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MLA Works Cited: Electronic Sources (Web Publications)
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MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (9 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.
The MLA Handbook highlights principles over prescriptive practices. Essentially, a writer will need to take note of primary elements in every source, such as author, title, etc. and then assort them in a general format. Thus, by using this methodology, a writer will be able to cite any source regardless of whether it’s included in this list.
However, this guide will highlight a few concerns when citing digital sources in MLA style.
Best Practices for Managing Online Sources
Because online information can change or disappear, it is always a good idea to keep personal copies of important electronic information whenever possible. Downloading or even printing key documents ensures you have a stable backup. You can also use the Bookmark function in your web browser in order to build an easy-to-access reference for all of your project's sources (though this will not help you if the information is changed or deleted).
It is also wise to keep a record of when you first consult with each online source. MLA uses the phrase, “Accessed” to denote which date you accessed the web page when available or necessary. It is not required to do so, but it is encouraged (especially when there is no copyright date listed on a website).
Important Note on the Use of URLs in MLA
Include a URL or web address to help readers locate your sources. Because web addresses are not static (i.e., they change often) and because documents sometimes appear in multiple places on the web (e.g., on multiple databases), MLA encourages the use of citing containers such as Youtube, JSTOR, Spotify, or Netflix in order to easily access and verify sources. However, MLA only requires the www. address, so eliminate all https:// when citing URLs.
Many scholarly journal articles found in databases include a DOI (digital object identifier). If a DOI is available, cite the DOI number instead of the URL.
Online newspapers and magazines sometimes include a “permalink,” which is a shortened, stable version of a URL. Look for a “share” or “cite this” button to see if a source includes a permalink. If you can find a permalink, use that instead of a URL.
Abbreviations Commonly Used with Electronic Sources
If page numbers are not available, use par. or pars. to denote paragraph numbers. Use these in place of the p. or pp. abbreviation. Par. would be used for a single paragraph, while pars. would be used for a span of two or more paragraphs.
Basic Style for Citations of Electronic Sources (Including Online Databases)
Here are some common features you should try to find before citing electronic sources in MLA style. Not every web page will provide all of the following information. However, collect as much of the following information as possible:
- Author and/or editor names (if available); last names first.
- "Article name in quotation marks."
- Title of the website, project, or book in italics.
- Any version numbers available, including editions (ed.), revisions, posting dates, volumes (vol.), or issue numbers (no.).
- Publisher information, including the publisher name and publishing date.
- Take note of any page numbers (p. or pp.) or paragraph numbers (par. or pars.).
- DOI (if available, precede it with "https://doi.org/"), otherwise a URL (without the https://) or permalink.
- Date you accessed the material (Date Accessed). While not required, saving this information it is highly recommended, especially when dealing with pages that change frequently or do not have a visible copyright date.
Use the following format:
Author. "Title." Title of container (self contained if book) , Other contributors (translators or editors), Version (edition), Number (vol. and/or no.), Publisher, Publication Date, Location (pages, paragraphs and/or URL, DOI or permalink). 2 nd container’s title , Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location, Date of Access (if applicable).
Citing an Entire Web Site
When citing an entire website, follow the same format as listed above, but include a compiler name if no single author is available.
Author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site. Version number (if available), Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available), DOI (preferred), otherwise include a URL or permalink. Date of access (if applicable).
Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site . Version number, Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available), URL, DOI or permalink. Date of access (if applicable).
The Purdue OWL Family of Sites . The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U, 2008, owl.english.purdue.edu/owl. Accessed 23 Apr. 2008.
Felluga, Dino. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory . Purdue U, 28 Nov. 2003, www.cla.purdue.edu/english/theory/. Accessed 10 May 2006.
Course or Department Websites
Give the instructor name. Then list the title of the course (or the school catalog designation for the course) in italics. Give appropriate department and school names as well, following the course title.
Felluga, Dino. Survey of the Literature of England . Purdue U, Aug. 2006, web.ics.purdue.edu/~felluga/241/241/Home.html. Accessed 31 May 2007.
English Department . Purdue U, 20 Apr. 2009, www.cla.purdue.edu/english/. Accessed 31 May 2015.
A Page on a Web Site
For an individual page on a Web site, list the author or alias if known, followed by an indication of the specific page or article being referenced. Usually, the title of the page or article appears in a header at the top of the page. Follow this with the information covered above for entire Web sites. If the publisher is the same as the website name, only list it once.
Lundman, Susan. “How to Make Vegetarian Chili.” eHow , www.ehow.com/how_10727_make-vegetarian-chili.html. Accessed 6 July 2015.
“ Athlete's Foot - Topic Overview. ” WebMD , 25 Sept. 2014, www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/tc/athletes-foot-topic-overview.
Citations for e-books closely resemble those for physical books. Simply indicate that the book in question is an e-book by putting the term "e-book" in the "version" slot of the MLA template (i.e., after the author, the title of the source, the title of the container, and the names of any other contributors).
Silva, Paul J. How to Write a Lot: A Practical Guide to Productive Academic Writing. E-book, American Psychological Association, 2007.
If the e-book is formatted for a specific reader device or service, you can indicate this by treating this information the same way you would treat a physical book's edition number. Often, this will mean replacing "e-book" with "[App/Service] ed."
Machiavelli, Niccolo. The Prince , translated by W. K. Marriott, Kindle ed., Library of Alexandria, 2018.
Note: The MLA considers the term "e-book" to refer to publications formatted specifically for reading with an e-book reader device (e.g., a Kindle) or a corresponding web application. These e-books will not have URLs or DOIs. If you are citing book content from an ordinary webpage with a URL, use the "A Page on a Web Site" format above.
An Image (Including a Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph)
Provide the artist's name, the work of art italicized, the date of creation, the institution and city where the work is housed. Follow this initial entry with the name of the Website in italics, and the date of access.
Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV . 1800. Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid. Museo Nacional del Prado , www.museodelprado.es/en/the-collection/art-work/the-family-of-carlos-iv/f47898fc-aa1c-48f6-a779-71759e417e74. Accessed 22 May 2006.
Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine . 1922. Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Artchive , www.artchive.com/artchive/K/klee/twittering_machine.jpg.html. Accessed May 2006.
If the work cited is available on the web only, then provide the name of the artist, the title of the work, and then follow the citation format for a website. If the work is posted via a username, use that username for the author.
Adams, Clifton R. “People Relax Beside a Swimming Pool at a Country Estate Near Phoenix, Arizona, 1928.” Found, National Geographic Creative, 2 June 2016, natgeofound.tumblr.com/.
An Article in a Web Magazine
Provide the author name, article name in quotation marks, title of the web magazine in italics, publisher name, publication date, URL, and the date of access.
Bernstein, Mark. “ 10 Tips on Writing the Living Web. ” A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites , 16 Aug. 2002, alistapart.com/article/writeliving. Accessed 4 May 2009.
An Article in an Online Scholarly Journal
For all online scholarly journals, provide the author(s) name(s), the name of the article in quotation marks, the title of the publication in italics, all volume and issue numbers, and the year of publication. Include a DOI if available, otherwise provide a URL or permalink to help readers locate the source.
Article in an Online-only Scholarly Journal
MLA requires a page range for articles that appear in Scholarly Journals. If the journal you are citing appears exclusively in an online format (i.e. there is no corresponding print publication) that does not make use of page numbers, indicate the URL or other location information.
Dolby, Nadine. “Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions and Future Directions.” Social Work and Society: The International Online-Only Journal, vol. 6, no. 2, 2008, www.socwork.net/sws/article/view/60/362. Accessed 20 May 2009.
