• PRO Courses Guides New Tech Help Pro Expert Videos About wikiHow Pro Upgrade Sign In
  • EDIT Edit this Article
  • EXPLORE Tech Help Pro About Us Random Article Quizzes Request a New Article Community Dashboard This Or That Game Popular Categories Arts and Entertainment Artwork Books Movies Computers and Electronics Computers Phone Skills Technology Hacks Health Men's Health Mental Health Women's Health Relationships Dating Love Relationship Issues Hobbies and Crafts Crafts Drawing Games Education & Communication Communication Skills Personal Development Studying Personal Care and Style Fashion Hair Care Personal Hygiene Youth Personal Care School Stuff Dating All Categories Arts and Entertainment Finance and Business Home and Garden Relationship Quizzes Cars & Other Vehicles Food and Entertaining Personal Care and Style Sports and Fitness Computers and Electronics Health Pets and Animals Travel Education & Communication Hobbies and Crafts Philosophy and Religion Work World Family Life Holidays and Traditions Relationships Youth
  • Browse Articles
  • Learn Something New
  • Quizzes Hot
  • This Or That Game
  • Train Your Brain
  • Explore More
  • Support wikiHow
  • About wikiHow
  • Log in / Sign up
  • Education and Communications
  • Medical Studies

How to Write a Medical Case Study Report

Last Updated: April 18, 2024 Fact Checked

This article was medically reviewed by Mark Ziats, MD, PhD and by wikiHow staff writer, Jennifer Mueller, JD . Dr. Mark Ziats is an Internal Medicine Physician, Scientist, Entrepreneur, and the Medical Director of xBiotech. With over five years of experience, he specializes in biotechnology, genomics, and medical devices. He earned a Doctor of Medicine degree from Baylor College of Medicine, a Ph.D. in Genetics from the University of Cambridge, and a BS in Biochemistry and Chemistry from Clemson University. He also completed the INNoVATE Program in Biotechnology Entrepreneurship at The Johns Hopkins University - Carey Business School. Dr. Ziats is board certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine. There are 15 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 186,984 times.

You've encountered an interesting and unusual case on your rounds, and a colleague or supervising physician says, "Why don't you write up a case study report?" If you've never written one before, that might sound intimidating, but it's a great way to get started in medical writing. Case studies always follow a standard structure and format, so the writing is very formulaic once you get the hang of it. Read on for a step-by-step guide to writing your first case study report.

What is a case study report?

Step 1 A case study report is an academic publication describing an unusual or unique case.

  • Medical students or residents typically do the bulk of the writing of the report. If you're just starting your medical career, a case study report is a great way to get a publication under your belt. [2] X Research source

Step 2 Your report discusses the case presented by one patient.

  • If the patient is a minor or is incapable of giving informed consent, get consent from their parents or closest relative. [4] X Trustworthy Source PubMed Central Journal archive from the U.S. National Institutes of Health Go to source
  • Your hospital likely has specific consent forms to use. Ask your supervising physician if you're not sure where to get one.
  • Some journals also have their own consent form. Check your target journal's author or submission information to make sure. [5] X Research source

How is a case study report structured?

Step 1 A typical report consists of an abstract, intro, case description, discussion, and conclusion.

  • Even though the introduction is the first part of a case study report, doctors typically write it last. You'll have a better idea of how to introduce your case study to readers after you've written it.
  • Your abstract comes at the top, before the introduction, and provides a brief summary of the entire report. Unless your case study is published in an open-access journal, the abstract is the only part of the article many readers will see.

Step 2 Check your target journal for possible variations.

  • Many journals offer templates and checklists you can use to make sure your case study includes everything necessary and is formatted properly—take advantage of these! Some journals, such as BMJ Case Reports , require all case studies submitted to use their templates.

Drafting Your Medical Case Study Report

Step 1 Pull all of the hospital records for the case.

  • Patient description
  • Chronological case history
  • Physical exam results
  • Results of any pathological tests, imaging, or other investigations
  • Treatment plan
  • Expected outcome of treatment
  • Actual outcome of treatment

Step 2 Write a draft of the case presentation.

  • Why the patient sought medical help (you can even use their own words)
  • Important information that helped you settle on your diagnosis
  • The results of your clinical examination, including diagnostic tests and their results, along with any helpful images
  • A description of the treatment plan
  • The outcome, including how and why treatment ended and how long the patient was under your care [11] X Trustworthy Source PubMed Central Journal archive from the U.S. National Institutes of Health Go to source

Step 3 Research the existing literature on the patient's condition and treatment.

  • You will need references to back up symptoms of the condition, common treatment, and the expected outcome of that common treatment.
  • Use your research to paint a picture of the usual case of a patient with a similar condition—it'll help you show how unusual and different your patient's case is.
  • Generally, aim for around 20 references—no fewer than 15, but no more than 25. [13] X Trustworthy Source PubMed Central Journal archive from the U.S. National Institutes of Health Go to source

Step 4 Write a section discussing the case in light of your research.

  • Close your discussion section with a summary of the lessons learned from the case and why it's significant to consider when treating similar cases in the future.
  • Outline any open questions that remain. You might also provide suggestions for future research.

Step 5 Complete your introduction and conclusion after you've written the body.

  • In your conclusion, you might also give suggestions or recommendations to readers based on what you learned as a result of the case.
  • Some journals don't want a separate conclusion section. If that's the case for one of your target journals, just move this paragraph to the end of your discussion section.

Polishing Your Report for Submission to Publishers

Step 1 Come up with a title for your case study.

  • Most titles are fewer than 10 words long and include the name of the disease or condition treated.
  • You might also include the treatment used and whether the outcome was successful. When deciding what to include, think about the reason you wrote the case study in the first place and why you think it's important for other clinicians to read.

Step 2 Identify the authors of the report on the title page.

  • Made a significant intellectual contribution to the case study report
  • Was involved in the medical care of the patient reported
  • Can explain and defend the data presented in the report
  • Has approved the final manuscript before submission for publication

Step 3 Write an abstract summarizing the entire article.

  • Keep in mind that the abstract is not just going to be the first thing people read—it will often be the only thing people read. Make sure that if someone is going to walk away having only read the abstract, they'll still get the same message they would have if they read the whole thing.
  • There are 2 basic types of abstract: narrative and structured. A narrative abstract is a single paragraph written in narrative prose. A structured abstract includes headings that correspond with the sections of the paper, then a brief summary of each section. Use the format preferred by your target journal.

Step 4 Choose keywords that will help readers find your case study.

  • Look for keywords that are relevant to your field or sub-field and directly related to the content of your article, such as the name of the condition or specific treatments you used.
  • Most journals allow 4-8 keywords but check the submission guidelines of your target journal to make sure.

Step 5 Obscure the patient's identity.

  • Blur out the patient's face as well as any tattoos, birthmarks, or unrelated scars that are visible in diagnostic images.

Step 6 Include your acknowledgments and conflict of interest statement.

  • It's common to thank the patient, but that's up to you. Even if you don't, include a statement indicating that you have the patient's written, informed consent to publish the information.
  • Read the journal's submission guidelines for a definition of what that journal considers a conflict of interest. They're generally the same, but some might be stricter than others. [22] X Research source

Step 7 Compile and format your reference section.

  • If you're not familiar with the citation style used by your target journal, check online for a guide. There might also be one available at your hospital or medical school library.
  • Medical librarians can also help with citation style and references if you run into something tricky—don't just wing it! Correct citation style insures that readers can access the materials you cite.

Step 8 Get feedback on your final draft.

  • It's also a good idea to get a beta reader who isn't a medical professional. Their comments can help you figure out where you need to clarify your points.
  • Read a lot of case studies published in your target journals—it will help you internalize the tone and style that journal is looking for.

Submitting Your Report to Publishers

Step 1 Choose target journals that publish similar content.

  • Look into the background and reputation of journals before you decide to submit to them. Only seek publication from reputable journals in which articles go through a peer-review process.
  • Find out what publishing fees the journals charge. Keep in mind that open-access journals tend to charge higher publishing fees. [26] X Research source
  • Read each journal's submission and editorial guidelines carefully. They'll tell you exactly how to format your case study, how long each section should be, and what citation style to use. [27] X Research source
  • For electronic journals that only publish case reports, try BMJ Case Reports , Journal of Medical Case Reports , or Radiology Case Reports .

Step 2 Submit your manuscript according to the journal's requirements.

  • If your manuscript isn't suitable for the journal you submitted to, the journal might offer to forward it to an associated journal where it would be a better fit.
  • When your manuscript is provisionally accepted, the journal will send it to other doctors for evaluation under the peer-review process.
  • Most medical journals don't accept simultaneous submissions, meaning you'll have to submit to your first choice, wait for their decision, then move to the next journal on the list if they don't bite.

Step 3 Revise your manuscript based on peer review comments.

  • Along with your revised manuscript, include a letter with your response to each of the reviewer's comments. Where you made revisions, add page numbers to indicate where the revisions are that address that reviewer's comments.
  • Sometimes, doctors involved in the peer review process will indicate that the journal should reject the manuscript. If that's the case, you'll get a letter explaining why your case study report won't be published and you're free to submit it elsewhere.

Step 4 Complete final copy-editing if the editors approve your article.

  • Some journals require you to have your article professionally copy-edited at your own cost while others do this in-house. The editors will let you know what you're responsible for.

Step 5 Pay the article processing charge if your article is accepted.

  • With your acceptance letter, you'll get instructions on how to make payment and how much you owe. Take note of the deadline and make sure you pay it as soon as possible to avoid publication delays.
  • Some journals will publish for free, with an "open-access option" that allows you to pay a fee only if you want open access to your article. [32] X Research source

Step 6 Sign your publishing agreement.

  • Through the publishing agreement, you assign your copyright in the article to the journal. This allows the journal to legally publish your work. That assignment can be exclusive or non-exclusive and may only last for a specific term. Read these details carefully!
  • If you published an open-access article, you don't assign the copyright to the publisher. The publishing agreement merely gives the journal the right to publish the "Version of Record." [33] X Research source

How do I find a suitable case for a report?

Step 1 Keep your eye out for unusual or interesting cases.

  • A rare disease, or unusual presentation of any disease
  • An unusual combination of diseases or conditions
  • A difficult or inconclusive diagnosis
  • Unexpected developments or responses to treatment
  • Personal impact
  • Observations that shed new light on the patient's disease or condition

Step 2 Discuss possible cases with your medical team.

  • There might be other members of your medical team that want to help with writing. If so, use one of these brainstorming sessions to divvy up writing responsibilities in a way that makes the most sense given your relative skills and experience.
  • Senior doctors might also be able to name some journals that would potentially publish your case study. [36] X Research source

Expert Q&A

You Might Also Like

Use a Stethoscope

  • ↑ https://www.elsevier.com/connect/authors-update/the-dos-and-donts-of-writing-and-publishing-case-reports
  • ↑ https://www.bmj.com/content/350/bmj.h2693
  • ↑ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5686928/
  • ↑ https://health.usf.edu/medicine/internalmedicine/im-impact/~/media/B3A3421F4C144FA090AE965C21791A3C.ashx
  • ↑ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2597880/
  • ↑ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6476221/
  • ↑ https://www.springer.com/gp/authors-editors/authorandreviewertutorials/writing-a-journal-manuscript/title-abstract-and-keywords/10285522
  • ↑ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2597880/
  • ↑ https://thelancet.com/pb/assets/raw/Lancet/authors/tl-info-for-authors.pdf
  • ↑ https://jmedicalcasereports.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13256-017-1351-y
  • ↑ https://guides.himmelfarb.gwu.edu/casereports
  • ↑ https://casereports.bmj.com/pages/authors/
  • ↑ https://jmedicalcasereports.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1752-1947-7-239
  • ↑ https://research.chm.msu.edu/students-residents/writing-a-case-report
  • ↑ https://authorservices.taylorandfrancis.com/publishing-your-research/moving-through-production/copyright-for-journal-authors/#

About This Article

Mark Ziats, MD, PhD

Medical Disclaimer

The content of this article is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, examination, diagnosis, or treatment. You should always contact your doctor or other qualified healthcare professional before starting, changing, or stopping any kind of health treatment.

Read More...

To start a medical case study report, first choose a title that clearly reflects the contents of the report. You’ll also need to list any participating authors and develop a list of keywords, as well as an abstract summarizing the report. Your report will need to include an introduction summarizing the context of the report, as well as a detailed presentation of the case. Don’t forget to include a thorough citation list and acknowledgements of anyone else who participated in the study. For more tips from our Medical co-author, including how to get your case study report published, keep reading! Did this summary help you? Yes No

  • Send fan mail to authors

Reader Success Stories

Dr V K Rao

Sep 5, 2020

Did this article help you?

Dr V K Rao

Asfia Banu Pasha

Apr 10, 2017

Mason

Jun 20, 2021

C. L.

Mar 1, 2017

Am I a Narcissist or an Empath Quiz

Featured Articles

Make Paper Look Old

Trending Articles

How to Make Money on Cash App: A Beginner's Guide

Watch Articles

Make Homemade Liquid Dish Soap

  • Terms of Use
  • Privacy Policy
  • Do Not Sell or Share My Info
  • Not Selling Info

Get all the best how-tos!

Sign up for wikiHow's weekly email newsletter

Library Home

Health Case Studies

(29 reviews)

sample of a medical case study

Glynda Rees, British Columbia Institute of Technology

Rob Kruger, British Columbia Institute of Technology

Janet Morrison, British Columbia Institute of Technology

Copyright Year: 2017

Publisher: BCcampus

Language: English

Formats Available

Conditions of use.

Attribution-ShareAlike

Learn more about reviews.

Reviewed by Jessica Sellars, Medical assistant office instructor, Blue Mountain Community College on 10/11/23

This is a book of compiled and very well organized patient case studies. The author has broken it up by disease patient was experiencing and even the healthcare roles that took place in this patients care. There is a well thought out direction and... read more

Comprehensiveness rating: 5 see less

This is a book of compiled and very well organized patient case studies. The author has broken it up by disease patient was experiencing and even the healthcare roles that took place in this patients care. There is a well thought out direction and plan. There is an appendix to refer to as well if you are needing to find something specific quickly. I have been looking for something like this to help my students have a base to do their project on. This is the most comprehensive version I have found on the subject.

Content Accuracy rating: 5

This is a book compiled of medical case studies. It is very accurate and can be used to learn from great care and mistakes.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 5

This material is very relevant in this context. It also has plenty of individual case studies to utilize in many ways in all sorts of medical courses. This is a very useful textbook and it will continue to be useful for a very long time as you can still learn from each study even if medicine changes through out the years.

Clarity rating: 5

The author put a lot of thought into the ease of accessibility and reading level of the target audience. There is even a "how to use this resource" section which could be extremely useful to students.

Consistency rating: 5

The text follows a very consistent format throughout the book.

Modularity rating: 5

Each case study is individual broken up and in a group of similar case studies. This makes it extremely easy to utilize.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 5

The book is very organized and the appendix is through. It flows seamlessly through each case study.

Interface rating: 5

I had no issues navigating this book, It was clearly labeled and very easy to move around in.

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

I did not catch any grammar errors as I was going through the book

Cultural Relevance rating: 5

This is a challenging question for any medical textbook. It is very culturally relevant to those in medical or medical office degrees.

I have been looking for something like this for years. I am so happy to have finally found it.

Reviewed by Cindy Sun, Assistant Professor, Marshall University on 1/7/23

Interestingly, this is not a case of ‘you get what you pay for’. Instead, not only are the case studies organized in a fashion for ease of use through a detailed table of contents, the authors have included more support for both faculty and... read more

Interestingly, this is not a case of ‘you get what you pay for’. Instead, not only are the case studies organized in a fashion for ease of use through a detailed table of contents, the authors have included more support for both faculty and students. For faculty, the introduction section titled ‘How to use this resource’ and individual notes to educators before each case study contain application tips. An appendix overview lists key elements as issues / concepts, scenario context, and healthcare roles for each case study. For students, learning objectives are presented at the beginning of each case study to provide a framework of expectations.

The content is presented accurately and realistic.

The case studies read similar to ‘A Day In the Life of…’ with detailed intraprofessional communications similar to what would be overheard in patient care areas. The authors present not only the view of the patient care nurse, but also weave interprofessional vantage points through each case study by including patient interaction with individual professionals such as radiology, physician, etc.

In addition to objective assessment findings, the authors integrate standard orders for each diagnosis including medications, treatments, and tests allowing the student to incorporate pathophysiology components to their assessments.

Each case study is arranged in the same framework for consistency and ease of use.

This compilation of eight healthcare case studies focusing on new onset and exacerbation of prevalent diagnoses, such as heart failure, deep vein thrombosis, cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease advancing to pneumonia.

Each case study has a photo of the ‘patient’. Simple as this may seem, it gives an immediate mental image for the student to focus.

Interface rating: 4

As noted by previous reviewers, most of the links do not connect active web pages. This may be due to the multiple options for accessing this resource (pdf download, pdf electronic, web view, etc.).

Grammatical Errors rating: 4

A minor weakness that faculty will probably need to address prior to use is regarding specific term usages differences between Commonwealth countries and United States, such as lung sound descriptors as ‘quiet’ in place of ‘diminished’ and ‘puffers’ in place of ‘inhalers’.

