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  • How to write a C1 Advanced Essay

How to write a C1 Advanced Essay | Oxford House Barcelona

  • Posted on 26/02/2020
  • Categories: Blog
  • Tags: C1 Advanced , Cambridge Exams , Writing

The Cambridge C1 Advanced is an excellent qualification to aim for if you’re thinking of studying or working abroad. It’s recognised by universities and governments all over the world and also helps you prove your language skills to future employers.

One of the most demanding parts of the exam is Part 1 of the Writing paper, which includes writing an essay. For many of you, this won’t come naturally… especially in another language.

So, to give you the best chance at success, we’ve created this in-depth guide full of Cambridge C1 Advanced Writing tips and useful language to get you producing excellent essays in no time.

So, pick up your pen, and let’s get started!

If you’d like to get more help with the C1 Advanced, consider our exam preparation class!

C1 Advanced Writing Requirements

The C1 Advanced Writing exam has two writing parts, which you must complete in 90 minutes. Both parts have a word limit of between 220-260 words. We recommend getting lots of writing practice under these conditions!

Part 1 is always a discursive essay . It requires you to think about arguments for and against a topic.

Part 2 is a situationally based writing task. This could be a letter , an email , a report , a proposal or a review and you have three options to choose from.

Today, we’ll be looking at how to do your best in part 1.

Before you begin

When you turn over the paper and begin Writing Part 1, take some time to read the task instructions. Identify all parts of the question, underlining which parts are obligatory and noting which parts are optional.

Let’s take a look at an example question!

How to write a C1 Advanced Essay - Example Question | Oxford House Barcelona

Remember, you don’t have to use the opinions expressed in the box, but they may help you to get the ball rolling . Also, you only have to talk about two of the options given, not all three.

Make a plan

Take ten minutes to lay out your ideas. Make a pros and cons list for each of the three options and then decide which two you feel most confident with. Here’s some things you might come up with, can you think of any more?

How to write a C1 Advanced Essay - Make a Plan | Oxford House Barcelona

Structure your essay

The essence of a good essay is a clear structure.


Here you want to introduce the topic in your own words. Your first line should also grab the reader’s attention, then you should paraphrase the question. Finally, try using a statistic or a rhetorical question. This will make them want to read on, right?

Paragraph 1

Discuss the first option you’ve chosen. Include a good topic sentence and remember to give reasons for your answer. Describe some of the advantages, and even some of the disadvantages too. This will give a well-balanced argument.

Paragraph 2

Here’s where you introduce the second option. Again, try to present both sides of the argument and give reasons for your ideas. Gradually work towards the conclusion.

State your final opinion. This should be a summary of the rest of the essay and point clearly to which option you think is the most important. Do not introduce any new arguments at this stage. The conclusion is where you tie-up any loose ends .

This is an advanced piece of writing, so make sure your choice of language reflects it. You will get marked for accuracy, however, occasional errors can still be present as long as they do not impede understanding. So don’t play it too safe . This is your opportunity to show what you can do, so take some risks and have fun with it!

In the writing paper you should use a range of vocabulary, including less common lexis. Brainstorm some vocabulary related to the topic. Take your time to think of nouns and compound nouns that you know at C1 level. Really let your vocabulary sparkle .

How to write a C1 Advanced Essay - Vocabulary | Oxford House Barcelona

No one likes a broken record . Find synonyms for simple words. You want to use a variety of language, and try not to repeat yourself too much. Check out these different ways of saying the same thing:

advantage = benefit, positive, upside

disadvantage = downside, drawback

effect = influence, impact, result, outcome

problem = issue, challenge, difficulty, obstacle, setback, complication

important = valuable, essential, beneficial

expensive = costly, dear, high-priced, extortionate

cheap = inexpensive, affordable, economical

big = great, large, sizeable, considerable, wide, vast

small = slight, tiny, little

Quick tip: Visit Thesaurus.com to study more synonyms!

Experiment with different grammatical forms. At this level you’re expected to have a good grasp on the grammar. You should use a range of simple and complex grammatical forms with control and flexibility. So challenge yourself with some of these…

  • Participle clauses
  • Conditionals
  • Modal verbs
  • Passive with reporting verbs
  • Cleft sentences
  • Comparatives
  • Relative clauses

Useful expressions

To make your essay flow it’s best to use some key phrases. These will link all your ideas together, and help it sound semi-formal. Take a look at the expressions below. Why not use some in your next essay?


It is often said that…

Many people feel that…

We live in an age when..

More and more…

Introducing & Addition:

Firstly, secondly, thirdly…

On the one hand…

In addition…

What is more…

For example…

For instance…

As a case in point…


In contrast…

On the other hand…




All things considered…

As far as I’m concerned…

In light of the above…

What the examiners are looking for

When writing your essay, bear in mind what you’ll be marked on:

Have you answered all parts of the question? Is everything relevant to the question?

Communicative Achievement

Is the style and tone appropriate? Remember it should be semi-formal and neutral.


Does it follow a logical order? Have you used paragraphs and linking devices?

Are you using a variety of grammar and vocabulary? Is it accurate?

Now your masterpiece has come together. Remember to take time to check your work. Here’s the official Writing Checklist from Cambridge Assessment English . And our list of the most common mistakes:

  • subject + verb agreement
  • singulars / plurals
  • question formation
  • variety of tenses
  • dependent prepositions

Some final tips

Avoid contractions (I’m, they’re, we’re) as this is a formal writing.

Don’t use first person pronouns (I, my, our, us).

Practise under timed conditions.

Use model answers to practise fixed expressions.


Looking for more help with your Cambridge C1 Advanced exam? Here are our other guides from our blog:

C1 Advanced Reading and Use of English – Part 1 , Part 2 , Part 3

And if you are not sure if you’re ready for the C1 Advanced, check out our article Am I ready for the C1 Advanced exam? to find out!

Glossary for Language Learners

Find the following words in the article and then write down any new ones you didn’t know.

Get the ball rolling (exp) : to start something.

Lay out (v): to explain something in detail.

Paraphrase (v): to say the same thing in a different way.

Tie-up any loose ends (exp): to resolve issues.

Play it safe (exp): to act cautiously.

A broken record (exp): when someone repeats themself.

Sparkle (v) : to shine.

Good grasp (exp): a good knowledge.

Bear in mind (exp) : to consider.

Masterpiece (n): an incredible work of art.

exp = expression

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  • By: oxfordadmin
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Conectores en inglés C1, linkers, conjunctions in english, salon de idiomas, speaking aptis

08 Ago 2023 Linkers: conoce los conectores en Inglés C1 (lista completa)

Conectores en inglés c1: aprende a utilizar los linkers como un pro.

Esta vez os traemos conectores en inglés C1 y sus sinónimos para que no tengáis excusa de no utilizarlos. Actually (de hecho), os recomendamos que intentéis utilizar bastantes en vuestro discurso y así ningún examen oficial se os resistirá. Moreover , los conectores o linking words , se utilizan con bastante más frecuencia en inglés por lo que cuantos más uses, más fluidez demostrarás. Por cierto os invitamos a que leáis nuestra super entrada: conectores en inglés, aprende a enlazar ideas como un nativo.

¿Conoces nuestro canal de Youtube ? ¡Suscríbete! Cada semana subimos algo nuevo 😉

Conectores en inglés C1: qué son y ejemplos

Son palabras que utilizan para unir dos o varias partes de una oración.

En cuanto a conectores en inglés , si queréis conseguir el nivel C1 , en el Salón de Idiomas os recomendamos que dejéis de usar los típicos AND, BUT, SO, etc. cuando tengáis la ocasión pues cualquiera que tenga unos conocimientos básicos en inglés los conoce y utiliza. Cuando se dé el caso, prueba a emplear sinónimos y verás como tu speaking y writing tendrán un léxico más rico y más parecido a un nivel avanzado.

TIP: Otra forma de demostrar un C1 es utilizar ➤   adverbios en inglés de nivel avanzado .

Por cierto, no des palos de ciego en cuanto al orden de los linkers o conectores en inglés C1 . Por regla general tienen un orden establecido en la frase y casi siempre es al principio de la misma.

Linkers and connectors C1: lista y sus sinónimos

Aquí está la primera lista de conectores en inglés nivel avanzado . La tabla de abajo se divide en 2 partes: la primera incluye los conectores o conjunctions in English más usados y sus sinónimos, mientras que la segunda incluye un listado de palabras (algunos linkers, otros no) orientadas a ayudaros a variar vuestro léxico.

Por cierto hemos llamado a esta entrada Conectores en inglés C1 porque da sinónimos de nivel mas avanzado de los típicos «and, «but», «so», «because», sin embargo, si todavía no conoces tu nivel de inglés exacto, te recomendamos que hagas algunas de las pruebas de nivel gratis que tenemos en la plataforma de Salón de Idiomas (evaluarás tu nivel gramatical, de léxico y auditivo) pues son muy específicas.