Article in an Online Scholarly Journal That Also Appears in Print
Cite articles in online scholarly journals that also appear in print as you would a scholarly journal in print, including the page range of the article . Provide the URL and the date of access.
Wheelis, Mark. “ Investigating Disease Outbreaks Under a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. ” Emerging Infectious Diseases , vol. 6, no. 6, 2000, pp. 595-600, wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/6/6/00-0607_article. Accessed 8 Feb. 2009.
An Article from an Online Database (or Other Electronic Subscription Service)
Cite online databases (e.g. LexisNexis, ProQuest, JSTOR, ScienceDirect) and other subscription services as containers. Thus, provide the title of the database italicized before the DOI or URL. If a DOI is not provided, use the URL instead. Provide the date of access if you wish.
Alonso, Alvaro, and Julio A. Camargo. “ Toxicity of Nitrite to Three Species of Freshwater Invertebrates. ” Environmental Toxicology, vol. 21, no. 1, 3 Feb. 2006, pp. 90-94. Wiley Online Library , https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.20155. Accessed 26 May 2009.
Langhamer, Claire. “Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England.” Historical Journal, vol. 50, no. 1, 2007, pp. 173-96. ProQuest , https://doi.org/10.1017/S0018246X06005966. Accessed 27 May 2009.
E-mail (including E-mail Interviews)
Give the author of the message, followed by the subject line in quotation marks. State to whom the message was sent with the phrase, “Received by” and the recipient’s name. Include the date the message was sent. Use standard capitalization.
Kunka, Andrew. “ Re: Modernist Literature. ” Received by John Watts, 15 Nov. 2000.
Neyhart, David. “ Re: Online Tutoring. ” Received by Joe Barbato, 1 Dec. 2016.
A Listserv, Discussion Group, or Blog Posting
Cite web postings as you would a standard web entry. Provide the author of the work, the title of the posting in quotation marks, the web site name in italics, the publisher, and the posting date. Follow with the date of access. Include screen names as author names when author name is not known. If both names are known, place the author’s name in brackets.
Author or compiler name (if available). “Posting Title.” Name of Site , Version number (if available), Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), URL. Date of access.
Salmar1515 [Sal Hernandez]. “Re: Best Strategy: Fenced Pastures vs. Max Number of Rooms?” BoardGameGeek , 29 Sept. 2008, boardgamegeek.com/thread/343929/best-strategy-fenced-pastures-vs-max-number-rooms. Accessed 5 Apr. 2009.
Begin with the user's Twitter handle in place of the author’s name. Next, place the tweet in its entirety in quotations, inserting a period after the tweet within the quotations. Include the date and time of posting, using the reader's time zone; separate the date and time with a comma and end with a period. Include the date accessed if you deem necessary.
@tombrokaw. “ SC demonstrated why all the debates are the engines of this campaign. ” Twitter, 22 Jan. 2012, 3:06 a.m., twitter.com/tombrokaw/status/160996868971704320.
@PurdueWLab. “ Spring break is around the corner, and all our locations will be open next week. ” Twitter , 5 Mar. 2012, 12:58 p.m., twitter.com/PurdueWLab/status/176728308736737282.
A YouTube Video
Video and audio sources need to be documented using the same basic guidelines for citing print sources in MLA style. Include as much descriptive information as necessary to help readers understand the type and nature of the source you are citing. If the author’s name is the same as the uploader, only cite the author once. If the author is different from the uploader, cite the author’s name before the title.
McGonigal, Jane. “Gaming and Productivity.” YouTube , uploaded by Big Think, 3 July 2012, www.youtube.com/watch?v=mkdzy9bWW3E.
“8 Hot Dog Gadgets put to the Test.” YouTube, uploaded by Crazy Russian Hacker, 6 June 2016, www.youtube.com/watch?v=WBlpjSEtELs.
A Comment on a Website or Article
List the username as the author. Use the phrase, Comment on, before the title. Use quotation marks around the article title. Name the publisher, date, time (listed on near the comment), and the URL.
Not Omniscient Enough. Comment on “ Flight Attendant Tells Passenger to ‘Shut Up’ After Argument Over Pasta. ” ABC News, 9 Jun 2016, 4:00 p.m., abcnews.go.com/US/flight-attendant-tells-passenger-shut-argument-pasta/story?id=39704050.
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- How to cite a website in MLA
How to Cite a Website in MLA | Format & Examples
Published on July 17, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on June 16, 2022.
An MLA website citation includes the author’s name , the title of the page (in quotation marks), the name of the website (in italics), the publication date , and the URL (without “https://”).
If the author is unknown, start with the title of the page instead. If the publication date is unknown, or if the content is likely to change over time, add an access date at the end instead.
Websites don’t usually have page numbers, so the in-text citation is just the author name in parentheses. If you already named the author in your sentence, you don’t need to add a parenthetical citation.
Generate accurate MLA citations with Scribbr
The format differs for other types of online content, such as YouTube videos , TED Talks , and podcasts .
Table of contents
Citing online articles, citing web pages with no author or date, citing an entire website, publishers in mla website citations, frequently asked questions about mla style.
The format for citing an article from an online newspaper , magazine, or blog is the same as a general web page citation. If the article is a PDF of a print article, the format differs slightly .
Write the article title in title case (all major words capitalized). Use the most recent publication date on the page, including the day, month, and year if available.
Note, however, that a different format is used when citing online articles from academic journals.
Learn how to cite journal articles in MLA
If no author is credited, leave out this element, and start with the title of the page or article instead.
Use a shortened version of the title in your in-text citation. The shortened title must match the first words of your Works Cited entry.
If no publication date is available, leave out this element, and include the date on which you accessed the page at the end.
Note that a specific format exists for citing online dictionary entries .
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If you cite a whole website, there is usually no named author, so the Works Cited entry begins with the name of the website in italics.
If the website has a publication or copyright date (usually found in the footer), include this; if not, add the date when you accessed the website at the end of the citation.
When should you cite a whole website?
Most of the time, you should cite the specific page or article where you found the information. However, you might have to cite the entire website if you are giving a general overview of its content, referring only to the homepage, or quoting text that appears on many different pages across the site (such as a company’s slogan).
If you cite multiple pages or articles from the same website, you should include a separate Works Cited entry for each one.
If the publisher is the same as the name of the website, you leave it out of the citation to avoid repetition.
If a source has no author, start the MLA Works Cited entry with the source title . Use a shortened version of the title in your MLA in-text citation .
If a source has no page numbers, you can use an alternative locator (e.g. a chapter number, or a timestamp for a video or audio source) to identify the relevant passage in your in-text citation. If the source has no numbered divisions, cite only the author’s name (or the title).
If you already named the author or title in your sentence, and there is no locator available, you don’t need a parenthetical citation:
- Rajaram argues that representations of migration are shaped by “cultural, political, and ideological interests.”
- The homepage of The Correspondent describes it as “a movement for radically different news.”
If a source has two authors, name both authors in your MLA in-text citation and Works Cited entry. If there are three or more authors, name only the first author, followed by et al.
Yes. MLA style uses title case, which means that all principal words (nouns, pronouns , verbs, adjectives , adverbs , and some conjunctions ) are capitalized.
This applies to titles of sources as well as the title of, and subheadings in, your paper. Use MLA capitalization style even when the original source title uses different capitalization .