The authors have provided a multicultural, multigenerational approach in selection of patient characteristics representing a snapshot of today’s patient population. Additionally, one case study focusing on heart failure is about a middle-aged adult, contrasting to the average aged patient the students would normally see during clinical rotations. This option provides opportunities for students to expand their knowledge on risk factors extending beyond age.

This resource is applicable to nursing students learning to care for patients with the specific disease processes presented in each case study or for the leadership students focusing on intraprofessional communication. Educators can assign as a supplement to clinical experiences or as an in-class application of knowledge.

Reviewed by Stephanie Sideras, Assistant Professor, University of Portland on 8/15/22

The eight case studies included in this text addressed high frequency health alterations that all nurses need to be able to manage competently. While diabetes was not highlighted directly, it was included as a potential comorbidity. The five... read more

The eight case studies included in this text addressed high frequency health alterations that all nurses need to be able to manage competently. While diabetes was not highlighted directly, it was included as a potential comorbidity. The five overarching learning objectives pulled from the Institute of Medicine core competencies will clearly resonate with any faculty familiar with Quality and Safety Education for Nurses curriculum.

The presentation of symptoms, treatments and management of the health alterations was accurate. Dialogue between the the interprofessional team was realistic. At times the formatting of lab results was confusing as they reflected reference ranges specific to the Canadian healthcare system but these occurrences were minimal and could be easily adapted.

The focus for learning from these case studies was communication - patient centered communication and interprofessional team communication. Specific details, such as drug dosing, was minimized, which increases longevity and allows for easy individualization of the case data.

While some vocabulary was specific to the Canadian healthcare system, overall the narrative was extremely engaging and easy to follow. Subjective case data from patient or provider were formatted in italics and identified as 'thoughts'. Objective and behavioral case data were smoothly integrated into the narrative.

The consistency of formatting across the eight cases was remarkable. Specific learning objectives are identified for each case and these remain consistent across the range of cases, varying only in the focus for the goals for each different health alterations. Each case begins with presentation of essential patient background and the progress across the trajectory of illness as the patient moves from location to location encountering different healthcare professionals. Many of the characters (the triage nurse in the Emergency Department, the phlebotomist) are consistent across the case situations. These consistencies facilitate both application of a variety of teaching methods and student engagement with the situated learning approach.

Case data is presented by location and begins with the patient's first encounter with the healthcare system. This allows for an examination of how specific trajectories of illness are manifested and how care management needs to be prioritized at different stages. This approach supports discussions of care transitions and the complexity of the associated interprofessional communication.

The text is well organized. The case that has two levels of complexity is clearly identified

The internal links between the table of contents and case specific locations work consistently. In the EPUB and the Digital PDF the external hyperlinks are inconsistently valid.

The grammatical errors were minimal and did not detract from readability

Cultural diversity is present across the cases in factors including race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, family dynamics and sexual orientation.

The level of detail included in these cases supports a teaching approach to address all three spectrums of learning - knowledge, skills and attitudes - necessary for the development of competent practice. I also appreciate the inclusion of specific assessment instruments that would facilitate a discussion of evidence based practice. I will enjoy using these case to promote clinical reasoning discussions of data that is noticed and interpreted with the resulting prioritizes that are set followed by reflections that result from learner choices.

Reviewed by Chris Roman, Associate Professor, Butler University on 5/19/22

It would be extremely difficult for a book of clinical cases to comprehensively cover all of medicine, and this text does not try. Rather, it provides cases related to common medical problems and introduces them in a way that allows for various... read more

Comprehensiveness rating: 4 see less

It would be extremely difficult for a book of clinical cases to comprehensively cover all of medicine, and this text does not try. Rather, it provides cases related to common medical problems and introduces them in a way that allows for various learning strategies to be employed to leverage the cases for deeper student learning and application.

The narrative form of the cases is less subject to issues of accuracy than a more content-based book would be. That said, the cases are realistic and reasonable, avoiding being too mundane or too extreme.

These cases are narrative and do not include many specific mentions of drugs, dosages, or other aspects of clinical care that may grow/evolve as guidelines change. For this reason, the cases should be “evergreen” and can be modified to suit different types of learners.

Clarity rating: 4

The text is written in very accessible language and avoids heavy use of technical language. Depending on the level of learner, this might even be too simplistic and omit some details that would be needed for physicians, pharmacists, and others to make nuanced care decisions.

The format is very consistent with clear labeling at transition points.

The authors point out in the introductory materials that this text is designed to be used in a modular fashion. Further, they have built in opportunities to customize each cases, such as giving dates of birth at “19xx” to allow for adjustments based on instructional objectives, etc.

The organization is very easy to follow.

I did not identify any issues in navigating the text.

The text contains no grammatical errors, though the language is a little stiff/unrealistic in some cases.

Cases involve patients and members of the care team that are of varying ages, genders, and racial/ethnic backgrounds

Reviewed by Trina Larery, Assistant Professor, Pittsburg State University on 4/5/22

The book covers common scenarios, providing allied health students insight into common health issues. The information in the book is thorough and easily modified if needed to include other scenarios not listed. The material was easy to understand... read more

The book covers common scenarios, providing allied health students insight into common health issues. The information in the book is thorough and easily modified if needed to include other scenarios not listed. The material was easy to understand and apply to the classroom. The E-reader format included hyperlinks that bring the students to subsequent clinical studies.

Content Accuracy rating: 4

The treatments were explained and rationales were given, which can be very helpful to facilitate effective learning for a nursing student or novice nurse. The case studies were accurate in explanation. The DVT case study incorrectly identifies the location of the clot in the popliteal artery instead of in the vein.

The content is relevant to a variety of different types of health care providers and due to the general nature of the cases, will remain relevant over time. Updates should be made annually to the hyperlinks and to assure current standard of practice is still being met.

Clear, simple and easy to read.

Consistent with healthcare terminology and framework throughout all eight case studies.

The text is modular. Cases can be used individually within a unit on the given disease process or relevant sections of a case could be used to illustrate a specific point providing great flexibility. The appendix is helpful in locating content specific to a certain diagnosis or a certain type of health care provider.

The book is well organized, presenting in a logical clear fashion. The appendix allows the student to move about the case study without difficulty.

The interface is easy and simple to navigate. Some links to external sources might need to be updated regularly since those links are subject to change based on current guidelines. A few hyperlinks had "page not found".

Few grammatical errors were noted in text.

The case studies include people of different ethnicities, socioeconomic status, ages, and genders to make this a very useful book.

I enjoyed reading the text. It was interesting and relevant to today's nursing student. There are roughly 25 broken online links or "pages not found", care needs to be taken to update at least annually and assure links are valid and utilizing the most up to date information.

Reviewed by Benjamin Silverberg, Associate Professor/Clinician, West Virginia University on 3/24/22

The appendix reviews the "key roles" and medical venues found in all 8 cases, but is fairly spartan on medical content. The table of contents at the beginning only lists the cases and locations of care. It can be a little tricky to figure out what... read more

Comprehensiveness rating: 3 see less

The appendix reviews the "key roles" and medical venues found in all 8 cases, but is fairly spartan on medical content. The table of contents at the beginning only lists the cases and locations of care. It can be a little tricky to figure out what is going on where, especially since each case is largely conversation-based. Since this presents 8 cases (really 7 with one being expanded upon), there are many medical topics (and venues) that are not included. It's impossible to include every kind of situation, but I'd love to see inclusion of sexual health, renal pathology, substance abuse, etc.

Though there are differences in how care can be delivered based on personal style, changing guidelines, available supplies, etc, the medical accuracy seems to be high. I did not detect bias or industry influence.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 4

Medications are generally listed as generics, with at least current dosing recommendations. The text gives a picture of what care looks like currently, but will be a little challenging to update based on new guidelines (ie, it can be hard to find the exact page in which a medication is dosed/prescribed). Even if the text were to be a little out of date, an instructor can use that to point out what has changed (and why).

Clear text, usually with definitions of medical slang or higher-tier vocabulary. Minimal jargon and there are instances where the "characters" are sorting out the meaning as well, making it accessible for new learners, too.

Overall, the style is consistent between cases - largely broken up into scenes and driven by conversation rather than descriptions of what is happening.

There are 8 (well, again, 7) cases which can be reviewed in any order. Case #2 builds upon #1, which is intentional and a good idea, though personally I would have preferred one case to have different possible outcomes or even a recurrence of illness. Each scene within a case is reasonably short.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 4

These cases are modular and don't really build on concepts throughout. As previously stated, case #2 builds upon #1, but beyond that, there is no progression. (To be sure, the authors suggest using case #1 for newer learners and #2 for more advanced ones.) The text would benefit from thematic grouping, a longer introduction and debriefing for each case (there are learning objectives but no real context in medical education nor questions to reflect on what was just read), and progressively-increasing difficulty in medical complexity, ethics, etc.

I used the PDF version and had no interface issues. There are minimal photographs and charts. Some words are marked in blue but those did not seem to be hyperlinked anywhere.

No noticeable errors in grammar, spelling, or formatting were noted.

I appreciate that some diversity of age and ethnicity were offered, but this could be improved. There were Canadian Indian and First Nations patients, for example, as well as other characters with implied diversity, but there didn't seem to be any mention of gender diverse or non-heterosexual people, or disabilities. The cases tried to paint family scenes (the first patient's dog was fairly prominently mentioned) to humanize them. Including more cases would allow for more opportunities to include sex/gender minorities, (hidden) disabilities, etc.

The text (originally from 2017) could use an update. It could be used in conjunction with other Open Texts, as a compliment to other coursework, or purely by itself. The focus is meant to be on improving communication, but there are only 3 short pages at the beginning of the text considering those issues (which are really just learning objectives). In addition to adding more cases and further diversity, I personally would love to see more discussion before and after the case to guide readers (and/or instructors). I also wonder if some of the ambiguity could be improved by suggesting possible health outcomes - this kind of counterfactual comparison isn't possible in real life and could be really interesting in a text. Addition of comprehension/discussion questions would also be worthwhile.

Reviewed by Danielle Peterson, Assistant Professor, University of Saint Francis on 12/31/21

This text provides readers with 8 case studies which include both chronic and acute healthcare issues. Although not comprehensive in regard to types of healthcare conditions, it provides a thorough look at the communication between healthcare... read more

This text provides readers with 8 case studies which include both chronic and acute healthcare issues. Although not comprehensive in regard to types of healthcare conditions, it provides a thorough look at the communication between healthcare workers in acute hospital settings. The cases are primarily set in the inpatient hospital setting, so the bulk of the clinical information is basic emergency care and inpatient protocol: vitals, breathing, medication management, etc. The text provides a table of contents at opening of the text and a handy appendix at the conclusion of the text that outlines each case’s issue(s), scenario, and healthcare roles. No index or glossary present.

Although easy to update, it should be noted that the cases are taking place in a Canadian healthcare system. Terms may be unfamiliar to some students including “province,” “operating theatre,” “physio/physiotherapy,” and “porter.” Units of measurement used include Celsius and meters. Also, the issue of managed care, health insurance coverage, and length of stay is missing for American students. These are primary issues that dictate much of the healthcare system in the US and a primary job function of social workers, nurse case managers, and medical professionals in general. However, instructors that wish to add this to the case studies could do so easily.

The focus of this text is on healthcare communication which makes it less likely to become obsolete. Much of the clinical information is stable healthcare practice that has been standard of care for quite some time. Nevertheless, given the nature of text, updates would be easy to make. Hyperlinks should be updated to the most relevant and trustworthy sources and checked frequently for effectiveness.

The spacing that was used to note change of speaker made for ease of reading. Although unembellished and plain, I expect students to find this format easy to digest and interesting, especially since the script is appropriately balanced with ‘human’ qualities like the current TV shows and songs, the use of humor, and nonverbal cues.

A welcome characteristic of this text is its consistency. Each case is presented in a similar fashion and the roles of the healthcare team are ‘played’ by the same character in each of the scenarios. This allows students to see how healthcare providers prioritize cases and juggle the needs of multiple patients at once. Across scenarios, there was inconsistency in when clinical terms were hyperlinked.

The text is easily divisible into smaller reading sections. However, since the nature of the text is script-narrative format, if significant reorganization occurs, one will need to make sure that the communication of the script still makes sense.

The text is straightforward and presented in a consistent fashion: learning objectives, case history, a script of what happened before the patient enters the healthcare setting, and a script of what happens once the patient arrives at the healthcare setting. The authors use the term, “ideal interactions,” and I would agree that these cases are in large part, ‘best case scenarios.’ Due to this, the case studies are well organized, clear, logical, and predictable. However, depending on the level of student, instructors may want to introduce complications that are typical in the hospital setting.

The interface is pleasing and straightforward. With exception to the case summary and learning objectives, the cases are in narrative, script format. Each case study supplies a photo of the ‘patient’ and one of the case studies includes a link to a 3-minute video that introduces the reader to the patient/case. One of the highlights of this text is the use of hyperlinks to various clinical practices (ABG, vital signs, transfer of patient). Unfortunately, a majority of the links are broken. However, since this is an open text, instructors can update the links to their preference.

Although not free from grammatical errors, those that were noticed were minimal and did not detract from reading.

Cultural Relevance rating: 4

Cultural diversity is visible throughout the patients used in the case studies and includes factors such as age, race, socioeconomic status, family dynamics, and sexual orientation. A moderate level of diversity is noted in the healthcare team with some stereotypes: social workers being female, doctors primarily male.

As a social work instructor, I was grateful to find a text that incorporates this important healthcare role. I would have liked to have seen more content related to advance directives, mediating decision making between the patient and care team, emotional and practical support related to initial diagnosis and discharge planning, and provision of support to colleagues, all typical roles of a medical social worker. I also found it interesting that even though social work was included in multiple scenarios, the role was only introduced on the learning objectives page for the oncology case.

sample of a medical case study

Reviewed by Crystal Wynn, Associate Professor, Virginia State University on 7/21/21

The text covers a variety of chronic diseases within the cases; however, not all of the common disease states were included within the text. More chronic diseases need to be included such as diabetes, cancer, and renal failure. Not all allied... read more

The text covers a variety of chronic diseases within the cases; however, not all of the common disease states were included within the text. More chronic diseases need to be included such as diabetes, cancer, and renal failure. Not all allied health care team members are represented within the case study. Key terms appear throughout the case study textbook and readers are able to click on a hyperlink which directs them to the definition and an explanation of the key term.

Content is accurate, error-free and unbiased.

The content is up-to-date, but not in a way that will quickly make the text obsolete within a short period of time. The text is written and/or arranged in such a way that necessary updates will be relatively easy and straightforward to implement.

The text is written in lucid, accessible prose, and provides adequate context for any jargon/technical terminology used

The text is internally consistent in terms of terminology and framework.

The text is easily and readily divisible into smaller reading sections that can be assigned at different points within the course. Each case can be divided into a chronic disease state unit, which will allow the reader to focus on one section at a time.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 3

The topics in the text are presented in a logical manner. Each case provides an excessive amount of language that provides a description of the case. The cases in this text reads more like a novel versus a clinical textbook. The learning objectives listed within each case should be in the form of questions or activities that could be provided as resources for instructors and teachers.

Interface rating: 3

There are several hyperlinks embedded within the textbook that are not functional.

The text contains no grammatical errors.

Cultural Relevance rating: 3

The text is not culturally insensitive or offensive in any way. More examples of cultural inclusiveness is needed throughout the textbook. The cases should be indicative of individuals from a variety of races and ethnicities.

Reviewed by Rebecca Hillary, Biology Instructor, Portland Community College on 6/15/21

This textbook consists of a collection of clinical case studies that can be applicable to a wide range of learning environments from supplementing an undergraduate Anatomy and Physiology Course, to including as part of a Medical or other health... read more

This textbook consists of a collection of clinical case studies that can be applicable to a wide range of learning environments from supplementing an undergraduate Anatomy and Physiology Course, to including as part of a Medical or other health care program. I read the textbook in E-reader format and this includes hyperlinks that bring the students to subsequent clinical study if the book is being used in a clinical classroom. This book is significantly more comprehensive in its approach from other case studies I have read because it provides a bird’s eye view of the many clinicians, technicians, and hospital staff working with one patient. The book also provides real time measurements for patients that change as they travel throughout the hospital until time of discharge.

Each case gave an accurate sense of the chaos that would be present in an emergency situation and show how the conditions affect the practitioners as well as the patients. The reader gets an accurate big picture--a feel for each practitioner’s point of view as well as the point of view of the patient and the patient’s family as the clock ticks down and the patients are subjected to a number of procedures. The clinical information contained in this textbook is all in hyperlinks containing references to clinical skills open text sources or medical websites. I did find one broken link on an external medical resource.

The diseases presented are relevant and will remain so. Some of the links are directly related to the Canadian Medical system so they may not be applicable to those living in other regions. Clinical links may change over time but the text itself will remain relevant.

Each case study clearly presents clinical data as is it recorded in real time.

Each case study provides the point of view of several practitioners and the patient over several days. While each of the case studies covers different pathology they all follow this same format, several points of view and data points, over a number of days.

The case studies are divided by days and this was easy to navigate as a reader. It would be easy to assign one case study per body system in an Anatomy and Physiology course, or to divide them up into small segments for small in class teaching moments.