Test de nivel

Lista de conectores en inglés de nivel avanzado





















Moreover, / Furthermore, / Further to this, / Besides, / Additionally,/ Likewise,/ By the same token,/ Jointly with

However, / Nevertheless, /Nonetheless,  / Even so, / Otherwise, On the contrary, / Whereas/ Unlike

Albeit (formal)

Although / (Even) though (aunque +subordinada)

In spite of / Despite (+ noun/gerund)

On the one hand, … On the other hand,

In contrast to / Contrary to/ By contrast

Still / Yet



On account of / Owing to / Due to (the fact)/ In order to/ Given that/Since
















At first sight: A primera vista

First: En primer lugar

First of all,: Antes que nada

In the first place: En primer lugar

To start with,: Para empezar


In the second place,: En segundo lugar

Second: Segundo

Secondly,: En segundo lugar

Third: Tercero

Thirdly,: En tercer lugar


Finally,: Por último

In conclusion,: Para concluir

Lastly,: Por último

And eventually: Y finalmente
















Thus /Hence /Therefore/


As a result



At times (a veces) /Frequently/ Occasionally/Once in a while (de vez en cuando)

On and off (de vez en cuando) / Once in a blue moon (de Pascuas a Ramos, muy raras veces)



Daily (a diario)/Constantly

*On a daily basis (a diario) se puede aplicar también a:

-on a weekly/monthly/yearly basis

Regularly (con frecuencia)    Usually (generalmente)


















Actually,: en realidad

As a matter of fact,: de hecho

In fact: de hecho







As far as I am concerned, por lo que a mí respecta

From my point of view, desde mi punto de vista

I agree estoy de acuerdo

I disagree no estoy de acuerdo

In my opinion en mi opinión

In my view según lo veo

I think that creo que

It is true that es verdad que

Personally, personalmente

To be honest, para ser honesto

To tell the truth, a decir verdad

















For instance, Such as (tal como -al enumerar), Namely (por nombrar algo)

This means that /That is to say (por ejemplo)

To name a few, particularly



Plenty of /A number of (muchos)

A great deal of(mucho/os)  A bunch of (un puñado de)



Such + adj + sus (tal/tal como)

Rather/Quite /Pretty  (bastante)





By any chance (por casualidad) Might (puede que) Perhaps (quizás)

Possibly (posiblemente)          To be (un)likely to (es probable que)

There is a high likelihood (hay una probabilidad alta)


In other words,: en otras palabras

In short,: en resumen

Above all,: sobre todo

All in all,: en general

At least: al menos

: básicamente, fundamentalmente

: especialmente, sobre todo

: esencialmente

In general: en general

In particular: en particular

More or less: más o menos

On the whole,: en general

To a certain extent: hasta cierto punto

Cómo practicar los linkers en inglés C1

Buena pregunta. Obviously , lo primero que has de hacer es intentar integrarlos paulatinamente en tu discurso. Estaría bien que tu profesor te corrija, te ayude a cambiar el hábito y empieces a usar sinónimos de conectores con los que no estés muy acostumbrado. Recuerda que los conectores en inglés dan coherencia y cohesión a tu producción oral y escrita y eso es fundamental en exámenes oficiales de inglés tipos Linguaskill , LanguageCert , Aptis o Trinity , entre muchos otros. De hecho, la coherencia y la cohesión son unos elementos fundamentales que se evalúan dentro de los criterios de evaluación en estas pruebas oficiales.

Secondly , te recomendamos que redactes writings (por ejemplo aquí puedes ver cómo redactar un artículo en inglés ). Cuando escribas, tendrás más tiempo para emplear linkers en inglés. Cuanto más redactes y más conectores uses, más los interiorizarás.

¡Sácate tu título oficial de inglés!

Prepárate con Salón de Idiomas, más de 500 reseñas en Google nos avalan. ¡Infórmate!

Seguro que también te interesa:

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  • Oxford o Aptis: comparamos los dos exámenes ¿cuál es mejor?
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  • Curso Intensivo Trinity C1 online: prepárate de forma efectiva
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Linking Words for Cambridge Advanced (C1) Writing

CAE Cambridge Advanced , CAE writing , Linking Words

┃Read in less than 7 minutes

Sign up here to receive the Linking Words for C1 Writing handout by email:

In this blog post, we’re looking at linking words/phrases and how they matter for your exams. Understanding them is really important, as is being able to use them effectively, especially from B2 exam level and up. If you’re already thinking ‘what are they talking about’ then you should definitely read on. And if you think you’re already a master with linking words, check out our activities and comment to show us that you’ve nailed it!

essay connectors c1

Linking words are basically words or phrases that are used to connect other words and phrases together. It’s really a means of creating cohesion in your writing or speech.

Without linking words you’d just have a bunch of random sentences without a clear connection to each other, and really, do you know ANYONE who communicates without connecting their ideas together? If you do actually know someone like that, send them a link to this so you can have better chats with them!


Yesterday evening I decided to watch a bit of a true crime documentary. It turned out to be  such an intriguing case that I watched the whole thing. Normally, I don’t pay much attention to the show. However , on this occasion I was on the edge of my seat. The show was really well made and what’s more, it was nearly impossible to guess whodunnit.

As you can probably work out, the underlined items are all linking words. There’s a whole range of reasons that you’d want to connect ideas together like that. Let’s list a few with examples:

1. To compare

This is to say how things are the same or different to each other, e.g.

1. Trisha murdered her husband with a hammer. Similarly , Janice used a blunt object to murder her spouse.

Also, as with Trisha, Janice didn’t contact emergency services to get help for her dying spouse.

2. To show a contrast

This is to comment on the obvious difference between two people or things, e.g.

However , Janice hit her husband just once, to get him away from her.

In contrast Trisha struck hers 73 times, showing much more aggression and intent to harm.

3. To demonstrate condition

This is to say a situation depends on another situation, e.g.

Trisha is likely to go to prison for the murder, unless she is able to cover it up.

Provided that Janice can prove her husband was attacking her, she’ll probably avoid punishment.

4. To illustrate

That is to use examples or evidence to explain yourself, e.g.

In the case of Trisha; she could, for example , hide the body somewhere secret. There are a few options such as hiding him in the nearby woodland.

Those are all, of course, things that you should be doing in your essays, for example. After all, essays should be all about comparing and contrasting different ideas in order to make a final assessment in your conclusion based on that. You can’t have a cohesive essay that reaches a logical conclusion without using suitable cohesive devices (like linking words). You should really make sure to keep that in mind when you write!

essay connectors c1

Linking Words for Cambridge Advanced 

When it comes to the Cambridge Exams specifically, linking words and phrases are an important part of the ‘organisation’ element of your writing. Remember, there are four areas on which you are graded:

Each of those four elements is worth up to 5 marks out of the 20 total for each writing piece, with 3/5 the lowest passing mark in each category.

Organisation can be the easiest to score well in if you know what’s required of you. It’s not only linking words of course. There are a few simple aspects, such as having a clear Introduction, main body and conclusion (basically, a beginning, middle and end), and using clear spacing to separate your paragraphs. Though (especially at advanced level) the main thing they’re looking for is that cohesion. That the whole text has a natural flow, nothing seems out of place or disjointed. Linking words/phrases are a part of helping you to achieve that.

It’s not only the writing part where linking words matter though. They should be a natural part of your speech for the speaking element (for many of the same reasons as your writing, especially in the collaborative parts (3 & 4) of the test. Not to mention the likelihood that they’ll come up Use of English. That’s still not all though, because not only do you need to be able to use them yourself, you need to recognise them when they are used and the reason for which they’re being used.

That brings us onto the listening part of the exam. Essentially, linking words/phrases are used in the listening exam as a sort of ‘misdirect’. Especially the contrasting type. The speaker will lead you down a path of thinking that one of your options must be the write answer, then they’ll use a contrasting linker to completely change the meaning of what they’re saying. You’ll have to recognise when they do this and quickly realise what the actual correct answer is. (Pro tip: In the parts of the test with multiple short pieces to listen to, wait until the speaker finishes what they’ve said before you choose your answer. That way you won’t prematurely choose the wrong answer and get caught out).

So, we’ve established that these linking words/phrases are essential for your exams. So, what will happen if you absolutely nail them in the exams? Well, anything could happen. You should at least get some good grades in the relevant sections! The examiners are always looking out for them, so you can dazzle them with your flawless use and really make them love you and reward it!

And now, it’s over to you.

Let’s have a go at a practice exercise. Below, you can see an example essay that uses a number of linking words/phrases. Try to identify the different linking words used and see if you can figure out exactly what they’re being used for to! Comment with your answers and we’ll let you know if you got it right!

Question: Is it better to take holidays abroad or in your own country?

As increasing numbers of people choose so-called ‘staycations’ over holidays abroad, this essay will consider environmental, economical and educational factors to assess which holiday type is best.

Firstly, as a recent UN report says we have only 12 years to save ourselves from global warming, environmental factors are hugely important. Travel abroad often means using highly polluting forms of transports such as planes, whereas staying in your country makes less harmful modes of transport a realistic option. This suggests that more people should choose to stay in their own country when holidaying.

A common argument for holidaying abroad is that it opens us to new cultures and experiences. Most holiday-goers focus on ‘tourist’ locations (e.g. Benidorm) and experiences though, rarely experiencing the true culture of a country.

Another argument for holidaying abroad is that it helps economies that are dependent on tourism for their income, however with debts increasing in many places the expression ‘charity begins at home’ applies. We must prioritise helping ourselves first in order to help others effectively.

In conclusion due to the environmental damage and limited benefits, holidays abroad are unsustainable so we should choose staycations.

Remember to comment so we can have a look at your answers and let you know how you did. And don’t forget to keep an eye out for other videos in the series. Thanks for reading, let us know if you have any questions 🙂

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essay connectors c1

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Geography, History, Art, ESL Learning 

essay connectors c1

Useful phrases for your essays (advanced level)

Here you have some phrases to include in your essays (CEFR C1-C2). Hope you like it and find it useful !!

Introducing the phenomenon to be discussed

  • More and more families are choosing to have only one child.
  • The trend nowadays is towards having smaller families.
  • Over the past ten years or so the media have frequently carried reports of ……………
  • Recent research indicates that the number of teenagers who smoke is increasing.
  • Hardly a week goes by without another report of …………….. appearing in the media.
  • This raises the issue of whether ……………..
  • Although most people would generally agree that …………… few would deny that …………….

Stating your opinion

  • As I see it,
  • It seems to me that ………… I would also say that ….
  • I am convinced that ……………
  • I am inclined to believe that ………………
  • There is no doubt in my mind that ………………
  • One of the drawbacks of ……. is ……….
  • However, one of the benefits is that …………

Changing topic

  • As regards the causes for this, …………..
  • Concerning the causes for this, ………
  • As for the causes, ………..

Presenting arguments

  • One justification often given for ……….. is that……………..
  • Advocates/Proponents would claim that ………………
  • Those who object to …………….. often argue that ……………….
  • Another objection is that ……
  • However, it should not be forgotten that …………..
  • ……….. are opposed to ……………. on the grounds that ……………..
  • From the point of view of ……………..
  • According to ………………..

Describing causes

  • One factor which has led to ………… is …………..
  • One of the factors which has brought this about is ………
  • The problem often stems from ………………..
  • The situation has been exacerbated by …………….
  • ………….. has only made the situation worse.
  • One consequence of ……………. is …………….