The title of an article is not italicized in MLA style , but placed in quotation marks. This applies to articles from journals , newspapers , websites , or any other publication. Use italics for the title of the source where the article was published. For example:
Use the same formatting in the Works Cited entry and when referring to the article in the text itself.
The fastest and most accurate way to create MLA citations is by using Scribbr’s MLA Citation Generator .
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McCombes, S. (2022, June 16). How to Cite a Website in MLA | Format & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved March 6, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/mla/website-citation/
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MLA Citation Style Guide: MLA Examples - Online and Electronic
- In-text Citations
- MLA Examples - Print
- MLA Examples - Online and Electronic
- MLA Examples - Images, Video, and Audio
- Citation Resources and Guidelines
- 7th Edition MLA Citation Style Guide
Author. Title. Publisher, Publication date. Title of container, URL or location.
Gikandi, Simon. Ngugi wa Thiong’o. Cambridge UP, 2000. ACLS Humanities E-book , hdl.handle.net/2027/heb.07588.0001.001.
MLA Handbook, 8th ed., pg. 34,
- Articles in Scholarly Journals
For articles found in online journals:
Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Journal , volume, number, Date of Publication, URL.
Levine, Caroline. "Extraordinary Ordinariness: Realism Now and Then." Romanticism and Victorianism on the Net , no. 63, Apr. 2013, id.erudit.org/iderudit/1025618ar.
Articles in Scholarly Journals from Databases
Author. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal , Volume, Number, Date of Publication, Page(s). Database , URL or DOI.
Goldman, Anne. “Questions of Transport: Reading Primo Levi Reading Dante.” The Georgia Review, vol. 64, no. 1, 2010, pp. 69-88. JSTOR , www.jstor.org/stable/41403188 .
Lorensen, Jutta. “Between Image and Word, Color, and Time: Jacob Lawrence’s The Migration Series .” African American Review , vol. 40, no. 3, 2006, pp. 571-86. EBSCOHost , search.ebscohost.com/ login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=24093790&site=ehost-live.
- Articles in Popular Magazines
Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Periodical . Date of Publication, URL.
Plait, Phil "Climate Change is Partly to Blame for the Mass Extinction of Dinosaurs." Newsweek , 2 6 Jul. 2016, www.newsweek.com/ dinosaur-extinction-climate-change-giant-asteroid-484174.
A publisher may be omitted when the Website title is essentially the same as the name of the publisher.
Author, editor, or compiler name (if available). Name of Website . Publisher, Year of publication. URL.
Manifold Greatness: The Creation and Afterlife of the King James Bible. Folger Shakespeare Library/ Bodleian Libraries, U of Oxford / Harry Ransom Center, U of Texas, Austin, manifoldgreatness.org.
Post or article on a website:
Author, editor, or compiler name (if available). " Title of post." Name of Website , Publisher, date of resource creation (if available), URL.
Clancy, Kate. “Defensive Scholarly Writing and Science Communication.” Context and Variation, Scientific American Blogs, 24 Apr. 2013, blogs.scientificamerican.com/context-and-variation/ 2013/04/24/defensive-scholarly-writing-and-science-communication/.
Hollmichel, Stefanie. “The Reading Brain: Differences between Digital and Print.” So Many Books, 25 Apr. 2013, somanybooksblog.com/2013/04/25/the- reading-brain -differences-between-digital-and-print/.
MLA Handbook, 8th ed., pg.28 and 41-42
Newspaper Articles/News Websites
Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper or Website, Publisher, Date of Publication, URL.
Wade, Nicholas. "Meet Luca, the Ancestor of All Living Things." The New York Times , New York Times, 26 Jul. 2016, www.nytimes.com/2016/07/26/science/last-universal -ancestor.html? hpw&rref=science&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&module=well- region®ion=bottom-well&WT.nav=bottom-well&_r=0
Kottasova, Ivana. "Amazon to Test Drone Delivery in the UK." CNN.com, Cable News Network, 26 Jul, 2016, money.cnn.com/2016/07/26/ technology/amazon-delivery-drones-uk/index.html? sr= cnnmoneybin072616amazontestdrone0715VODtop
Twitter and other Social Media
Pseudonyms, including online user names, are generally listed like regular author names.
Name [username]. "Entire text of Tweet." Twitter, Date and Time of Posted Message, URL of message.
National Geographic [@NatGeo]. "Do cats communicate in different dialects, like humans do? Science is trying to find out." Twitter , 24 Jul. 2016, 4:43 p.m., twitter.com/NatGeo/status/757360481401208832.
Name [username]. "Video description and hashtags." TikTok , Year, URL of message.
Lilly [@uvisaa]. "[I]f u like dark academia there's a good chance you've seen my tumblr #darkacademia." TikTok, 2020. www.tiktok.com/@uvisaa/video/6815708894900391173.
Name. Description of image or video. Instagram , Date, URL of post.
Thomas, Angie. Photo of The Hate U Give cover. Instagram, 4 Dec. 2018, www.instagram.com/p/Bq_PaXKgqPw/.
MLA Handbook 9th Ed., pg. 326-327.
A Listserv, Discussion Group, or Blog Posting
Cite web postings as you would a standard web entry. Provide the author of the work, the title of the posting in quotation marks, the web site name in italics, the publisher, and the posting date. Follow with the date of access. Include screen names as author names when author name is not known. If both names are known, place the author’s name in brackets.
Editor, screen name, author, or compiler name (if available). “Posting Title.” Name of Site , Version number (if available), Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), posting date, URL. Date of access.
Salmar1515 [Sal Hernandez]. “Re: Best Strategy: Fenced Pastures vs. Max Number of Rooms?” BoardGameGeek , 29 Sept. 2008, boardgamegeek.com/thread/ 343929/best-strategy-fenced- pastures-vs-max-number-rooms . Accessed 5 Apr. 2009.
- Encyclopedia Entries
"Title of Entry." Title of Reference Source. Publisher, Year, URL.
Author(s). "Title of Entry." Title of Reference Source. Edited by Editor's Name(s), Edition, Volume, Publisher, Year, Page range of entry. Database , URL or DOI.
Stourzh, Gerald. "Hamilton, Alexander (1755–1804)." Encyclopedia of the American Constitution . Edited by Leonard W. Levy and Kenneth L. Karst, 2nd ed., Vol. 3, Macmillan Reference USA, 2000, pp. 1257-1260. Gale Virtual Reference Library . go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCX3425001169
- Government Documents
Government Agency. Title of Publication. Name of Web site, Date of Publication, URL.
When a work is published by an organization that is also its author, begin the entry with the title and list the the organization as the publisher.
Title of Publication. Name of Web site, Date of Publication, URL
Speeches, Lectures, or Other Oral Presentations (Including Conference Presentations)
Start with speaker’s name. Then, give the title of the speech (if any) in quotation marks. Follow with the title of the particular conference or meeting and then the name of the organization. Name the venue and its city (if the name of the city is not listed in the venue’s name). Use the descriptor that appropriately expresses the type of presentation (e.g., Address, Lecture, Reading, Keynote Speech, Guest Lecture, Conference Presentation).
Stein, Bob. “Reading and Writing in the Digital Era.” Discovering Digital Dimensions, Computers and Writing Conference, 23 May 2003, Union Club Hotel, West Lafayette, IN. Keynote Address.
What can be omitted in online citations
When a URL is needed, you may omit “http://” or “https://” within the citation.
A publisher’s name may be omitted for the following kinds of publications, either because the publisher need not be given or because there is no publisher.
