issue

Volume 61, Issue 6

Latest articles

An updated canvas of the rfc1-mediated canvas (cerebellar ataxia, neuropathy and vestibular areflexia syndrome).

  • Sakshi Shukla
  • Kanav Gupta

research papers on neurobiology

Metabolomics in Depression: What We Learn from Preclinical and Clinical Evidences

  • Pooja Singh
  • Boosani Vasundhara
  • Ashok Kumar Datusalia

research papers on neurobiology

The Role of HSP90 Molecular Chaperones in Depression: Potential Mechanisms

research papers on neurobiology

Astrocytes-Secreted WNT5B Disrupts the Blood–Brain Barrier Via ROR1/JNK/c-JUN Cascade During Meningitic Escherichia Coli Infection

  • Ruicheng Yang
  • Xiangru Wang

research papers on neurobiology

Neuroprotective Effect of Chlorogenic Acid in an Animal Model of Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease Induced by Streptozotocin

  • Jéssica Rabelo Bezerra
  • Tyciane de Souza Nascimento
  • Geanne Matos de Andrade

research papers on neurobiology

Journal updates

Special issue: molecular neurobiology of mitochondria: focus on mitochondrial therapeutics.

The purpose of this Collection , Guest Edited by Dr. Hemachandra Reddy , is to assess the recent developments in mitochondrial research in health and disease. The major themes are:

1) biochemistry and molecular basis of mitochondria 2) current status mitochondrial dynamics, mitophagy, mitophagy enhancers 3) impact of oxidative stress, inflammation on mitochondrial function/dysfunction 4) mitochondrial therapeutics

The special issue will cover articles on aging, diabetes/obesity, age-related neurodegenerative diseases, and inherited mitochondrial diseases.

Articles will be consider for publication in the special issue from January 1, 2024 until July 31, 2024. We invite original research, high quality mini and comprehensive reviews and commentaries.

Microbes & Alzheimer’s: Bridging Silos to Accelerate Innovation

Molecular Neurobiology Guest Editors Brian Balin and Nikki Schultek are hosting an in-person and virtual educational symposium on July 27th on Microbes & Alzheimer's . There will be over 20 global experts presenting.

Special Issue Exploring the molecular mechanisms of infectious microbes and microbiota in chronic neurologic and psychiatric diseases

In this special issue, Guest Edited by  Brian J. Balin and  Nikki M. Schultek , we invite the scientific community to submit original research papers, reviews, meta-analyses, etc pertaining to the molecular mechanisms of neurologic and psychiatric diseases with emphasis on infectious microbes (the pathobiota) and/or the alterations to the microbiota that may lead to these disease states

Journal information

  • Biological Abstracts
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)
  • Google Scholar
  • Japanese Science and Technology Agency (JST)
  • OCLC WorldCat Discovery Service
  • Pathway Studio
  • Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE)
  • TD Net Discovery Service
  • UGC-CARE List (India)

Rights and permissions

Editorial policies

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature

  • Find a journal
  • Publish with us
  • Track your research

U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

The .gov means it’s official. Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.

The site is secure. The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

  • Publications
  • Account settings

Preview improvements coming to the PMC website in October 2024. Learn More or Try it out now .

  • Advanced Search
  • Journal List
  • HHS Author Manuscripts

Logo of nihpa

The emotional brain: Fundamental questions and strategies for future research

Alexander j. shackman.

1 Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 USA

3 Department of Maryland Neuroimaging Center, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 USA

Tor D. Wager

4 Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 USA

5 Institute of Cognitive Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 USA

Emotions play a central role in human experience. Over time, methods for manipulating emotion have become increasingly refined and techniques for making sense of the underlying neurobiology have become ever more powerful and precise, enabling new insights into the organization of emotions in the brain. Yet recent years have witnessed a remarkably vigorous debate about the nature and origins of emotion, with leading scientists raising compelling concerns about the canon of facts and principles that has inspired and guided the field for the past quarter century. Here, we consider ways in which recent neuroimaging research informs this dialogue. By focusing attention on the most important outstanding questions about the nature of emotion and the architecture of the emotional brain, we hope to stimulate the kinds of work that will be required to move the field forward. Addressing these questions is critical, not just for understanding the mind, but also for elucidating the root causes of many of its disorders.

Emotions play a central role in human experience and there is an abiding interest—among scientists, clinicians, and the public at large—in determining their nature, understanding their origins, and clarifying their implications for health and disease. Methods for eliciting, assessing, and analyzing emotion have become increasingly refined (e.g., Coan & Allen, 2007 ; Cowen & Keltner, 2017 ) and techniques for making sense of the underlying neurobiology have become more powerful and precise (e.g., Glasser et al., 2016 ; Kim, Adhikari, & Deisseroth, 2017 ; Urban & Roth, 2015 ; Woo, Chang, Lindquist, & Wager, 2017 ). The 10 reviews that make up our Special Issue on Functional Neuroimaging of the Emotional Brain embody these exciting developments and illustrate the tremendous progress that has been made using brain imaging approaches. Yet recent years have witnessed a remarkably vigorous debate about the nature of emotion, with leading scientists challenging the canon of facts and shared assumptions that has inspired and guided the field for the past quarter-century ( Adolphs, 2017a , 2017b ; Adolphs & Anderson, 2018 ; Barrett, 2017a , 2017b , 2017c , 2018a ; Barrett, Khan, Dy, & Brooks, 2018 ; Clark-Polner, Johnson, & Barrett, 2017 ; Cordaro, Fridlund, Keltner, & Russell, 2015 ; Cowen & Keltner, 2018 ; Fox, Lapate, Davidson, & Shackman, 2018 ; LeDoux, 2014 , 2015 ; LeDoux & Hofmann, 2018 ; Pine & LeDoux, 2017 ). As Adolphs and Anderson recently wrote,

“Emotions are one of the most apparent and important aspects of our lives, yet have remained one of the most enigmatic to explain scientifically. On the one hand, nothing seems more obvious than that we and many other animals have emotions…On the other hand, the scientific study of emotions is a piecemeal and confused discipline, with some…advocating that we get rid of the word emotion altogether.” ( Adolphs & Anderson, 2018 , p. xi).

Here we consider ways in which the Special Issue informs this scientific dialogue, focusing on what we see as some of the most fundamental questions:

  • What is an emotion?
  • Are emotions natural kinds waiting to be discovered and catalogued (like stars) or human concepts (like constellations)?
  • Are particular emotions, such as fear, associated with distinct facial expressions and patterns of physiology, or what we might think of as biological ‘fingerprints’?
  • Should we think of emotions as discrete clusters or families of ‘basic’ emotions — as exemplified in the popular Disney movie “Inside Out” ( http://atlasofemotions.org ; Adolphs & Anderson, 2018 ; Ekman & Cordaro, 2011 ; Levenson, 2011 ; Panksepp, 1998 )…
  • …As points in a smooth, low dimensional space ( Lang & Bradley, 2018 ; Mattek, Wolford, & Whalen, 2017 ; Rolls, 2005 ; Yik, Russell, & Steiger, 2011 )…
  • …Or some hybrid of these two extremes ( Cowen & Keltner, 2017 )?
  • What develops in emotional development?
  • How are emotions regulated?
  • How are emotions embodied in the social world?
  • Do animals have emotions?

It has been written that “science best progresses through multiple and mutually critical attempts to understand the same problem” ( Kenrick & Funder, 1988 , p. 32), and we believe that highlighting key points of consensus and disagreement among our contributors provides a useful opportunity for sharpening constructs, articulating unspoken assumptions, and identifying soft spots in the literature. In focusing attention on these key questions, and juxtaposing clear theoretical goals against the state of the science, we hope to stimulate the kinds of thoughtful discussion and creative research that will be required to understand the nature of emotion and the organization of the emotional brain. At the end of each section, we highlight some of the most important challenges for future research and some strategies for addressing them.

The Nature of Emotion

Nummenmaa and Saarimäki tell us that basic emotions—anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise—exist and are associated with categorically distinct feelings, facial expressions, and patterns of autonomic activity (Nummenmaa & Saarimäki, this issue ). Barrett and Satpute reject these claims (Barrett & Satpute, this issue ), arguing that there is little evidence of specificity. Instead, they emphasize the marked differences in behavior and autonomic activity across instances of particular emotions (i.e., intra-emotion variation) and the considerable overlap across emotions (e.g., Siegel et al., 2018 ). The two camps seem to agree that emotions reflect broadly distributed neural circuits, noting that there is little evidence of consistent one-to-one mappings between particular emotions and isolated brain regions, such as the amygdala. But they radically differ in their interpretation of those circuits. Nummenmaa and Saarimäki tell us that basic emotions are associated with specific patterns of neural activity (e.g., Saarimaki et al., 2018 ). But Barrett and Satpute argue that the neural fingerprints revealed by machine-learning approaches markedly differ across studies, laboratories, induction techniques, and even across participants ( Barrett, 2018b )—echoing other recent commentaries ( Kragel & LaBar, 2016 ; Wager, Krishnan, & Hitchcock, 2018 ). Building on these observations, Barrett and Satpute tell us that emotions are not natural kinds and do not reflect invariant biological substrates, that they have no fingerprints in the brain or body. From their perspective, emotions are constructed from domain-general building blocks—cells, regions, circuits, and patterns of autonomic activity—that are not specific to any particular emotion, or even to emotion itself. The configuration of those components is held to be dynamic , exquisitely sensitive to momentary fluctuations in the external environment and the internal milieu, and causally distributed , with none of the individual components necessary or sufficient for experiencing particular emotions.