Proposing steps and measures

  • As regards the most appropriate response to this situation, one suggestion would be to ………
  • The first step to be taken would be to ……..
  • To alleviate the situation people should ………..
  • In addition they ought to ……………
  • To begin to tackle this situation society/individuals/the government need/s to ……….
  • ………….. would certainly ameliorate the situation.
  • This can only be dealt with if …………
  • To overcome this problem, …………..
  • Were the government to ……………, the situation would doubtless improve.
  • Individuals can do a great deal to …………
  • The burden of responsiblity lies in the hands of ……..
  • It is vitally important that ………
  • Legislation should be introduced to control ……………..
  • It would be a grave error if we ……………..
  • All in all it seems to me that ………..
  • The obvious conclusion to be drawn is that …………………..
  • All things considered, ………….
  • On balance, I tend to believe that …………
  • The world would surely be a better place to live in if …………..
  • If people stopped ….ing, we would have/ we could look forward to a ……………
  • The prospects for the future will be bleak/grim unless ……………….

I think you should also have a few pages somewhere where you can keep a record of other useful essay phrases that you come across in your reading. Write them down and practise using them in your own writing.

Look out for more advanced expressions that you can use in place of phrases that weren’t even impressive at the B2 level – phrases like “solve the problem”. Here are a few alternative problem and solution phrases to get you going.:

a  crisis  in education which must be  addressed

something that must  be tackled  /  be dealt with

a  challenge  which must  be met

something must be done  to restore  law and order in the inner cities


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Connectors and linking expressions for the Cambridge B2 First and C1 Advanced writing exam – AIRC519

In this podcast, you’ll learn useful linking expressions and connectors for the Cambridge B2 First and C1 Advanced writing exam so that you’re not constantly repeating words like ‘and’, ‘but’ and ‘also’! Consequently, you’ll improve your vocabulary.

Voice message from Ignacio from Jaen in Spain “I’m speaking from the bottom of my heart” (off-the-cuff, unprepared)

Voice message from Adrián from Barcelona came across your podcast I wish I had found it before Outstanding connectors that will astonish the examiners Seldom have I missed an episode recently.

Notwithstanding / By the same token

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Linking Expressions: https://www.inglespodcast.com/55

More Linking Expressions: https://www.inglespodcast.com/179

This isn’t an exhaustive list, there are many connectors and linking expressions you could use in English. This list is focused more on written English than spoken English.

Connectors and Linking Expressions (C1 Advanced vs. B2 First) Here’s a list of connectors and linking expressions for the Cambridge C1 Advanced writing exam, along with their B2 First equivalents:

And, also,  in addition to this, additionally Furthermore, what’s more, moreover, on top of that, as well as She enjoys reading writing. (B2) , her passion extends to learning new languages. (C1)
So, therefore, because of this Consequently, hence, as a result, owing to, due to we need to start early. (B2) The project’s success can be attributed to teamwork; , morale is high. (C1)
But, however, on the other hand, nevertheless, despite, in spite of, although, even though Conversely, in contrast (to this), that being said, notwithstanding, nonetheless, by the same token, yet I prefer coffee, she likes tea. (B2) , a focus on prevention can be more effective than cure. (C1)
Importantly, significantly, of course, without (a) doubt It is worth noting that, undoubtedly, crucially, unquestionably, clearly, surely , deadlines need to be met. (B2) a healthy diet plays a vital role in well-being. (C1)
For example, such as, like, as an example, e.g. For instance, to illustrate, exemplified by, a case in point apples and oranges are good sources of Vitamin C. (B2) the use of renewable energy is becoming increasingly important. (C1)
Generally, usually, most of the time, in general Generally speaking, by and large, in most cases, on the whole exercise is beneficial for health. (B2) , a positive attitude leads to success. (C1)
So, therefore, this means that, in other words It can be inferred that, this suggests that, implying that, thus We arrived late, the movie might have started. (B2) The rising sea levels climate change is a pressing issue. (C1)
Many people believe that, some people think that It is often argued that, it is widely believed, there is a growing consensus that education is key to progress. (B2) artificial intelligence will revolutionize our lives. (C1)
First, second, then, next, finally Firstly, secondly, subsequently, lastly preheat the oven. (B2) , we need to define the problem; subsequently, we can explore solutions. (C1)
To, in order to, so that In order to, with the aim of, so as to We need study to pass the exam. (B2) raise awareness, they organized a campaign. (C1)
In other words, to sum up, put simply To reiterate, in other words, to put it another way, in short Briefly, , the plan is achievable. (B2) To reiterate, effective communication is essential for teamwork. (C1)
In the same way, just like, also, as Likewise, similarly I enjoy reading, you enjoy music. (B2) , a healthy diet is important for both physical and mental well-being. (C1)
One solution is, an answer could be One possible solution is, a potential answer could be, to resolve this is to recycle more. (B2) to traffic congestion is the development of public transport. (C1)
In support of this argument, To support this, This idea is further strengthened by, lending credence to the idea , research shows the benefits of exercise. (B2) Lending credence to the idea, many successful firms prioritize employee well-being. (C1)
Then, after that, before that, next Subsequently, following this, later on, afterwards, beforehand We ate dinner, watched a movie. (B2) The meeting is tomorrow; , we’ll finalize the details. (C1)
Surprisingly, curiously, in fact Unexpectedly, oddly enough, interestingly , it rained in the desert. (B2) , historical data can provide valuable insights for the future. (C1)
In conclusion, to sum up, overall On the whole, to conclude,  in summary, all things considered, all in all , we achieved our goals. (B2) , the project was a success. (C1)

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Academic English UK

Formal Linking Words / Cohesive Devices

Linking words can also be referred to as connectors, conjunctions, and cohesive devices. This webpage includes a useful lesson on helping improve students’ knowledge of these linking words. It includes a lesson plan using a kinaesthetic matching activity and worksheet.

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Cut these up and students match

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Linking Words Reference Sheet

Print off and give this to students as a helpful reference guide. 

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Linking words – How to improve your writing

Linking words, also known as linkers, cohesive devices, connectors and transition words, are a vital part of writing. Often when we teach English, we feed vocabulary and phrases to students which, if we’re not careful, can start sounding forced. For me, linking words are the exception to that. I find that a solid lesson with these special words can almost certainly help improve a students writing regardless of the level. It’s not just because it appears in writing marking scales for every official exam there is, it’s because they actually work. Without linking words, texts can feel dull and disconnected. That’s definitely not the image we want to give when trying to prove our level of English.


What are linking words?

There are linking words and phrases for different purposes. You can find exhaustive lists of linking words examples all over the web, but the important thing is using them to good effect.

If your writing was like the human body, the content words would be the flesh and the paragraph structure would be the skeleton. Linkers are like the joints of your writing. They help to connect the different parts together and interact with each other. An essay with good cohesive devices will flow and be easy to read. In fact, it’s practically impossible to write without them. You can do a fun writing activity with a consequences game in another post .

Linking words at different levels

Let’s use Cambridge writing scales as a guide for what we should be using at different levels. At B1 Preliminary (PET) candidates are expected to use basic linking words. Basic linking words are essentially and , so , but and because . At B2 First (FCE) level, a variety of linking words should be used. While by C1 Advanced (CAE), candidates are using cohesive devices to generally good effect.

Although the terminology shifts between levels, the concept is the same. An exam candidate’s writing should be connected together in a way that makes it flow from one section to another using words that help to achieve said outcome. Notice that it’s not until C2 Proficiency (CPE) level that candidates should be able to use cohesive devices with flexibility.

For more information about how Cambridge writing is marked, check out the different scales here .

If you’re looking to improve your writing for the Cambridge Advanced exam, consider our book Cambridge Advanced Writing Plus .

Linking words examples

There are so many transition words you can use in your writing, but having a ridiculously long list isn’t the best option in this case (and I’m normally a big fan of lists). When I teach writing, I tend to focus on a selection of common and useful linking words. These can be associated with their purpose. Words similar to and are used to add additional information. Words similar to but are used to contrast ideas. Words similar to so provide result and those similar to because develop reason.

in spite of
on the other hand
as a result
due to

This list is not exhaustive, but it’s enough for 90% of learners who are using linking words in English. These are good cohesive devices for an essay, a formal letter or a report. They can be used in a wide range of styles and contexts. Keep in mind that linking words and phrases are also a strong indication of formality in a text, but they aren’t the only factor.

The other essential factor to consider with linkers is how to use them in a sentence. Different ones need different grammatical structures surrounding them. This is what the activity below focusses on in detail.

The materials

There is little doubt that any exam preparation course will include a lesson on producing cohesive writing. These materials associate complex linkers with simple comparison words before putting them to use. We’ll consider both the meaning and the use of linking words and phrases. The topic focuses on money and wealth, which can pop up anywhere from B1 level onwards. Use them to improve writing skills, especially in formal writings like essays, reports and proposals.

EXAM PART : Writing

EXAM SKILLS : Using cohesive devices to improve organisation

TOPIC: Money

TIME: 60 minutes

PREPARATION: One copy of the worksheet per student

linking words examples linking words activities

  • C2 Academic and Exam Information


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  • Writing in English with connectors (Par...

Writing in English with connectors (Part 2 of 4): adding information and examples. Level B2 and C1.

This article will help you with FCE, CAE, IELTS and TOEFL.

Your essay has a good basic structure with 3 arguments supporting your opinion. How do you fill the paragraphs with more sentences? You want to use connectors to add information. Consider again the typical question:

“Should people use more public transport instead of private cars?”

In your answer, your first point could be that public transport is more environmentally friendly, but you want to make the point more interesting with extra information and an example, perhaps from your personal experience. So, your first paragraph could be:

“I believe that people should use public transport more often.

Firstly, public transport is better for the environment. If more of us take a train, the CO2 emissions per person will be lower than if each of us drives separately. IN ADDITION, congestion will be lower because of fewer cars on the road. FOR EXAMPLE, ambulances will be able to drive faster to take patients to hospitals in emergencies.”

Using “in addition” and “for example”, we have crated a full paragraph from a single sentence. Now, the first paragraph has 60 words. Not bad!

What other connectors can we use when we want to add extra information and examples? Let us look at some alternatives.