The topics are presented in an organized way showing clinical data over time and each case presents a large number of view points. For example, in the first case study, the patient is experiencing difficulty breathing. We follow her through several days from her entrance to the emergency room. We meet her X Ray Technicians, Doctor, Nurses, Medical Assistant, Porter, Physiotherapist, Respiratory therapist, and the Lab Technicians running her tests during her stay. Each practitioner paints the overall clinical picture to the reader.

I found the text easy to navigate. There were not any figures included in the text, only clinical data organized in charts. The figures were all accessible via hyperlink. Some figures within the textbook illustrating patient scans could have been helpful but I did not have trouble navigating the links to visualize the scans.

I did not see any grammatical errors in the text.

The patients in the text are a variety of ages and have a variety of family arrangements but there is not much diversity among the patients. Our seven patients in the eight case studies are mostly white and all cis gendered.

Some of the case studies, for example the heart failure study, show clinical data before and after drug treatments so the students can get a feel for mechanism in physiological action. I also liked that the case studies included diet and lifestyle advice for the patients rather than solely emphasizing these pharmacological interventions. Overall, I enjoyed reading through these case studies and I plan to utilize them in my Anatomy and Physiology courses.

Reviewed by Richard Tarpey, Assistant Professor, Middle Tennessee State University on 5/11/21

As a case study book, there is no index or glossary. However, medical and technical terms provide a useful link to definitions and explanations that will prove useful to students unfamiliar with the terms. The information provided is appropriate... read more

As a case study book, there is no index or glossary. However, medical and technical terms provide a useful link to definitions and explanations that will prove useful to students unfamiliar with the terms. The information provided is appropriate for entry-level health care students. The book includes important health problems, but I would like to see coverage of at least one more chronic/lifestyle issue such as diabetes. The book covers adult issues only.

Content is accurate without bias

The content of the book is relevant and up-to-date. It addresses conditions that are prevalent in today's population among adults. There are no pediatric cases, but this does not significantly detract from the usefulness of the text. The format of the book lends to easy updating of data or information.

The book is written with clarity and is easy to read. The writing style is accessible and technical terminology is explained with links to more information.

Consistency is present. Lack of consistency is typically a problem with case study texts, but this book is consistent with presentation, format, and terminology throughout each of the eight cases.

The book has high modularity. Each of the case studies can be used independently from the others providing flexibility. Additionally, each case study can be partitioned for specific learning objectives based on the learning objectives of the course or module.

The book is well organized, presenting students conceptually with differing patient flow patterns through a hospital. The patient information provided at the beginning of each case is a wonderful mechanism for providing personal context for the students as they consider the issues. Many case studies focus on the problem and the organization without students getting a patient's perspective. The patient perspective is well represented in these cases.

The navigation through the cases is good. There are some terminology and procedure hyperlinks within the cases that do not work when accessed. This is troubling if you intend to use the text for entry-level health care students since many of these links are critical for a full understanding of the case.

There are some non-US variants of spelling and a few grammatical errors, but these do not detract from the content of the messages of each case.

The book is inclusive of differing backgrounds and perspectives. No insensitive or offensive references were found.

I like this text for its application flexibility. The book is useful for non-clinical healthcare management students to introduce various healthcare-related concepts and terminology. The content is also helpful for the identification of healthcare administration managerial issues for students to consider. The book has many applications.

Reviewed by Paula Baldwin, Associate Professor/Communication Studies, Western Oregon University on 5/10/21

The different case studies fall on a range, from crisis care to chronic illness care. read more

The different case studies fall on a range, from crisis care to chronic illness care.

The contents seems to be written as they occurred to represent the most complete picture of each medical event's occurence.

These case studies are from the Canadian medical system, but that does not interfere with it's applicability.

It is written for a medical audience, so the terminology is mostly formal and technical.

Some cases are shorter than others and some go in more depth, but it is not problematic.

The eight separate case studies is the perfect size for a class in the quarter system. You could combine this with other texts, videos or learning modalities, or use it alone.

As this is a case studies book, there is not a need for a logical progression in presentation of topics.

No problems in terms of interface.

I have not seen any grammatical errors.

I did not see anything that was culturally insensitive.

I used this in a Health Communication class and it has been extraordinarily successful. My studies are analyzing the messaging for the good, the bad, and the questionable. The case studies are widely varied and it gives the class insights into hospital experiences, both front and back stage, that they would not normally be able to examine. I believe that because it is based real-life medical incidents, my students are finding the material highly engaging.

Reviewed by Marlena Isaac, Instructor, Aiken Technical College on 4/23/21

This text is great to walk through patient care with entry level healthcare students. The students are able to take in the information, digest it, then provide suggestions to how they would facilitate patient healing. Then when they are faced with... read more

This text is great to walk through patient care with entry level healthcare students. The students are able to take in the information, digest it, then provide suggestions to how they would facilitate patient healing. Then when they are faced with a situation in clinical they are not surprised and now how to move through it effectively.

The case studies provided accurate information that relates to the named disease.

It is relevant to health care studies and the development of critical thinking.

Cases are straightforward with great clinical information.

Clinical information is provided concisely.

Appropriate for clinical case study.

Presented to facilitate information gathering.

Takes a while to navigate in the browser.

Cultural Relevance rating: 1

Text lacks adequate representation of minorities.

Reviewed by Kim Garcia, Lecturer III, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley on 11/16/20

The book has 8 case studies, so obviously does not cover the whole of medicine, but the cases provided are descriptive and well developed. Cases are presented at different levels of difficulty, making the cases appropriate for students at... read more

The book has 8 case studies, so obviously does not cover the whole of medicine, but the cases provided are descriptive and well developed. Cases are presented at different levels of difficulty, making the cases appropriate for students at different levels of clinical knowledge. The human element of both patient and health care provider is well captured. The cases are presented with a focus on interprofessional interaction and collaboration, more so than teaching medical content.

Content is accurate and un-biased. No errors noted. Most diagnostic and treatment information is general so it will remain relevant over time. The content of these cases is more appropriate for teaching interprofessional collaboration and less so for teaching the medical care for each diagnosis.

The content is relevant to a variety of different types of health care providers (nurses, radiologic technicians, medical laboratory personnel, etc) and due to the general nature of the cases, will remain relevant over time.

Easy to read. Clear headings are provided for sections of each case study and these section headings clearly tell when time has passed or setting has changed. Enough description is provided to help set the scene for each part of the case. Much of the text is written in the form of dialogue involving patient, family and health care providers, making it easy to adapt for role play. Medical jargon is limited and links for medical terms are provided to other resources that expound on medical terms used.

The text is consistent in structure of each case. Learning objectives are provided. Cases generally start with the patient at home and move with the patient through admission, testing and treatment, using a variety of healthcare services and encountering a variety of personnel.

The text is modular. Cases could be used individually within a unit on the given disease process or relevant sections of a case could be used to illustrate a specific point. The appendix is helpful in locating content specific to a certain diagnosis or a certain type of health care provider.

Each case follows a patient in a logical, chronologic fashion. A clear table of contents and appendix are provided which allows the user to quickly locate desired content. It would be helpful if the items in the table of contents and appendix were linked to the corresponding section of the text.

The hyperlinks to content outside this book work, however using the back arrow on your browser returns you to the front page of the book instead of to the point at which you left the text. I would prefer it if the hyperlinks opened in a new window or tab so closing that window or tab would leave you back where you left the text.

No grammatical errors were noted.

The text is culturally inclusive and appropriate. Characters, both patients and care givers are of a variety of races, ethnicities, ages and backgrounds.

I enjoyed reading the cases and reviewing this text. I can think of several ways in which I will use this content.

Reviewed by Raihan Khan, Instructor/Assistant Professor, James Madison University on 11/3/20

The book contains several important health issues, however still missing some chronic health issues that the students should learn before they join the workforce, such as diabetes-related health issues suffered by the patients. read more

The book contains several important health issues, however still missing some chronic health issues that the students should learn before they join the workforce, such as diabetes-related health issues suffered by the patients.

The health information contained in the textbook is mostly accurate.

I think the book is written focusing on the current culture and health issues faced by the patients. To keep the book relevant in the future, the contexts especially the culture/lifestyle/health care modalities, etc. would need to be updated regularly.

The language is pretty simple, clear, and easy to read.

There is no complaint about consistency. One of the main issues of writing a book, consistency was well managed by the authors.

The book is easy to explore based on how easy the setup is. Students can browse to the specific section that they want to read without much hassle of finding the correct information.

The organization is simple but effective. The authors organized the book based on what can happen in a patient's life and what possible scenarios students should learn about the disease. From that perspective, the book does a good job.

The interface is easy and simple to navigate. Some links to external sources might need to be updated regularly since those links are subject to change that is beyond the author's control. It's frustrating for the reader when the external link shows no information.

The book is free of any major language and grammatical errors.

The book might do a little better in cultural competency. e.g. Last name Singh is mainly for Sikh people. In the text Harj and Priya Singh are Muslim. the authors can consult colleagues who are more familiar with those cultures and revise some cultural aspects of the cases mentioned in the book.

The book is a nice addition to the open textbook world. Hope to see more health issues covered by the book.

Reviewed by Ryan Sheryl, Assistant Professor, California State University, Dominguez Hills on 7/16/20

This text contains 8 medical case studies that reflect best practices at the time of publication. The text identifies 5 overarching learning objectives: interprofessional collaboration, client centered care, evidence-based practice, quality... read more

This text contains 8 medical case studies that reflect best practices at the time of publication. The text identifies 5 overarching learning objectives: interprofessional collaboration, client centered care, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, and informatics. While the case studies do not cover all medical conditions or bodily systems, the book is thorough in conveying details of various patients and medical team members in a hospital environment. Rather than an index or glossary at the end of the text, it contains links to outside websites for more information on medical tests and terms referenced in the cases.

The content provided is reflective of best practices in patient care, interdisciplinary collaboration, and communication at the time of publication. It is specifically accurate for the context of hospitals in Canada. The links provided throughout the text have the potential to supplement with up-to-date descriptions and definitions, however, many of them are broken (see notes in Interface section).

The content of the case studies reflects the increasingly complex landscape of healthcare, including a variety of conditions, ages, and personal situations of the clients and care providers. The text will require frequent updating due to the rapidly changing landscape of society and best practices in client care. For example, a future version may include inclusive practices with transgender clients, or address ways medical racism implicitly impacts client care (see notes in Cultural Relevance section).

The text is written clearly and presents thorough, realistic details about working and being treated in an acute hospital context.

The text is very straightforward. It is consistent in its structure and flow. It uses consistent terminology and follows a structured framework throughout.

Being a series of 8 separate case studies, this text is easily and readily divisible into smaller sections. The text was designed to be taken apart and used piece by piece in order to serve various learning contexts. The parts of each case study can also be used independently of each other to facilitate problem solving.

The topics in the case studies are presented clearly. The structure of each of the case studies proceeds in a similar fashion. All of the cases are set within the same hospital so the hospital personnel and service providers reappear across the cases, giving a textured portrayal of the experiences of the various service providers. The cases can be used individually, or one service provider can be studied across the various studies.

The text is very straightforward, without complex charts or images that could become distorted. Many of the embedded links are broken and require updating. The links that do work are a very useful way to define and expand upon medical terms used in the case studies.

Grammatical errors are minimal and do not distract from the flow of the text. In one instance the last name Singh is spelled Sing, and one patient named Fred in the text is referred to as Frank in the appendix.

The cases all show examples of health care personnel providing compassionate, client-centered care, and there is no overt discrimination portrayed. Two of the clients are in same-sex marriages and these are shown positively. It is notable, however, that the two cases presenting people of color contain more negative characteristics than the other six cases portraying Caucasian people. The people of color are the only two examples of clients who smoke regularly. In addition, the Indian client drinks and is overweight, while the First Nations client is the only one in the text to have a terminal diagnosis. The Indian client is identified as being Punjabi and attending a mosque, although there are only 2% Muslims in the Punjab province of India. Also, the last name Singh generally indicates a person who is a Hindu or Sikh, not Muslim.

Reviewed by Monica LeJeune, RN Instructor, LSUE on 4/24/20

Has comprehensive unfolding case studies that guide the reader to recognize and manage the scenario presented. Assists in critical thinking process. read more

Has comprehensive unfolding case studies that guide the reader to recognize and manage the scenario presented. Assists in critical thinking process.

Accurately presents health scenarios with real life assessment techniques and patient outcomes.

Relevant to nursing practice.

Clearly written and easily understood.

Consistent with healthcare terminology and framework

Has a good reading flow.

Topics presented in logical fashion

Easy to read.

No grammatical errors noted.

Text is not culturally insensitive or offensive.

Good book to have to teach nursing students.

Reviewed by april jarrell, associate professor, J. Sargeant Reynolds Community College on 1/7/20

The text is a great case study tool that is appropriate for nursing school instructors to use in aiding students to learn the nursing process. read more

The text is a great case study tool that is appropriate for nursing school instructors to use in aiding students to learn the nursing process.

The content is accurate and evidence based. There is no bias noted

The content in the text is relevant, up to date for nursing students. It will be easy to update content as needed because the framework allows for addition to the content.

The text is clear and easy to understand.

Framework and terminology is consistent throughout the text; the case study is a continual and takes the student on a journey with the patient. Great for learning!

The case studies can be easily divided into smaller sections to allow for discussions, and weekly studies.

The text and content progress in a logical, clear fashion allowing for progression of learning.

No interface issues noted with this text.

No grammatical errors noted in the text.

No racial or culture insensitivity were noted in the text.

I would recommend this text be used in nursing schools. The use of case studies are helpful for students to learn and practice the nursing process.

Reviewed by Lisa Underwood, Practical Nursing Instructor, NTCC on 12/3/19

The text provides eight comprehensive case studies that showcase the different viewpoints of the many roles involved in patient care. It encompasses the most common seen diagnoses seen across healthcare today. Each case study comes with its own... read more

The text provides eight comprehensive case studies that showcase the different viewpoints of the many roles involved in patient care. It encompasses the most common seen diagnoses seen across healthcare today. Each case study comes with its own set of learning objectives that can be tweaked to fit several allied health courses. Although the case studies are designed around the Canadian Healthcare System, they are quite easily adaptable to fit most any modern, developed healthcare system.

Content Accuracy rating: 3

Overall, the text is quite accurate. There is one significant error that needs to be addressed. It is located in the DVT case study. In the study, a popliteal artery clot is mislabeled as a DVT. DVTs are located in veins, not in arteries. That said, the case study on the whole is quite good. This case study could be used as a learning tool in the classroom for discussion purposes or as a way to test student understanding of DVTs, on example might be, "Can they spot the error?"

At this time, all of the case studies within the text are current. Healthcare is an ever evolving field that rests on the best evidence based practice. Keeping that in mind, educators can easily adapt the studies as the newest evidence emerges and changes practice in healthcare.

All of the case studies are well written and easy to understand. The text includes several hyperlinks and it also highlights certain medical terminology to prompt readers as a way to enhance their learning experience.

Across the text, the language, style, and format of the case studies are completely consistent.

The text is divided into eight separate case studies. Each case study may be used independently of the others. All case studies are further broken down as the focus patient passes through each aspect of their healthcare system. The text's modularity makes it possible to use a case study as individual work, group projects, class discussions, homework or in a simulation lab.

The case studies and the diagnoses that they cover are presented in such a way that educators and allied health students can easily follow and comprehend.

The book in itself is free of any image distortion and it prints nicely. The text is offered in a variety of digital formats. As noted in the above reviews, some of the hyperlinks have navigational issues. When the reader attempts to access them, a "page not found" message is received.

There were minimal grammatical errors. Some of which may be traced back to the differences in our spelling.

The text is culturally relevant in that it includes patients from many different backgrounds and ethnicities. This allows educators and students to explore cultural relevance and sensitivity needs across all areas in healthcare. I do not believe that the text was in any way insensitive or offensive to the reader.

By using the case studies, it may be possible to have an open dialogue about the differences noted in healthcare systems. Students will have the ability to compare and contrast the Canadian healthcare system with their own. I also firmly believe that by using these case studies, students can improve their critical thinking skills. These case studies help them to "put it all together".

Reviewed by Melanie McGrath, Associate Professor, TRAILS on 11/29/19

The text covered some of the most common conditions seen by healthcare providers in a hospital setting, which forms a solid general base for the discussions based on each case. read more

The text covered some of the most common conditions seen by healthcare providers in a hospital setting, which forms a solid general base for the discussions based on each case.

I saw no areas of inaccuracy

As in all healthcare texts, treatments and/or tests will change frequently. However, everything is currently up-to-date thus it should be a good reference for several years.

Each case is written so that any level of healthcare student would understand. Hyperlinks in the text is also very helpful.

All of the cases are written in a similar fashion.

Although not structured as a typical text, each case is easily assigned as a stand-alone.

Each case is organized clearly in an appropriate manner.

I did not see any issues.

I did not see any grammatical errors

The text seemed appropriately inclusive. There are no pediatric cases and no cases of intellectually-impaired patients, but those types of cases introduce more advanced problem-solving which perhaps exceed the scope of the text. May be a good addition to the text.

I found this text to be an excellent resource for healthcare students in a variety of fields. It would be best utilized in inter professional courses to help guide discussion.