So, where do we go from here? It is clear that the last several years have witnessed important advances in our understanding of how emotions are organized in the human brain. At the level of resolution afforded by conventional brain imaging techniques, these new data make it clear that emotions arise from networks, not isolated brain centers (for related perspectives, see Casey et al., this issue ; Baratta & Maier, this issue ; Fox & Shackman, this issue ). Activation in particular brain regions, like the amygdala, explain small amounts of the variance in emotional states (e.g., as indexed by ratings) ( Chang, Gianaros, Manuck, Krishnan, & Wager, 2015 ) and emotional disorders ( Shackman & Fox, 2018 ). Individual voxels, regions, and functional connections often contribute to multiple mental states and processes, some more emotional, others more cognitive, a one-to-many mapping sometimes dubbed ‘multiplexing’ ( Pessoa, 2013 ; Shackman, Fox, & Seminowicz, 2015 ; Shackman & Lapate, 2018b ). This work also showcases the utility of machine learning techniques for discovering neural fingerprints and quantifying the degree to which they predict specific emotions, a reverse inference not licensed by traditional ‘massively univariate’ brain-mapping approaches ( Kragel, Koban, Barrett, & Wager, 2018b ; Brooks & Freeman, this issue; Lamm et al., this issue; Spunt & Adolphs, this issue; Kragel & LaBar, 2016 ; Woo et al., 2017 ).

Still, it is clear that considerable work remains. It would be premature to draw any strong conclusions about the neural organization of emotion or the prospects of discovering emotion-specific fingerprints based on this first generation of machine-learning studies ( Kragel & LaBar, 2016 ). A key challenge for the future will be to create more generalizable emotion fingerprints; predictive models that are derived from multiple induction techniques, grounded in parametric variation in one or more read-outs, and tested on independent samples (e.g., ratings, peripheral physiology, behavior) (Lamm et al., this issue; Kragel et al., 2018a ; Woo et al., 2017 ). Establishing the construct validity—the sensitivity and specificity—of these models will require comparison with a broad range of comparison tasks and stimuli ( Zaki, Wager, Singer, Keysers, & Gazzola, 2016 ), including a range of emotions ( Adolphs & Anderson, 2018 ). Doing so promises a clearer understanding of how emotions are encoded in the human brain.

Nummenmaa and Saarimäki also remind us that imaging alone cannot address the necessity or sufficiency of the regions or connections embedded within these global patterns of activation—a point made by a number of other contributors (Lamm et al., this issue ; Spunt & Adolphs, this issue; Baratta & Maier, this issue ; Fox & Shackman, this issue ). Addressing this important concern will require a greater focus on biological (e.g., pharmaceuticals, transcranial magnetic stimulation) and psychosocial interventions (e.g., emotion regulation, mindfulness, placebo) in humans (e.g., Duff et al., 2015 ; Hur et al., in press-a ; Paulus, Feinstein, Castillo, Simmons, & Stein, 2005 ; Wager et al., 2013 ; Zunhammer, Bingel, Wager, & The Placebo Imaging Consortium, in press ) and a greater emphasis on developing more integrative models in monkeys and rodents ( Institute of Medicine, 2013 , 2014 ; Baratta & Maier, this issue; Fox & Shackman, this issue; Markou, Chiamulera, Geyer, Tricklebank, & Steckler, 2009 ). Studies of neuropsychological patients with circumscribed insults are also likely to be fruitful ( Adolphs, 2016 ; Dubois et al., in press ; Feinstein et al., 2016 ; Levenson, 2018 ; Motzkin et al., 2015 ; Salomons, Iannetti, Liang, & Wood, 2016 ).

The Nature of Arousal

Arousal plays a central role in most models of emotion ( Lapate & Shackman, 2018b ), but the underlying neurobiology has remained enigmatic. Satpute and colleagues tell us that this lack of progress reflects two barriers: one conceptual, the other empirical (Satpute et al., this issue ). Conceptually, arousal encompasses a variety of systems, including those underlying the transition from sleep and sedation to alert wakefulness, those involved in activating the autonomic nervous system (e.g., racing heart), and those underlying the subjective intensity of emotional feelings. All these disparate phenomena are typically lumped under the undifferentiated rubric of ‘arousal,’ obscuring potentially important differences in neurobiology—an endemic problem in the affective sciences (Lamm et al., this issue; Fox, Lapate, Davidson, & Shackman, 2018a ). Satpute and colleagues describe an integrative framework for beginning to organize this complexity. They argue that wakefulness, autonomic arousal, and affective arousal are not categorically distinct phenomena. Instead, they seem to reflect massively overlapping substrates that are “separable in terms of their weighted contributions and functional interactions (i.e., their recipes).”

From an empirical perspective, Satpute and colleagues highlight the challenges of imaging the small brainstem, thalamic, and hypothalamic nuclei thought to be involved in orchestrating different flavors of arousal. They emphasize that “the brainstem is slightly larger than a human thumb” and contains more than 150 distinct nuclei; of these, less than 10% have been successfully identified in humans using in vivo imaging techniques. They tell us that several recently developed and emerging approaches—7 T fMRI, multiband imaging sequences, and multi-modal contrast techniques—open to door to imaging many of these regions for the first time. Satpute and colleagues make it clear that these kinds of imaging approaches will be important for understanding whether the mechanisms inferred from animal studies of arousal are conserved in humans. More broadly, when used to survey the entire brain, they also provide critical opportunities for understanding the role of small subcortical nuclei—nuclei nested within the extended amygdala, the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the periaqueductal gray, and so on—in governing the function of distal regions and circuits in ways that we normally experience as alertness (or fatigue), somatomotor activation, and emotion, and—when they go awry—that likely contribute to a range of mental and neurological disorders.

The Development of the Emotional Brain

Emotions have their roots early in development and there is widespread agreement that nearly every aspect of emotion continues to change and mature across the lifespan ( Goldsmith, 2018 ; Lapate & Shackman, 2018a ; Lee et al., 2014 ; Shiner, 2018 ; Somerville & McLaughlin, 2018 ). Yet, the nature of these changes and their underlying neurobiology remain poorly understood. Here, Casey and colleagues focus on adolescence, an important and comparatively understudied chapter of life that often marks the first emergence of psychopathology and other burdens on public health and safety (e.g., injury due to risky behaviors) (Casey et al., this issue ). Adolescents are prone to more intense and labile feelings, and Casey and colleagues suggest that this reflects the asynchronous tuning of different neural circuits, beginning with the maturation of subcortical-subcortical connections early in childhood and culminating in bi-directional cortico-subcortical and cortico-cortical connections in mid and late adolescence. Ultimately, they tell us, this neural asynchrony biases feelings and behavior toward immediate threats and rewards Enhanced connectivity between the amygdala and ventral striatum early in development, for example, is hypothesized to promote rash decisions and impulsive actions in the face of emotionally salient cues.

Identifying the neural mechanisms underlying the development of emotion is exceedingly important, but difficult. Aside from the practical and technical difficulties of imaging youth, it is challenging to disentangle developmental changes in neural connectivity from co-occurring changes in hormones, cognitive control, and experience, including profound changes in stress and autonomy, as children transition to new schools, new jobs, and new kinds of social roles and networks ( Fox et al., 2018a ). A growing body of large, richly phenotyped, and publicly available pediatric imaging datasets promises new opportunities for dissecting the contribution of these factors to early-life emotion ( Rosenberg, Casey, & Holmes, 2018 ; Uddin & Karlsgodt, 2018 ), with important implications for identifying modifiable targets and developing more effective interventions for individuals in whom emotion development has gone awry (for related perspectives, see Doré, Silvers, & Ochsner, 2016 ; McLaughlin, 2016 ).

The Regulation of Emotion

We humans frequently regulate our emotions, and we do so using a variety of increasingly well understood strategies ( Braunstein, Gross, & Ochsner, 2017 ; Doré et al., 2016 ; Gross, 2015a , 2015b ; Shackman & Lapate, 2018a ; Sheppes, Suri, & Gross, 2015 ). Like emotional reactivity, emotion regulation can be viewed as both a transient state and a more enduring trait. Trait-like individual differences in emotion regulation are thought to play a critical role in childhood temperament, adult personality, and mental illness ( Connor-Smith & Flachsbart, 2007 ; Etkin, Buchel, & Gross, 2015 ; Sheppes et al., 2015 ). Silvers and Moreira extend this conceptual framework, emphasizing the distinction between individual differences in the capacity to regulate emotion and in the tendency to use particular regulatory strategies (Silvers & Moreira, this issue ). Recent meta-analyses suggest that regulatory capacity reflects biasing signals directed from frontoparietal regions to the amygdala and other subcortical structures that play a more proximal role in orchestrating emotional states ( Buhle et al., 2014 ). Silvers and Moreira highlight emerging evidence that patients with mood and anxiety disorders show intact regulatory capacity in the laboratory—indexed by the ability to voluntarily recruit these frontoparietal regulatory regions—and impaired performance in their daily lives, as indexed by the tendency to choose maladaptive regulatory strategies. Developing a deeper understanding of the nature of regulatory capacity and choice is a fruitful avenue for future research, with implications for more effectively treating emotional disorders and for more efficiently matching patients to the most beneficial psychosocial treatments (‘stratified medicine’) ( Hur, Tillman, Fox, & Shackman, in press-b ; Shackman & Fox, 2018 ).

Emotion and the Social World

Social cues, interactions, and relationships dominate the landscape of emotion in contemporary human society. The association between the social and the emotional is complex and recursive: emotional signals can elicit changes in the social environment, which in turn can influence how the sender perceives, experiences, or expresses emotion ( Fox & Shackman, 2018 ; Lapate & Fox, 2018 ). Emotional experiences are routinely shared and dissected with close companions ( Rime, 2009 ) who, in turn, play an important role in buffering stress, promoting positive affect, and repairing mood ( Reeck, Ames, & Ochsner, 2016 ; Shackman et al., 2018 ; Zaki & Williams, 2013 ). Maladaptive expressions of negative affect increase the likelihood of adverse social outcomes, including conflict, rejection, and relationship dissolution ( Shackman et al., 2016b ). In short, human emotion is profoundly social. As part of the Special Issue, several contributors considered ways in which emotions dynamically reverberate between individuals and their social environment.