To add information:

In addition,


What is more,

To give examples:

For example,

For instance,

In my case,

In my experience,

Knowing a few alternatives means that you don’t have to repeat the same connectors in each paragraph. You can vary the connectors you use, showing a good range of vocabulary and making your essay more interesting. Also, these alternatives can come up in the Use of English section of the exam, so you can get that extra point in grammar, too!

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Linking Words: List of Sentence Connectors in English with Examples!

Struggling to connect ideas? ‘Connectors in English’ have your back. Connect, express, and impress – all with Connectors in English!

Connectors Definition




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Through sentences we tell other people what we think, feel, or what we want to do . In order to relate those thoughts we string together words into groups. These finally relate our message to other people and the world.


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Cómo escribir un Essay para el C1 Advanced (CAE) [Guía 2023]

Luis @ kse academy.

  • diciembre 16, 2022

Como seguro que ya sabes, los exámenes de Cambridge tienen varias partes (Reading, Writing, Use of English, Speaking y Listening), y cada uno de estos components se divide en diferentes partes. En este artículo me quiero centrar en el Writing Part 1 del C1 Advanced, es decir, en cómo escribir un Essay para el CAE . Y es que la parte 1 del Writing del C1 siempre será un essay.  🙂

Respuesta de ejemplo de C1 Essay

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¡Nueva guía de Writing C1!

  • 3 Ejemplos de cada tipo de Writing
  • Essay, Review, Formal and Informal Email and Letter, Report y Proposal
  • 500+ expresiones útiles listas para utilizar
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  • Descripción completa del examen de Writing del CAE
  • Descripción detallada de cada parte
  • Criterios de corrección y preguntas frecuentes (FAQ)

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¿Qué partes tiene el Writing del CAE?

El Writing del C1 Advanced (CAE), como ya vimos en otro artículo, tiene 2 partes , y para cada una de ella tendrás que escribir un texto según las instrucciones del ejercicio. Lo que debes saber es que existe una serie limitada de tipos de textos que te pueden preguntar en cada parte, así que veamos: 

  • Writing Part 1: En esta parte siempre tendrás que escribir un ensayo ( essay ), y no tendrás más opciones para elegir. Por eso es realmente importante que prestes atención a este artículo y aprendas a escribir un ensayo para el C1 Advanced lo mejor posible. 
  • Formal letter/email
  • Informal letter/email
  • Review 
  • Proposal 

Cada writing que haga deberá tener entre 220 y 260 palabras, aproximadamente, y, al tratarse de diferentes tipos de escrito, deberás tener en cuenta las peculiaridades de cada uno en cuanto a estructura, registro, gramática y vocabulario, etc. 

Así que comencemos con el que nos atañe en este artículo: Essays ! 

¿Qué es un essay ?

Un Essay , en español «ensayo», es un texto de opinión en el que analizamos un tema, una situación o un problema desde diferentes puntos de vista o considerando varios puntos o soluciones al problema. En los diferentes párrafos, tratamos cada uno de ellos y expresamos diferentes hechos, consideraciones y opiniones. 

Ahora que ya sabemos lo que es un ensayo, pasemos a ver cómo escribir uno y sus características. 

Cómo escribir un Essay para el CAE Writing

A continuación te explico las características principales de un Essay de nivel C1 para que las tengas bien presentes a la hora de escribir: 

  • Propósito: Con un ensayo, lo que hacemos es evaluar un tema, una situación o un problema que es de cierto interés o controversia (Ej.: el uso de móviles en adolescentes ). A menudo, la actividad de Writing se plantea como una actividad que tiene lugar después de un debate en clase. En un examen, tendrás que imaginar el debate por ti mismo.
  • Tono y registro: Al tratarse de un texto que versa sobre un tema serio o controvertido, el Essay siempre es un escrito que se da en un contexto formal, por lo que debemos utilizar un tono objetivo. Además, el registro lingüístico siempre debe ser formal, evitando palabras comunes como things, stuff, get, etc.; contracciones ( can’t, don’t, won’t, etc.); o expresiones que puedan sonar informales. 
  • Estructura: Como todos los Writings, un ensayo tiene una estructura bastante definida, aunque no 100% fija e inamovible. Para empezar, podemos elegir darle un título o no, pero, personalmente, a mí me parece más adecuado escribir un Essay con título. ¿Has visto alguna vez un texto publicado sin título? Seguramente no.  En cuanto al cuerpo del texto, debe estar dividido en los siguientes párrafos: introducción, punto 1, punto 2 y conclusión. Es decir, en general, un Essay para el C1 de Cambridge debe tener 4-5 párrafos.
  • Opinión: Aquí es donde más libertad tenemos a la hora de escribir un ensayo para el C1. Existen muchas formas de expresar nuestra opinión en un Essay , por lo que debes elegir la que mejor se ajuste al planteamiento de tu Writing. Lo que yo suelo recomendar es, sin embargo, que te mantengas imparcial durante todo el texto y expresar tu opinión únicamente al final, en el último párrafo, a modo de conclusión. Como siempre, lo más importante es que justifiques todo lo que dices en el escrito y que tu conclusión responda a la pregunta principal de la tarea.
  • Coherencia y progresión: La coherencia es fundamental en todos los Writings, pero especialmente en el ensayo. Al tratarse de un texto justificativo y argumentativo, no se pueden escribir oraciones y párrafos inconexos; las ideas deben seguir un orden lógico y bien conectado, utilizando conectores apropiados al nivel C1, en este caso. Además, el lector debe percibir una progresión lógica de los párrafos, sin perder el hilo de lo que estás tratando de argumentar. Si no, cuando llegue al último párrafo no va a saber de qué estás hablando y nuestro Writing habrá fracasado catastróficamente. 

Ejemplo de CAE Writing Essay

Ahora que ya estamos familiarizados con las características principales de un essay para el Advanced (CAE) Writing de Cambridge, vamos a ver un ejemplo de essay a nivel C1, tanto las instrucciones de ejemplo como una posible respuesta.

Instrucciones de un Essay C1

En la siguiente imagen puedes ver un ejemplo obtenido de la página web de Cambridge.

essay connectors c1

De estas instrucciones, debemos extraer siempre lo esencial: 

  • Temática: facilities which should receive money from local authorities
  • sports centres
  • public gardens
  • «Museums aren’t popular with everybody!»
  • «Sports centres mean healthier people.»
  • «A town needs green spaces – parks are great for everybody.»
  • Tratar únicamente 2 de los 3 puntos que nos han dado. 
  • Responder y justificar la pregunta principal (“ which facility it is more important for local authorities to give money to ”)
  • Justificar nuestra respuesta (“ giving reasons in support of your answer ”)
  • Usar tus propias palabras (“ user your own words as far as possible ”)

Según el modelo de tarea planteado arriba, podemos plantear el escrito de la siguiente forma: 

  • Introducción
  • Punto 1 (museums)
  • Punto 2 (sports centres)

Aunque no está set in stone , lo normal es que nos salgan 4 párrafos. Así que ahora vamos a ver un ejemplo Essay para el Writing del CAE: 

A simple vista, podemos ver que este Essay para C1 tiene un título introductorio y 4 párrafos ( introduction, museums, sports, conclusion ). Además, si leemos detenidamente el texto, podremos apreciar los siguientes aspectos: 

  • Título: El título resume perfectamente al lector la temática que vamos a tratar en el texto. A veces, puede ser buena idea un título en forma de pregunta como “ Which facilities should receive funding from local authorities? ”, aunque yo prefiero siempre títulos más concisos. 
  • Introduction : introduce el tema de forma general y menciona las dos opciones que vamos a tratar en los siguientes párrafos. 
  • Museums : Habla de los beneficios de los museos y de invertir dinero en ellos. 
  • Sports centres : Habla de los beneficios de los centros deportivos y de las consecuencias de invertir dinero en ellos. 
  • Conclusion : De forma muy clara, se valora que los museos deben ser los que reciban la inversión por ciertos motivos que quedan bien justificados. 
  • Conectores: Se utilizan conectores que definen claramente la coherencia y progresión del texto: on the one/other hand, in addition, ultimately, however, while, etc. 
  • No utilizamos contracciones ni palabras comodín.
  • When it comes to
  • comes to mind
  • valuable cultural resource
  • heritage 
  • generating income
  • engage in physical activity
  • positive outlet for energy
  • La gramática es avanzada también (Ej.: Not only can…, but they also… )

En definitiva, se trata de un buen ejemplo de Essay para el CAE Writing. Hay que tener en cuenta, sin embargo, que este writing está escrito para simular un nivel C1, quizás sin adentrarnos en un nivel C2, necesariamente.

¿Me penalizan si escribo menos de 220 o más de 260 palabras?

Esta es la pregunta más típica en esta parte del examen y la respuesta es la siguiente: sí y no. Me explico. Los correctores no cuentan las palabras y te penalizan en función del número de palabras sola y exclusivamente. Corre el rumor entre los alumnos y profesores de que por cada 10 palabras te quitan puntos, pero eso no es cierto. Ahora bien, piensa que si te has pasado en 50 o 100 palabras, o más, probablemente estés metiendo información poco relevante a la tarea, y eso sí que es penalizable. Del mismo modo que si escribes menos de 220 probablemente te falte información importante o no la estés cubriendo con el detalle que se te pide.

Por ello, yo siempre recomiendo pasarse como mucho unas 20 palabras. De ese modo no perderás puntos si la tarea cubre los puntos que se te piden. 🙂

Guía para el C1 Advanced Writing con ejemplos y expresiones útiles

Aunque voy a publicar más artículos explicando cómo hacer cada tipo de tarea para el C1 Advanced, lo mejor que puedes hacer para tener información y práctica de sobra es adquirir la guía oficial de KSE Academy para el Writing del CAE. En esta guía encontrarás lo siguiente:

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Espero que este artículo sobre el C1 Writing Essay te haya resultado muy útil. En ese caso, no olvides compartirlo con tus amigos y familiares.