Reviewed by Lynne Umbarger, Clinical Assistant Professor, Occupational Therapy, Emory and Henry College on 11/26/19

While the book does not cover every scenario, the ones in the book are quite common and troublesome for inexperienced allied health students. The information in the book is thorough enough, and I have found the cases easy to modify for educational... read more

While the book does not cover every scenario, the ones in the book are quite common and troublesome for inexperienced allied health students. The information in the book is thorough enough, and I have found the cases easy to modify for educational purposes. The material was easily understood by the students but challenging enough for classroom discussion. There are no mentions in the book about occupational therapy, but it is easy enough to add a couple words and make inclusion simple.

Very nice lab values are provided in the case study, making it more realistic for students.

These case studies focus on commonly encountered diagnoses for allied health and nursing students. They are comprehensive, realistic, and easily understood. The only difference is that the hospital in one case allows the patient's dog to visit in the room (highly unusual in US hospitals).

The material is easily understood by allied health students. The cases have links to additional learning materials for concepts that may be less familiar or should be explored further in a particular health field.

The language used in the book is consistent between cases. The framework is the same with each case which makes it easier to locate areas that would be of interest to a particular allied health profession.

The case studies are comprehensive but well-organized. They are short enough to be useful for class discussion or a full-blown assignment. The students seem to understand the material and have not expressed that any concepts or details were missing.

Each case is set up like the other cases. There are learning objectives at the beginning of each case to facilitate using the case, and it is easy enough to pull out material to develop useful activities and assignments.

There is a quick chart in the Appendix to allow the reader to determine the professions involved in each case as well as the pertinent settings and diagnoses for each case study. The contents are easy to access even while reading the book.

As a person who attends carefully to grammar, I found no errors in all of the material I read in this book.

There are a greater number of people of different ethnicities, socioeconomic status, ages, and genders to make this a very useful book. With each case, I could easily picture the person in the case. This book appears to be Canadian and more inclusive than most American books.

I was able to use this book the first time I accessed it to develop a classroom activity for first-year occupational therapy students and a more comprehensive activity for second-year students. I really appreciate the links to a multitude of terminology and medical lab values/issues for each case. I will keep using this book.

Reviewed by Cindy Krentz, Assistant Professor, Metropolitan State University of Denver on 6/15/19

The book covers eight case studies of common inpatient or emergency department scenarios. I appreciated that they had written out the learning objectives. I liked that the patient was described before the case was started, giving some... read more

The book covers eight case studies of common inpatient or emergency department scenarios. I appreciated that they had written out the learning objectives. I liked that the patient was described before the case was started, giving some understanding of the patient's background. I think it could benefit from having a glossary. I liked how the authors included the vital signs in an easily readable bar. I would have liked to see the labs also highlighted like this. I also felt that it would have been good written in a 'what would you do next?' type of case study.

The book is very accurate in language, what tests would be prudent to run and in the day in the life of the hospital in all cases. One inaccuracy is that the authors called a popliteal artery clot a DVT. The rest of the DVT case study was great, though, but the one mistake should be changed.

The book is up to date for now, but as tests become obsolete and new equipment is routinely used, the book ( like any other health textbook) will need to be updated. It would be easy to change, however. All that would have to happen is that the authors go in and change out the test to whatever newer, evidence-based test is being utilized.

The text is written clearly and easy to understand from a student's perspective. There is not too much technical jargon, and it is pretty universal when used- for example DVT for Deep Vein Thrombosis.

The book is consistent in language and how it is broken down into case studies. The same format is used for highlighting vital signs throughout the different case studies. It's great that the reader does not have to read the book in a linear fashion. Each case study can be read without needing to read the others.

The text is broken down into eight case studies, and within the case studies is broken down into days. It is consistent and shows how the patient can pass through the different hospital departments (from the ER to the unit, to surgery, to home) in a realistic manner. The instructor could use one or more of the case studies as (s)he sees fit.

The topics are eight different case studies- and are presented very clearly and organized well. Each one is broken down into how the patient goes through the system. The text is easy to follow and logical.

The interface has some problems with the highlighted blue links. Some of them did not work and I got a 'page not found' message. That can be frustrating for the reader. I'm wondering if a glossary could be utilized (instead of the links) to explain what some of these links are supposed to explain.

I found two or three typos, I don't think they were grammatical errors. In one case I think the Canadian spelling and the United States spelling of the word are just different.

This is a very culturally competent book. In today's world, however, one more type of background that would merit delving into is the trans-gender, GLBTQI person. I was glad that there were no stereotypes.

I enjoyed reading the text. It was interesting and relevant to today's nursing student. Since we are becoming more interprofessional, I liked that we saw what the phlebotomist and other ancillary personnel (mostly different technicians) did. I think that it could become even more interdisciplinary so colleges and universities could have more interprofessional education- courses or simulations- with the addition of the nurse using social work, nutrition, or other professional health care majors.

Reviewed by Catherine J. Grott, Interim Director, Health Administration Program, TRAILS on 5/5/19

The book is comprehensive but is specifically written for healthcare workers practicing in Canada. The title of the book should reflect this. read more

The book is comprehensive but is specifically written for healthcare workers practicing in Canada. The title of the book should reflect this.

The book is accurate, however it has numerous broken online links.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 3

The content is very relevant, but some links are out-dated. For example, WHO Guidelines for Safe Surgery 2009 (p. 186) should be updated.

The book is written in clear and concise language. The side stories about the healthcare workers make the text interesting.

The book is consistent in terms of terminology and framework. Some terms that are emphasized in one case study are not emphasized (with online links) in the other case studies. All of the case studies should have the same words linked to online definitions.

Modularity rating: 3

The book can easily be parsed out if necessary. However, the way the case studies have been written, it's evident that different authors contributed singularly to each case study.

The organization and flow are good.

Interface rating: 1

There are numerous broken online links and "pages not found."

The grammar and punctuation are correct. There are two errors detected: p. 120 a space between the word "heart" and the comma; also a period is needed after Dr (p. 113).

I'm not quite sure that the social worker (p. 119) should comment that the patient and partner are "very normal people."

There are roughly 25 broken online links or "pages not found." The BC & Canadian Guidelines (p. 198) could also include a link to US guidelines to make the text more universal . The basilar crackles (p. 166) is very good. Text could be used compare US and Canadian healthcare. Text could be enhanced to teach "soft skills" and interdepartmental communication skills in healthcare.

Reviewed by Lindsey Henry, Practical Nursing Instructor, Fletcher on 5/1/19

I really appreciated how in the introduction, five learning objectives were identified for students. These objectives are paramount in nursing care and they are each spelled out for the learner. Each Case study also has its own learning... read more

I really appreciated how in the introduction, five learning objectives were identified for students. These objectives are paramount in nursing care and they are each spelled out for the learner. Each Case study also has its own learning objectives, which were effectively met in the readings.

As a seasoned nurse, I believe that the content regarding pathophysiology and treatments used in the case studies were accurate. I really appreciated how many of the treatments were also explained and rationales were given, which can be very helpful to facilitate effective learning for a nursing student or novice nurse.

The case studies are up to date and correlate with the current time period. They are easily understood.

I really loved how several important medical terms, including specific treatments were highlighted to alert the reader. Many interventions performed were also explained further, which is great to enhance learning for the nursing student or novice nurse. Also, with each scenario, a background and history of the patient is depicted, as well as the perspectives of the patient, patients family member, and the primary nurse. This really helps to give the reader a full picture of the day in the life of a nurse or a patient, and also better facilitates the learning process of the reader.

These case studies are consistent. They begin with report, the patient background or updates on subsequent days, and follow the patients all the way through discharge. Once again, I really appreciate how this book describes most if not all aspects of patient care on a day to day basis.

Each case study is separated into days. While they can be divided to be assigned at different points within the course, they also build on each other. They show trends in vital signs, what happens when a patient deteriorates, what happens when they get better and go home. Showing the entire process from ER admit to discharge is really helpful to enhance the students learning experience.

The topics are all presented very similarly and very clearly. The way that the scenarios are explained could even be understood by a non-nursing student as well. The case studies are very clear and very thorough.

The book is very easy to navigate, prints well on paper, and is not distorted or confusing.

I did not see any grammatical errors.

Each case study involves a different type of patient. These differences include race, gender, sexual orientation and medical backgrounds. I do not feel the text was offensive to the reader.

I teach practical nursing students and after reading this book, I am looking forward to implementing it in my classroom. Great read for nursing students!

Reviewed by Leah Jolly, Instructor, Clinical Coordinator, Oregon Institute of Technology on 4/10/19

Good variety of cases and pathologies covered. read more

Good variety of cases and pathologies covered.

Content Accuracy rating: 2

Some examples and scenarios are not completely accurate. For example in the DVT case, the sonographer found thrombus in the "popliteal artery", which according to the book indicated presence of DVT. However in DVT, thrombus is located in the vein, not the artery. The patient would also have much different symptoms if located in the artery. Perhaps some of these inaccuracies are just typos, but in real-life situations this simple mistake can make a world of difference in the patient's course of treatment and outcomes.

Good examples of interprofessional collaboration. If only it worked this way on an every day basis!

Clear and easy to read for those with knowledge of medical terminology.

Good consistency overall.

Broken up well.

Topics are clear and logical.

Would be nice to simply click through to the next page, rather than going through the table of contents each time.

Minor typos/grammatical errors.

No offensive or insensitive materials observed.

Reviewed by Alex Sargsyan, Doctor of Nursing Practice/Assistant Professor , East Tennessee State University on 10/8/18

Because of the case study character of the book it does not have index or glossary. However it has summary for each health case study outlining key elements discussed in each case study. read more

Because of the case study character of the book it does not have index or glossary. However it has summary for each health case study outlining key elements discussed in each case study.

Overall the book is accurately depicting the clinical environment. There are numerous references to external sites. While most of them are correct, some of them are not working. For example Homan’s test link is not working "404 error"

Book is relevant in its current version and can be used in undergraduate and graduate classes. That said, the longevity of the book may be limited because of the character of the clinical education. Clinical guidelines change constantly and it may require a major update of the content.

Cases are written very clearly and have realistic description of an inpatient setting.

The book is easy to read and consistent in the language in all eight cases.

The cases are very well written. Each case is subdivided into logical segments. The segments reflect different setting where the patient is being seen. There is a flow and transition between the settings.

Book has eight distinct cases. This is a great format for a book that presents distinct clinical issues. This will allow the students to have immersive experiences and gain better understanding of the healthcare environment.

Book is offered in many different formats. Besides the issues with the links mentioned above, overall navigation of the book content is very smooth.

Book is very well written and has no grammatical errors.

Book is culturally relevant. Patients in the case studies come different cultures and represent diverse ethnicities.

Reviewed by Justin Berry, Physical Therapist Assistant Program Director, Northland Community and Technical College, East Grand Forks, MN on 8/2/18

This text provides eight patient case studies from a variety of diagnoses, which can be utilized by healthcare students from multiple disciplines. The cases are comprehensive and can be helpful for students to determine professional roles,... read more

This text provides eight patient case studies from a variety of diagnoses, which can be utilized by healthcare students from multiple disciplines. The cases are comprehensive and can be helpful for students to determine professional roles, interprofessional roles, when to initiate communication with other healthcare practitioners due to a change in patient status, and treatment ideas. Some additional patient information, such as lab values, would have been beneficial to include.

Case study information is accurate and unbiased.

Content is up to date. The case studies are written in a way so that they will not be obsolete soon, even with changes in healthcare.

The case studies are well written, and can be utilized for a variety of classroom assignments, discussions, and projects. Some additional lab value information for each patient would have been a nice addition.

The case studies are consistently organized to make it easy for the reader to determine the framework.

The text is broken up into eight different case studies for various patient diagnoses. This design makes it highly modular, and would be easy to assign at different points of a course.

The flow of the topics are presented consistently in a logical manner. Each case study follows a patient chronologically, making it easy to determine changes in patient status and treatment options.

The text is free of interface issues, with no distortion of images or charts.

The text is not culturally insensitive or offensive in any way. Patients are represented from a variety of races, ethnicities, and backgrounds

This book would be a good addition for many different health programs.

Reviewed by Ann Bell-Pfeifer, Instructor/Program Director, Minnesota State Community and Technical College on 5/21/18

The book gives a comprehensive overview of many types of cases for patient conditions. Emergency Room patients may arrive with COPD, heart failure, sepsis, pneumonia, or as motor vehicle accident victims. It is directed towards nurses, medical... read more

The book gives a comprehensive overview of many types of cases for patient conditions. Emergency Room patients may arrive with COPD, heart failure, sepsis, pneumonia, or as motor vehicle accident victims. It is directed towards nurses, medical laboratory technologists, medical radiology technologists, and respiratory therapists and their roles in caring for patients. Most of the overview is accurate. One suggestion is to provide an embedded radiologist interpretation of the exams which are performed which lead to the patients diagnosis.

Overall the book is accurate. Would like to see updates related to the addition of direct radiography technology which is commonly used in the hospital setting.

Many aspects of medicine will remain constant. The case studies seem fairly accurate and may be relevant for up to 3 years. Since technology changes so quickly in medicine, the CT and x-ray components may need minor updates within a few years.

The book clarity is excellent.

The case stories are consistent with each scenario. It is easy to follow the structure and learn from the content.

The book is quite modular. It is easy to break it up into cases and utilize them individually and sequentially.

The cases are listed by disease process and follow a logical flow through each condition. They are easy to follow as they have the same format from the beginning to the end of each case.

The interface seems seamless. Hyperlinks are inserted which provide descriptions and references to medical procedures and in depth definitions.

The book is free of most grammatical errors. There is a place where a few words do not fit the sentence structure and could be a typo.

The book included all types of relationships and ethnic backgrounds. One type which could be added is a transgender patient.

I think the book was quite useful for a variety of health care professionals. The authors did an excellent job of integrating patient cases which could be applied to the health care setting. The stories seemed real and relevant. This book could be used to teach health care professionals about integrated care within the emergency department.

Reviewed by Shelley Wolfe, Assistant Professor, Winona State University on 5/21/18

This text is comprised of comprehensive, detailed case studies that provide the reader with multiple character views throughout a patient’s encounter with the health care system. The Table of Contents accurately reflected the content. It should... read more

This text is comprised of comprehensive, detailed case studies that provide the reader with multiple character views throughout a patient’s encounter with the health care system. The Table of Contents accurately reflected the content. It should be noted that the authors include a statement that conveys that this text is not like traditional textbooks and is not meant to be read in a linear fashion. This allows the educator more flexibility to use the text as a supplement to enhance learning opportunities.

The content of the text appears accurate and unbiased. The “five overarching learning objectives” provide a clear aim of the text and the educator is able to glean how these objectives are captured into each of the case studies. While written for the Canadian healthcare system, this text is easily adaptable to the American healthcare system.

Overall, the content is up-to-date and the case studies provide a variety of uses that promote longevity of the text. However, not all of the blue font links (if using the digital PDF version) were still in working order. I encountered links that led to error pages or outdated “page not found” websites. While the links can be helpful, continued maintenance of these links could prove time-consuming.

I found the text easy to read and understand. I enjoyed that the viewpoints of all the different roles (patient, nurse, lab personnel, etc.) were articulated well and allowed the reader to connect and gain appreciation of the entire healthcare team. Medical jargon was noted to be appropriate for the intended audience of this text.

The terminology and organization of this text is consistent.

The text is divided into 8 case studies that follow a similar organizational structure. The case studies can further be divided to focus on individual learning objectives. For example, the case studies could be looked at as a whole for discussing communication or could be broken down into segments to focus on disease risk factors.

The case studies in this text follow a similar organizational structure and are consistent in their presentation. The flow of individual case studies is excellent and sets the reader on a clear path. As noted previously, this text is not meant to be read in a linear fashion.

This text is available in many different forms. I chose to review the text in the digital PDF version in order to use the embedded links. I did not encounter significant interface issues and did not find any images or features that would distract or confuse a reader.

No significant grammatical errors were noted.

The case studies in this text included patients and healthcare workers from a variety of backgrounds. Educators and students will benefit from expanding the case studies to include discussions and other learning opportunities to help develop culturally-sensitive healthcare providers.

I found the case studies to be very detailed, yet written in a way in which they could be used in various manners. The authors note a variety of ways in which the case studies could be employed with students; however, I feel the authors could also include that the case studies could be used as a basis for simulated clinical experiences. The case studies in this text would be an excellent tool for developing interprofessional communication and collaboration skills in a variety healthcare students.

Reviewed by Darline Foltz, Assistant Professor, University of Cincinnati - Clermont College on 3/27/18

This book covers all areas listed in the Table of Contents. In addition to the detailed patient case studies, there is a helpful section of "How to Use this Resource". I would like to note that this resource "aligns with the open textbooks... read more

This book covers all areas listed in the Table of Contents. In addition to the detailed patient case studies, there is a helpful section of "How to Use this Resource". I would like to note that this resource "aligns with the open textbooks Clinical Procedures for Safer Patient Care and Anatomy and Physiology: OpenStax" as noted by the authors.

The book appears to be accurate. Although one of the learning outcomes is as follows: "Demonstrate an understanding of the Canadian healthcare delivery system.", I did not find anything that is ONLY specific to the Canadian healthcare delivery system other than some of the terminology, i.e. "porter" instead of "transporter" and a few french words. I found this to make the book more interesting for students rather than deter from it. These are patient case studies that are relevant in any country.