From Darwin’s time on, the face has played an outsized role in in scientific models of emotion ( Darwin, 1872/2009 ). Often, the perception of the facial displays of emotion is conceptualized as an automatic ‘readout’ of specific cues (e.g., widened eyes, furrowed brow), a purely ‘bottom-up’ decoding process. Brooks and Freeman tell us about a growing body of work demonstrating that emotion perception is, in fact, often actively shaped by ‘top-down’ processes (Brooks & Freeman, this issue; Freeman, 2018 ). In this way, pre-existing expectations—including prior knowledge, stereotypes, and contextual information—can influence the construction of perceptual representations of emotional and socially relevant signals (e.g., gender, race, and personality) in the ventral visual processing stream. Put simply, our pre-existing thoughts, feelings, and attitudes can literally change how we see others, bias our evaluation of them, and change how we behave. As detailed elsewhere, this line of research is particularly exciting because it is grounded in behavior and because it harnesses machine learning to understand how seemingly ‘low-level’ perceptual representations can be influenced by expectations ( Freeman, in press ; Stolier & Freeman, 2017 ; Stolier, Hehman, & Freeman, 2018 ).

Spunt and Adolphs stake out a broadly similar position (Spunt & Adolphs, this issue ), telling us that the processes involved in detecting (e.g., widened eyes), categorizing (e.g., fear), and inferring the likely cause of emotion signals (e.g., imminent crash) occur in parallel ( Pessoa & Adolphs, 2010 ) and can influence one another in ways that dovetail with predictive coding architectures and Bayesian models of perception (Barrett & Satpute, this issue; Friston, Joffily, Barrett, & Seth, 2018 ). They highlight lesion and machine learning evidence suggesting that categorizing emotion signals (affect ‘labeling’) is an ‘embodied’ cognitive process, one that is influenced by changes in the perceiver’s momentary interoceptive state evoked by the sender’s emotional signals.

Lamm, Rütgen and Wagner focus on empathy, compassion, and other emotions that promote prosocial behavior (Lamm et al., this issue ). Building on recent work in this area (e.g., Engen & Singer, 2018 ; Zaki et al., 2016 ), they emphasize the importance of neural systems involved in vicarious or shared emotional experiences—a neural analogue to ‘embodied’ models of emotion decoding. For example, they review evidence that placebo analgesia manipulations not only reduce one’s own pain, they can also reduce empathy for the pain of others. These behavioral effects are accompanied by reduced activation in pain-related brain regions and are blocked by opioid antagonists, reinforcing the possibility of shared substrates for own- and other-directed (i.e., egocentric and allocentric) emotions. Lamm and colleagues highlight the challenges of identifying generalizable compassion circuits, patterns of neural activation that are not specific to particular techniques for eliciting or cultivating feelings of compassion. Although their focus is on compassion, it is worth emphasizing that this is a general issue for efforts to understand how particular psychological processes—pain, negative affect, cognitive control, and so on—are organized in the brain ( Kragel et al., 2018a ). Discerning whether a pattern of activation reflects these kinds of latent constructs is exceedingly difficult— Is it working memory or visuospatial change detection? Cognitive control or Eriksen flanker? Anxiety or threat-of-shock? —but can be overcome by examining multiple assays or induction techniques, either meta-analytically or, better still, within individual samples.

Animal Models of Emotion (and Beyond)

Darwin emphasized the shared origins and essential continuity of the emotions in humans and animals ( Darwin, 1872/2009 ). Although the nature and interpretation of animal emotion remains contentious, there is widespread consensus that some—though certainly not all—features of emotion can be modeled in animals ( Adolphs & Anderson, 2018 ; Barrett, 2017b ; Fanselow & Pennington, 2017 , 2018 ; Fox, Lapate, Shackman, & Davidson, 2018 ; LeDoux, 2014 , 2015 ; LeDoux & Hofmann, 2018 ; Panksepp, 1998 ; Pine & LeDoux, 2017 ; Rolls, 2018 ). This opens the door to addressing questions such as, Which neural systems are necessary for particular emotional responses? Which are sufficient? (e.g., Berridge & Kringelbach, 2015 ; Berridge & Robinson, 2016 ; Calhoon & Tye, 2015 ; Kringelbach & Berridge, 2012 ; Kunwar et al., 2015 ; Shackman & Fox, 2016 ; Tovote, Fadok, & Luthi, 2015 ). Two sets of contributors to the Special Issue focused on animal models of emotion and both teams highlight issues that are likely to be of interest to all students of emotion, regardless of their species of interest.

Baratta and Maier focus on a rodent model of stress resilience (Baratta & Maier, this issue ). Stress plays an important role in precipitating a variety of psychiatric illnesses (e.g., Shackman et al., 2016a ; Shackman et al., 2016b ). Everyone experiences stress from time-to-time and most individuals will experience at least one major trauma in their lifetime ( Husky, Lepine, Gasquet, & Kovess-Masfety, 2015 ; Kilpatrick et al., 2013 ). Yet the vast majority of individuals exposed to adversity, stressors, or trauma never develop psychopathology. These observations underscore the importance of developing a deeper understanding of the neural mechanisms that confer resilience. Baratta and Maier tell us that instrumental control—the opportunity to avoid shock—has profound consequences for stress reactivity, consistent with work in humans ( Salomons, Johnstone, Backonja, & Davidson, 2004 ; Salomons, Johnstone, Backonja, Shackman, & Davidson, 2007 ). Exposure to shock that is uncontrollable (i.e., unavoidable) produces a constellation of behaviors and physiological signs reminiscent of mood and anxiety disorders. These deleterious effects appear to be mediated by serotonergic cells in the dorsal raphe. The provision of instrumental control blunts these consequences and, remarkably, can even ‘immunize’ animals during future encounters with uncontrollable stress. Baratta and Maier describe on-going work to pinpoint the circuits underlying these kinds of stress buffering effects. This new evidence suggests that incoming information about the world and the body is routed through prefrontal circuits, with some involved in detecting stressor controllability and others responsible for using that information to appropriately regulate the stress response. Interestingly, this work highlights the critical functional significance of a minor anatomical projection (<5% neurons) coursing from the dorsal raphe to the prefrontal cortex. This observation underscores the hazard of over-interpreting semi-quantitative neuroanatomical tracing studies (e.g., +++ vs. +) and prematurely dismissing the importance of ‘weak’ or ‘modest’ projections, such as those linking the amygdala to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (cf. Birn et al., 2014 ; Lim, Padmala, & Pessoa, 2009 ).

Fox and Shackman review the role of the central extended amygdala (EAc) in fear and anxiety (Fox & Shackman, this issue ). They tell us that the EAc—an anatomical concept encompassing the central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST)—is an evolutionarily conserved, functionally coherent hub; one that it is anatomically poised to use information about threat, context, and internal states to initiate a range of defensive responses and assemble states of fear and anxiety. They highlight recent imaging studies in monkeys—some including nearly 600 individuals—demonstrating that elevated metabolism in the Ce and BST is associated with heightened signs of fear and anxiety in response to novelty and potential threat. This approach, which integrates naturalistic behavioral, endocrine, and neural responses (18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography; FDG-PET) to ethologically relevant threats, merits comment. The vast majority of human imaging studies have focused on highly artificial manipulations—static faces, sounds, images, small monetary rewards, and so on—presented under unnatural conditions. These manipulations are much less arousing and engaging than the kinds of challenges routinely encountered in daily life ( Adolphs & Anderson, 2018 ; LeDoux, 2015 ; Levenson, 2011 , 2018 ; Shackman et al., 2006 ) 1 . As Nummenmaa and Saarimäki note earlier in the Special Issue (Nummenmaa & Saarimäki, this issue ), there are several strategies for addressing this challenge in the laboratory, including greater use of FDG-PET and a greater focus on more intense, ecologically relevant stimuli (e.g., thermal pain). An alternative approach is to integrate assays of brain function and behavior collected in the scanner—including differences in ‘resting-state’ function ( Fox et al., 2018 )—with measures of emotion and motivated behavior assessed under more naturalistic conditions in the laboratory (e.g., during semi-structured interactions or using commercially available virtual reality techniques; Creed & Funder, 1998 ; Kroes et al., 2017 ; Laidlaw, Foulsham, Kuhn, & Kingstone, 2011 ; Perez-Edgar et al., 2010 ; Pfeiffer, Vogeley, & Schilbach, 2013 ; Thomson et al., in press ) or in the field ( Anderson, Monroy, & Keltner, 2018 ). Recent work combining fMRI with experience-sampling techniques underscores the potential of this approach for identifying the neural systems associated with naturalistic variation in emotion and motivated behavior ( Forbes et al., 2009 ; Heller et al., 2015 ; Lopez, Hofmann, Wagner, Kelley, & Heatherton, 2014 ).

From a conceptual perspective, Fox and Shackman remind us that the words scientists use to describe emotion have the power to illuminate or to obfuscate ( Poldrack & Yarkoni, 2016 ; Schaafsma, Pfaff, Spunt, & Adolphs, 2015 ). Here, the problem is that lay people, scholars in other areas, clinicians, psychometricians, and even domain experts often use ‘fear’ and ‘anxiety’ in interchangeable or inconsistent ways ( American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ; Cowen & Keltner, 2017 ; Gaylin, 1979 ; Kotov et al., 2017 ; Watson, Stanton, & Clark, 2017 ). This problem is not specific to fear and anxiety. Our words for emotion—anger, fear, disgust, joy, sadness and so on—and even more recently coined phrases, like ‘uncertain threat,’ can, and often do, refer to multiple phenomena ( Barrett, 2017b ; Kagan, 2010 ; Shackman et al., 2016b ; Wager et al., 2018 ). While there will always be a place for verbal shorthand, we urge emotion researchers to be more mindful of nomenclature and the potential for misunderstanding.

Fox and Shackman make it clear that the Ce and the BST are functionally and anatomically complex (for related perspectives, see Satpute et al., this issue ; Baratta & Maier, this issue ). Like the nucleus accumbens, periaqueductal gray, and other subcortical structures involved in emotion and motivation, they can be partitioned into multiple subregions, each containing intermingled cell types with distinct, even opposing functional roles (e.g., anxiolytic vs anxiogenic). As a consequence, research that relies on lesions, pharmacological inactivation approaches (e.g., muscimol microinjections), or conventional brain imaging techniques will necessarily reflect a mixture of cells or signals. Baratta and Maier and Fox and Shackman describe how recently developed opto- and chemogenetic tools provide new opportunities for deciphering this complexity and discovering the specific circuit components that control responses to threat and reward. While unfamiliar to many imagers, developing a basic understanding of these methods is a key step to dissolving the kinds of artificial academic silos that separate researchers focused on human and animal emotion.