Nos vemos en el próximo post. Hasta entonces, don’t forget to keep smiling ! 🙂

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9 comentarios en “Cómo escribir un Essay para el C1 Advanced (CAE) [Guía 2023]”

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Excellent material! I will be going deeply. I am from Ecuador and I need to do the B2 examination maybe in June to apply for a job as a public teacher here, now I am finishing my degree as a licensed. I will also trt to do a masters. Best, Ma. del Carmen Luzuriaga

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Thank you for your comment, Maria del Carmen. Wish you all the best! 🙂

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¿Sería bueno utilizar también phrasal verbs en nuestra essay?

Hola, Cristina. En principio, no hay problema por utilizar phrasal verbs, siempre que se ajusten a la temática y suenen naturales en el contexto y el tono que estés utilizando. Es decir, a priori, no hay problema, pero puede que algún que otro phrasal verb, según el contexto, puede sonar más informal de la cuenta. Pero depende. Si tienes algún ejemplo específico, no dudes en comentarlo por aquí. 🙂

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«no hay problema si el candidato se extiende, a lo mucho, por 10-20 palabras», esto, suponiendo que el test sea ‘paper based’, pero, cuando se trata de ‘computer based’, es distinto, según mi profesor. Por ejemplo, si el máximo de palabras son 220, y un candidato termina su essay con esta frase: «However, taking into considerations the previous reasons, itwould be a clear determination to a positive natural reinforcement.»

Pero, suponiendo que la palabra 220 sea «previous», el sistema sólo contará o tomará en cuenta hasta esa palabra para el examinador, por lo que podría penalizar al candidato ya que la idea no está completa o finalizada. ¿Es cierto?

Hola, Moisés. No existe distinción entre la manera de evaluar un examen a papel y otro a ordenador. La única diferencia es que a papel tienes que contar las palabras manualmente (si quieres) mientras que a ordenador tienes un «word count» que va incrementando a medida que escribes. Pero los examinadores no tienen el número de palabras en cuenta. Es más, probablemente ellos no reciben ese recuento de palabras que tienes tú delante al hacerlo a ordenador (aunque esto es teoría mía). Lo que sí es cierto al 100%, repito, es que ellos NO PENALIZAN EN FUNCIÓN DEL NÚMERO DE PALABRAS, ni a ordenador ni a papel. No sé de dónde ha sacado esa conclusión tu profesor. Y no, «el sistema» (como dices) no corta tu writing después de la palabra 220, no te preocupes. Si lo hiciera, simplemente no te dejaría escribir más de 220, y no es el caso. Esos números de límites de palabras son ORIENTATIVOS, nada más, para darte una idea de en qué longitud deberías ser capaz de escribir lo que se te pide en la tarea. Si tienes alguna otra pregunta, simplemente responde a este comentario. Un saludo!

ooh, ya veo. Es que así le he inculcado a mis alumnos sobre el límite de palabras porque así me lo enseñaron a mí, y he visto cómo sufren porque a veces se pasan y tienen que reorganizar todo, o al eliminar 2-3 palabras les quita el orden a la oración o párrafo y han tenido que modificar. Esto de que pueden extenderse a lo mucho 10-15 palabras más lo desconocía. Muchísimas gracias.

Hola, Moisés. Efectivamente, lo del límite de palabras es más bulo que otra cosa. Cambridge te da un rango orientativo en plan: escribiendo entre X e Y deberías poder escribir lo que te estamos pidiendo. Y no corrigen basándose en el número de palabras. No penaliza como tal. Pero sí que es cierto, como digo en el artículo, que si ellos te dicen 220-260 y tú escribes alrededor de 360… pues SEGURO que estás incluyendo más información de la cuenta que probablemente sea redundante o no relevante, y ESO SÍ QUE ES PENALIZABLE. De igual modo, si haces el writing en 150 palabras, probablemente no estés cubriendo todo lo que se te pide con la profundidad adecuada, y eso también es penalizable. Yo por eso a mis alumnos, por ponerles un límite, les doy de margen aproximadamente 20 palabras, pero eso es una indicación mía y siempre les explico que es para que se acostumbren a hacerlo en una longitud igual o similar a la que se les solicita, pero que el número de palabras como tal no penaliza. Espero haberte aclarado esta duda. Un saludo!

sí, realmente bastante aclarada, ¡muchísimas gracias!

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Los mejores conectores para el C1 de inglés

Los conectores harán mejorar drásticamente tu nivel comunicativo en el inglés , tanto escrito como oral. Te traemos la recopilación de los mejores conectores para el C1 de inglés. 

Conocer estos conectores específicos de un nivel de inglés C1 te ayudará a afrontar tu examen , no solo en el writing o speaking donde utilizarlo puede significar sumar una mayor puntuación, sino también a la hora de entender los contenidos de las partes de listening y reading.

Si además de conocer los diferentes conectores quieres preparar tu examen de C1 con garantías, echa un vistazo a nuestro   curso de C1 de inglés online que incluye una preparación totalmente individualizada.

Conectores de orden para el C1 de inglés

Con carácter de orden usamos los siguientes conectores. Encabezando la oración, abriendo el primer párrafo o idea podemos encontrar los siguientes conectores:

  • At first sight : a primera vista.
  • First : en primer lugar.
  • First of all : antes que nada.
  • In the first place : en primer lugar.
  • To start with : para empezar.

Para próximos párrafos tenemos :

  • In the second place : en segundo lugar.
  • Second : segundo.
  • Secondly : en segundo lugar.
  • Third : tercero.
  • Thirdly : en tercer lugar.

Como conclusión, para finalizar y llegar al final de un discurso , podemos usar los siguientes conectores:

  • Finally : por último.
  • In conclusion : para concluir.
  • Lastly : por último.
  • And eventually : y finalmente.

Conectores para el uso de hechos expresivos

  • Actually : en realidad.
  • As a matter of fact : de hecho.
  • In fact : de hecho.
  • As far as I am concerned : por lo que a mí respecta.
  • From my point of view : desde mi punto de vista.
  • I agree : estoy de acuerdo.
  • I disagree : no estoy de acuerdo.
  • In my opinion : en mi opinión.
  • In my view : según lo veo.
  • I think that : creo que.
  • It is true that : es verdad que.
  • Personally : personalmente.
  • To be honest : para ser honesto.
  • To tell the truth : a decir verdad.

Conectores de explicación

En el caso de tener que dar explicaciones, los conectores que se utilizan son:

  • In other words : en otras palabras.
  • In short : en resumen.
  • Above all : sobre todo.
  • All in all : en general.
  • At least : al menos.
  • Basically : básicamente, fundamentalmente.
  • Especially : especialmente, sobre todo.
  • Essentially : esencialmente.
  • In general : en general.
  • In particular : en particular.
  • More or less : más o menos.
  • On the whole : en general.
  • To a certain extent : hasta cierto punto.

Conectores de adición

  • Moreover : además.
  • Furthermore : además.
  • in addition : además.
  • Besides : además.
  • what’s more : es más.
  • Likewise : asimismo.
  • as well : también.
  • in addition to : además de

Conectores de contraste

  • However : sin embargo.
  • Nevertheless : no obstante.
  • Nonetheless : no obstante. 
  • even so : aun así.
  • otherwise : de otra manera.
  • on the contrary : al contrario.
  • whereas : mientras que.
  • unlike : diferente a.
  • Although, (even) though : se usa para formar la siguiente estructura, aunque +subordinada.
  • In spite of, despite : a pesar, y se usa delante de un sustantivo o de un gerundio.
  • On the one hand , on the other hand: estas expresiones significan, por un lado. Sirven para abrir oraciones y hablar o remarcar distintas partes en un discurso.
  • In contrast to, contrary to, by contrast : de nuevo, estas expresiones sirven para contrastar información.
  • Still, yet : las usamos con el significado de todavía.

Conectores de causa

  • Because of : a causa de.
  • on account of : a causa de.
  • owing to : a causa de.
  • due to (the fact) : debido a (el hecho).
  • in order to : con el fin de.
  • given that : dado que.

Conectores de enumeración

  • For instance : por ejemplo
  • such as : como
  • namely : a saber
  • this means that :
  • that is to say : estos conectores sirven para poner ejemplos en un discurso; son los que introducen, generalmente, enumeración de cosas o casos para explicar mejor.
  • Such + adjetivo + sustantivo : tal, tal como.
  • Rather, quite, pretty : bastante.
  • Highly : extremadamente.
  • By any chance : por casualidad.
  • Might : puede que.
  • Perhaps : quizá.
  • Possibly : posiblemente.
  • To be (un)likely to : es probable que.
  • There is a high likelihood : hay una probabilidad alta.
  • I stand a chance : apuesto a que.

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How to write a formal Letter/Email ? | C1 Advanced (CAE)

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Practice tests online.

Writing paper will require a response which is consistently appropriate for the specified target reader , and for example, you can expect to be asked to write different kinds of letters. Moreover, their register and style can be formal or informal .

What is the formal style of writing?

The main characteristics of a formal writing style are:

  • A more complex structure. Formal writing often uses longer sentences. In formal writing, you will also see a more structured approach generally, with points clearly introduced, explained and concluded.
  • An objective approach.  Main points are usually stated and then supported with arguments. Formal writing is less likely to be emotional in style.
  • Writing in the third person.  Formal writing is not a personal writing style. The writer often aims to sound dispassionate about the topic.

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Me, myself, I Everybody likes to talk about themselves, but when (for example) you’re reviewing a film, y ou should be talking about the film and not about yourself.

The informal you The way the word you is used in informal speech ‘You should have seen it!’ ‘if you know what I mean’   is not appropriate in formal writing. The word you point a finger at the reader. But the readers are not friends of yours, and you have no right to make assumptions about them.

C1 Advanced (CAE) Formal Letter/Email: Structure

Dear Sir or Madam, Dear Mr Jenkins
The reason why you’re writing this letter / the topic

Organise all the essential information in a clear and logical way.
Specify the action the recipient should take
– sign off with:

Practice, Write & Improve

C1 advanced (cae) formal letter/email: writing guide, before you start….

Read the task carefully and then… You need to underline all the content points and consider the following:

  • Why are you are writing the letter/email? To correct information, to apply for a job, to complain about something…
  • Who is the target reader? You may have to write to the editor of a publication, to a potential employer, to a university administrator…
  • Which language/register would be appropriate to reach my goal? Is there enough specific detail in my letter/email to convince the target reader?