The content is up-to-date. Changes in medical science may occur, i.e. a different test, to treat a diagnosis that is included in one or more of the case studies, however, it would be easy and straightforward to implement these changes.

This book is written in lucid, accessible prose. The technical/medical terminology that is used is appropriate for medical and allied health professionals. Something that would improve this text would to provide a glossary of terms for the terms in blue font.

This book is consistent with current medical terminology

This text is easily divided into each of the 6 case studies. The case studies can be used singly according to the body system being addressed or studied.

Because this text is a collection of case studies, flow doesn't pertain, however the organization and structure of the case studies are excellent as they are clear and easy to read.

There are no distractions in this text that would distract or confuse the reader.

I did not identify any grammatical errors.

This text is not culturally insensitive or offensive in any way and uses patients and healthcare workers that are of a variety of races, ethnicities and backgrounds.

I believe that this text would not only be useful to students enrolled in healthcare professions involved in direct patient care but would also be useful to students in supporting healthcare disciplines such as health information technology and management, medical billing and coding, etc.

Table of Contents

  • Introduction

Case Study #1: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

  • Learning Objectives
  • Patient: Erin Johns
  • Emergency Room

Case Study #2: Pneumonia

  • Day 0: Emergency Room
  • Day 1: Emergency Room
  • Day 1: Medical Ward
  • Day 2: Medical Ward
  • Day 3: Medical Ward
  • Day 4: Medical Ward

Case Study #3: Unstable Angina (UA)

  • Patient: Harj Singh

Case Study #4: Heart Failure (HF)

  • Patient: Meryl Smith
  • In the Supermarket
  • Day 0: Medical Ward

Case Study #5: Motor Vehicle Collision (MVC)

  • Patient: Aaron Knoll
  • Crash Scene
  • Operating Room
  • Post Anaesthesia Care Unit (PACU)
  • Surgical Ward

Case Study #6: Sepsis

  • Patient: George Thomas
  • Sleepy Hollow Care Facility

Case Study #7: Colon Cancer

  • Patient: Fred Johnson
  • Two Months Ago
  • Pre-Surgery Admission

Case Study #8: Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)

  • Patient: Jamie Douglas

Appendix: Overview About the Authors

Ancillary Material

About the book.

Health Case Studies is composed of eight separate health case studies. Each case study includes the patient narrative or story that models the best practice (at the time of publishing) in healthcare settings. Associated with each case is a set of specific learning objectives to support learning and facilitate educational strategies and evaluation.

The case studies can be used online in a learning management system, in a classroom discussion, in a printed course pack or as part of a textbook created by the instructor. This flexibility is intentional and allows the educator to choose how best to convey the concepts presented in each case to the learner.

Because these case studies were primarily developed for an electronic healthcare system, they are based predominantly in an acute healthcare setting. Educators can augment each case study to include primary healthcare settings, outpatient clinics, assisted living environments, and other contexts as relevant.

About the Contributors

Glynda Rees teaches at the British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT) in Vancouver, British Columbia. She completed her MSN at the University of British Columbia with a focus on education and health informatics, and her BSN at the University of Cape Town in South Africa. Glynda has many years of national and international clinical experience in critical care units in South Africa, the UK, and the USA. Her teaching background has focused on clinical education, problem-based learning, clinical techniques, and pharmacology.

Glynda‘s interests include the integration of health informatics in undergraduate education, open accessible education, and the impact of educational technologies on nursing students’ clinical judgment and decision making at the point of care to improve patient safety and quality of care.

Faculty member in the critical care nursing program at the British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT) since 2003, Rob has been a critical care nurse for over 25 years with 17 years practicing in a quaternary care intensive care unit. Rob is an experienced educator and supports student learning in the classroom, online, and in clinical areas. Rob’s Master of Education from Simon Fraser University is in educational technology and learning design. He is passionate about using technology to support learning for both faculty and students.

Part of Rob’s faculty position is dedicated to providing high fidelity simulation support for BCIT’s nursing specialties program along with championing innovative teaching and best practices for educational technology. He has championed the use of digital publishing and was the tech lead for Critical Care Nursing’s iPad Project which resulted in over 40 multi-touch interactive textbooks being created using Apple and other technologies.

Rob has successfully completed a number of specialist certifications in computer and network technologies. In 2015, he was awarded Apple Distinguished Educator for his innovation and passionate use of technology to support learning. In the past five years, he has presented and published abstracts on virtual simulation, high fidelity simulation, creating engaging classroom environments, and what the future holds for healthcare and education.

Janet Morrison is the Program Head of Occupational Health Nursing at the British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT) in Burnaby, British Columbia. She completed a PhD at Simon Fraser University, Faculty of Communication, Art and Technology, with a focus on health information technology. Her dissertation examined the effects of telehealth implementation in an occupational health nursing service. She has an MA in Adult Education from St. Francis Xavier University and an MA in Library and Information Studies from the University of British Columbia.

Janet’s research interests concern the intended and unintended impacts of health information technologies on healthcare students, faculty, and the healthcare workforce.

She is currently working with BCIT colleagues to study how an educational clinical information system can foster healthcare students’ perceptions of interprofessional roles.

Contribute to this Page

  • - Google Chrome

Intended for healthcare professionals

  • Access provided by Google Indexer
  • My email alerts
  • BMA member login
  • Username * Password * Forgot your log in details? Need to activate BMA Member Log In Log in via OpenAthens Log in via your institution

Home

Search form

  • Advanced search
  • Search responses
  • Search blogs
  • Writing a case report...

Writing a case report in 10 steps

  • Related content
  • Peer review
  • Victoria Stokes , foundation year 2 doctor, trauma and orthopaedics, Basildon Hospital ,
  • Caroline Fertleman , paediatrics consultant, The Whittington Hospital NHS Trust
  • victoria.stokes1{at}nhs.net

Victoria Stokes and Caroline Fertleman explain how to turn an interesting case or unusual presentation into an educational report

It is common practice in medicine that when we come across an interesting case with an unusual presentation or a surprise twist, we must tell the rest of the medical world. This is how we continue our lifelong learning and aid faster diagnosis and treatment for patients.

It usually falls to the junior to write up the case, so here are a few simple tips to get you started.

First steps

Begin by sitting down with your medical team to discuss the interesting aspects of the case and the learning points to highlight. Ideally, a registrar or middle grade will mentor you and give you guidance. Another junior doctor or medical student may also be keen to be involved. Allocate jobs to split the workload, set a deadline and work timeframe, and discuss the order in which the authors will be listed. All listed authors should contribute substantially, with the person doing most of the work put first and the guarantor (usually the most senior team member) at the end.

Getting consent

Gain permission and written consent to write up the case from the patient or parents, if your patient is a child, and keep a copy because you will need it later for submission to journals.

Information gathering

Gather all the information from the medical notes and the hospital’s electronic systems, including copies of blood results and imaging, as medical notes often disappear when the patient is discharged and are notoriously difficult to find again. Remember to anonymise the data according to your local hospital policy.

Write up the case emphasising the interesting points of the presentation, investigations leading to diagnosis, and management of the disease/pathology. Get input on the case from all members of the team, highlighting their involvement. Also include the prognosis of the patient, if known, as the reader will want to know the outcome.

Coming up with a title

Discuss a title with your supervisor and other members of the team, as this provides the focus for your article. The title should be concise and interesting but should also enable people to find it in medical literature search engines. Also think about how you will present your case study—for example, a poster presentation or scientific paper—and consider potential journals or conferences, as you may need to write in a particular style or format.

Background research

Research the disease/pathology that is the focus of your article and write a background paragraph or two, highlighting the relevance of your case report in relation to this. If you are struggling, seek the opinion of a specialist who may know of relevant articles or texts. Another good resource is your hospital library, where staff are often more than happy to help with literature searches.

How your case is different

Move on to explore how the case presented differently to the admitting team. Alternatively, if your report is focused on management, explore the difficulties the team came across and alternative options for treatment.

Finish by explaining why your case report adds to the medical literature and highlight any learning points.

Writing an abstract

The abstract should be no longer than 100-200 words and should highlight all your key points concisely. This can be harder than writing the full article and needs special care as it will be used to judge whether your case is accepted for presentation or publication.

Discuss with your supervisor or team about options for presenting or publishing your case report. At the very least, you should present your article locally within a departmental or team meeting or at a hospital grand round. Well done!

Competing interests: We have read and understood BMJ’s policy on declaration of interests and declare that we have no competing interests.

sample of a medical case study

U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

The .gov means it’s official. Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.

The site is secure. The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

  • Publications
  • Account settings

Preview improvements coming to the PMC website in October 2024. Learn More or Try it out now .

  • Advanced Search
  • Journal List
  • v.11(12); 2019 Dec

Logo of cureus

Developing a Beginner’s Guide to Writing a Clinical Case Report: A Pilot Evaluation by Junior Doctors

Samson o oyibo.

1 Diabetes and Endocrinology, Peterborough City Hospital, Peterborough, GBR

Introduction

Writing a case report increases one’s knowledge about a particular disease condition, demonstrates intellectual curiosity and commitment to scientific inquiry and the ability to follow through on scholarly projects. Despite several articles and journal-specific instructions published concerning case report writing, none have been evaluated by their intended audience. The aim of this study was to get junior doctors to evaluate an online presentation as part of the process of developing a beginner’s guide to writing a clinical case report.

Materials and methods

In response to our previous studies an online presentation concerning how to write a clinical case report was provided for junior doctors. Junior doctors were invited by email to look at the online presentation and complete an online evaluation form thereafter. The questions were adapted from the Evaluation Form for Teaching and Presentations provided by the Joint Royal Colleges of Physicians Training Board. Data was analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively.

Sixty-five doctors looked at the presentation and completed the online evaluation form. All agreed that the objectives of the presentation were identified and met. Sixty-four (98.5%) agreed that it was effective and clear. Sixty percent indicated that they found the information and instructions useful. An additional 13.85% found the whole presentation useful without specifying any aspect. Eight percent found the summary slide useful, 4.62% found the case selection criteria slide to be useful and 4.62% found the permission and patient consenting slide useful. Twenty percent would like the inclusion of examples of good abstracts and case reports, 13.85% would like more teaching sessions, and 13.85% would like improvements to the slide-presentation format. Overall, 64 junior doctors (98.46%) remarked that the presentation was good, very good or excellent.

Conclusions

This study has demonstrated the importance of evaluation of teaching material by junior doctors while developing a beginner’s guide to writing a clinical case report. Once the above action points and limitations have been taken into account, further repeat evaluations by junior doctors need to be undertaken while developing a robust beginner’s guide to writing a clinical case report.

Having an article published in a peer-reviewed medical journal is important for career progression in several medical specialties. Although enhancement of their curriculum vitae has been cited as a motivation to getting published, a keen interest in the subject is a more important reason stated by doctors [ 1 ]. Writing up a case report increases one’s knowledge about a particular disease condition, demonstrates intellectual curiosity and commitment to scientific inquiry and the ability to follow through on scholarly projects [ 2 ].

In a previous study, we demonstrated that junior doctors feel that medical article publishing is an effective teaching method but little was done to help them bridge the gap between getting an interesting case and getting published [ 3 ]. In a follow-up study, we highlighted the importance of establishing a medical article publishing club for junior doctors based on action points from the previous study. Junior doctors said that the medical article publishing club contributed to learning, education and publishing skills [ 4 ].

In response to action points from the above-mentioned studies an online PowerPoint presentation was provided for junior doctors on “a guide to writing a clinical case report”. The main objective of this study was to obtain junior doctors’ evaluation of the online presentation, with the ultimate aim of making improvements and developing a robust and user-friendly guide to writing clinical case reports.

The online presentation

As an action point to a previous study an online PowerPoint presentation of “a guide to writing a clinical case report” was made for junior doctors to aid them in writing clinical case reports. This consisted of 18 PowerPoint slides starting from the title slide to the bibliography slide. This presentation was made available on our institution’s educational website for all junior doctors to use. The PowerPoint presentation is shown in Figure ​ Figure1 1 .

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is cureus-0011-00000006370-i01.jpg

Study participants

Junior doctors in our healthcare institution were invited by email to look at the online PowerPoint presentation and complete an online evaluation form thereafter. There was also the facility to download the presentation. Invited doctors were given four weeks to respond while a reminder invitation email was sent every week for the same four-week period.

Study design

As part of the email, a web-based evaluation form was administered to junior doctors so that they could evaluate the online PowerPoint presentation after going through it. The evaluation form distribution and data collection were carried out over a four-week period. Ethics approval was sought through the Research & Development department of our institute. This study did not require ethical approval on the account of it being registered with our Quality, Governance and Compliance Department as a Quality of Education Improvement Project. Participants were assured of strict anonymity and confidentiality during this study.

Evaluation questionnaire

The evaluation questionnaire was prepared online using SurveyMonkey [ 5 ]. The questions were adapted from the Evaluation Form for Teaching and Presentations provided by the Joint Royal Colleges of Physicians Training Board [ 6 ]. The questionnaire contained six questions: (1) were the objectives of the online presentation identified, (2) were the objectives met, (3) was the delivery of the presentation effective and clear, (4) what aspects of the presentation was useful, (5) any suggestions for improvement, and (6) overall, what is your evaluation of the online presentation. Questions 1-3 required a “yes” or “no” answer. Questions 4-5 were open-ended questions requiring input into a comment box. Question 6 required an answer from “very bad”, “poor”, “fair”, “good”, “very good” or “excellent”. A web-link to the questionnaire was sent via email to participants.

Data analysis

The responses to questions 1, 2, 3, and 6 were analyzed and presented as whole numbers (and percentages). The answers to questions 4 and 5 were transcribed verbatim and analyzed qualitatively by the process of thematic analysis [ 7 , 8 ]. The data was reviewed for initial codes, subthemes and subsequently developed themes related to what was found useful and suggestions for improvement. The raw data, subthemes and themes were continuously reflected upon to ensure credibility and trustworthiness of this survey [ 9 ].

There were 65 respondents to the invitation emails. Therefore, 65 junior doctors looked at the presentation and completed the online evaluation form.

Objectives, clearness and effectiveness

All 65 respondents (100%) agreed that the objectives of the presentation were identified. All 65 respondents (100%) agreed that the objectives of the presentation were met. Sixty-four respondents (98.5%) agreed that the presentation was effective and clear. This is shown in Table ​ Table1 1 .

Useful aspects and suggestions for improvement

The answers to questions 4 and 5 were analysed thematically. The raw data (answers to both questions along with the thematic analysis) used to support the findings of this study has been deposited in the Harvard Dataverse and is freely accessible [ 10 ]. The main themes derived from the analysis are presented here.

Question 4 - What Aspect of the Presentation Was Useful?

All respondents answered question 4, and several major themes emerged from the thematic analysis. Thirty-nine respondents (60%) indicated that they found the information and instructions provided in the presentation useful (e.g., they highlighted the stepwise approach, breakdown, clear, concise and systematic structure of the information provided). Nine respondents (13.85%) indicated they found the whole presentation useful without specifying any aspect. Five respondents (7.69%) indicated that they found the summary slide useful. Three respondents (4.62%) indicated that they found the case selection criteria slide to be useful. A similar number of respondents (4.62%) indicated that they found the permission and patient consenting slide useful. One respondent particularly found the abstract slide useful. Two respondents indicated that the subject/topic was useful. Two respondents made an abbreviated text comments which could not be deciphered while one respondent indicated that the presentation was “a bit vague”.

Question 5 - Any Suggestions for Improvement?

Sixty-two respondents answered question 5, and several major themes emerged from the thematic analysis. Thirteen respondents (20%) indicated that they would like the inclusion of examples of good abstracts and case reports. Nine respondents (13.85%) indicated that they would like more presentations and teaching sessions (e.g., workshop sessions, online sessions and circulation of the presentation to more junior doctors and medical students). Nine respondents (13.85%) indicated that the slide-presentation format could be improved (e.g., add more colour, make the slides more interactive, less crowded, less rushed, shorter presentation). Thirty respondents (46.15%) indicated “nil” or “none” in response to the question “any suggestions for improvement”. Two respondents just gave praises (e.g., good job, well done), one respondent made an abbreviated text comment which could not be deciphered, and another left that question blank.

Overall evaluation of the presentation

Sixty-four respondents (98.46%) remarked that the presentation was good, very good or excellent. One respondent remarked that the presentation was poor. This is shown in Table ​ Table2 2 .

Formal training and adequate mentorship are key ingredients required to help junior doctors with writing and presenting case reports. The importance of lack of these factors has been highlighted in a previous study looking at the perceptions of fourth-year medical students on writing case reports [ 11 ]. In this study, medical students indicated that lack of formal training and lack of mentorship were significant barriers to writing and presenting cases. There are several journal-specific guides and instructions on how to write clinical case reports but despite this, junior doctors still find it difficult to write up a case report. This fact emphasizes the importance of mentorship and training, which could be provided by a curriculum-based medical article publishing club or forum, which should include an easy-to-follow guide to writing case reports for junior doctors. While developing such a guide it is important that there is continuous evaluation by the junior doctors. Evaluation should be a continuous and periodic process, as it helps teachers and learners to improve the teacher-learner process.