Fox and Shackman suggest that the tantalizing discoveries afforded by opto- and chemogenetic techniques pose a critical challenge for affective neuroscience. Are the mechanisms conserved across species? Which molecules and micro-circuits underlie differences in fMRI measures of activation? How do they influence the kinds of distributed networks that have been linked to adaptive and maladaptive emotion in humans? “Reconciling these two levels of analysis—one global, the other local—is mandatory, if we are to develop a complete and clinically useful understanding of” emotion (Fox & Shackman, this issue ) . Addressing this challenge is difficult, but can be potentially overcome by combining focal perturbations with whole-brain imaging in rodents or monkeys.

Conclusions

Understanding how emotions emerge from the brain is a major challenge. Throughout this review, we have outlined some strategies and directions for future research. Among these, several stand out:

  • The importance of developing robust and generalizable (i.e., assay- and induction-general) neural models of emotion perception, expression, and experience. Models that are firmly grounded in variation in emotional behavior or experience are likely to be especially fruitful ( Kragel et al., 2018b ).
  • The importance of testing whether these models predict real-world emotion.
  • The importance of understanding how such models evolve across the lifespan and how they can be implicitly and explicitly regulated by the self and others.
  • The importance of testing the necessity and sufficiency of the regions, circuits, and patterns implicated in models of emotion derived from neuroimaging research.
  • The importance of bridging the gap separating the mechanistic insights afforded by animal models (i.e., molecules, cell types, and micro-circuits) from human imaging research (i.e., regional activation and inter-regional connectivity).

Understanding the nature and organizational principles of the emotional brain will require substantial time and resources, new kinds of multi-disciplinary collaborations, and new kinds of training models ( Fox et al., 2018a ; Vu et al., 2018 ). Addressing this challenge is important. Some of the most common, costly, and intractable illnesses—anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, substance abuse, autism, chronic pain, and so on—involve prominent emotional disturbances. Collectively, these debilitating disorders impose a staggering burden on global public health and the economy and existing treatments are far from curative ( Bitsko et al., 2018 ; Chisholm et al., 2016 ; Craske et al., 2017 ; DiLuca & Olesen, 2014 ; Global Burden of Disease Collaborators, 2016 ; Grant et al., 2017 ; Hasin et al., 2018 ; Otte et al., 2016 ; Salomon et al., 2015 ; U. S. Burden of Disease Collaborators et al., 2018 ; Weinberger et al., 2018 ), underscoring the importance of accelerating efforts to understand the basic neuroscience of emotion.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (DA035484, DA040717, MH076136, MH107444) and University of Maryland, College Park. We appreciate the assistance of L. Friedman, K. DeYoung, and J. Smith, as well as critical feedback from A. Fox and P. Kragel. R. Adolphs and D. Anderson suggested the Inside Out simile.

Authors declare no conflicts of interest.

1 For example, the vast majority of imaging studies that employ noxious shock allow subjects to self-select the maximal intensity, instructing them to pick the highest level that is ‘uncomfortable or unpleasant but not actually painful’ ( Balderston, Liu, Roberson-Nay, Ernst, & Grillon, 2017 ; Kroes, Dunsmoor, Mackey, McClay, & Phelps, 2017 ; Najafi, Kinnison, & Pessoa, 2017 )