  The CAE test does not require you to include dates or addresses in any of your letters, whether formal or informal.

1. Salutation

If you do not know the name of the person you are writing to, use this. It is always advisable to try to find out a name.

Dear Sir or Madam

If you know the name, use the title (Mr, Mrs, Miss or Ms, Dr, etc.) and the surname only. If you are writing to a woman and do not know if she uses Mrs or Miss , you can use Ms , which is for married and single women.

Dear Mr Jenkins

Dear Editor

2. The first paragraph (opening)

The first paragraph of formal letters should include an introduction to the purpose of the letter. The summary of the letter can be found and the intentions which will be displayed through the rest of the letter should be outlined.

Example 1: I am writing in response to the advert I saw in the newspaper seeking people to work as tour guides. I think I would make a very good tour guide and I wish to apply for the job.

Example 2: I am writing about a recent incident in your shop in which I had the misfortune to be involved in. The incident I refer to is when one of your staff stopped me and accused me of shoplifting. 

3. The next paragraphs (main content)

The second and following paragraphs should provide the main information of the letter, and describe the main purpose mentioned in the introductory first paragraph .  Most letters in English are not very long, so keep the information to the essentials and concentrate on organising it in a clear and logical manner rather than expanding too much.

  • You should always be polite and respectful. A useful way to achieve it especially in formal letters is to use ‘modal verbs’, i.e., would, could or should.
  • It’s important to write simply and clearly . It’s worth noting that you have to avoid using informal language, for instance, avoid contractions (i.e. I’m, it’s, etc.).

Sample paragraph structure:

Paragraph 1: To begin with, I would like to put forward … Paragraph 2: Needless to say, this was …. Paragraph 3: But the thing that impressed me most…

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4. closing and signing off.

Example call to actions:

Example:1   Thank you for your consideration of my suggestions. I look forward to an opportunity to discuss this matter further. Example 2:  If you require further information, please do not hesitate to ask

Closing and signing off:

Yours faithfully –  use it if you don’t know the name of the recipient. Yours sincerely –  use it if you know the name of the recipient.

Let’s sum it up…

TIP: Remember about “ in the letter!

I would like to put forward […]
, …[…]
…. is concerned […]

I have taken part In many activities […] , I have been In the basket-ball team[…]

C1 Advanced (CAE) Formal Letter/Email: Example Letters

Cae example formal letter/email.

You recently had an unpleasant experience when you were shopping in a department store. One of the assistants wrongly accused you of shoplifting. Although you were able to prove that you had paid for the item in question, you received no apology.

Write a letter to the manager of the shop, saying why you are angry and disappointed and asking for some kind of compensation for the way you were treated. Say that you will take further action if you do not receive an official apology.

Model answer

Dear Mr Menton,

I am writing about a recent incident in your shop in which I had the misfortune to be involved in. The incident I refer to is when one of your staff stopped me and accused me of shoplifting in front of about 20 other people. Needless to say, this was an extremely embarrassing situation for me. Thank goodness I had kept the receipt to prove that I had paid for everything on my person at the time, but to be accused of stealing like that in front of all those people – some of whom I knew personally – was very humiliating and degrading. The shop assistant used a very accusatory tone…

But the thing that angered and dismayed me most was not the accusation itself – after all, misunderstandings happen sometimes – but the accuser’s failure to acknowledge his mistake or apologise to me. When I showed him the receipt, he simply walked off mumbling about how ‘shady’ a character I looked. Considering how much embarrassment I was caused, I do not think it was too much to have expected a simple apology either, do you?

Which brings me back to why I am writing; if I cannot get an apology from this assistant, then I would like a formal one from you instead. If an official apology is not forthcoming and I am not compensated in some way – with a shopping voucher for example – then be warned that I will take further steps to ensure that I get justice.

I look forward to hearing from you at the very earliest convenience.

Yours sincerely, Michael Mathers

A student from a business school in an English-speaking country has arranged to spend two months on a work experience programme in your department. Your manager has asked you to write a letter to the student, welcoming him to your company, explaining what he will be expected to do and how he will benefit from this experience.

Write your letter .

Dear Mr Miller 

We are delighted that you have decided to spend two months on a work experience programme in the xxx marketing department. We warmly welcome you  to our company in general and to our department in particular .  

Y ou will be given the unique opportunity to work with a young team launching a  new soft drink. Your work will be as interesting as demanding. You will have  to analyse sever al surveys which  have recently been conducted. Based on the results of your analysis you will have to think about possible target customers . F urther more, you will be asked to develop ideas on how exactly we could  launch our soft drink. You will have to gather though ts about how to run a successful campaign. As this project has not been made public yet, we expect  you not to talk about this project to your friends or family . You will be expected  to work hard and, sometimes, for long hours.

However , you will most certainly learn a lot. Y ou will be given the unique chance to develop a marketing campaign. You will also get used to working with different marketing tools. Furthermore, you will have to learn how to  take advanta ge of a wide va riety of computer programs, which will not only  help you to analy se the surveys conducted but will also assist you in making out possible target customers. This two months work experience programme will  help you to understand the use and impact of marketing tools. We are confident that this experience will go far beyond that what you have learnt at university .

We are looking forward to working with you.  

Y ours sincer ely

Your company would like to offer work-experience placements to students in an international college. Write a letter for publication in the student newspaper at the college.

Your letter should explain what your company does, what kind of work-experience placements are available, and how students would benefit from the experience.

Dear Students,

Are you looking for a work placement that will give you plenty of valuable experience and will look good on your CV? If so, then our company may have something to offer you.

We are an international educational exchange organisation which organises links between schools all over the world. We currently have three work-experience placements available for students from your college. The work would involve a range of office tasks, including dealing with correspondence, arranging meetings and keeping our database up-to-date. We are particularly interested in offering these placements to students with some knowledge of two or more languages.

The placements would be of great benefit to the students who are given this opportunity. It would provide experience of working in a small and dedicated team, which would give you the chance to develop a wider range of office skills than would normally be the case in larger organisations. Our international network means that you would also gain some contacts all over the world, which might be of particular value to any of you considering a career in some aspect of education.

You will find further information about our organisation and the placements we offer on our website and we look forward to hearing from any of you who think that the work might be right for you — and that you might be the right person for one of these placements.

Best wishes to you all, Paula Fisher

C1 Advanced (CAE) Formal Letter/Email: Example Questions

Cae formal letter & email topic 1.

Volunteers needed

We are looking for volunteers to help out at a famous, international sporting event. We’re looking for friendly, respectful people with good language skills, good team skills and a ‘can-do’ attitude. We need people to welcome delegates, provide customer service and solve problems. If you think you have what it takes, apply now.

Write an application to become a volunteer. Mention:

– your language skills – your personal qualities – examples of times when you have demonstrated team skills – any relevant work experience

Now write your letter . You do not need to include any postal addresses

CAE Formal Letter & Email Topic 2

A colleague of yours, Alice Watson, has applied for a job in the public relations department of a large charity. Poverty Action. You have been asked to write a letter providing a character reference for her. Indicate how long and what capacity you have worked with her, and how her personal characteristics would make her suited for her job. Here is part of the letter you received from Poverty Action:

The job of Public Relations Co-ordinator consists mainly of supervising PR work and entails travelling around the country and working with various people in our large organization. The successful applicant will need good managerial skills and be committed to the philosophy of our charity

Write your letter in reply. You do not need to include postal addresses

CEA Formal Letter & Email Topic 3

On a recent holiday, you lost a valuable item. Fortunately, you have travel insurance to cover the cost of anything lost. 

Write a letter to the manager of your insurance company. In your letter:

–  describe the item you lost – explain how lost it – tell the insurance company what you would like them to do.

Write your email in an appropriate style.

More than Practice Tests

C1 advanced (cae) formal letter/email: tips & strategy.

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If you aim to write an official letter, you should:

  • avoid everyday  colloquial language  or  slang
  • avoid contractions ( I’m, it’s )
  • avoid emotional, subjective language  (terrible, rubbish, etc.)
  • avoid general words such as  nice, good, get, etc.

C1 Advanced (CAE) Formal Letter/Email: Writing Checklist

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After writing your text, you can check it yourself using the writing checklist below.

How to do that? Simply check your text/email by answering the questions one by one:

  • Have I covered all the key information required by the task?
  • Have I written only information which is relevant to the task?
  • Have I developed the basic points in the task with my own ideas?

Communicative Achievement

  • Have I achieved the main purpose(s) of the text (for example, explaining, persuading, suggesting, apologising, comparing, etc.)?
  • Have I used a suitable mix of fact and opinion?
  • Have I used a suitable style and register (formal or informal) for the task?


  • Have I used paragraphs appropriately to organise my ideas?
  • Have I used other organisational features appropriately for the genre of the text (for example, titles, headings, openings, closings, etc.)?
  • Is the connection between my ideas clear and easy for the reader to follow? (For example, have I used appropriate linking words, pronouns, etc. to refer to different things within the text?)
  • Are the ideas balanced appropriately, with suitable attention and space given to each one?
  • Have I used a wide range of vocabulary?
  • Have I avoided repeating the same words and phrases?
  • Have I used a range of simple and more complex grammatical structures?
  • Have I correctly used any common phrases which are relevant to the specific task or topic?
  • Is my use of grammar accurate?
  • Is my spelling accurate?