- A periodical (journal, magazine, newspaper)
- A work published by its author or editor
- A web site whose title is essentially the same as the name of the publisher
- A web site not involved in producing the works it makes available (e.g., a service for users’ content like Wordpress.com or YouTube, an archive like JSTOR or ProQuest). If the contents of the site are organized into a whole, as the contents of YouTube, JSTOR, and ProQuest are, the site is named earlier as a container, but it still does not qualify as a publisher of the source.
Creating a Works Cited Page
In MLA style your bibliography should be called Works Cited.
A hanging indent should be used for each citation.
Within your Works Cited list, your references should be in alphabetical order based on the author's last name. If there is no author listed, use the title of the source.
Works Cited Examples
- Work in an Anthology or a Compilation
- Newspaper Articles
Images, Video, and Audio
- Video (film)
- Video (television)
- Sound Recordings
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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / MLA Format / MLA Website Citation
How to Cite a Website in MLA
If you are a student faced with creating an MLA website citation for the first time, you may be confused about where to begin. This guide is here to answer all of your questions and take the guesswork out of creating an MLA citation for websites.
All academic fields require students and researchers to document their sources. Those studying the humanities, including fields in language literature, will typically follow MLA format when structuring their papers as well as when documenting sources.
Citing your sources is a necessary part of any research paper or project. This element serves both to give credit to the researchers and authors whose work informed yours, as well as to preserve academic integrity. Any source that provided you with ideas or information that you have included in your work and which are not considered common knowledge must be included, including websites.
The Modern Language Association is not associated with this guide. All of the information, however, is based on the MLA Handbook, Ninth Edition as well as the MLA website, and is presented as guidance for students writing in this style.
If you are looking for help with APA format , our reference library can provide you with guidance for this and more styles .
What You Need
To cite a website, you should have the following information:
- Title of source.
- Title of the container ,
- Other contributors (names and roles),
- Publication date,
- Location of the source (such as DOI, URL, or page range).
The Modern Language Association refers to these guidelines as “core elements” on page 105 of the Handbook. If your teacher has asked you to cite your sources in this format, these elements will form the foundation for each MLA website citation included in your MLA Works Cited list, as well as the entries for sources in any other format.
If one of the elements does not apply, students may omit it. Supplemental items may also be included when necessary. In addition to the supplemental details discussed below, a list of additional supplemental components can be found on the MLA website.
If it’s an APA citation website page or an APA reference page you need help with, we have many other resources available for you!
Table of Contents
This guide includes the following sections:
- MLA9 Changes
- Citing websites with an author
- Citing websites with no author
- Citing websites with no formal title
- Citing social media websites
- In-text citations
Changes to MLA Citation for Websites in Ninth Edition
In previous editions, students and researchers creating an MLA website citation were not required to include the URL. However, beginning with MLA 8, it is recommended that you include the URL when creating a citation for a website unless your teacher instructs you otherwise. Even though web pages and URLs can be taken down or changed, it is still possible to learn about the source from the information seen in the URL.
When including URLs in a citation, http:// and https:// should be omitted from the website’s address ( Handbook 195). Additionally, If you are creating a citation that will be read on a digital device, it is helpful to make the URL clickable so that readers can directly access the source themselves.
If the website’s publisher includes a permalink or DOI (Digital Object Identifier), these are preferable as they are not changeable in the same manner as URLs. Whether you include a URL, permalink, or DOI, this information should be included in the location portion of your citation.
Another change that occurred with the eighth edition that impacts how to cite a website in MLA is the removal of the date the website was accessed. While you may still find it useful to include this information or your teacher may request it, it is no longer a mandatory piece of your citation. Should you choose to add this optional information, you may list it after the URL in the following manner:
- Accessed Day Month Year.
- Accessed 2 May 1998.
- Accessed 31 Apr. 2001.
- Accessed 17 Sept. 2010.
For an overview of additional formatting changes in the ninth edition, including resources to help with writing an annotated bibliography , check out the rest of EasyBib.com’s writing and citation guides, and try out our plagiarism checker for help with grammar and to avoid unintentional plagiarism.
MLA 9: Citing Websites With an Author
To make an MLA 9 citation for a website, you will need the following pieces of information:
- author’s name
- title of the article or page
- title of the website
- name of the publisher (Note: Only include the name of the publisher when it differs from the name of the website.)
- date the page or site was published (if available)
Citing a Website in MLA
Place the author’s name in reverse order, the last name first, followed by a comma, and then the first name followed by a period. The title of the web page or article is placed in quotation marks, with a period before the end quotation. The title of the website is written in italics followed by a comma. If the name of the publisher differs from the name of the website, include it after the title. Immediately following the publisher is the date that the page or article was published or posted. Finally, end with the URL, permalink, or DOI, followed by a period.
View Screenshot | Cite your source
In-text website citation with one author
The in-text citation for a website with an author is reflected as the author’s last name in parentheses, followed by a period. Unless the website includes numbered paragraphs or sections, you should not include any additional information. For the website used in the example above, the in-text citation would be written as follows:
Cite your source
An APA parenthetical citation is similar, except it also includes the year the source was published.
To learn more about formatting MLA in-text & parenthetical citations , be sure to check out the rest of EasyBib.com’s resources and citation guides.
How to cite a website with two authors in MLA 9
According to Section 5.7 of the Handbook , for a website with two authors, place the authors’ names in the same order as the source (similar to an APA citation ). The first name should be formatted in reverse order as was done for a single author. The second name, however, is written as First Name Last Name and is followed by a period, as demonstrated in the template that follows:
In-text website citation with two authors
The in-text citation for a website with two authors should include both authors’ last names, in the order in which they are listed in the source and your works cited:
How to cite a website with three or more authors in MLA 9
For a source with three or more authors, you should place the authors’ names in the same order as the source. The first name is listed in reverse order and is followed by a comma and et al. Et al is the abbreviation for et alia, a gender-neutral Latin phrase meaning “and others.”
In-text website citation with 3+ authors
The in-text citation for a website with three or more authors should contain only the first author’s last name, followed by et al. ( Handbook 232):
Click on this page if you’re looking for information on how to create an APA in-text citation .
MLA 9 Citation for Websites with No Author
Sometimes, websites do not state who wrote the information on the page. When no author is listed, you may omit the author information from the MLA citation for the website and begin, instead, with the title ( Handbook 108).
Note about web pages by organizations/corporations: Often, web pages are published by organizations or corporations with no author indicated. In these cases, you can assume that the publisher also authored the web page (like the example above). Since the author and publisher are the same in these cases, you can skip showing an author and just indicate the organization /corporation as the publisher ( Handbook 119 ).
In-text website citation with no author
The in-text citation for a website without an author is noted with the first noun phrase or words in the title in quotations and parenthesis, followed by a period. Unless the website includes numbered paragraphs or sections, you should not include any additional information. For the website used in the example above, the in-text citation would be written as follows:
MLA 9 Citation for Websites Without a Formal Title
When citing a web page that does not include a formal title, it is acceptable to include a description of the page. Do not place the description in italics or quotation marks. Follow the description with the name of the website.
In-text website citation without a title
The in-text citation for a website without a formal title uses a shortened version of the webpage description for the in-text citation. Use the first noun phrase of the description from your Works Cited citation in parenthesis, followed by a period. For the website used in the example above, the in-text citation would be written as follows:
MLA 9 Citation for Social Media Websites
In an increasingly digital world, social media platforms have become one of the most popular sources students turn to when writing a research paper. From Black history facts , to quotes from notable people, such as Martin Luther King and Winston Churchill , social media has become a mega influence in our world.