  • Adolphs R (2016). Human lesion studies in the 21st century. Neuron , 90 , 1151–1153. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Adolphs R (2017a). How should neuroscience study emotions? by distinguishing emotion states, concepts, and experiences. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience , 12 , 24–31. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Adolphs R (2017b). Reply to Barrett: affective neuroscience needs objective criteria for emotions. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience , 12 , 32–33. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Adolphs R, & Anderson DJ (2018). The neuroscience of emotion. A new synthesis . Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. [ Google Scholar ]
  • American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). [ Google Scholar ]
  • Anderson CL, Monroy M, & Keltner D (2018). Emotion in the wilds of nature: The coherence and contagion of fear during threatening group-based outdoors experiences. Emotion , 18 , 355–368. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Balderston NL, Liu J, Roberson-Nay R, Ernst M, & Grillon C (2017). The relationship between dlPFC activity during unpredictable threat and CO2-induced panic symptoms. Transl Psychiatry , 7 , 1266. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Barrett LF (2017a). Functionalism cannot save the classical view of emotion. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience , 12 , 34–36. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Barrett LF (2017b). How emotions are made: The secret life of the brain . New York: Houghton-Mifflin-Harcourt. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Barrett LF (2017c). The theory of constructed emotion: An active inference account of interoception and categorization. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience , 12 , 1–23. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Barrett LF (2018a). Emotions are constructed with interoception and concepts within a predicting brain. In Fox AS, Lapate RC, Shackman AJ, & Davidson RJ (Eds.), The nature of emotion. Fundamental questions (2nd ed., pp. 33–38). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Barrett LF (2018b). Variation and degeneracy in the brain basis of emotion. In Fox AS, Lapate RC, Shackman AJ, & Davidson RJ (Eds.), The nature of emotion. Fundamental questions (2nd ed., pp. 108–112). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Barrett LF, Khan Z, Dy J, & Brooks D (2018). Nature of emotion categories: Comment on Cowen and Keltner. Trends Cogn Sci , 22 , 97–99. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Berridge KC, & Kringelbach ML (2015). Pleasure systems in the brain. Neuron , 86 , 646–664. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Berridge KC, & Robinson TE (2016). Liking, wanting, and the incentive-sensitization theory of addiction. American Psychologist , 71 , 670–679. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Birn RM, Shackman AJ, Oler JA, Williams LE, McFarlin DR, Rogers GM, . . . Kalin NH (2014). Evolutionarily conserved dysfunction of prefrontal‐amygdalar connectivity in early‐life anxiety. Molecular Psychiatry , 19 , 915–922. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Bitsko RH, Holbrook JR, Ghandour RM, Blumberg SJ, Visser SN, Perou R, & Walkup JT (2018). Epidemiology and impact of health care provider-diagnosed anxiety and depression among US children. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics , 39 ( 5 ), 395–403. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Braunstein LM, Gross JJ, & Ochsner KN (2017). Explicit and implicit emotion regulation: a multi-level framework. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci , 12 , 1545–1557. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Buhle JT, Silvers JA, Wager TD, Lopez R, Onyemekwu C, Kober H, . . . Ochsner KN (2014). Cognitive reappraisal of emotion: A meta-analysis of human neuroimaging studies. Cerebral Cortex , 24 , 2981–2990. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Calhoon GG, & Tye KM (2015). Resolving the neural circuits of anxiety. Nature Neuroscience , 18 , 1394–1404. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Chang LJ, Gianaros PJ, Manuck SB, Krishnan A, & Wager TD (2015). A sensitive and specific neural signature for picture-induced negative affect. PLoS Biol , 13 , e1002180. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Chisholm D, Sweeny K, Sheehan P, Rasmussen B, Smit F, Cuijpers P, & Saxena S (2016). Scaling-up treatment of depression and anxiety: a global return on investment analysis. Lancet Psychiatry , 3 , 415–424. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Clark-Polner E, Johnson TD, & Barrett LF (2017). Multivoxel pattern analysis does not provide evidence to support the existence of basic emotions. Cerebral Cortex , 27 , 1944–1948. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Coan JA, & Allen JJB (2007). Handbook of emotion elicitation and assessment . NY: Oxford University Press. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Connor-Smith JK, & Flachsbart C (2007). Relations between personality and coping: a meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 93 , 1080–1107. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Cordaro DT, Fridlund AJ, Keltner D, & Russell JA (2015). The great expressions debate: Keltner and Cordaro vs. Fridlund vs. Russell. Emotion Researcher. The official newsletter of the International Society for Research on Emotion . [ Google Scholar ]
  • Cowen AS, & Keltner D (2017). Self-report captures 27 distinct categories of emotion bridged by continuous gradients. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 114 , E7900–E7909. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Cowen AS, & Keltner D (2018). Clarifying the conceptualization, dimensionality, and structure of emotion: Response to Barrett and colleagues. Trends Cogn Sci . [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Craske MG, Stein MB, Eley TC, Milad MR, Holmes A, Rapee RM, & Wittchen HU (2017). Anxiety disorders. Nat Rev Dis Primers , 3 , 17024. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Creed AT, & Funder DC (1998). Social anxiety: from the inside and outside. Personality and Individual Differences , 25 , 19–33. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Darwin C (1872/2009). The expression of the emotions in man and animals (4th ed.). NY: Oxford University Press. [ Google Scholar ]
  • DiLuca M, & Olesen J (2014). The cost of brain diseases: a burden or a challenge? Neuron , 82 , 1205–1208. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Doré BP, Silvers JA, & Ochsner KN (2016). Toward a personalized science of emotion regulation. Social and Personality Psychology Compass , 10 / 4 , 171–187. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Dubois J, Oya H, Tyszka JM, Howard M 3rd, Eberhardt F, & Adolphs R (in press). Causal mapping of emotion networks in the human brain: Framework and initial findings. Neuropsychologia . [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Duff EP, Vennart W, Wise RG, Howard MA, Harris RE, Lee M, . . . Smith SM (2015). Learning to identify CNS drug action and efficacy using multistudy fMRI data. Sci Transl Med , 7 , 274ra216. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Ekman P, & Cordaro D (2011). What is meant by calling emotions basic. Emotion Review , 3 , 364–370. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Engen HG, & Singer T (2018). Deconstructing social emotions: Empathy and compassion and their relationship to prosocial behavior. In Fox AS, Lapate RC, Shackman AJ, & Davidson RJ (Eds.), The nature of emotion. Fundamental questions (2nd ed., pp. 233–237). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Etkin A, Buchel C, & Gross JJ (2015). The neural bases of emotion regulation. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience ( 11 ), 693–700. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Fanselow MS, & Pennington ZT (2017). The danger of LeDoux and Pine’s two-system framework for fear. American Journal of Psychiatry , 174 , 1120–1121. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Fanselow MS, & Pennington ZT (2018). A return to the psychiatric dark ages with a two-system framework for fear. Behaviour Research and Therapy , 100 , 24–29. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Feinstein JS, Khalsa SS, Salomons TV, Prkachin KM, Frey-Law LA, Lee JE, . . . Rudrauf D (2016). Preserved emotional awareness of pain in a patient with extensive bilateral damage to the insula, anterior cingulate, and amygdala. Brain Struct Funct , 221 , 1499–1511. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Forbes EE, Hariri AR, Martin SL, Silk JS, Moyles DL, Fisher PM, . . . Dahl RE (2009). Altered striatal activation predicting real-world positive affect in adolescent major depressive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry , 166 , 64–73. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Fox AS, Lapate RC, Davidson RJ, & Shackman AJ (2018). Challenges and opportunities for the affective sciences. PsyArXiv . [ Google Scholar ]
  • Fox AS, Lapate RC, Davidson RJ, & Shackman AJ (2018a). The nature of emotion: A research agenda for the 21st century. In Fox AS, Lapate RC, Shackman AJ, & Davidson RJ (Eds.), The nature of emotion. Fundamental questions (2nd ed., pp. 403–417). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Fox AS, Lapate RC, Shackman AJ, & Davidson RJ (2018). The nature of emotion. Fundamental questions (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Fox AS, Oler JA, Birn RM, Shackman AJ, Alexander AL, & Kalin NH (2018). Functional connectivity within the primate extended amygdala is heritable and predicts early-life anxious temperament. Journal of Neuroscience , 38 , 7611–7621. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Fox AS, & Shackman AJ (2018). How are emotions embodied in the social world. In Fox AS, Lapate RC, Shackman AJ, & Davidson RJ (Eds.), The nature of emotion. Fundamental questions (2nd ed., pp. 237–239). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Freeman JB (2018). The dynamic-interactive models approach to the perception of facial emotion. In Fox AS, Lapate RC, Shackman AJ, & Davidson RJ (Eds.), The nature of emotion. Fundamental questions (2nd ed., pp. 268–274). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Freeman JB (in press). Doing psychological science by hand. Current Driections in Psychological Science . [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Friston KJ, Joffily M, Barrett LF, & Seth AK (2018). Active inference and emotion. In Fox AS, Lapate RC, Shackman AJ, & Davidson RJ (Eds.), The nature of emotion. Fundamental questions (2nd ed., pp. 28–33). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Gaylin W (1979). Feelings: Our vital signs . NY: Harper & Row. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Glasser MF, Smith SM, Marcus DS, Andersson JL, Auerbach EJ, Behrens TE, . . . Van Essen DC (2016). The Human Connectome Project’s neuroimaging approach. Nature Neuroscience , 19 , 1175–1187. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Global Burden of Disease Collaborators. (2016). Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet , 388 , 1545–1602. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Goldsmith HH (2018). Everything develops during emotional development. In Fox AS, Lapate RC, Shackman AJ, & Davidson RJ (Eds.), The nature of emotion. Fundamental questions (2nd ed., pp. 376–379). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Grant BF, Chou SP, Saha TD, Pickering RP, Kerridge BT, Ruan WJ, . . . Hasin DS (2017). Prevalence of 12-month alcohol use, high-risk drinking, and DSM-IV Alcohol Use Disorder in the United States, 2001–2002 to 2012–2013: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. JAMA Psychiatry , 74 , 911–923. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Gross JJ (2015a). Emotion regulation: Current status and future prospects. Psychological Inquiry , 26 , 1–26. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Gross JJ (2015b). The extended process model of emotion regulation: Elaborations, applications, and future directions. Psychological Inquiry , 26 , 130–137. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Hasin DS, Sarvet AL, Meyers JL, Saha TD, Ruan WJ, Stohl M, & Grant BF (2018). Epidemiology of Adult DSM-5 Major Depressive Disorder and Its Specifiers in the United States. JAMA Psychiatry . [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Heller AS, Fox AS, Wing E, Mayer K, Vack NJ, & Davidson RJ (2015). The neurodynamics of affect in the laboratory predicts persistence of real-world emotional responses. Journal of Neuroscience , 35 , 10503–10509. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Hur J, Kaplan CM, Smith JF, Bradford DE, Fox AS, Curtin JJ, & Shackman AJ (in press-a). Acute alcohol administration dampens central extended amygdala reactivity. Scientific Reports . [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Hur J, Tillman RM, Fox AS, & Shackman AJ (in press-b). The value of clinical and translational neuroscience approaches to psychiatric illness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences . [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Husky MM, Lepine JP, Gasquet I, & Kovess-Masfety V (2015). Exposure to traumatic events and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in France: Results from the WMH survey. Journal of Traumatic Stress , 28 , 275–282. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Institute of Medicine. (2013). Improving the utility and translation of animal models for nervous system disorders: Workshop summary . Washington, DC: National Academies Press. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Institute of Medicine. (2014). Improving and accelerating therapeutic development for nervous system disorders . Washington, DC: National Academies Press. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Kagan J (2010). Some plain words on emotion. Emotion Review , 3 , 221–224. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Kenrick DT, & Funder DC (1988). Profiting from controversy. Lessons from the person-situation debate. American Psychologist , 43 , 23–34. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Kilpatrick DG, Resnick HS, Milanak ME, Miller MW, Keyes KM, & Friedman MJ (2013). National estimates of exposure to traumatic events and PTSD prevalence using DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria. Journal of Traumatic Stress , 26 , 537–547. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Kim CK, Adhikari A, & Deisseroth K (2017). Integration of optogenetics with complementary methodologies in systems neuroscience. Nature Reviews Neuroscience , 18 , 222–235. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Kotov R, Krueger RF, Watson D, Achenbach TM, Althoff RR, Bagby RM, . . . Zimmerman M (2017). The hierarchical taxonomy of psychopathology (HiTOP): A dimensional alternative to traditional nosologies. Journal of Abnormal Psychology , 126 , 454–477. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Kragel PA, Kano M, Van Oudenhove L, Ly HG, Dupont P, Rubio A, . . . Wager TD (2018a). Generalizable representations of pain, cognitive control, and negative emotion in medial frontal cortex. Nature Neuroscience , 21 , 283–289. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Kragel PA, Koban L, Barrett LF, & Wager TD (2018b). Representation, pattern information, and brain signatures: From neurons to neuroimaging. Neuron , 99 , 257–273. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Kragel PA, & LaBar KS (2016). Decoding the nature of emotion in the brain. Trends Cogn Sci , 20 , 444–455. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Kringelbach ML, & Berridge KC (2012). The joyful mind. Scientific American , 307 , 40–45. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Kroes MCW, Dunsmoor JE, Mackey WE, McClay M, & Phelps EA (2017). Context conditioning in humans using commercially available immersive Virtual Reality. Sci Rep , 7 , 8640. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Kunwar PS, Zelikowsky M, Remedios R, Cai H, Yilmaz M, Meister M, & Anderson DJ (2015). Ventromedial hypothalamic neurons control a defensive emotion state. Elife , 4 . [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Laidlaw KE, Foulsham T, Kuhn G, & Kingstone A (2011). Potential social interactions are important to social attention. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 108 , 5548–5553. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Lang PJ, & Bradley MM (2018). What is an emotion? A natural science perspective. In Fox AS, Lapate RC, Shackman AJ, & Davidson RJ (Eds.), The nature of emotion. Fundamental questions (2nd ed., pp. 11–14). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Lapate RC, & Fox AS (2018). How and why are emotions communicated? In Fox AS, Lapate RC, Shackman AJ, & Davidson RJ (Eds.), The nature of emotion. Fundamental questions (2nd ed., pp. 274–276). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Lapate RC, & Shackman AJ (2018a). What develops in emotional development? In Fox AS, Lapate RC, Shackman AJ, & Davidson RJ (Eds.), The nature of emotion. Fundamental questions (2nd ed., pp. 399–401). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Lapate RC, & Shackman AJ (2018b). What is an emotion? In Fox AS, Lapate RC, Shackman AJ, & Davidson RJ (Eds.), The nature of emotion. Fundamental questions (2nd ed., pp. 38–43). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. [ Google Scholar ]