C1 Advanced (CAE) Formal Letter/Email: Useful phrases

Useful phrases for a f ormal letter: (use as set phrases in the exam, don´t experiment with new vocabulary or grammar)

Dear Sir or Madam Dear Mr Jenkins

With regards to the letter/email on… With reference to your letter/email… After having received your letter/email… I received your address from … and would like … Thank you very much for your letter/email on… I have been given your contact details by… and I would like to… In reply to your letter/email of…

Reason for writing

I am writing with regard/reference to …  I am writing to express (my concern about/ disappointment with/disapproval of/apologies for) I would like to draw your attention to/point out …

Referring to their letter 

As you stated in your leter, … Regarding… Concerning … With regard to…


I am wiing to compiain about … You said …but in fact what happened …

Introducing points

(I feel) I must also (dis)agree with … I should also like to point out that … Your (article) states that … However,…

Request for action

I would appreciate it/be grateful if you would … I look forward to receiving/seeing … I trust/very much hope you will …

I hope to hear from you soon… If you require any further information, feel free to contact me Should you require anything else, do not hesitate in contacting me Regards Yours faithfully Yours sincerely (signature)

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Numerical and theoretical studies on axial compression performance of modular steel tubular columns grouped with shear-key connectors.

essay connectors c1

1. Introduction

Click here to enlarge figure

2. Literature Review

[ ]Hajimohammadi et al.2022YesIMC According to the study, VectorBloc’s registration-pin shear-keyed IMC often fails due to thread stripping. It shows thicker lifting plates or coarser threads boost lifting capacity, while loading angles from 0°–45° decrease it.
[ , ]Chen et al.2017YesIMC The tests on the innovative bolted shear-keyed IMC studied static and seismic performance, showing how weld quality, stiffeners, and floor/ceiling beam/column stiffness affect connection performance. Diagonal stiffeners improve lateral bearing and bending stiffness.
[ , , ]Khan et al.2020/2021NoIMC The numerical study revealed that corner, middle, and interior shear-keyed IMCs exhibited semi-rigid connectivity, adequate stiffness, lateral capacity, seismic performance, and ductility. However, it also identified high stresses near shear-key zones, resulting in strong-column and weak-beam responses.
[ ]Pang et al.2016NoIMC Installed modules can prevent the inspection of shear-keyed IMCs. Additionally, if the columns are not cast in concrete or waterproofed, corrosion can become a problem.
[ , ]Dai et al.2020/2021YesIMC Grouted shear-keyed IMCs contribute to axial and bending load resistances, acting as semi-rigid connections in non-sway/braced MSSs.
[ ]Deng et al.2017NoIMC Welded shear-keyed IMCs affect ultimate load and end shortening, with the shear-key length being the most critical factor in compressive loads.
[ ]Zhang et al.2021YesIMC Bolted shear-keyed IMCs improve MSS strength and stiffness and produce stable flag-shaped hysteretic responses with good self-centering in earthquake scenarios.
[ ]Ma et al.2021YesIMC Bolted shear-keyed IMC accomplishes the identical rotation of twin beams; however, the rotational movement of the upper columns is greater than that of the lower columns.
[ ]Nadeem et al.2021NoIMC Self-locking shear-keyed IMCs demonstrated improved initial resistance to lateral and slip stresses, meeting the EC3 and AISC standards for semi-rigid connections and special moment frames in modular construction.
[ , ]Liew et al.2018/2019NoIMC Pretensioned shear-keyed IMCs also offer effective transmission of lateral forces with one bar.
[ ]Chen et al.2017YesIMC After lateral loading, the pre-tensioned shear-keyed IMC frame exhibited self-centering deformation restoration and strength deterioration, mainly due to the loss of modular column bonding or concrete slippage.
[ , ]Sanches et al.2018/2019YesIMC The thickness of the post-tensioned shear-keyed IMC determines its frictional resistance to lateral forces.
[ , ]Lacey et al.2019YesIMC Varying bolt preload and the faying surface slip factor control the slip stress in post-tensioned shear-keyed IMCs. Additionally, preload and sandblasting enhance resistance to slipping and increase load capacity.
[ ]Theofanous et al.2009YesColumn Stainless steel columns under compression have demonstrated conservative Class 3 slenderness limits and effective width equations.
[ ]Tayyebi et al.2021NoColumnPost-production galvanizing reduces residual stress in directly-formed SHS/RHS. Moreover, the effective width and direct strength methods proved conservative according to standards AISC 360-16 [ ], CSA S16-19 [ ], and AISI S100-16 [ ].
[ ]Liu et al.2022YesColumnAccording to stub column compression tests on press-braked Q355 and Q460 columns, EC3 [ ], ANSI/AISC 360-16 [ ], and the direct strength technique have unconservative slenderness limits for classifications between Class 1–3 (Non-slender) and Class 4 (Slender) sections.
[ ]Rahnavard et al.2021NoColumn The compression investigation revealed that the Effective Width and Direct Strength methods were not conservative for cold-formed, built-up sections with connecting plates and a single row of fasteners.
[ ]Liu et al.2003YesColumn A reliability analysis recommends that fixed-end cold-formed stainless steel SHS columns be designed according to the Australian/New Zealand Standard, which proves marginally more reliable than the American/European requirements.
[ , , ]Yan et al.2021/2022YesColumnLow-temperature compression studies on stainless steel stub tubular columns demonstrate that while strength increases, ductility decreases. Additionally, the prediction formulas from AISC360 [ ], EC3 [ ], and GB50017 [ ] codes are found to be conservative.
[ ]Huang et al.2021NoColumn Existing design requirements can predict strengths, but the Direct Strength technique and the European Code are the most accurate and conservative for modeling the compression behavior of cold-formed stainless steel columns at extreme temperatures (24–960 °C).
[ ]Li et al.2022YesColumnImperfections and residual stresses had a lesser impact on the compression of 800 MPa HSS welded box-section columns. GB50017-2017 [ ] overestimated the local buckling load, while AISC360-16 [ ] overestimated, and both GB50017-2017 [ ] and EC3 [ ] underestimated the ultimate load.
[ ]Wang et al.2017YesColumnHSS sections met ductility criteria during compression testing; however, higher-strength materials may not achieve satisfactory ultimate-to-yield strain ratios. Furthermore, the current Class 3 EC3 [ ] slenderness limitations for internal elements under compression and the Class 4 effective width formula were called into question.
[ ]Huan et al.2013YesColumn The compression investigation found that steel-bar stiffeners delay local buckling, increase load-bearing capacity, and reduce ductility in square, thin-walled CFST columns. Additionally, while higher cross-section area ratios decrease deformation capacity, using steel bars as stiffeners and spot welding can reinforce columns cost-effectively.
[ ]Guo et al.2007NoColumn This compression study examines the effects of depth-to-thickness ratios on stub composite columns and proposes a novel equation for steel area computation and buckling bearing capacity. It was found that concrete-filled tubes bear loads more effectively than hollow steel tubes.
[ ]Key et al.1998YesColumn Compressive tests on cold-formed SHS columns indicated higher yield strength, reduced ductility, and outer tensile and inner compressive residual stresses. While these tests verified AISI’s criteria for slenderness limit, post-ultimate ductility, and unloading behavior, they did not confirm the predicted ultimate loads.
[ , , ]Khan et al.2022YesWallsGlobal and local buckling, particularly in mid-column, was observed in MSS compression studies on planar and C-shaped SHS walls, where sidewalls restrained corner columns. Regarding safety and accuracy in predicting ultimate resistance, GB50017 [ ] was the safest, EC3:1-1 [ ] was the least secure, and AISC360 [ ] was the most accurate.
[ ]Xu et al.2020YesBeams/IMC The mechanical behavior of laminated unequal channel beams in MSSs was examined, revealing that interfacial connections dramatically affected flexural failure modes and significantly increased loading capacities and stiffness.
[ ]Sharafi et al.2018YesIMC Dynamic analysis under intense loads revealed that integral interlocking connections among modules simplify building processes, reduce force requirements, and enhance the integrity and stability of multi-story MSSs.
[ ]Choi et al.2016NoIMC Grouped components and connection behavior vary in lateral stiffness and strength, which results in different load-carrying mechanisms in 3- and 5-story MSSs compared to TSSs. The assumption that components are entirely composite and that unit-module connections are fixed can lead to overestimations.
[ ]Ma et al.2021YesBeams/IMC Bending experiments demonstrated that fully bolted shear-keyed IMCs enhance stability and seismic resistance by integrating both top and bottom unit beams and left and right columns.
[ ]Xu et al.2022YesBeams/IMC The study tested laminated channel beams in MSSs under lateral loads, finding that larger ceiling beams and bolt connections enhanced bending performance. Additionally, interfacial sliding altered the load distribution and failure modes.
[ ]Li et al.2023YesTubes This study introduces a novel concept of a Diameter-Adjustable Mandrel designed to enhance metal tube bending processes. Accommodating tubes within a specific diameter range improves forming quality and reduces manufacturing complexity.
[ ]Wang et al.2023NoTubes This paper introduces a novel Bo-LSTM-based approach that effectively forecasts the cross-sectional characteristics of metal tube bending segments. Incorporating Bayesian optimization for hyper-parameter selection, this method surpasses previous approaches in accuracy and efficiency.
[ ]Yang et al.2023NoJoints/dampers This research introduces a unique displacement-amplified mild steel bar joint damper to enhance energy dissipation during small earthquakes. This damper efficiently absorbs and dissipates energy by leveraging the lever principle to amplify node displacements.
[ ]Liang et al.2023NoJoints This research presents a steel–aluminum composite sandwich structure to minimize energy consumption in power presses. By adopting a lightweight design for the slider, this structure achieves an 18.9% reduction in mass and a 6.1% decrease in energy consumption compared to traditional steel sliders.
[ ]Wei et al.2023YesColumns/Composite This study utilizes pseudo-dynamic testing to evaluate the seismic performance of concrete-filled steel tubular composite columns reinforced with ultra-high-performance concrete plates. The results indicate that ground motion characteristics significantly influence the seismic response of these structures.
[ ]Chen et al.2023NoSlider A slider featuring a steel–aluminum composite bionic sandwich structure has been developed, achieving an 18.6% reduction in mass and a 6.1% increase in energy efficiency.
[ ]Chen et al.2019NoColumn/IMC The research found that shear keys and gusset plates effectively address internal tying problems. However, to adequately account for buckling behavior, it is essential to consider factors such as rotational capacity, shear-key length, and IMC stiffness in horizontal and vertical directions.
[ ]Khan et al.2023YesFrame/IMC The study examines the impact of beam-to-column connection stiffness on sway modular interior frames, presenting buckling load models that demonstrate increased accuracy. It shows that considering the stiffness of the IMCs results in more precise buckling load predictions than those assuming pinned IMCs.