When citing social media in your work, follow the same format as an MLA citation for a website. Here are some examples of ways you can cite various social media platforms in your work:
How to cite Twitter in MLA 9
Many notable individuals use Twitter as a platform to share intriguing ideas. It’s a shame Twitter was unavailable to long-gone scientists, authors, and presidents such as Albert Einstein , Mark Twain , and Abraham Lincoln . Luckily, we have the Twitter profiles of today’s great minds at our fingertips!
To cite a tweet, you will begin with the account holder’s name and their Twitter handle in square brackets, followed by a period ( Handbook 118). After this, in quotations, you should enter the full text of the tweet, including any hashtags. The publisher, Twitter, is then listed in italics, followed by the date the tweet was posted in day, month, year format. Finally, include a URL to the tweet followed by a period.
Note: When the account name and username are similar, the username can be excluded from the citation. For example, if the account’s username was @FirstNameLastName or @OrganizationName.
In-text website citation of a Twitter post
The in-text citation for a Twitter post is reflected as the author’s last name in parentheses, followed by a period. For the tweet used in the example above, the in-text citation would be written as follows:
How to cite Instagram in MLA 9
To cite an Instagram post, begin with the account holder’s name and their username in square brackets. In quotations, list the title of the photo, if it is given. If there is no title, write a brief description of the picture but do not place it in italics or quotation marks. The publisher, Instagram, is then listed in italics. Any other contributors (such as the photographer, if it is not the same as the account holder) are then listed, after which you will add the date the photo was published and the URL.
In-text website citation of an Instagram post
The in-text citation for an Instagram post is reflected as the author’s last name or the name of the account in parentheses, followed by a period. For the Instagram post used in the example above, the in-text citation would be written as follows:
How to cite Facebook in MLA 9
To cite a Facebook post, begin with the account holder’s name or username. In quotations, list the title or caption of the post, if it is given. If there is no title or caption, write a brief description of the post, but do not place it in italics or quotation marks. Examples: Image of Malcolm X, or, Muhammed Ali headshot.
The publisher, Facebook, is then listed in italics, after which you will add the date posted and URL.
In-text website citation of a Facebook post
The in-text citation for a Facebook post is reflected as the author’s last name or the name of the account in parentheses, followed by a period. For the Facebook post used in the example above, the in-text citation would be written as follows:
Social media and website comments
Citing the comments left on social media or a website begins with the commenter’s name or username. To indicate that you are citing a comment, follow the name with a period and then the words Comment on , followed by the title of the source (for example, the name of the article) in quotation marks. This is then followed by the title of the website in italics, and the publisher, if applicable. The date is then listed, followed by the URL, permalink, or DOI.
In-text citation of a social media comment
The in-text citation for a social media comment is reflected as the author’s last name in parentheses, followed by a period. For the post used in the example above, the in-text citation would be written as follows:
In-text Citations for Websites
In-text citations generally consist of parentheses and the last names of the authors or the first few words of the web page title.
Since there are no page numbers, unless the web page includes numbered paragraphs or sections, you don’t need to include any additional information.
When you have multiple authors, place them in the same order they are listed in the source.
If what you really need is an APA book citation or a reference for an APA journal , there are more guides on EasyBib.com for you to explore.
Visit our EasyBib Twitter feed to discover more citing tips, fun grammar facts, and the latest product updates.
Solution #1: when and how to reference entire websites versus specific pages in mla.
Reference an entire website when your information comes from multiple pages or if you are describing the entirety of the website. If your information is only from one page, only cite the singular page.
Whole website, author known
- Write the author’s name in last name, first name format with a period following.
- Next, write the name of the website in italics.
- Write the contributing organization’s name with a comma following.
- List the date in day, month, year format with a comma following.
- Lastly, write the URL with a period following.
Works cited example:
Night, Samuel. Food Creations , International Hypothetical Chefs’ Club, 21 May 2021, www.foodcreationshypotheticalwebsite.com/best_macaroni_recipe.
Whole website, author unknown
- If there is no specific author, begin the citation by writing the website name in italics.
Food Creations , International Hypothetical Chefs’ Club, 21 May 2021, www.foodcreationshypotheticalwebsite.com/best_macaroni_recipe.
( Food Creations )
Webpage, author known
If information is from only a few pages or the pages cover multiple topics, reference each page
- If an author is named, write the author’s name in last name, first name format.
- If a title is not provided, create your own description of the page.
- List the title of the website in italics with a comma following.
- Write the date that the page was created followed by a comma.
- Lastly, list the URL followed by a period.
Blake, Evan. “Best Southern Macaroni Recipe.” Food Creations , International Hypothetical Chefs’ Club, 21 May 2021, www.foodcreationshypotheticalwebsite.com/best_macaroni_recipe.
Webpage, author unknown
If an author is not named, write the name of the page in quotation marks with a period following.
“Best Southern Macaroni Recipe.” Food Creations , International Hypothetical Chefs’ Club, 21 May 2021, www.foodcreationshypotheticalwebsite.com/best_macaroni_recipe.
(“Best Southern Macaroni Recipe”)
Solution #2: Referencing a conversation on social media in MLA
The in-text citation should identify the author and talk about the format (e.g., video, post, image, etc.) in prose.
Lilly West’s photo of traditional Japanese sweets shows an example of nature influencing Japanese design.
The basic structure of a works-cited reference for social media stays the same no matter the format or the social media service (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc.). Here are works- cited-list entry guidelines:
- The name is listed in last name, first name format with a period following. If an organization, just write the organization’s name as it’s usually presented.
- If the username is very different from the author’s real name, include it in brackets after the user’s real name but before the period.
- Write the title, post text, or description of the post in quotation marks. End it with a period.
- Write the website name in italics with a comma afterward.
- List the day, month, and year that the post was created followed by a comma.
- List the URL followed by a period. Leave out “https://” and “http://”.
West, Lily. “Kyoto Japanese sweets.” Facebook , 30 May 2021, www.facebook.com/hypotheticalexample/thispostisnotreal.
Twitter reference example:
West, Lily [@lilianhypotheticalwestbest]. “Kyoto Japanese sweets.” Twitter, 30 May 2021, www.twitter.com/hypotheticalexample/thispostisnotreal.
Instagram reference example:
West, Lily [@lilianhypotheticalwestbest]. “Kyoto Japanese sweets.” Instagram , 30 May 2021, www.instagram.com/hypotheticalexample/thisphotoisnotreal.
Solution #3: How to cite a social media post without a title or text
If there is no text or title where the title element usually goes, instead describe the post without quotation marks. Example:
West, Lily [@lilianhypotheticalwestbest]. Photo of traditional Japanese sweets on a green plate. Instagram , photographed by Bethany Lynn, 30 May 2021, www.instagram.com/hypotheticalexample/thisphotoisnotreal.
Solution #4: How to cite a social media post with a long title or text
If the text is very long, you can shorten it by adding ellipsis at the end of the text. Example:
West, Lily [@lilianhypotheticalwestbest]. “Nothing is better in life than feeling like all of the effort you’ve invested has finally. . . .” Twitter, 17 Feb. 2021, www.twitter.com/hypotheticalexample/thispostisnotreal.
- Works Cited
MLA Handbook . 9th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2021.
Published October 31, 2011. Updated June 5, 2021.
Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Elise Barbeau. Michele Kirschenbaum is a school library media specialist and the in-house librarian at EasyBib.com. Elise Barbeau is the Citation Specialist at Chegg. She has worked in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing.