  • LeDoux JE (2014). Coming to terms with fear. Proceedings of the National Acadademy of Sciences U S A , 111 , 2871–2878. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • LeDoux JE (2015). Anxious. Using the brain to understand and treat fear and anxiety . New York, NY: Viking. [ Google Scholar ]
  • LeDoux JE, & Hofmann SG (2018). The subjective experience of emotion: a fearful view. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences , 19 , 1–6. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Lee FS, Heimer H, Giedd JN, Lein ES, Sestan N, Weinberger DR, & Casey BJ (2014). Mental health. Adolescent mental health--opportunity and obligation. Science , 346 , 547–549. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Levenson RW (2011). Basic emotion questions. Emotion Review , 3 , 379–386. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Levenson RW (2018). What is the added value of studying the brain for understanding emotion? In Fox AS, Lapate RC, Shackman AJ, & Davidson RJ (Eds.), The nature of emotion. Fundamental questions (2nd ed., pp. 80–84). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Lim SL, Padmala S, & Pessoa L (2009). Segregating the significant from the mundane on a moment-to-moment basis via direct and indirect amygdala contributions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 106 , 16841–16846. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Lopez RB, Hofmann W, Wagner DD, Kelley WM, & Heatherton TF (2014). Neural predictors of giving in to temptation in daily life. Psychol Sci , 25 ( 7 ), 1337–1344. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Markou A, Chiamulera C, Geyer MA, Tricklebank M, & Steckler T (2009). Removing obstacles in neuroscience drug discovery: the future path for animal models. Neuropsychopharmacology , 34 , 74–89. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Mattek AM, Wolford GL, & Whalen PJ (2017). A mathematical model captures the structure of subjective affect. Perspectives on Psychological Science , 12 , 508–526. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • McLaughlin KA (2016). Future directions in childhood adversity and youth psychopathology. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology , 45 , 361–382. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Motzkin JC, Philippi CL, Oler JA, Kalin NH, Baskaya MK, & Koenigs M (2015). Ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage alters resting blood flow to the bed nucleus of stria terminalis. Cortex , 64 , 281–288. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Najafi M, Kinnison J, & Pessoa L (2017). Intersubject brain network organization during dynamic anxious anticipation. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , 11 . [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Otte C, Gold SM, Penninx BW, Pariante CM, Etkin A, Fava M, . . . Schatzberg AF (2016). Major depressive disorder. Nat Rev Dis Primers , 2 , 16065. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Panksepp J (1998). Affective neuroscience. The foundations of human and animal emotions . New York: Oxford University Press. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Paulus MP, Feinstein JS, Castillo G, Simmons AN, & Stein MB (2005). Dose-dependent decrease of activation in bilateral amygdala and insula by lorazepam during emotion processing. Archives of General Psychiatry , 62 , 282–288. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Perez-Edgar K, McDermott JN, Korelitz K, Degnan KA, Curby TW, Pine DS, & Fox NA (2010). Patterns of sustained attention in infancy shape the developmental trajectory of social behavior from toddlerhood through adolescence. Developmental Psychology , 46 , 1723–1730. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Pessoa L (2013). The cognitive-emotional brain: From interactions to integration . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Pessoa L, & Adolphs R (2010). Emotion processing and the amygdala: from a ‘low road’ to ‘many roads’ of evaluating biological significance. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience , 11 , 773–783. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Pfeiffer UJ, Vogeley K, & Schilbach L (2013). From gaze cueing to dual eye-tracking: novel approaches to investigate the neural correlates of gaze in social interaction. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews , 37 , 2516–2528. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Pine DS, & LeDoux JE (2017). Elevating the role of subjective experience in the clinic: Response to Fanselow and Pennington. American Journal of Psychiatry , 174 , 1121–1122. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Poldrack RA, & Yarkoni T (2016). From brain maps to cognitive ontologies: Informatics and the search for mental structure. Annual Review of Psychology , 67 , 587–612. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Reeck C, Ames DR, & Ochsner KN (2016). The social regulation of emotion: An integrative, cross-disciplinary model. Trends Cogn Sci , 20 , 47–63. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Rime B (2009). Emotion elicits the social sharing of emotion: Theory and empirical review. Emotion Review , 1 , 60–85. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Rolls ET (2005). Emotion explained . NY: Oxford University Press. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Rolls ET (2018). What are emotional states and what are their functions. In Fox AS, Lapate RC, Shackman AJ, & Davidson RJ (Eds.), The nature of emotion. Fundamental questions (2nd ed., pp. 19–28). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Rosenberg MD, Casey BJ, & Holmes AJ (2018). Prediction complements explanation in understanding the developing brain. Nat Commun , 9 , 589. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Saarimaki H, Ejtehadian LF, Glerean E, Jaaskelainen IP, Vuilleumier P, Sams M, & Nummenmaa L (2018). Distributed affective space represents multiple emotion categories across the human brain. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci , 13 , 471–482. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Salomon JA, Haagsma JA, Davis A, de Noordhout CM, Polinder S, Havelaar AH, . . . Vos T (2015). Disability weights for the Global Burden of Disease 2013 study. Lancet Glob Health , 3 , e712–723. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Salomons TV, Iannetti GD, Liang M, & Wood JN (2016). The “pain matrix” in pain-free individuals. JAMA Neurol , 73 , 755–756. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Salomons TV, Johnstone T, Backonja MM, & Davidson RJ (2004). Perceived controllability modulates the neural response to pain. Journal of Neuroscience , 24 , 7199–7203. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Salomons TV, Johnstone T, Backonja MM, Shackman AJ, & Davidson RJ (2007). Individual differences in the effects of perceived controllability on pain perception: critical role of the prefrontal cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience , 19 , 993–1003. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Schaafsma SM, Pfaff DW, Spunt RP, & Adolphs R (2015). Deconstructing and reconstructing theory of mind. Trends Cogn Sci , 19 , 65–72. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Shackman AJ, & Fox AS (2016). Contributions of the central extended amygdala to fear and anxiety. Journal of Neuroscience , 36 , 8050–8063. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Shackman AJ, & Fox AS (2018). Getting serious about variation: Lessons for clinical neuroscience. Trends in Cognitive Sciences , 22 , 368–369. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Shackman AJ, Fox AS, & Seminowicz DA (2015). The cognitive-emotional brain: Opportunities and challenges for understanding neuropsychiatric disorders. Behavioral and Brain Sciences , 38 , e86. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Shackman AJ, Kaplan CM, Stockbridge MD, Tillman RM, Tromp DPM, Fox AS, & Gamer M (2016a). The neurobiology of anxiety and attentional biases to threat: Implications for understanding anxiety disorders in adults and youth. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology , 7 , 311–342. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Shackman AJ, & Lapate RC (2018a). How are emotions regulated by context and cognition? In Fox AS, Lapate RC, Shackman AJ, & Davidson RJ (Eds.), The nature of emotion. Fundamental questions (2nd ed., pp. 177–179). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Shackman AJ, & Lapate RC (2018b). How do emotion and cognition interact? In Fox AS, Lapate RC, Shackman AJ, & Davidson RJ (Eds.), The nature of emotion. Fundamental questions (2nd ed., pp. 209–211). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Shackman AJ, Sarinopoulos I, Maxwell JS, Pizzagalli DA, Lavric A, & Davidson RJ (2006). Anxiety selectively disrupts visuospatial working memory. Emotion , 6 , 40–61. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Shackman AJ, Tromp DPM, Stockbridge MD, Kaplan CM, Tillman RM, & Fox AS (2016b). Dispositional negativity: An integrative psychological and neurobiological perspective. Psychological Bulletin , 142 , 1275–1314. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Shackman AJ, Weinstein JS, Hudja SN, Bloomer CD, Barstead MG, Fox AS, & Lemay EP (2018). Dispositional negativity in the wild: Social environment governs momentary emotional experience. Emotion , 18 , 707–724. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Sheppes G, Suri G, & Gross JJ (2015). Emotion regulation and psychopathology. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology , 11 , 379–405. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Shiner RL (2018). Stability and change in emotion-relevant personality traits in childhood and adolescence. In Fox AS, Lapate RC, Shackman AJ, & Davidson RJ (Eds.), The nature of emotion. Fundamental questions (2nd ed., pp. 61–64). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Siegel EH, Sands MK, Van den Noortgate W, Condon P, Chang Y, Dy J, . . . Barrett LF (2018). Emotion fingerprints or emotion populations? A meta-analytic investigation of autonomic features of emotion categories. Psychological Bulletin , 144 , 343–393. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Somerville LH, & McLaughlin KA (2018). Normative trajectories and sources of psychopathology risk in adolescence. In Fox AS, Lapate RC, Shackman AJ, & Davidson RJ (Eds.), The nature of emotion. Fundamental questions (2nd ed., pp. 382–386). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Stolier RM, & Freeman JB (2017). A neural mechanism of social categorization. Journal of Neuroscience , 37 , 5711–5721. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Stolier RM, Hehman E, & Freeman JB (2018). A dynamic structure of social trait space. Trends Cogn Sci , 22 , 197–200. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Thomson ND, Aboutanos M, Kiehl KA, Neumann C, Galusha C, & Fanti KA (in press). Physiological reactivity in response to a fear-induced virtual reality experience: Associations with psychopathic traits. Psychophysiology , e13276. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Tovote P, Fadok JP, & Luthi A (2015). Neuronal circuits for fear and anxiety. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience , 16 , 317–331. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • U. S. Burden of Disease Collaborators, Mokdad AH, Ballestros K, Echko M, Glenn S, Olsen HE, . . . Murray CJL (2018). The State of US Health, 1990–2016: Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Among US States. JAMA , 319 , 1444–1472. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Uddin LQ, & Karlsgodt KH (2018). Future directions for examination of brain networks in neurodevelopmental disorders. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology , 47 , 483–497. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Urban DJ, & Roth BL (2015). DREADDs (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs): chemogenetic tools with therapeutic utility. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology , 55 , 399–417. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Vu MT, Adali T, Ba D, Buzsaki G, Carlson D, Heller K, . . . Dzirasa K (2018). A shared vision for machine learning in neuroscience. Journal of Neuroscience , 38 , 1601–1607. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Wager TD, Atlas LY, Lindquist MA, Roy M, Woo CW, & Kross E (2013). An fMRI-based neurologic signature of physical pain. New England Journal of Medicine , 368 , 1388–1397. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Wager TD, Krishnan A, & Hitchcock E (2018). How are emotions organized in the brain? In Fox AS, Lapate RC, Shackman AJ, & Davidson RJ (Eds.), The nature of emotion. Fundamental questions (pp. 112–118). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Watson D, Stanton K, & Clark LA (2017). Self-report indicators of negative valence constructs within the research domain criteria (RDoC): A critical review. Journal of Affective Disorders , 216 , 58–69. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Weinberger AH, Gbedemah M, Martinez AM, Nash D, Galea S, & Goodwin RD (2018). Trends in depression prevalence in the USA from 2005 to 2015: widening disparities in vulnerable groups. Psychological Medicine , 48 , 1308–1315. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Woo CW, Chang LJ, Lindquist MA, & Wager TD (2017). Building better biomarkers: brain models in translational neuroimaging. Nature Neuroscience , 20 , 365–377. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Yik M, Russell JA, & Steiger JH (2011). A 12-point circumplex structure of core affect. Emotion , 11 , 705–731. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Zaki J, Wager TD, Singer T, Keysers C, & Gazzola V (2016). The anatomy of suffering: Understanding the relationship between nociceptive and empathic pain. Trends Cogn Sci , 20 , 249–259. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Zaki J, & Williams WC (2013). Interpersonal emotion regulation. Emotion , 13 , 803–810. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Zunhammer M, Bingel U, Wager TD, & The Placebo Imaging Consortium. (in press). Placebo effects on the neurologic pain signature: A meta-analysis of individual participant functional magnetic resonance imaging data. JAMA Neurol . [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • DOI: 10.35335/eq2pv025
  • Corpus ID: 270518306