3. Development of Modular Steel Tubular Columns Grouped with Shear-Keyed IMCs

3.1. design of columns, 3.2. column geometry, 4. experimental studies on shs column compression behaviors, 4.1. testing details, 4.2. testing outcomes, 5. establishment of a nonlinear finite element model, 5.1. general, 5.2. finite element model, 5.3. boundary, loading, interactions, and geometric imperfections, 5.4. element types and mesh sizes, 5.5. material simulation, 5.6. validations, 6. parametric studies on modular steel columns grouped with shear-keyed imcs, 6.1. parametric study, 6.2. column design, 7. numerical analysis results analysis and discussions on modular steel columns grouped with shear-keyed imcs, 7.1. typical deformed modes, 7.2. typical column capacity behavior, 7.3. variations in axial compression behavior due to structural parameters, 7.3.1. impact of shear-key dimensions, 7.3.2. impact of tubes dimensions, 7.3.3. interplay between tube and shear-key dimensions, 7.3.4. impact of varying tube quantities, 8. conventional methods and new approaches in the design of modular steel tubular columns grouped with shear-keyed imcs, 8.1. conventional methods, 8.1.1. the li et al. buckling design model, 8.1.2. indian standard, 8.1.3. new zealand standard, 8.1.4. canadian standard, 8.1.5. european standard, 8.1.6. american standard, 8.1.7. chinese standard, 8.2. newly proposed approach: force transmission model, 8.3. validation, 9. conclusions.

  • The FEMs closely matched the experimental results, maintaining over- and underestimation errors within 20%, and accurately predicted both the failure modes and ultimate compression resistance of 28 cold-formed and hot-rolled tubes and multi-column walls, with a mean (Cov) for ultimate capacity at 1.00 (0.05).
  • The generalized load-shortening behavior of modular steel grouped columns transitions through linear, nonlinear parabolic, and recession phases, ceasing load resistance upon reaching ultimate compressive strength, often marked by local buckling. A recession phase indicates a reduction in capacity alongside increased local buckling. Regions of the columns demonstrate either elastic or plastic buckling based on the stress being below or above the yield strength.
  • Some sections of shear-keyed grouped columns do not yield; however, yielding occurred in most locations. Failures predominantly result from local buckling near shear keys or at the column’s mid-height in regions that are either yielding, not yielding, or a combination, showcasing elastic, plastic, or both types of local buckling. Elastic buckling results in either inward or outward deformation, whereas plastic buckling leads to an S-shaped waveform consistent across opposing sides but varying on adjacent sides. Adjacent tubes might buckle symmetrically or asymmetrically, with symmetrical buckling creating a double S-shaped pattern with bulged-out sections on the inner sides.
  • Enhancements in the dimensions of shear keys (both thickness and height), tube dimensions (thickness and the ratio of length to width), and the number of tubes (increasing from 2 to 3 and then to 4) significantly enhance the compressive behavior of shear-keyed grouped columns by boosting both their strength and initial stiffness. The strength of columns grouped in threes and fours increases by factors of 1.6 and 2.1, respectively. On the contrary, the mutual effect between tubes and shear keys, such as an increasing gap between them, leads to a reduction in both strength and stiffness when the gap widens from 0 to 6 mm. Similarly, a gap between tubes initially contributes to an increase in strength and stiffness up to a gap of 36 mm but then leads to a decrease beyond a 50 mm gap. While shear-key dimensions notably affect failure modes, other factors exert less influence, and there is a weak correlation between pre- and post-ultimate ductility and these variables.
  • Predictions based on the current Li et al. model and international standards such as IS800, NZS3404, EN1993-1-1, CSA-S16, AISC360-16, and GB50017 tended to produce non-conservative estimates, with approximately 80, 71, 68, 80, 68, 68, and 83 instances of overestimation, respectively. Conversely, the newly proposed theoretical equations yielded conservative results for 78 FEMs while overestimating 25 outcomes, primarily within a 20% range, achieving 76% conservative accuracy.
  • Modified prediction equations for standards like IS800, NZS3404, EN1993-1-1, CSA-S16, AISC360-16, and GB50017 have yielded conservative predictions for the ultimate capacity of shear-keyed grouped columns, with outcomes of approximately 100, 97, 100, 100, 100, and 103 conservative predictions and only 3, 6, 3, 3, 3, and 0 instances of overestimation, respectively, enhancing conservatism to 97%, 94%, 97%, 97%, 97%, and 100%. These modifications underscore an improvement in the predictive accuracy and reliability of these standards for assessing the ultimate capacity of shear-keyed grouped tubular columns.

10. Future Work

Author contributions, data availability statement, conflicts of interest, abbreviations.

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Sp. #D









S56060320001S75583920988510262120.3221621790.91GB + LB
S66060316001S75583920988510262120.3222322241.03GB + LB
S76060312001S75583920988510262120.3223273620.90GB + LB
S8606038001S75583920988510262120.3224474710.95GB + LB
S98080412001S6797731997319592100.3226726731.00GB + LB
S108080420001S6797731997319592100.3223623810.95GB + LB
S118040416001R7348171998319622130.3221601670.96GB + LB
S128040412001R7348171998319622130.3222372470.96GB + LB
S13804048001R7348171998319622130.3223673601.02GB + LB
Sp. #a






Sp. #D






S168080328155S4415212060.326128712541.03GB + LB
S178080528155S4034802060.326182917351.05GB + LB
S1810080328155R4255062060.326149514071.06GB + LB
S1914080428155R3915222060.326222221011.06GB + LB
S2014080628155R3595092060.326281227041.04GB + LB
S2116080528155R4034802060.326302727671.09GB + LB
S22200801028155R3655002060.326480551050.94GB + LB
S23100803281511R4255062060.326320831541.02GB + LB
S24160805281511R4034802060.326637360281.06GB + LB
Sp. #D = B
t /t
d = b



FEMConstraintInteractionImperfectionFE UsedElements of FEM (#)No. of FEM
Mesh/Nodes of the Column (#)Column Mesh Size
S1FixedS-NCt /100 (L)S4R570057765700/57763 × 3 × 3
S2FixedS-NCt /100 (L)S4R800480968004/80964 × 4 × 4
S3FixedS-NCt /100 (L)S4R390639683906/39684 × 4 × 4
S4FixedS-NCt /100 (L)S4R10,71210,81610,712/104 × 4 × 4
S5PinnedS-NCt /100 (L) and L /1500 (G)S4R53,28053,36053,280/53,3603 × 3 × 3
S6PinnedS-NCt /100 (L) and L /1500 (G)S4R42,72042,80042,720/42,8003 × 3 × 3
S7PinnedS-NCt /100 (L) and L /1500 (G)S4R32,00032,08032,000/32,0803 × 3 × 3
S8PinnedS-NCt /100 (L) and L /1500 (G)S4R21,28021,36021,280/21,3604 × 4 × 4
S9PinnedS-NCt /100 (L) and L /1500 (G)S4R26,40026,48826,400/26,4884 × 4 × 4
S10PinnedS-NCt /100 (L) and L /1500 (G)S4R44,00044,08844,000/44,0884 × 4 × 4
S11PinnedS-NCt /100 (L) and L /1500 (G)S4R24,00024,06024,000/24,0604 × 4 × 4
S12PinnedS-NCt /100 (L) and L /1500 (G)S4R18,00018,06018,000/18,0604 × 4 × 4
S13PinnedS-NCt /100 (L) and L /1500 (G)S4R12,00012,06012,000/12,0604 × 4 × 4
S14PinnedS-NCt /100 (L) and L /1500 (G)S4R19,36019,52019,360/19,5202 × 2 × 2
S15PinnedS-NCt /100 (L) and L /1500 (G)S4R856086678560/86673 × 3 × 3
S16PinnedS-STL /600 (L)C3D8R49,62910,30161904/3876Max: 30 × 30 × 3
Min: 30 × 3 × 3
S17PinnedS-STL /600 (L)C3D8R61,38911,61264256/6498Max: 30 × 30 × 5
Min: 30 × 5 × 5
S18PinnedS-STL /600 (L)C3D8R35,84074,9022576/5244Max: 30 × 30 × 3
Min: 30 × 3 × 3
S19PinnedS-STL /600 (L)C3D8R55,07411,37682576/5244Max: 30 × 30 × 4
Min: 30 × 4 × 4
S20PinnedS-STL /600 (L)C3D8R5507411,37682576/5244Max: 30 × 30 × 6
Min: 30 × 6 × 6
S21PinnedS-STL /600 (L)C3D8R55,73311,50482800/5700Max: 30 × 30 × 5
Min: 30 × 5 × 5
S22PinnedS-STL /600 (L)C3D8R74,40412,67314032/7125Max: 30 × 30 × 5
Min: 30 × 5 × 5
S23PinnedS-STL /600 (L)C3D8R53,10011,25582576/5244Max: 30 × 30 × 3
Min: 30 × 3 × 3
S24PinnedS-STL /600 (L)C3D8R57,14812,00822576/5244Max: 30 × 30 × 5
Min: 30 × 5 × 5
S25FixedS-SF5/16t or L /600 (L)C3D8R280258401920/2904Max: 25 × 25 × 8
Min: 25 × 8 × 8
S26FixedS-SF5/16t or L /600 (L)C3D8R340870761920/3904Max: 25 × 25 × 8
Min: 25 × 8 × 8
S27FixedS-SF5/16t or L /600 (L)C3D8R345871681920/3904Max: 25 × 25 × 8
Min: 25 × 8 × 8
S28FixedS-SF5/16t or L /600 (L)C3D8R317065921920/3904Max: 25 × 25 × 8
Min: 25 × 8 × 8






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Share and Cite

Khan, K.; Chen, Z.; Youssef, M.A.; Abbas, D. Numerical and Theoretical Studies on Axial Compression Performance of Modular Steel Tubular Columns Grouped with Shear-Key Connectors. Buildings 2024 , 14 , 2018. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072018

Khan K, Chen Z, Youssef MA, Abbas D. Numerical and Theoretical Studies on Axial Compression Performance of Modular Steel Tubular Columns Grouped with Shear-Key Connectors. Buildings . 2024; 14(7):2018. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072018

Khan, Kashan, Zhihua Chen, Maged A. Youssef, and Danish Abbas. 2024. "Numerical and Theoretical Studies on Axial Compression Performance of Modular Steel Tubular Columns Grouped with Shear-Key Connectors" Buildings 14, no. 7: 2018. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072018

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