MLA Formatting Guide
- Annotated Bibliography
- Block Quotes
- et al Usage
- In-text Citations
- Page Numbers
- Sample Paper
- MLA 8 Updates
- MLA 9 Updates
- View MLA Guide
- Book Chapter
- Journal Article
- Magazine Article
- Newspaper Article
- Website (no author)
- View all MLA Examples
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No matter what citation style you’re using (APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.), the EasyBib Citation Generator can help you create the right bibliography quickly.
Yes, there’s an option to download source citations as a Word Doc or a Google Doc. You may also copy citations from the EasyBib Citation Generator and paste them into your paper.
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Yes! Whether you’d like to learn how to construct citations on your own, our Autocite tool isn’t able to gather the metadata you need, or anything in between, manual citations are always an option. Click here for directions on using creating manual citations.
If any important information is missing (e.g., author’s name, title, publishing date, URL, etc.), first see if you can find it in the source yourself. If you cannot, leave the information blank and continue creating your citation.
It supports MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard, and over 7,000 total citation styles.
If there is no author, the title becomes the website page’s identifier.
In-text example (no author): ( Honey Bee Medley )
Works cited example (no author): Honey Bee Medley . Hivemind Press, 2018, www.hivebees.com/honey-bees.
If there is no publication date, include an accessed date instead.
Works cited example (no author, no date): Honey Bee Medley . Hivemind Press, www.hivebees.com/honey-bees. Accessed 17 Nov. 2020.
If there is no title, briefly describe the source.
Works cited example (no author, no date, no title): Collage of honey bees. Hivemind Press, www.hivebees.com/honey-bees. Accessed 17 Nov. 2020.
To cite a website that has no page number in MLA, it is important that you know the name of the author, title of the webpage, website, and URL. The templates for an in-text citation and works-cited-list entry of a website that has no page number, along with examples, are given below:
In-text citation template and example:
You can use a time stamp if you are referring to an audio or video. Otherwise, use only the author’s surname.
Works-cited-list entry template and example:
Author or Organization Name. “Title of the Webpage.” Website Name . Publication Date, URL.
Dutta, Smita S. “What is Extra Sensory Perception?” Medindia . 16 Nov. 2019, www.medindia.net/patients/patientinfo/extra-sensory-perception.htm#3 .
Abbreviate the month in the date field.
MLA Citation Examples
Other Citation Styles
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MLA Citation Guide (9th Edition): Websites
- What Kind of Source Is This?
- Books, eBooks & Pamphlets
- Book Reviews
- Class Handouts, Presentations, and Readings
- Encyclopedias & Dictionaries
- Government Documents
- Images, Artwork, Charts, Graphs & Tables
- Interviews and Emails (Personal Communications)
- Journal Articles
- Magazine Articles
- Newspaper Articles
- Primary Sources
- Religious Texts
- Social Media
- Videos & DVDs
- In-Text Citation
- Works Quoted in Another Source
- No Author, No Date etc.
- Works Cited List & Sample Paper
- Annotated Bibliography
- Powerpoint Presentations
On This Page: Websites
Website - known author, page or document on a website - created by a corporation, group, or organization, page or document on a website - known author, page or document on a website - unknown author, government document from a website - author and publisher are the same, government document from a website - author and publisher are different, citing two authors, citing three or more authors, abbreviating months.
In your works cited list, abbreviate months as follows:
January = Jan. February = Feb. March = Mar. April = Apr. May = May June = June July = July August = Aug. September = Sept. October = Oct. November = Nov. December = Dec.
Spell out months fully in the body of your paper.
It can sometimes be difficult to find out who the author of a website is. Remember that an author can be a corporation or group, not only a specific person. Author information can sometimes be found under an "About" section on a website.
If there is no known author, start the citation with the title of the website instead.
Capitalize the first letter of every important word in the title. You do not need to capitalize words such as: in, of, or an. Do not use all-caps (except for words like USA where each letter stands for something), even if the words appear that way on the article.
If there is a colon (:) in the title, include what comes after the colon (also known as the subtitle).
The publisher or sponsoring organization can often be found in a copyright notice at the bottom of the home page or on a page that gives information about the site. When the page is authored and published by the same corporation/group/organization, begin your citation with the section title.
According to p. 42 of the MLA Handbook , publisher information may be omitted for:
- periodicals (journals, magazines, newspapers)
- works published by an author or editor
- web sites whose title is the same as the name of the publisher
- a web site not involved in producing the work it makes (e.g. user-generated content sites like YouTube )
The best date to use for a website is the date that the content was last updated. Otherwise look for a copyright or original publication date. Unfortunately this information may not be provided or may be hard to find. Often date information is located on the bottom of the pages of a website.
If you do not know the complete date, put as much information as you can find. For example, you may have a year but no month or day.
Date of access is optional in MLA 9th edition. If no publication date is included, we recommend including the date you last accessed the site.
Note : For your Works Cited list, all citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent.
A "hanging indent" means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.
Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Website, Name of Organization Affiliated with the Website, date of copyright or date last modified/updated if available, URL. Accessed Day Month Year site was visited .
Name of Corporation//Group/Organization. "Title of Section." Title of Website, Publisher or Sponsoring Organization, Date of publication or last modified date, URL. Accessed Day Month Year site was visited .
Note: When the page is authored and published by the same corporation/group/organization, begin your citation with the section title.
Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Page or Document." Title of Website, Name of Organization Affiliated with the Website, Date of copyright or date last modified/updated, URL. Accessed Day Month Year site was visited .
"Title of Page or Document." Title of Website, Name of Organization Affiliated with the Website, Date of copyright or date last modified/updated, URL. Accessed Day Month Year site was visited .
Title of Document: Subtitle if Given . Edition if given and is not first edition, Name of Government Primary Agency , Publication Date, URL. Accessed Day Month Year site was visited .
Author. Title of Document: Subtitle if Given . Edition if given and is not first edition, Name of Government Primary Agency , Publication Date, URL. Accessed Day Month Year site was visited .
Note: In MLA 9th ed., citations of government documents have been simplified for student papers. For student papers citing a small number of government documents, the MLA Handbook recommends treating government documents "just like any other source written by an organization" by "record[ing] the name as presented by the source" (120). For advanced projects where many government documents are cited, more detailed recommendations can be found in the MLA Handbook and in some online guides. You may see specialists follow these rules in order to provide complete information about the government, department, and agency and to standardize Works Cited entries.
Author's Last Name, First Name or Username if real name not provided. "Title of Blog Post." Name of Blog, Blog Network/Publisher if given, Day Month Year of blog post, URL of blog post. Accessed Day Month Year blog was visited.
"Title of Entry." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, Wikimedia Foundation, Day Month Year entry was last modified, Time entry was last modified, URL of entry. Accessed Day Month Year Wikipedia entry was last viewed.
Note : The date and time the article was last modified appears at the bottom of each Wikipedia article.
Keep in mind that Wikipedia may not be considered an acceptable source for a college or university assignment. Be sure to evaluate the content carefully and check with your instructor if you can use it as a source in your assignment.
If there are two authors, cite the the authors as follows (list authors in the order they are given on the page, not alphabetically):
Last Name, First Name of First Author, and First Name Last Name of Second Author.
Example: Smith, James, and Sarah Johnston.
If there are three or more authors, cite only the name of the first author listed with their Last Name, First Name Middle Name followed by a comma et al.
Example: Smith, James, et al.