The neurobiology of emotional regulation: A multimodal imaging perspective

  • Epriana Sihotang , Metaria A Tamba , Jojor Tertiana Sihotang
  • Published in Neuroscience and Biomedical… 30 May 2024
  • Psychology, Medicine

8 References

Unraveling emotional regulation through multimodal neuroimaging techniques, when and how to regulate: everyday emotion-regulation strategy use and stressor intensity, social functioning in individuals affected by childhood maltreatment: establishing a research agenda to inform interventions, integrative emotion regulation: process and development from a self-determination theory perspective, flexible emotion regulation: how situational demands and individual differences influence the effectiveness of regulatory strategies, age differences in the use of emotion regulation strategies derived from the process model of emotion regulation: a systematic review, interpersonal emotion regulation in the workplace: a conceptual and operational review and future research agenda, neurobiology of fetal and infant development: implications for infant mental health., related papers.

Showing 1 through 3 of 0 Related Papers

  • Health Tech
  • Health Insurance
  • Medical Devices
  • Gene Therapy
  • Neuroscience
  • H5N1 Bird Flu
  • Health Disparities
  • Infectious Disease
  • Mental Health
  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Chronic Disease
  • Alzheimer's
  • Coercive Care
  • The Obesity Revolution
  • The War on Recovery
  • Adam Feuerstein
  • Matthew Herper
  • Jennifer Adaeze Okwerekwu
  • Ed Silverman
  • CRISPR Tracker
  • Breakthrough Device Tracker
  • Generative AI Tracker
  • Obesity Drug Tracker
  • 2024 STAT Summit
  • Wunderkinds Nomination
  • STAT Madness
  • STAT Brand Studio

Don't miss out

Subscribe to STAT+ today, for the best life sciences journalism in the industry

New study bolsters evidence rare genetic mutation can delay early Alzheimer’s

Jonathan Wosen

By Jonathan Wosen June 19, 2024

Yellow amyloid plaques attached to nerve cells in Alzheimer's Disease — biotech coverage from STAT

F or members of a large extended Colombian family, an early Alzheimer’s diagnosis is practically a grim guarantee. But new research further supports the idea that a rare genetic mutation can delay the devastating disease’s onset.

An international team of researchers identified 27 individuals within this extended family who carried both a genetic variant that guaranteed they’d develop Alzheimer’s and a single copy of the so-called Christchurch mutation. They found that people with a single copy of this rare mutation, or heterozygotes, developed mild cognitive impairment at median ages of 52 and dementia at 54, while members of this family who were destined to develop Alzheimer’s and lacked the Christchurch mutation showed signs of cognitive impairment and dementia at 47 and 50, respectively.

advertisement

The authors also found that those with the Christchurch mutation had plenty of amyloid, a protein that forms clumps or plaques in the brain associated with disease, but surprisingly little tau, a different protein that accumulates inside neurons and can cause cell death.

STAT+ Exclusive Story

Already have an account? Log in

STAT+

This article is exclusive to STAT+ subscribers

Unlock this article — plus in-depth analysis, newsletters, premium events, and networking platform access..

Totals $468 per year

for 3 months, then $39/month

Then $39/month

Savings start at 25%!

Annually per user

$300 Annually per user

Get unlimited access to award-winning journalism and exclusive events.

About the Author Reprints

Jonathan wosen.

West Coast Biotech & Life Sciences Reporter

Jonathan Wosen is STAT’s West Coast biotech & life sciences reporter.

Alzheimer’s

STAT encourages you to share your voice. We welcome your commentary, criticism, and expertise on our subscriber-only platform, STAT+ Connect

To submit a correction request, please visit our Contact Us page .

research papers on neurobiology

Recommended

research papers on neurobiology

Recommended Stories

research papers on neurobiology

STAT Plus: Novant Health calls off North Carolina hospital deal, giving a win to the FTC

research papers on neurobiology

How a Baltimore neuroscience study is rewriting Black America’s relationship with medical research

research papers on neurobiology

STAT Plus: The inside story of how Lykos’ MDMA research went awry

research papers on neurobiology

STAT Plus: How a tweet about a gene discovered long ago led to a $190 million startup and, maybe, hope for heart disease

research papers on neurobiology

In dribs and drabs, USDA reports suggest containing bird flu outbreak in dairy cows will be challenging

research papers on neurobiology

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

  • View all journals

Neurology articles from across Nature Portfolio

Neurology is a medical specialty that is concerned with the study of structure, function and disorders of the nervous system.

Related Subjects

  • Neurological disorders

Latest Research and Reviews

research papers on neurobiology

Understanding the role of cerebellum in early Parkinson’s disease: a structural and functional MRI study

  • S. Pietracupa

research papers on neurobiology

Impact of cognitive impairment on driving behaviour and route choices of older drivers: a real-world driving study

  • Reihaneh Derafshi
  • Ganesh M. Babulal
  • Sayeh Bayat

research papers on neurobiology

Gene therapy for CNS disorders: modalities, delivery and translational challenges

Recent advances in the development of gene therapy tools provide hope that these approaches might modulate the altered gene expression that characterizes many CNS disorders. Gao et al. provide an overview of current gene therapy strategies, highlighting the interdependence of therapeutic modality, delivery vehicle and administration route for translational success.

  • Jingjing Gao
  • Swetharajan Gunasekar
  • Nitin Joshi

research papers on neurobiology

Addressing data limitations in seizure prediction through transfer learning

  • Fábio Lopes
  • Mauro F. Pinto
  • César Teixeira

research papers on neurobiology

User-centred design, validation and clinical testing of an anti-choking mug for people with Parkinson’s disease

  • Roongroj Bhidayasiri
  • Araya Chaisongkram
  • Warongporn Phuenpathom

research papers on neurobiology

Hearing loss and its association with the proteome of perilymph, cerebrospinal fluid, and tumor tissue in patients with vestibular schwannoma

  • Jesper Edvardsson Rasmussen
  • Per Olof Eriksson,

Advertisement

News and Comment

research papers on neurobiology

Slowing early Parkinson’s disease

  • George Andrew S. Inglis

Patient-centered development of clinical outcome assessments in early Parkinson disease: key priorities and advances

Novel therapies with the ability to delay disease progression are a gap in the care of people living with Parkinson disease (PD) today. Clinical outcomes assessments (COAs) that are sensitive to the earliest clinical changes in PD are deemed essential for a successful therapeutic development. To understand the current landscape of COAs use in clinical trials in PD and define priorities for future research in the field, a stakeholder roundtable meeting was held in November 2022. The current paper 1) proposes the collaborative development of patient-centric COAs that can adequately document the effectiveness of disease modification therapies in PD based on key priorities identified during this initial meeting, 2) summarizes the progress made in the subsequent 12 months, and 3) presents the deliverables expected in the near future. Key priorities include 1) the development of a consensus conceptual model of early PD experiences, 2) the adaptation of existing patient-reported outcomes (PROs), 3) the investigation of the role of observer-reported outcomes in addition to 4) enabling diversity in PD research and advocacy, 5) fostering data sharing, and 6) reaching consensus on a biological staging system for PD to drive the development of appropriate PROs for biologically defined populations.

  • Tiago A. Mestre
  • Glenn T. Stebbins
  • Tanya Simuni

Female sex is not a component of stroke risk in atrial fibrillation

  • Andrea Tavosanis

research papers on neurobiology

The convergence of neuromodulation and brain–computer interfaces

Neuromodulation and brain–computer interfaces are rapidly evolving fields with distinct origins but with the shared goal of improving the lives of people with neurological and psychiatric disorders or injuries. Their increasing technological overlap provides new opportunities for collaborative work and rapid progress in neurotechnology.

  • Jeffrey Herron
  • Vaclav Kremen
  • David Borton

Towards a methodological uniformization of environmental risk studies in Parkinson’s disease

  • Bruno Lopes Santos-Lobato

research papers on neurobiology

Addressing disparities in neurology by identifying gaps in hospital care

Nature Reviews Neurology is interviewing individuals who are driving efforts to address disparities in neurology through a broad spectrum of diversity, equity and inclusion initiatives. We spoke with neurosurgeon Sonia Mejía Pérez from Mexico about her work to address gaps in hospital care for individuals from minority groups, such as LGBT+ people.

Quick links

  • Explore articles by subject
  • Guide to authors
  • Editorial policies

research papers on neurobiology

  • Frontiers in Neuroergonomics
  • Neurotechnology and Systems Neuroergonomics
  • Research Topics

Insights from the 5th International Neuroergonomics Conference

Total Downloads

Total Views and Downloads

About this Research Topic

This Research Topic (RT) welcomes submissions that cover new approaches in neuroscientific theories and methods that can inform and improve human factors and ergonomics across diverse work domains. This RT notably aims at including selected submissions related to the 2024 International Neuroergonomics conference (July 8-12, 2024, Bordeaux, France), which is the fifth in the International Neuroergonomics Conference series, a biennial event, switching locations between Europe and USA with sequential iterations. This RT thus typically welcomes extended, journal paper versions, of the abstracts presented at this conference. Please kindly note that submissions that were not presented at the Neuroergonomics 2024 conference are also welcome in this RT, as long as they are in line with its research scope, as described below. Neuroergonomics investigates how the human brain supports operator performance, safety, and satisfaction in natural environments and everyday settings. This discipline has been summarized as the “investigations of the neural bases of mental functions and physical performance in relation to technology, work, leisure, transportation, health care, and other settings in the real world” (Parasuraman, 2003). Neuroergonomics integrates advancements in neuroscience and neuroengineering, to provide the flexibility to assess body and brain function in naturalistic work settings, thus bringing neuroscience into everyday life. Therefore, this RT welcomes submissions about works related, but not limited to, one or several of the following topics in relation to Neuroergonomics: • Artificial Intelligence and data science • Cognitive enhancement and augmented cognition • Neuroethics and brain rights • Social interaction & social cognition • Affect and Cognition: perception, attention, workload, fatigue, decision-making, memory, emotions, problem-solving, creativity, etc. • Brain signal processing • Brain stimulation (tES/tDCS/tACS/rTMS/FUS, etc.) • Brain-Computer Interfaces & Neurofeedback • Clinical applications & brain health • EEG/MEG • fNIRS/fMRI • Hardware & sensors design and evaluation • Human-Machine Teaming & Neuroadaptive Technologies • Invasive recordings (ECoG, micro-electrode arrays, etc.) • Motor control, imagery & physical performance • Physiological signals (eye tracking, ECG, Galvanic skin response, etc) • Skill acquisition and training assessment • Virtual Reality and simulators This RT welcomes reports of completed research that applies neuroscience methods and theories to improving human performance, safety, and satisfaction across different work domains. It also welcomes reports that are purely neuroscience methods and/or theories with the outlook of being applicable to human factors and ergonomics, and research in human factors and ergonomics that present meaningful opportunities for application of neuroscience methods and/or theories.