There are several articles and journal-specific instructions published concerning writing clinical case reports but there is scarcity of reports of evaluation of these published guides and instructions by their intended audience. A guide to writing case reports directed at junior doctors in a user-friendly format and evaluated by junior doctors may go a long way in helping junior doctors write up clinical case reports. Such a guide can be included in the junior doctors’ teaching curriculum alongside an adequate mentorship program.

Action points from this pilot study

This study has demonstrated the importance of evaluation of teaching material by the intended learners, the junior doctors in this case. Junior doctors found the PowerPoint presentation about a “guide to writing a clinical case report” useful. In particular: the layout of the instructions, the information about permission and patient consenting, the information about case selection criteria, and the summary slide at the end of the presentation. The junior doctors also suggested ways of improving the presentation, namely, inclusion of examples and illustrations of good abstracts and case reports, adding colour to the presentation and making it more interactive and providing more teaching sessions and presentations on the topic of writing clinical case reports. These factors will be taken into account while making the improvements to this guide.

Limitations

This study has some limitations that should be acknowledged. First, this study assumes that everyone who looked at the presentation went on to complete the evaluation form. We have no way of knowing how many junior doctors looked at the presentation without going on to complete the online evaluation form. There are various forms of page-view/download counters that can be used to access this data when arranging future studies. Second, the results of this pilot study may not be generalizable as the sample size (respondents) makes up 25% of the total junior doctor population in just one healthcare institution. However, this was a pilot study. Third, the invited population of doctors are employees within the same healthcare establishment as the organiser of the study. Therefore, any non-responder or responder bias based on this cannot be ruled out. A sample size including junior doctors from different healthcare institutions would limit this bias.

This study has demonstrated the importance of evaluation of teaching material by junior doctors while developing a beginner’s guide to writing a clinical case report. Once the above action points and limitations have been taken into account and improvements made, further repeat evaluations by junior doctors will need to be undertaken while developing a robust beginner’s guide to writing a clinical case report.

Acknowledgments

The author would like to thank all the junior doctors who participated in this evaluation study.

The content published in Cureus is the result of clinical experience and/or research by independent individuals or organizations. Cureus is not responsible for the scientific accuracy or reliability of data or conclusions published herein. All content published within Cureus is intended only for educational, research and reference purposes. Additionally, articles published within Cureus should not be deemed a suitable substitute for the advice of a qualified health care professional. Do not disregard or avoid professional medical advice due to content published within Cureus.

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Human Ethics

Consent was obtained by all participants in this study. Not applicable issued approval Not applicable. This study did not require ethical approval on the account of it being registered with our Quality, Governance and Compliance Department as a Quality of Education Improvement Project. Participants were assured of strict anonymity and confidentiality during this study.

Animal Ethics

Animal subjects: All authors have confirmed that this study did not involve animal subjects or tissue.

CHM Office of Reseach

Writing a Case Report

This page is intended for medical students, residents or others who do not have much experience with case reports, but are planning on writing one.  

What is a case report?  A medical case report, also known as a case study, is a detailed description of a clinical encounter with a patient.  The most important aspect of a case report, i.e. the reason you would go to the trouble of writing one, is that the case is sufficiently unique, rare or interesting such that other medical professionals will learn something from it.   

Case reports are commonly of the following categories :

- Rare diseases

- Unusual presentation of disease

- Unexpected events

- Unusual combination of diseases or conditions

- Difficult or inconclusive diagnosis

- Treatment or management challenges

- Personal impact

- Observations that shed new light on a disease or condition

- Anatomical variations

It is important that you recognize what is unique or interesting about your case, and this must be described clearly in the case report.

Case reports generally take the format of :

1. Background

2. Case presentation

3. Observations and investigation

4. Diagnosis

5. Treatment

7. Discussion

Does a case report require IRB approval?

Case reports typically discuss a single patient. If this is true for your case report, then it most likely does not require IRB approval because it not considered research.    If you have more than one patient, your study could qualify as a Case Series, which would require IRB review.  If you have questions, you chould check your local IRB's guidelines on reviewing case reports.

Are there other rules for writing a case report?

First, you will be collecting protected health information, thus HIPAA applies to case reports.   Spectrum Health has created a very helpful guidance document for case reports, which you can see here:   Case Report Guidance - Spectrum Health

While this guidance document was created by Spectrum Health, the rules and regulations outlined could apply to any case report.  This includes answering questions like: Do I need written HIPAA authorization to publish a case report?  When do I need IRB review of a case report?  What qualifies as a patient identifier?

How do I get started?

1. We STRONGLY encourage you to consult the CARE Guidelines, which provide guidance on writing case reports -  https://www.care-statement.org/

Specifically, the checklist -  https://www.care-statement.org/checklist  - which explains exactly the information you should collect and include in your case report.  

2. Identify a case.  If you are a medical student, you may not yet have the clinical expertise to determine if a specific case is worth writing up.  If so, you must seek the help of a clinician.  It is common for students to ask attendings or residents if they have any interesting cases that can be used for a case report. 

3. Select a journal or two to which you think you will submit the case report.   Journals often have specific requirements for publishing case reports, which could include a requirement for informed consent, a letter or statement from the IRB and other things.  Journals may also charge publication fees (see Is it free to publish? below)   

4. Obtain informed consent from the patient (see " Do I have to obtain informed consent from the patient? " below).  Journals may have their own informed consent form that they would like you to use, so please look for this when selecting a journal.

Once you've identified the case, selected an appropriate journal(s), and considered informed consent, you can collect the required information to write the case report.

How do I write a case report?

Once you identify a case and have learned what information to include in the case report, try to find a previously published case report.  Finding published case reports in a similar field will provide examples to guide you through the process of writing a case report.    

One journal you can consult is BMJ Case Reports .  MSU has an institutional fellowship with BMJ Case Reports which allows MSU faculty, staff and students to publish in this journal for free.  See this page for a link to the journal and more information on publishing-    https://lib.msu.edu/medicalwriting_publishing/

There are numerous other journals where you can find published case reports to help guide you in your writing. 

Do I have to obtain informed consent from the patient?

The CARE guidelines recommend obtaining informed consent from patients for all case reports.  Our recommendation is to obtain informed consent from the patient.  Although not technically required, especially if the case report does not include any identifying information, some journals require informed consent for all case reports before publishing.  The CARE guidelines recommend obtaining informed consent AND the patient's perspective on the treatment/outcome (if possible).  Please consider this as well.  

If required, it is recommended you obtain informed consent before the case report is written.

An example of a case report consent form can be found on the BMJ Case Reports website, which you can access via the MSU library page -  https://casereports.bmj.com/ .  Go to "Instructions for Authors" and then "Patient Consent" to find the consent form they use.  You can create a similar form to obtain consent from your patient.  If you have identified a journal already, please consult their requirements and determine if they have a specific consent form they would like you to use.

Seek feedback

Once you have written a draft of the case report, you should seek feedback on your writing, from experts in the field if possible, or from those who have written case reports before.   

Selecting a journal

Aside from BMJ Case Reports mentioned above, there are many, many journals out there who publish medical case reports.   Ask your mentor if they have a journal they would like to use.  If you need to select on your own, here are some strategies:

1. Do a PubMed search.  https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

   a. Do a search for a topic, disease or other feature of your case report 

   b. When the results appear, on the left side of the page is a limiter for "article type".  Case reports are an article type to which you can limit your search results.  If you don't see that option on the left, click "additional filters". 

   c. Review the case reports that come up and see what journals they are published in.

2. Use JANE -  https://jane.biosemantics.org/

3. Check with specialty societies.  Many specialty societies are affiliated with one or more journal, which can be reviewed for ones that match your needs

4. Search through individual publisher journal lists.  Elsevier publishes many different medical research journals, and they have a journal finder, much like JANE  ( https://journalfinder.elsevier.com/ ).  This is exclusive to Elsevier journals.  There are many other publishers of medical journals for review, including Springer, Dove Press, BMJ, BMC, Wiley, Sage, Nature and many others.

Is it free to publish ?

Be aware that it may not be free to publish your case report.  Many journals charge publication fees. Of note, many open access journals charge author fees of thousands of dollars.  Other journals have smaller page charges (i.e. $60 per page), and still others will publish for free, with an "open access option".  It is best practice to check the journal's Info for Authors section or Author Center to determine what the cost is to publish.  MSU-CHM does NOT have funds to support publication costs, so this is an important step if you do not want to pay out of pocket for publishing

*A more thorough discussion on finding a journal, publication costs, predatory journals and other publication-related issues can be found here:   https://research.chm.msu.edu/students-residents/finding-a-journal

Gagnier JJ, Kienle G, Altman DG, Moher D, Sox H, Riley D. 2013. The CARE guidelines: Consensus-based clinical case reporting guideline development.  Glob Adv Health Med . 2:38-43. doi:  10.7453/gahmj.2013.008

Riley DS, Barber MS, Kienle GS, AronsonJK, von Schoen-Angerer T, Tugwell P, Kiene H, Helfand M, Altman DG, Sox H, Werthmann PG, Moher D, Rison RA, Shamseer L, Koch CA, Sun GH, Hanaway P, Sudak NL, Kaszkin-Bettag M, Carpenter JE, Gagnier JJ. 2017.  CARE guidelines for case reports: explanation and elaboration document . J Clin Epidemiol . 89:218-234. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2017.04.026 

Guidelines to writing a clinical case report. 2017. Heart Views . 18:104-105. doi:  10.4103/1995-705X.217857

Ortega-Loubon C, Culquichicon C, Correa R. The importance of writing and publishing case reports during medical education. 2017. Cureus. 9:e1964. doi:  10.7759/cureus.1964

Writing and publishing a useful and interesting case report. 2019. BMJ Case Reports.  https://casereports.bmj.com/pages/wp-content/uploads/sites/69/2019/04/How-to-write-a-Case-Report-DIGITAL.pdf

Camm CF. Writing an excellent case report: EHJ Case Reports , Case of the Year 2019. 2020. European Heart Jounrnal. 41:1230-1231.  https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa176  

*content developed by Mark Trottier, PhD

Medical Case Study Template

Utilize our Medical Case Study Template for systematic documentation and analysis of patient cases, enhancing learning and clinical practice.

By Emma Hainsworth on May 13, 2024.

Fact Checked by Ericka Pingol.

sample of a medical case study

What is a Medical Case Study Template?

A Medical Case Study Template is a systematic tool used primarily by healthcare professionals and students to document, analyze, and present individual patient cases. It serves as a structured guide, ensuring that all critical aspects of the case are captured and discussed in a standardized format. This includes patient information, clinical history, diagnostic assessments, treatments, and outcomes.

The template typically starts with a title and a brief abstract summarizing the case. It progresses through detailed sections covering patient demographics, symptoms, examination findings, and the results of any diagnostic tests. Treatment plans and their outcomes are also meticulously documented.

One of the key purposes of this template is educational. It facilitates learning by providing a comprehensive overview of real-life clinical scenarios, encouraging critical thinking and analysis. It's also used in medical research and literature to share clinical experiences and insights, contributing to the broader medical community's understanding of various conditions and treatments.

Using a Medical Case Study Template ensures a thorough and uniform approach to case documentation, which is essential for effective learning, discussion, and advancement in medical practice. It emphasizes the importance of detail and accuracy in clinical reporting, enhancing both educational value and patient care.

Printable Medical Case Study Template

Download this Medical Case Study Template used primarily by healthcare professionals and students to document, analyze, and present individual patient cases.

How does it work?

Here's a step-by-step guide to accessing and using our Medical case study template:

Step 1: Access and download the Medical Case Study Template

Click the link on this page to download and access the Medical Case Study Template. The template is available in a user-friendly PDF format, allowing for easy digital viewing and interaction.

You can print the template if a physical copy is preferred for note-taking or group discussions. This is especially useful in educational settings or during team meetings.

Step 2: Understand the structure of the template

Review the template to understand its various sections, which include patient information, clinical history, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome.

Note the specific details required in each section, such as demographic data, symptoms, test results, and follow-up care. Understanding these components is crucial for consistency and comprehensiveness in case documentation.

Step 3: Utilize the template for case documentation

Use the template to systematically record all relevant details of a patient case. This might be for educational purposes, research, or clinical documentation.

Regularly update the template with new information or follow-up details. This is important for tracking the case's progression and observing treatments' effectiveness.

Keep in mind that each patient case is unique. The template should be adaptable to accommodate the specificities of different medical scenarios.

Step 4: Review and share the documented case

Use the documented case for peer discussions, educational sessions, or team reviews. The structured format of the template facilitates easy sharing and collaborative analysis.

Encourage feedback on the documented case to enhance learning and improve clinical practices. The template can be a tool for reflective practice and continuous professional development.

By following these steps, healthcare professionals, educators, and students can effectively use the Medical Case Study Template for a range of purposes. This resource is invaluable for documenting individual cases and as a tool for education, research, and collaborative learning in the medical field.

Medical Case Study Example (sample)

We have provided a comprehensive example as a downloadable PDF to help users effectively utilize the Medical Case Study Template. This sample case study is a practical guide, demonstrating how to document and analyze a clinical case in a structured and detailed manner. It is especially useful for medical professionals, educators, and students in the healthcare field.

The Medical Case Study PDF Example, readily available for download and review, showcases the practical application of the case study template in a real-world clinical setting. The example features a case study highlighting how to systematically record patient information, clinical history, diagnostic assessments, treatment plans, and outcomes.

You can access this valuable resource by either previewing the sample provided below or clicking the "Download Example PDF" button. 

Download this Medical Case Study Template example:

Medical Case Study Example (sample)

When would you use this Template?

The Medical Case Study Template is an invaluable resource primarily used by healthcare professionals, medical students, and educators in various clinical and educational settings. Its application is particularly relevant and beneficial in several key scenarios.

Clinical education and training

Medical educators often use this template to teach students about real-life medical cases. It provides a structured approach to case analysis, encouraging students to examine all aspects of patient care, from diagnosis to treatment and follow-up. This methodical approach is crucial in developing critical thinking and diagnostic skills.

Peer learning and discussion

The template is used among healthcare professionals as a basis for case discussions, often in grand rounds or peer review meetings. It allows practitioners to present complex cases to colleagues, fostering collaborative analysis and discussion. This shared learning experience can lead to improved patient care strategies and a deeper understanding of rare or challenging cases.

Research and case reporting

When documenting unique or particularly instructive cases for medical research or publication, the Medical Case Study Template provides a comprehensive format. It ensures that all relevant details are systematically presented, making the case valuable for the wider medical community. This is especially important when contributing to medical journals or databases.

Quality improvement initiatives

In quality assurance and improvement activities within healthcare settings, this template can be used to analyze cases that highlight systemic issues or successes. It aids in identifying areas for improvement in patient care processes and protocols.

Personal professional development

For individual healthcare practitioners, the template serves as a tool for reflecting on challenging cases, allowing for self-assessment and continuous professional development.

Benefits of using this template ? 

Using a Medical Case Study Template offers several significant benefits:

  • Standardized documentation: The template provides a uniform structure for documenting patient cases. This standardization is crucial for ensuring that all relevant details are consistently recorded and easy to find, which is particularly beneficial when multiple healthcare professionals review cases.
  • Enhanced educational value: For medical students and trainees, the template is an educational tool that promotes a thorough understanding of clinical cases. It encourages a holistic view of patient care, encompassing diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up, and helps in developing critical thinking and analytical skills.
  • Improved communication: When discussing patient cases with peers or in academic settings, the template aids in clear and concise communication. It ensures that all necessary information is presented in an organized manner, facilitating better understanding and discussion among medical professionals.
  • Quality of care and patient safety: By systematically documenting and reviewing patient cases, healthcare providers can identify trends, successes, and areas for improvement in treatment protocols. This can lead to enhanced patient safety and overall quality of care.
  • Facilitates research and publication: The template is invaluable for practitioners looking to publish case reports in medical journals. It ensures that the case is documented in a comprehensive and systematic manner, meeting the standards required for academic and research publications.
  • Professional development: Regular use of the template encourages practitioners to reflect on their clinical practice, helping them to identify areas for professional growth and development.
  • Consistency in case analysis: The template provides a consistent framework for analyzing and discussing patient cases. This consistency is essential for comparative analysis and for understanding the nuances of different cases.
  • Time efficiency: With a set structure in place, healthcare professionals can save time in documenting and reviewing cases, as they do not have to create a new format each time.

Commonly asked questions

A Medical Case Study Template is a structured document used to record and analyze patient cases in a systematic and detailed manner. It helps in documenting patient history, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up, ensuring all crucial aspects of the case are covered.

Medical professionals, including doctors, nurses, and therapists, as well as medical students and educators, can benefit from using this template. It's also useful for researchers and clinicians involved in case studies for publication or presentation.

The template ensures comprehensive documentation of patient cases, which aids in better understanding and analyzing the patient's condition and treatment outcomes. This thorough approach can lead to more informed and effective patient care strategies.

Related Templates

Popular templates.

House Brackmann Scale

Explore the House Brackmann Scale, a crucial tool for assessing facial nerve function in clinical practice.

Supination Lift Test

Learn everything you need to know about the Supination Lift Test, including a step-by-step guide on how to perform it. Download a free PDF template now.