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MLA Citation Guide
- MLA Citations
- Works Cited List
- Library Databases
General Information about Online Sources
- Print Books
- Other Sources
- In-Text Citations
- Formatting Your Paper
Like all other sources, online items follow the standard MLA citation .
Remove http:// or https:// from URLs. Www is included, though, if it appears in your browser’s navigation bar. The MLA Handbook recommends against using third-party URL shorteners, such as Bit.ly or TinyURL, to shorten the links you provide in your Works Cited list (110).
The access date (the day you visited a website and got information from it) is not a required element in your citation. However, the MLA Style Center suggests including it when no date of publication is available, or “if you suspect the work may be altered or removed” (“Access Date” par. 2). The access date is listed in Day Month Year format at the end of the citation. For example: Accessed 10 Sept. 2016. See the Works Cited List section of this guide for month abbreviations .
Try to find a publication date (frequently listed near the title of the article/website section or at the end of the text). If you’re citing an entire website and it gives a range of copyright or publication dates ( example: Copyright © 2007 - 2018 Ask A Manager), the MLA Style Center recommends listing the entire date range (“Range of Dates” pars. 1-2). If you are citing an article, provide the publication date in Day Month Year format. If no publication date is available, simply leave out this element. Do not use “n.d.” (no date) as a placeholder.
MLA Handbook . 8th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2016.
“When Should I Include an Access Date for an Online Work?” The MLA Style Center , 29 Dec. 2016, style.mla.org/access-dates/. Accessed 31 July 2018.
“When Should You Give a Range of Dates for a Web Site?” The MLA Style Center , 5 July 2018, style.mla.org/web-site-date-ranges/. Accessed 30 July 2018.
Back to top of page
Bowers, Jeremy, et al., editors. The Best Commencement Speeches, Ever . National Public Radio, 2 July 2015, apps.npr.org/commencement/. Accessed 27 July 2018.
Occupational Outlook Handbook. United States, Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, www.bls.gov/ooh/. Accessed 22 June 2016.
Section of a Website
“Farmer Services.” Cargill, Inc., cargill.com/products/farmer/index.jsp. Accessed 7 Oct. 2016.
"Group of 7 Countries (G7): Statistical Profile." NationMaster , www.nationmaster.com/country-info/groups/Group-of-7-countries-(G7). Accessed 3 Aug. 2018.
Online Article from a Newspaper, Magazine, or Blog
DeRuy, Emily. “The Complex Lives of Babies.” The Atlantic , 20 June 2016, www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2016/06/the-complex-lives-of-babies/487679/. Accessed 6 Oct. 2016.
Green, Alison. "How Can I Write a Resume When My Jobs Don’t Have Measurable Results?" Ask a Manager , 6 Nov. 2017, www.askamanager.org/2017/11/how-can-i-write-a-resume-when-my-jobs-dont-have-measurable-results.html. Accessed 3 Aug. 2018.
Advertisement for American Express. Bloomberg , 31 July 2018, www.bloomberg.com. Accessed 31 July 2018.
Advertisement for Toyota Prius. Earther , 2 Aug. 2018, earther.gizmodo.com/meet-the-communities-fighting-to-bring-back-their-stars-1827933239. Accessed 3 Aug. 2018. Accessed 3 Aug. 2018.
NOTE: Wikipedia is great for background research, but it’s usually not a source you should use to support an academic speech or paper.
To see when a Wikipedia article was updated, click the “View History” tab at the top of the page.
“Television.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia , 10 June 2016, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Television. Accessed 22 June 2016.
" Coeloplana astericola ." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia , 3 Aug. 2018, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coeloplana_astericola. Accessed 3 Aug. 2018.
Federal Bill or Act of Congress from a Website
United States, Congress, Senate. International Disability and Victims of Landmines, Civil Strife and Warfare Assistance Act of 2002. Congress.gov , www.congress.gov/bill/107th-congress/senate-bill/1777/text/. 107th Congress, 2nd session, Senate Resolution 1777, passed 13 Sept. 2002.
United States, Congress, House. Interior, Environment, Financial Services and General Government, Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Transportation, Housing and Urban Development Appropriations Act, 2019. Congress.gov , www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/house-bill/6147. 115th Congress, 2nd session, House Resolution 6147, passed 1 Aug. 2018.
US Supreme Court Ruling from a Website
United States, Supreme Court. Sebelius v. Auburn Regional Medical Center . 22 Jan. 2013. United States Reports , vol. 568, pp. 145-164. Supreme Court of the United States, www.supremecourt.gov/opinions/boundvolumes/568BV.pdf.
United States, Supreme Court. Dred Scott v. Sanford . 1857. NOLO: Law for All , supreme.nolo.com/us/60/393/case.html. Accessed 3 Aug. 2018.
Image from a Website
Aldegrever, Heinrich, printmaker. Intemperance . 1528. The New York Public Library Digital Collections , digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/d6a157b0-2efe-0133-e7f7-58d385a7b928.
van Gogh, Vincent. Starry Night . 1889. Wikimedia Commons , 22 Aug. 2008, commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:VanGogh-starry_night_ballance1.jpg.
Podcast or Radio Show Episode
Peralta, Eyder, reporter. "Zimbabwe Presidential Election Results Underway." All Things Considered , hosted by Ailsa Chang, National Public Radio, 2 Aug. 2018, www.npr.org/2018/08/02/635047726/zimbabwe-incumbent-emmerson-mnangagwa-leads-in-presidential-election.
Vogt, PJ, and Alex Goldman, hosts. "Raising the Bar." Reply All , episode 52, 20 Jan. 2016, gimletmedia.com/episode/52-raising-the-bar/.
Video Uploaded to a Hosting Website (YouTube, Vimeo, etc.)
Aranda, Michael, host. “Sprites, Jets, and Glowing Balls: The Science of Lightning.” YouTube , uploaded by SciShow, 23 June 2016, www.youtube.com/watch?v=fzNk4w2k2h0.
Sangra, Danny, director. "War." Vimeo , uploaded by Danny Sangra, 31 July 2018, vimeo.com/channels/staffpicks/282577747.
Video from Netflix, Hulu, or a Similar Service
The example below uses an entire TV show. To cite a TV episode or a movie, use the appropriate physical video citation without the physical media format and with the app or website information added.
TV show viewed on Netflix, Hulu, etc., WEBSITE:
The Handmaid’s Tale . Created by Bruce Miller, MGM Television, 2017-18. Hulu , www.hulu.com/the-handmaids-tale.
Planet Earth II . Narrated by David Attenborough, BBC, 2016. Netflix , www.netflix.com/title/80195377.
TV show viewed on Netflix, Hulu, etc., APP:
MLA treats video subscription apps as versions , not containers.
The Handmaid’s Tale . Created by Bruce Miller, Hulu app, MGM Television, 2017-18.
Planet Earth II . Narrated by David Attenborough, Netflix app, BBC, 2016.
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Citing a website in MLA style
When citing a website in MLA style, follow the basic format below.
General, non-periodic websites
Author Last Name, First Name. “Title of Work.” Title of Site, Sponsor or Publisher [include only if different from website title or author], Date of Publication or Update Date, URL. Accessed Date [only if no date of publication or update date].
Hamilton, Jon. “Think You’re Multitasking? Think Again.” National Public Radio , 2 Oct. 2008, www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=95256794 .
If no author is available, begin with the title of the work.
“Turmeric.” National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health , Sep. 2016, nccih.nih.gov/health/turmeric/ataglance.htm .
Penn State University Libraries
Mla quick citation guide.