Keywords : Neuroergonomics, Human Factors, Neuroscience, Brain-Computer Interfaces, Cognitive Enhancement, Artificial Intelligence, Brain Signal Processing, Virtual Reality

Important Note : All contributions to this Research Topic must be within the scope of the section and journal to which they are submitted, as defined in their mission statements. Frontiers reserves the right to guide an out-of-scope manuscript to a more suitable section or journal at any stage of peer review.

Topic Editors

Topic coordinators, submission deadlines.

Manuscript Summary
Manuscript

Participating Journals

Manuscripts can be submitted to this Research Topic via the following journals:

total views

  • Demographics

No records found

total views article views downloads topic views

Top countries

Top referring sites, about frontiers research topics.

With their unique mixes of varied contributions from Original Research to Review Articles, Research Topics unify the most influential researchers, the latest key findings and historical advances in a hot research area! Find out more on how to host your own Frontiers Research Topic or contribute to one as an author.

IMAGES

  1. Perry Dhaliwal, Md

    research papers on neurobiology

  2. (PDF) Clinical Course, Neurobiology and Therapeutic Approaches to

    research papers on neurobiology

  3. Neurobiology Final Exam

    research papers on neurobiology

  4. (PDF) Current understanding on the neurobiology of sleep and wakefulness

    research papers on neurobiology

  5. (PDF) Putting the “Biology” Back into “Neurobiology”: The Strength of

    research papers on neurobiology

  6. (PDF) Neurobiology of depression: An integrated view of key findings

    research papers on neurobiology

VIDEO

  1. Brain Evolution (III) Dr. Linden

  2. Neurobiology of Stress, Depression and Antidepressants: Remodeling Synaptic Connections

  3. Exploring Synthetic Neurobiology: Merging Biology and Neuroscience for Advanced Neural Solutions

  4. Cortical neurons migrating on nanofibers

  5. Neurobiology 1.1: Historical perspective

  6. New Mechanisms Elicited with Ketamine in Treatment-Resistant Depression

COMMENTS

  1. Current Research in Neurobiology

    Current Research in Neurobiology is a gold open access (OA) journal, which means articles are permanently and freely available. It is a companion to the highly regarded review journal Current Opinion in Neurobiology (CONEUR; 2019 Journal Impact Factor 6.267, CiteScore 10.8) and is part of the Current Opinion and Research (CO+RE) suite of journals.

  2. Research articles

    Intersectional adeno-associated viruses are important for neuroscience research but can be limited by complex and bulky design parameters. ... This paper presents Simple Behavioral Analysis (SimBA ...

  3. Journal of Neuroscience

    This confocal image depicts neurodegeneration in the retina of an aged zebrafish with a mutation in the c9orf72 gene. Natalia Jaroszynska and colleagues explored the consequences of this mutation in vivo because it is the most common cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Cell nuclei (blue) and rod (green) and cone photoreceptors (magenta) are labelled by ...

  4. Top 100 in Neuroscience

    Top 100 in Neuroscience. This collection highlights our most downloaded* neuroscience papers published in 2021. Featuring authors from around the world, these papers showcase valuable research ...

  5. Research Articles

    Research Articles, Neurobiology of Disease Inhibitory Roles of Apolipoprotein E Christchurch Astrocytes in Curbing Tau Propagation Using Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Models Rei Murakami , Hirotaka Watanabe , Hideko Hashimoto , Mayu Kashiwagi-Hakozaki , Tadafumi Hashimoto , Celeste M. Karch , the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network ...

  6. Nature Neuroscience

    Intersectional adeno-associated viruses are important for neuroscience research but can be limited by complex and bulky design parameters. Hughes et al. present a unique and space-saving approach ...

  7. Journal of Neuroscience Research

    The Journal of Neuroscience Research ( JNR) publishes pioneering research relevant to the development, function, and pathophysiology of the nervous system. Molecular, cellular, systems, and translational approaches are all considered. Papers explore basic research and clinical aspects of neurology, neuropathology, psychiatry, or psychology.

  8. Articles

    Responses to Predictable versus Random Temporally Complex Stimuli from Single Units in Auditory Thalamus: Impact of Aging and Anesthesia

  9. Neuroscience Research

    The official journal of the Japan Neuroscience Society. Neuroscience Research is an international journal for high quality articles in all branches of neuroscience, from the molecular to the behavioral levels. The journal is published in collaboration with the Japan Neuroscience Society and is open …. From January 1, 2024, Neuroscience ...

  10. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory

    Neurobiology of Learning and Memory includes major research and review papers as well as rapid communications reporting new results. In addition, the following categories are featured: • Invited Short Reviews that succinctly survey appropriate areas of current research or theory

  11. Home

    Overview. Molecular Neurobiology is a journal focusing on contemporary developments in molecular brain research. Provides thorough and constructive peer review managed by our Editor-in-Chief and Associate editors. Offers attractive turnaround times for research publication. Committed to high levels of author satisfaction, with strong ...

  12. Publications

    Selective modification of ascending spinal outputs in acute and neuropathic pain states. Common principles for odour coding across vertebrates and invertebrates. Disruption of Cholinergic Retinal Waves Alters Visual Cortex Development and Function. Specialized connectivity of molecular layer interneuron subtypes leads to disinhibition and ...

  13. The Neurobiological Mechanisms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder and

    Two—not necessarily opposing—classification systems are now at the forefront of clinical research: (1) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition (DSM-5 1) and (2) the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) Research Domain Criteria (RDoC 2-4).RDoC provides a fresh perspective on new ways to approach anxiety research (e.g., through the construct of "potential threat"), but ...

  14. Neurobiologic Advances from the Brain Disease Model of Addiction

    Neuroscience research in this area not only offers new opportunities for the prevention and treatment of substance addictions and related behavioral addictions (e.g., to food, sex, and gambling ...

  15. Neuroscience

    Atom. RSS Feed. Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary science that is concerned with the study of the structure and function of the nervous system. It encompasses the evolution, development ...

  16. The emotional brain: Fundamental questions and strategies for future

    Addressing these questions is critical, not just for understanding the mind, but also for elucidating the root causes of many of its disorders. Keywords: affective science, affective neuroscience, emotion, fMRI, individual differences, neuroimaging. Emotions play a central role in human experience and there is an abiding interest—among ...

  17. Neurology

    Neurology ® Video Journal Club ... Latest Articles. Research Article. 17 Jun 2024 editorial. A Qualitative Study of Facilitators, Barriers, and Gender Disparities in Academic Neurology. Marisela E. Dy-Hollins, Deborah A. Hall, Carolyn M. Cahill, Ana-Claire L. Meyer, Amanda C. Peltier,

  18. The neuroscience of depressive disorders: A brief review of the past

    Alexander Kaltenboeck reports receiving research funding from the Medical Research Council and the Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford. Catherine Harmer reports receiving grants from Johnson & Johnson, UCB, and Sunovion; and personal fees from P1vital and Lundbeck (outside this work).

  19. Neurobiology of Consciousness: Current Research and Perspectives

    The paper addresses the main problems of discrepancy between neurobiological research and philosophical perspective. Current opinions concerning neural correlates and models of consciousness are ...

  20. Top 100 in Neuroscience

    Top 100 in Neuroscience - 2022. This collection highlights our most downloaded* neuroscience papers published in 2022. Featuring authors from around the world, these papers showcase valuable ...

  21. Guide for authors

    Introduction Current Research in Neurobiology is an international peer reviewed journal devoted to publishing timely original research, short communications, resources and news and views that cover any aspect of the field of neural science from molecules to mind. Topics include fundamental (discovery) to clinically- or translationally -relevant neural science across the gamut of relevant ...

  22. The neurobiology of emotional regulation: A multimodal imaging

    The significance of understanding the neurobiology of emotional regulation and its clinical relevance for improving mental health outcomes and developing personalized interventions for individuals with psychiatric disorders is underscored. This research explores the neurobiology of emotional regulation using multimodal imaging techniques and its clinical implications for psychiatric disorders.

  23. New study bolsters evidence rare genetic mutation can delay early

    The paper is the latest example of researchers refining their understanding of Alzheimer's by studying an extended family with about 6,000 living members. ... Research; Neuroscience; Public ...

  24. The nature and neurobiology of fear and anxiety: State of the science

    1. Introduction. Fear and anxiety play a central role in the lives of humans and other mammals, and there is an abiding interest among scientists, clinicians, philosophers, artists, and the public at large in understanding their nature, identifying their biological underpinnings, and determining their contribution to other psychological processes, from cognition and decision-making, to health ...

  25. Neurology

    Neurology is a medical specialty that is concerned with the study of structure, function and disorders of the nervous system. Related Subjects Neurological disorders

  26. Insights from the 5th International Neuroergonomics Conference

    This Research Topic (RT) welcomes submissions that cover new approaches in neuroscientific theories and methods that can inform and improve human factors and ergonomics across diverse work domains. This RT notably aims at including selected submissions related to the 2024 International Neuroergonomics conference (July 8-12, 2024, Bordeaux, France), which is the fifth in the International ...

  27. NeuroImage

    NeuroImage is a gold open access journal that communicates important developments in understanding brain function, structure, and organization using all neuroimaging modalities, as well as advances in related imaging and analysis methodology.. The journal focuses on the macroscopic level of the human brain but seeks to incorporate theoretical and technological innovations to investigate the ...