Barlow Test

Discover the Barlow Test for early detection of hip dysplasia in infants, with detailed explanations on procedures, benefits, and how to use our comprehensive template.

Elbow Valgus Stress Test

Discover how to perform the Elbow Valgus Stress Test. Get a free PDF template and example in this guide to help you learn more about this stress assessment.

Patient Registration Process Flowchart

Streamline your patient registration with our easy-to-follow flowchart template, designed for healthcare professionals to enhance efficiency and patient care.

Fever Nursing Care Plan

Carepatron's free PDF download provides a template for nursing care planning. It helps you understand the nursing diagnoses associated with fever and how to provide adequate care for patients.

Differentiation of Self Worksheet

Try the Differentiation of Self Worksheet, which enhances emotional and relational health. Gain insights into personal development and improved interactions.

Migraine Treatment Guidelines

Learn effective Migraine Treatment Guidelines to relieve debilitating headaches and improve your quality of life.

Thigh Thrust Test

Learn about the Thigh Thrust Test, a diagnostic tool in healthcare to assess hip joint pathology and potential causes of hip pain.

Balance Exercises for Seniors

Improve your balance and stability with these effective balance exercises for seniors. Download Carepatron's free PDF with examples and enhance your overall well-being today.

Nursing Diagnosis for Pneumonia

Explore our comprehensive guide on nursing diagnoses for pneumonia, including symptoms, treatments, and how our free template can enhance patient care.

Disturbed Thought Process Nursing Care Plan

Explore our detailed guide and free downloadable template for a Disturbed Thought Process Nursing Care Plan, including diagnosis, interventions, and nursing software solutions. Perfect for healthcare professionals.

Anxiety Thermometer

Download our Anxiety Thermometer template to track anxiety levels. Ideal for young people, parents, and educators. Free PDF example included.

Coaching Report Template

Explore our comprehensive Coaching Report Template to streamline your coaching sessions. Download our free full report template and elevate your coaching practice with Carepatron.

Ortolani Test

Learn about the Ortolani Test for detecting hip dislocation in infants, including the procedure, symptoms, and how to use our comprehensive test template.

Bunnell Littler Test

Learn how to perform the Bunnel Little Test for intrinsic tightness. Get a free PDF template and sample here.

Risk for Injury Care Plan

Download Carepatron's free PDF example of a risk for injury care plan to help assess and manage potential risks in healthcare settings.

List of Processed Foods to Avoid

Discover the extensive list of processed foods to avoid for a healthier lifestyle. Download Carepatron's free PDF guide now and take control of your diet.

Medicare Enrollment Period Chart

Get a free Medicare Enrollment Period Chart to help patients understand Medicare enrollment periods. Download the PDF template here.

Ruminating Thoughts Worksheet

Discover effective strategies to manage ruminating thoughts with our comprehensive worksheet, designed for mental health improvement and cognitive clarity.

Meningitis Nursing Care Plan

Access Carepatron's free PDF download of a Meningitis Nursing Care Plan and example to help with a nursing diagnosis for meningitis. Learn how to create an effective care plan for patients with meningitis.

Hypoglycemia Nursing Diagnosis

Learn about hypoglycemia nursing diagnosis and get Carepatron's free PDF download with examples to help you better understand and manage this condition.

Dyslexia Worksheets

Explore our Dyslexia Worksheets for effective reading, writing, and spelling support. Free examples are included for structured learning.

Dialysis Care Plan

Need help creating a dialysis care plan? Download Carepatron's free PDF and example to get started.

Coping Skills for Paranoia Handout

Carepatron's free PDF download teaches effective coping skills for managing paranoia. It also provides examples and strategies for healthily navigating feelings of paranoia.

Stop Think Act Worksheet

Empower your clients with our Stop-Think-Act Worksheet, designed to enhance emotional regulation and thoughtful decision-making in challenging situations.

Medicare Eligibility Age Chart

Unlock key insights into Medicare eligibility with our detailed age chart and comprehensive guides, perfect for healthcare professionals and the public.

Coleman Block Test

Streamline the process of documentation during a Coleman Block Test with a patient by downloading our Coleman Block Test template today!

Appointment Schedule Template

Streamline scheduling process, optimize time management, and enhance productivity. Organize your appointment schedules with our Appointment Schedule Template.

Osteoporosis Care Plan

Developing an osteoporosis care plan is essential for managing this condition effectively. Download Carepatron's free PDF example to learn more.

Trauma and the Brain: List of Techniques to Cope

Explore Carepatron's free comprehensive list of techniques to cope with trauma and understand the connection between trauma and the brain. Download it here.

Medicare Fact Sheet

Download a free Medicare Fact Sheet for your patients. Learn how Medicare works with our free template.

Addiction and the Brain: List of Therapies

Explore the relationship between addiction and the brain, learn about various therapies, and access a free PDF with examples of effective treatment strategies.

Antipsychotic Sedation Chart

Discover the essential functions of modern antipsychotic drugs, sedation charts, the benefits of medications, and how Carepatron enhances mental health treatment.

DMDD Treatment Plan

Learn how to create a comprehensive DMDD treatment plan with SMART goals, DBT, CBT, and parental involvement for effective management.

Conversation Skills Worksheet

Level up conversational abilities with our engaging Conversation Skills Worksheet. Practical exercises and goal-setting included. Download for free today!

Contingency Map

Understand and use Contingency Maps for behavior management in therapy, education, and parenting for improved decision-making.

Healthy and Unhealthy Food Worksheet

Download our free Healthy and Unhealthy Food Worksheet to help you identify nutritious choices and balance your diet. It includes a fun plate activity!

Diabetes Treatment Guidelines

Explore comprehensive Diabetes Treatment Guidelines for effective management and improved health outcomes.

Steinman Test

Learn about the Steinman Test, a diagnostic procedure for assessing shoulder stability and potential issues, in healthcare.

Medical Spa Business Plan

Discover how to launch and grow your medical spa with our comprehensive business plan guide. Tips, templates, and strategic insights for success.

PTSD Dissociation Test

Assess PTSD dissociation symptoms with Carepatron's free PDF download containing a test and examples for evaluation. Get insights and guidance on recognizing symptoms.

Medical Billing and Coding Practice Worksheets

Enhance medical billing & coding skills with our practice worksheets! Perfect for training & mastering critical concepts. Start learning today!

Vibrational Emotional Scale

Discover the Vibrational Emotional Scale - explore the spectrum of emotions and their impact on personal growth and well-being.

CVC Checklist

Discover an essential CVC checklist for efficient business operations. Streamline your processes and enhance productivity with our comprehensive guide.

Massage Therapy Invoice Template

Get access to a free Massage Therapy Invoice Template with Carepatron. Streamline your documentation and invoicing process with our PDF.

Ankle Injury Diagnosis Chart

Learn more about ankle injuries and have a step-by-step guide on diagnosing them with our free ankle injury diagnosis chart template.

Health Triangle Worksheets

Explore and improve your well-being across physical, mental, and social health with our comprehensive Health Triangle Worksheets.

Cholecystitis Treatment Guidelines

Explore our Cholecystitis Treatment Guidelines for managing acute conditions. Download the PDF now.

Schizophrenia Treatment Guidelines

Discover the latest Schizophrenia Treatment Guidelines, including antipsychotic medication, psychosocial interventions, and cognitive behavioral therapy.

Breast Cancer Treatment Guidelines

Explore comprehensive Breast Cancer Treatment Guidelines for informed decisions. Learn about the latest protocols and options for adequate care.

Rheumatoid Arthritis Diagnosis Criteria

Learn about the essential Rheumatoid Arthritis Diagnosis Criteria for accurate identification and timely treatment in healthcare.

Surrender in Recovery Worksheet

Discover a path to recovery with our Surrender in Recovery Worksheet. Embrace change and healing with guided self-reflection. Download the free template.

BPD DSM-5 Criteria PDF

Simplify mental health practice management with Carepatron. Secure, easy-to-use software for telehealth, documentation, and collaboration.

DSM 5 Criteria for Persistent Depressive Disorder

Explore the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of Persistent Depressive Disorder (PDD) with our comprehensive guide and free PDF download.

Printable List of ICD 10 Codes for Mental Health

Download our free PDF for a practical guide on using ICD-10 codes in mental health diagnosis and billing. Streamline your practice today.

Polyvagal Ladder

Explore the Polyvagal Ladder, a visual guide to understanding stress responses, promoting safety, and enhancing social engagement.

Face Sheet (Medical)

Explore the benefits of using a medical face sheet for efficient patient care, including quick patient data access and insurance verification.

Medicare 8-minute Rule Chart

Master the Medicare 8-Minute Rule with our comprehensive chart and guide. Simplify billing for time-based therapy services and maximize reimbursement.

Cataract Evaluation

Streamline your Cataract Evaluation process by using our template for documentation. Download for free today!

Wheelchair Evaluation

Download our Wheelchair Evaluation template to streamlines the documentation process through a evaluation of clients' mobility and seating needs.

Pediatric BMI Chart

Download our Pediatric BMI Chart for a resource that can assist you in assessing and documenting a child's weight status.

Medical Fishbone Diagram

Explore the Medical Fishbone Diagram to identify the causes of healthcare issues with our free PDF template. Streamline problem-solving in clinical settings.

Navicular Stress Fracture Test

Explore diagnosis and treatment for navicular stress fractures with our free guide on tests, symptoms, and recovery strategies.

Triphasic BBT Chart

Discover how a Triphasic BBT Chart can help track fertility and early pregnancy signs. Download our free PDF for insights and examples.

Scaphoid Fracture Test

Explore the essential aspects of scaphoid fractures, including symptoms, risk factors, and treatments. Access our free Scaphoid Fracture Test PDF for better patient care.

Health Anxiety CBT Worksheets

Overcome health anxiety with our CBT worksheets designed to help you understand and manage your fears. Download our free example today.

Female Acupuncture Points Chart

Explore our Female Acupuncture Points Chart for a comprehensive guide on key acupuncture points and meridians to enhance women's health treatments.

Musculoskeletal Examination Checklist

Explore a comprehensive guide on musculoskeletal system examination, conditions, treatments, and FAQs with a free checklist PDF download.

Pain Management Coding Cheat Sheet

Streamline your medical billing and coding for pain management with our comprehensive cheat sheet. Download our free PDF today.

Body Neutrality Worksheet

Explore our Body Neutrality Worksheet to help individuals foster self-acceptance and focus on the functionality of their bodies. Download it now!

Cope Ahead Worksheet

Master the art of coping ahead with our comprehensive worksheet. Prepare for challenging situations and enhance emotional resilience with Carepatron.

Schizoaffective Disorder Test

Discover if you may have Schizoaffective Disorder with our test. Get insights and guidance for better mental health. Quick, accurate, and confidential.

Massage Therapy Business Plan

Creating a massage therapy business plan? Download Carepatron's free PDF to guide you through the process and help you create a successful massage therapy business plan.

Example of Counseling Session Dialogue PDF

Explore a sample counseling session dialogue PDF for insight into effective communication and therapeutic techniques. Download now!

Food and Symptom Diary PDF

Track your food intake and symptoms on a symptom-free day with our convenient Food and Symptom Diary PDF report. Monitor your health quickly and effectively.

Newborn Exam Template

Streamline newborn examinations with our comprehensive template, ensuring thorough newborn assessment and care. Download now!

Schizotypal Personality Disorder Test (SPDT)

Explore the use of a self-report tool to screen for symptoms of schizotypal personality disorder among clients. Download a free printable test here!

ACT Bullseye Worksheet

Integrate the ACT Bullseye Worksheet to help clients reflect on and align their goals with their values.

Learning Needs Assessment Nursing

Unleash your full potential! Master nursing skills & knowledge with Carepatron's LNA guide. Boost patient care & career growth.

Hypochondria Test

Explore our guide on illness anxiety disorder: signs, impact, and treatments. Download a free Hypochondria Test to start your journey to better health.

Binocular Vision Test

Carepatron's free PDF download provides a binocular vision test example that you can use to assess your vision. Learn more about binocular vision and how to conduct the test effectively.

Dependent Personality Disorder Treatment Guidelines

Improve treatment planning for dependent personality disorder with our free resource to improve client outcomes.

PASS Assessment

Explore the use of a specialized test to assess postural control among stroke patients to craft a more targeted rehabilitation plan.

Eden's Test

Discover the significance of Eden's Test in diagnosing thoracic outlet syndrome. Learn how this maneuver aids in identifying neurovascular compression.

Esthetician Business Plan

Crafting an Esthetician Business Plan is crucial for success. Download Carepatron's free PDF to guide you in creating your own professional business plan.

Test for Muscle Weakness

Learn how to determine muscle weakness with Carepatron's free PDF download and example. This resource provides valuable information on assessing muscle strength and functionality.

Healthcare Marketing Plan

Download Carepatron's comprehensive Healthcare Marketing Plan PDF, which helps create a successful strategy that drives patient engagement, trust, and growth for your organization.

Hearing Aid Evaluation

Learn how to conduct a thorough hearing aid evaluation with our free PDF download. This comprehensive guide includes examples and tips for success.

OCD Treatment Guidelines

Navigate through the complexities of OCD with our comprehensive treatment guidelines. Discover evidence-based strategies for effective management.

Behavioral Health Treatment Plan

Explore effective mental health treatment plans with our free PDF template, which is ideal for mental health professionals seeking structured recovery paths.

Classical Conditioning Worksheet

Explore classical conditioning with our worksheet, perfect for students, therapists, and self-learners to deepen their understanding of behavior theories.

Action Planning Worksheet

Maximize project success with our Action Planning Worksheet. Track and measure progress effectively. Download free templates for complete project management.

Pharmacy Technician Worksheets

Unlock pharmacy tech skills with our free worksheets for exam prep, skill refreshment, and practical knowledge. Download now.

Type 2 Diabetes Treatment Guidelines

Get comprehensive guidelines and examples for treating Type 2 Diabetes in Carepatron's free PDF download.

Pain Management Treatment

Discover effective pain management treatments and examples through Carepatron's free PDF download. Learn about various strategies to alleviate pain and improve your quality of life.

Facts vs Feelings Worksheet

Differentiate between facts and feelings with our Facts vs Feelings Worksheet. Ideal for therapy sessions, promoting emotional regulation and logical thinking.

Gaslighting Worksheet

Use our Gaslighting Worksheet to empower your clients. Help patients recognize and overcome gaslighting, facilitate healing, and improve mental wellness.

Gratitude Jar Worksheet

Enhance well-being in your practice with our Gratitude Jar Worksheet. Empower your clients to cultivate positivity and gratitude in their lives.

Burnout Recovery Plan

Get your free PDF of a burnout recovery plan from Carepatron to help you overcome burnout and regain work-life balance. Explore practical recovery strategies.

Glasgow Coma Scale

The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) dates back to the 1970s and has become one of the most widely accepted measurements of impairment following brain injury. What better way to start using the GCS in your practice than with Carepatron’s free PDF GCS template download.

Height Weight Charts

Learn about height-weight charts and their use in healthcare practice. Find out your ideal weight and stay healthy!

Normal Blood Sugar Levels Chart

Understand how a Normal Blood Sugar Levels Chart works. Get access to a free PDF template and example in this guide.

Doctors Note

Access our Doctor's Note Template to ensure a more organized approach when writing this document for patients.

Pathophysiology Concept Map

Effortlessly understand pathophysiology through our concise and user-friendly Concept Map.

Atrial Fibrillation Nursing Care Plan

Streamline patient care with our Atrial Fibrillation Nursing Care Plan Template - a comprehensive guide for effective management and treatment.

Hypertension Nursing Care Plan

Hypertension can happen to a lot of people of all ages. Learn how to take care of your hypertension through this hypertension nursing care plan template.

Pulse Rate Chart

Using our Pulse Rate Chart, you can learn more about the heart's inner workings and how they may indicate overall health and well-being.

SBAR templates

Discover how an SBAR Template can help you communicate effectively. Plus, get a free SBAR template PDF and example to use in your daily practice.

Vital Sign Sheets

Implement our vital signs sheet into your healthcare practice to automate data collection. Improve accuracy, organization, and achieve better clinical outcomes today.

PAINAD Scale

Learn about the Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia Scale (PAINAD) and how to interpret results. Plus, get a free PDF template and example.

Palliative Performance Scale

Learn about the Palliative Performance Scale and its application in hospice care. Download a free PDF template and follow our guide to using the PPS effectively.