- In-text Citation
- Citing Web Pages and Social Media
- Citing Articles
- Citing Books
- Other formats
- MLA Style Quiz
Using In-text Citation
Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list.
MLA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the page number from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken, for example: (Smith 163). If the source does not use page numbers, do not include a number in the parenthetical citation: (Smith).
For more information on in-text citation, see the MLA Style Center .
Example paragraph with in-text citation
A few researchers in the linguistics field have developed training programs designed to improve native speakers' ability to understand accented speech (Derwing et al. 246; Thomas 15). Their training techniques are based on the research described above indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech. Derwing and others conducted their training with students preparing to be social workers, but note that other professionals who work with non-native speakers could benefit from a similar program (258).
Derwing, Tracey M., et al. "Teaching Native Speakers to Listen to Foreign-accented Speech." Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, vol. 23, no. 4, 2002, pp. 245-259.
Thomas, Holly K. Training Strategies for Improving Listeners' Comprehension of Foreign-accented Speech. University of Colorado, Boulder, 2004.
Citing Web Pages In Text
Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author if known. If the author is not known, use the title as the in-text citation.
Your in-text citation should lead your reader to the corresponding entry in the reference list. Below are examples of using in-text citation with web pages.
Entire website with author: In-text citation Parents play an important role in helping children learn techniques for coping with bullying (Kraizer).
Reference entry Kraizer, Sherryll. Safe Child. Coalition for Children, 2011, www.safechild.org.
Web page with no author: In-text citation The term Nittany Lion was coined by Penn State football player Joe Mason in 1904 ("All Things Nittany").
Reference entry "All Things Nittany." About Penn State. Penn State University, 2006, www.psu.edu/ur/about/nittanymascot.html.
In MLA style the author's name can be included either in the narrative text of your paper, or in parentheses following the reference to the source.
Author's name part of narrative:
Gass and Varonis found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic (163).
Author's name in parentheses:
One study found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic (Gass and Varonis 163).
Group as author: (American Psychological Association 123)
Multiple works: (separate each work with semi-colons)
Research shows that listening to a particular accent improves comprehension of accented speech in general (Gass and Varonis 143; Thomas 24).
One study found that “the listener's familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (Gass and Varonis 85).
Gass and Varonis found that “the listener’s familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (85).
Note: For quotations that are more than four lines of prose or three lines of verse, display quotations as an indented block of text (one inch from left margin) and omit quotation marks. Place your parenthetical citation at the end of the block of text, after the final punctuation mark.
In addition to awareness-raising, practicing listening to accented speech has been shown to improve listening comprehension. This article recommends developing listening training programs for library faculty and staff, based on research from the linguistics and language teaching fields. Even brief exposure to accented speech can help listeners improve their comprehension, thereby improving the level of service to international patrons. (O'Malley 19)
Works by Multiple Authors
When citing works by multiple authors, always spell out the word "and." When a source has three or more authors, only the first one shown in the source is normally given followed by et al.
One author: (Field 399)
Works Cited entry: Field, John. "Intelligibility and the Listener: The Role of Lexical Stress." TESOL Quarterly , vol. 39, no. 3, 2005, pp. 399-423.
Two authors: (Gass and Varonis 67)
Works Cited entry: Gass, Susan, and Evangeline M. Varonis. "The Effect of Familiarity on the Comprehensibility of Nonnative Speech." Language Learning , vol. 34, no. 1, 1984, pp. 65-89.
Three or more authors: (Munro et al. 70)
Works Cited entry: Munro, Murray J., et al. "Salient Accents, Covert Attitudes: Consciousness-raising for Pre-service Second Language Teachers." Prospect , vol. 21, no. 1, 2006, pp. 67-79.
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MLA Citation Style & Formatting 9th Edition
- Introduction to MLA Style
- MLA 9th Edition: Links to More MLA 9 Resources
- Citing Books
- Citing Articles
- Citing Internet Sources
- Creating a "Works Cited" List
- MLA Formatting Tips
- In-text Citations
- Image Citations & Captions
What is MLA Style?
MLA Style is a set of standards and guidelines to properly write and format papers. Developed by the Modern Language Association, MLA Style is the style typically used in the arts and humanities departments, including English and Literature classes.
This online guide is designed to help students with several areas of MLA Style including:
- Citing sources, both in print and online sources
- In-text citations
- Creating a Works Cited page
- Basic formatting
- Avoiding plagiarism
For more information about MLA Style, please refer to the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers , available in the reference section of the library.
Why do I need to use MLA Style?
Odds are that your instructor wants you to use MLA Style if you are in an English class or other humanities class (such as art, literature, etc.). MLA Style creates rules for students to follow when writing and formatting papers. Using MLA Style not only helps your instructors read and understand your work, but the act of creating citations and citing sources helps prevent plagiarism. Plagiarism is when you use a quote, idea, or any other kind of information from a source and present it as your own. If you don't cite your sources then you risk committing plagiarism, which is a serious academic offense that will or can get you expelled from school. So, to sum up the benefits of using MLA Style:
- It makes your life easier
- It makes your teacher's life easier
- It keeps you from getting kicked out of school
How do I use this guide?
The menu at the left of this guide can be used to learn more about print and electronic resources and how to properly create MLA citations for a Works Cited list. There are also links throughout this guide to tools, books and other resources to help you properly format an entire MLA formatted paper.
MLA LibGuide created by Lia Thomas, Librarian 1/10; updated by Connie Wong, Librarian 2/22
About MLA Style
MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (9 th ed.) offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page. According to MLA style, you must have a Works Cited page at the end of your research paper. All entries in the Works Cited page must correspond to the works cited in your main text. These entries are called citations . You need to create a citation for every resource you use in your paper or project. Citations can be created for print books, electronic books, magazine articles, newspaper articles, films, online videos, websites, songs, works of art, interviews, and the list goes on. Basically any kind of outside work referenced within your paper or project must have a corresponding MLA citation. These citations all appear alphabetically at the end of your paper or project in the above mentioned Works Cited page.
Guides & examples.
- MLA 9 Style Guide with Works Cited Example
- Purdue University's MLA Style
- MLA Handbook 9th edition (2021) All of the information here is based on information found in the 2021 MLA Handbook. It will be available in the Ready Reference section of the CSM Library: LB2369 .M52 2021 in a few weeks. The MLA Handbook 8th edition is available in the Reference Desk of the CSM Library: REF/LB2369.G53 2016
- Advice from the Editors (via MLA)
- NoodleTools Express
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For all online scholarly journals, provide the author(s) name(s), the name of the article in quotation marks, the title of the publication in italics, all
Author last name, First name. “Title of Article.” Website Name, Day Month Year, URL. MLA Works Cited entry
Author's Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article: Subtitle of Article.” Website, Day Month Year, URL. In-Text Citation. (Author's Last Name).
For articles found in online journals: Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Journal, volume, number, Date of Publication, URL. Example:.
Place the author's name in reverse order, the last name first, followed by a comma, and then the first name followed by a period. The title of
Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Page or Document." Title of Website, Name of Organization Affiliated with the Website, Date of
Author Last Name, First Name if available. “Title of Section.” Title of Website [if available], Publisher or sponsor of website [if available]
Author Last Name, First Name. “Title of Work.” Title of Site, Sponsor or Publisher [include only if different from website title or author], Date of Publication
MLA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the page number from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken, for example: (Smith
Author name (if present). “Webpage Title.” Website Name, Website publisher (omit if same as website name), Day Mon. Year published, URL. Example