Join 10,000+ teams using Carepatron to be more productive

  • Education Home
  • Medical Education Technology Support
  • Graduate Medical Education
  • Medical Scientist Training Program
  • Public Health Sciences Program
  • Continuing Medical Education
  • Clinical Performance Education Center
  • Center for Excellence in Education
  • Research Home
  • Biochemistry & Molecular Genetics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Cell Biology
  • Microbiology, Immunology, & Cancer Biology (MIC)
  • Molecular Physiology & Biological Physics
  • Neuroscience
  • Pharmacology
  • Public Health Sciences
  • Office for Research
  • Clinical Research
  • Clinical Trials Office
  • Funding Opportunities
  • Grants & Contracts
  • Research Faculty Directory
  • Cancer Center
  • Cardiovascular Research Center
  • Carter Immunology Center
  • Center for Behavioral Health & Technology
  • Center for Brain Immunology & Glia
  • Center for Diabetes Technology
  • Center for Immunity, Inflammation & Regenerative Medicine
  • Center for Public Health Genomics
  • Center for Membrane & Cell Physiology
  • Center for Research in Reproduction
  • Myles H. Thaler Center for AIDS & Human Retrovirus Research
  • Child Health Research Center (Pediatrics)
  • Division of Perceptual Studies
  • Research News: The Making of Medicine
  • Core Facilities
  • Virginia Research Resources Consortium
  • Center for Advanced Vision Science
  • Charles O. Strickler Transplant Center
  • Keck Center for Cellular Imaging
  • Institute of Law, Psychiatry & Public Policy
  • Translational Health Research Institute of Virginia
  • Clinical Home
  • Anesthesiology
  • Dermatology
  • Emergency Medicine
  • Family Medicine
  • Neurosurgery
  • Obstetrics & Gynecology
  • Ophthalmology
  • Orthopaedic Surgery
  • Otolaryngology
  • Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
  • Plastic Surgery, Maxillofacial, & Oral Health
  • Psychiatry & Neurobehavioral Sciences
  • Radiation Oncology
  • Radiology & Medical Imaging
  • UVA Health: Patient Care
  • Diversity Home
  • Diversity Overview
  • Student Resources
  • GME Trainee Resources
  • Faculty Resources
  • Community Resources
  • Medical Student Case Studies

Each student is required to prepare a teaching case to present to his/her colleagues and the course director. Past examples provided below.

General Diagnostic Case Studies

  • Arteriovenous Fistula Secondary to Trauma
  • Chylothorax, Cellulitis, Gas Gangrene
  • Ectopic ACTH-Secreting Tumor
  • Epiphrenic Diverticula
  • Incidental Mediastinal Hilar Lymphadenopathy
  • Liver Metastasis
  • Neurocystercircosis
  • Pneumoperitoneum
  • Pneumothorax
  • Posterior Urethralcutaneous Fistula
  • Renal Cysts
  • Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
  • Septic Emboli to the Brain
  • Submassive Bilateral PE
  • Tailgut Duplication Cyst
  • Tension Pneumocephalus
  • Tracheo-Esophageal Fistula
  • Vestibular Schwannoma

Radiology Pathology Correlation Case Studies

  • Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma
  • Cholangiocarcinoma
  • Cryptococcal PNA
  • Disseminated Histoplasmosis
  • Lung Adenocarcinoma
  • Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma
  • Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma
  • Mixed Clear Cell Papillary RCC
  • Ovarian Carcinoma
  • Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Uterine Leiomyosarcoma
  • Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma
  • Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma
  • Esophageal Adenocarcinoma
  • Metastic Esophageal Gastrointestinal Stomal Tumor
  • Ocular Melanoma with Mets to Liver
  • Pancreatic Metatasis
  • Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
  • Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma #2
  • Renal Transplant Rejection
  • Small Cell Lung Cancer
  • Urothelial Carcinoma Lung Met
  • Yolk Sac Tumor
  • Burkitt’s Lymphoma
  • Ewing Sarcoma
  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma #2
  • High-grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma
  • Metastatic Duodenal Adenocarcinoma
  • Metastatic Melanoma
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma #3
  • Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Nodal Involvement
  • Well Differentiated Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • How to Apply
  • Connor Sleeth, MD
  • Eric Fromke, MD
  • Hannah Clode, MD
  • Jenna Pollock, MD
  • Joshua Ravicz, MD
  • Julia Kariher, MD
  • Kaelin Cockrell, MD
  • Nabeel Mirza, MD
  • Samantha Epstein, MD
  • Tyler Dalton, MD
  • Vatsal Lal, MD
  • Wayne Dell, MD
  • Salary and Benefits
  • Resident Lifestyle
  • Early Specialization in Interventional Radiology (ESIR)
  • Diagnostic Radiology/Nuclear Medicine (DR/NM) Pathway
  • Diagnostic Radiology Research Track
  • Current IR Residents
  • Where Are They Now?
  • Letter from the Chief Residents
  • Former Residents
  • Your UVA Interview Day
  • Living in Charlottesville
  • Participating Residents
  • Program News and Updates
  • Make a Gift
  • Current Representatives
  • Ladyologists – Supporting Each Other
  • 4th-year Medical Students Scholarship
  • Radiology Electives
  • Radiology Interest Group
  • Abdominal Imaging
  • Breast Imaging
  • Cardiothoracic Imaging
  • Diagnostic Neuroradiology
  • Musculoskeletal Imaging
  • Nuclear Radiology
  • Pediatric Radiology
  • Angiography and Interventional Radiology Observership
  • Breast Imaging International Visiting Scholars
  • Why Choose Structured Education?
  • Program Directors
  • Verification of Graduate Medical Education Training and Faculty Appointment
  • Online Training Resources
  • Search Menu
  • Volume 2024, Issue 4, April 2024 (In Progress)
  • Volume 2024, Issue 3, March 2024
  • Case of the Year
  • MSF Case Reports
  • Audiovestibular medicine
  • Cardiology and cardiovascular systems
  • Critical care medicine
  • Dermatology
  • Emergency medicine
  • Endocrinology and metabolism
  • Gastroenterology and hepatology
  • Geriatrics and gerontology
  • Haematology
  • Infectious diseases and tropical medicine
  • Medical ophthalmology
  • Medical disorders in pregnancy
  • Paediatrics
  • Palliative medicine
  • Pharmacology and pharmacy
  • Radiology, nuclear medicine, and medical imaging
  • Respiratory disorders
  • Rheumatology
  • Sexual and reproductive health
  • Sports medicine
  • Substance abuse
  • Author Guidelines
  • Submission Site
  • Open Access
  • Editorial Board
  • Advertising and Corporate Services
  • Journals Career Network
  • Self-Archiving Policy
  • Journals on Oxford Academic
  • Books on Oxford Academic

Article Contents

Answer to part 1, answer to part 2, answer to part 3, answer to part 4, answer to part 5.

  • < Previous

Educational Case: A 57-year-old man with chest pain

Contributed equally.

  • Article contents
  • Figures & tables
  • Supplementary Data

Nikhil Aggarwal, Subothini Selvendran, Vassilios Vassiliou, Educational Case: A 57-year-old man with chest pain, Oxford Medical Case Reports , Volume 2016, Issue 4, April 2016, Pages 62–65, https://doi.org/10.1093/omcr/omw008

  • Permissions Icon Permissions

This is an educational case report including multiple choice questions and their answers. For the best educational experience we recommend the interactive web version of the exercise which is available via the following link: http://www.oxfordjournals.org/our_journals/omcr/ec01p1.html

A 57 year-old male lorry driver, presented to his local emergency department with a 20-minute episode of diaphoresis and chest pain. The chest pain was central, radiating to the left arm and crushing in nature. The pain settled promptly following 300 mg aspirin orally and 800 mcg glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) spray sublingually administered by paramedics in the community. He smoked 20 cigarettes daily (38 pack years) but was not aware of any other cardiovascular risk factors. On examination he appeared comfortable and was able to complete sentences fully. There were no heart murmurs present on cardiac auscultation. Blood pressure was 180/105 mmHg, heart rate was 83 bpm and regular, oxygen saturation was 97%.

What is the most likely diagnosis?

An ECG was requested and is shown in figure 1.

How would you manage the patient? (The patient has already received 300 mg aspirin).

30 minutes later the patient's chest pain returned with greater intensity whilst waiting in the emergency department. Now, he described the pain as though “an elephant is sitting on his chest”. The nurse has already done an ECG by the time you were called to see him. This is shown in figure 2.

ECG on admission.

ECG on admission.

ECG 30 minutes after admission.

ECG 30 minutes after admission.

What would be the optimal management for this patient?

He was taken to the catheterization lab where the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was shown to be completely occluded. Following successful percutaneous intervention and one drug eluding stent implantation in the LAD normal flow is restored (Thrombosis in myocardial infarction, TIMI = 3). 72 hours later, he is ready to be discharged home. The patient is keen to return to work and asks when he could do so.

When would you advise him that he could return to work?

One week later, he receives a letter informing him that he is required to attend cardiac rehabilitation. The patient is confused as to what cardiac rehabilitation entails, although he does remember a nurse discussing this with him briefly before he was discharged. He phones the hospital in order to get some more information.

Which of the following can be addressed during cardiac rehabilitation?

A - Acute coronary syndrome

Although the presentation could be attributable to any of the above differential diagnoses, the most likely etiology given the clinical picture and risk factors is one of cardiac ischemia. Risk factors include gender, smoking status and age making the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome the most likely one. The broad differential diagnosis in patients presenting with chest pain has been discussed extensively in the medical literature. An old but relevant review can be found freely available 1 as well as more recent reviews. 2 , 3

C - Atorvastatin 80 mg, Clopidogrel 300 mcg, GTN 500 mcg, Ramipril 2.5 mg,

In patients with ACS, medications can be tailored to the individual patient. Some medications have symptomatic benefit but some also have prognostic benefit. Aspirin 4 , Clopidogrel 5 , Atenolol 6 and Atorvastatin 7 have been found to improve prognosis significantly. ACE inhibitors have also been found to improve left ventricular modeling and function after an MI. 8 , 9 Furthermore, GTN 10 and morphine 11 have been found to be of only significant symptomatic benefit.

Oxygen should only to be used when saturations <95% and at the lowest concentration required to keep saturations >95%. 12

There is no evidence that diltiazem, a calcium channel blocker, is of benefit. 13

His ECG in figure 1 does not fulfil ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) criteria and he should therefore be managed as a Non-STEMI. He would benefit prognostically from beta-blockade however his heart rate is only 42 bpm and therefore this is contraindicated. He should receive a loading dose of clopidogrel (300 mg) followed by daily maintenance dose (75 mg). 14 , 15 He might not require GTN if he is pain-free but out of the available answers 3 is the most correct.

D - Proceed to coronary angiography

The ECG shows ST elevation in leads V2-V6 and confirms an anterolateral STEMI, which suggests a completely occluded LAD. This ECG fulfils the criteria to initiate reperfusion therapy which traditionally require one of the three to be present: According to guidance, if the patient can undergo coronary angiography within 120 minutes from the onset of chest pain, then this represents the optimal management. If it is not possible to undergo coronary angiography and potentially percutaneous intervention within 2 hours, then thrombolysis is considered an acceptable alternative. 12 , 16

≥ 1 mm of ST change in at least two contiguous limb leads (II, III, AVF, I, AVL).

≥ 2 mm of ST change in at least two contiguous chest leads (V1-V6).

New left bundle branch block.

GTN and morphine administration can be considered in parallel but they do not have a prognostic benefit.

E - Not before an exercise test

This patient is a lorry driver and therefore has a professional heavy vehicle driving license. The regulation for driving initiation in a lorry driver following a NSTEMI/ STEMI may be different in various countries and therefore the local regulations should be followed.

In the UK, a lorry driver holds a category 2 driving license. He should therefore refrain from driving a lorry for at least 6 weeks and can only return to driving if he completes successfully an exercise evaluation. An exercise evaluation is performed on a bicycle or treadmill. Drivers should be able to complete 3 stages of the standard Bruce protocol 17 or equivalent (e.g. Myocardial perfusion scan) safely, having refrained from taking anti-anginal medication for 48 hours and should remain free from signs of cardiovascular dysfunction during the test, notably: angina pectoris, syncope, hypotension, sustained ventricular tachycardia, and/or electrocardiographic ST segment shift which is considered as being indicative of myocardial ischemia (usually >2 mm horizontal or down-sloping) during exercise or the recovery period. 18

For a standard car driving license (category 1), driving can resume one week after successful intervention providing that no other revascularization is planned within 4 weeks; left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is at least 40% prior to hospital discharge and there is no other disqualifying condition.

Therefore if this patent was in the UK, he could restart driving a normal car one week later assuming an echocardiogram confirmed an EF > 40%. However, he could only continue lorry driving once he has passed the required tests. 18

E - All of the above

Cardiac rehabilitation bridges the gap between hospitals and patients' homes. The cardiac rehabilitation team consists of various healthcare professions and the programme is started during hospital admission or after diagnosis. Its aim is to educate patients about their cardiac condition in order to help them adopt a healthier lifestyle. This includes educating patients' about their diet, exercise, risk factors associated with their condition such as smoking and alcohol intake and finally, about the medication recommended. There is good evidence that adherence to cardiac rehabilitation programmes improves survival and leads to a reduction in future cardiovascular events.​ 19 , 20

Oille JA . Differential diagnosis of pain in the chest . Can Med Assoc J . 1937 ; 37 (3) : 209 – 216 . http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC536075/ .

Google Scholar

Lee TH , Goldman L . Evaluation of the patient with acute chest pain . N Engl J Med . 2000 ; 342 (16) : 1187 – 1195 . http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM200004203421607 .

Douglas PS , Ginsburg GS . The evaluation of chest pain in women . N Engl J Med . 1996 ; 334 (20) : 1311 – 1315 . http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM199605163342007 .

Baigent C , Collins R , Appleby P , Parish S , Sleight P , Peto R . ISIS-2: 10 year survival among patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction in randomised comparison of intravenous streptokinase, oral aspirin, both, or neither. the ISIS-2 (second international study of infarct survival) collaborative group . BMJ . 1998 ; 316 (7141) : 1337 – 1343 . http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC28530/ .

Yusuf S , Zhao F , Mehta S , Chrolavicius S , Tognoni G , Fox K . Clopidogrel in unstable angina to prevent recurrent events trail investigators . effects of clopidogrel in addition to aspirin in patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation . N Engl J Med . 2001 ; 345 (7) : 494 – 502 . http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa010746#t=articleTop .

Yusuf S , Peto R , Lewis J , Collins R , Sleight P . Beta blockade during and after myocardial infarction: An overview of the randomized trials . Prog Cardiovasc Dis . 1985 ; 27 (5) : 335 – 371 . http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0033062085800037 .

Schwartz GG , Olsson AG , Ezekowitz MD et al.  . Effects of atorvastatin on early recurrent ischemic events in acute coronary syndromes: The MIRACL study: A randomized controlled trial . JAMA . 2001 ; 285 (13) : 1711 – 1718 . http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=193709 .

Pfeffer MA , Lamas GA , Vaughan DE , Parisi AF , Braunwald E . Effect of captopril on progressive ventricular dilatation after anterior myocardial infarction . N Engl J Med . 1988 ; 319 (2) : 80 – 86 . http://content.onlinejacc.org/article.aspx?articleid=1118054 .

Sharpe N , Smith H , Murphy J , Hannan S . Treatment of patients with symptomless left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction . The Lancet . 1988 ; 331 (8580) : 255 – 259 . http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673688903479 .

Ferreira JC , Mochly-Rosen D . Nitroglycerin use in myocardial infarction patients . Circ J . 2012 ; 76 (1) : 15 – 21 . http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3527093/ .

Herlitz J , Hjalmarson A , Waagstein F . Treatment of pain in acute myocardial infarction . Br Heart J . 1989 ; 61 (1) : 9 – 13 . http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1216614/ .

Task Force on the management of ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), Steg PG, James SK, et al . ESC guidelines for the management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation . Eur Heart J . 2012 ; 33 (20) : 2569 – 2619 . http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/content/33/20/2569 .

The effect of diltiazem on mortality and reinfarction after myocardial infarction . the multicenter diltiazem postinfarction trial research group . N Engl J Med . 1988 ; 319 (7) : 385 – 392 . http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM198808183190701 .

Jneid H , Anderson JL , Wright RS et al.  . 2012 ACCF/AHA focused update of the guideline for the management of patients with unstable angina/Non–ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2007 guideline and replacing the 2011 focused update) A report of the american college of cardiology foundation/american heart association task force on practice guidelines . J Am Coll Cardiol . 2012 ; 60 (7) : 645 – 681 . http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/123/18/2022.full .

Hamm CW , Bassand JP , Agewall S et al.  . ESC guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation: The task force for the management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation of the european society of cardiology (ESC) . Eur Heart J . 2011 ; 32 (23) : 2999 – 3054 . http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/content/32/23/2999.long .

O'Gara PT , Kushner FG , Ascheim DD et al.  . 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: Executive summary: A report of the american college of cardiology foundation/american heart association task force on practice guidelines . J Am Coll Cardiol . 2013 ; 61 (4) : 485 – 510 . http://content.onlinejacc.org/article.aspx?articleid=1486115 .

BRUCE RA , LOVEJOY FW Jr . Normal respiratory and circulatory pathways of adaptation in exercise . J Clin Invest . 1949 ; 28 (6 Pt 2) : 1423 – 1430 . http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC439698/ .

DVLA . Https://Www.gov.uk/current-medical-guidelines-dvla-guidance-for-professionals-cardiovascular-chapter-appendix .

British Heart Foundation . Http://Www.bhf.org.uk/heart-health/living-with-heart-disease/cardiac-rehabilitation.aspx .

Kwan G , Balady GJ . Cardiac rehabilitation 2012: Advancing the field through emerging science . Circulation . 2012 ; 125 (7) : e369–73. http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/125/7/e369.full .

Author notes

  • knowledge acquisition

Email alerts

Citing articles via, affiliations.

  • Online ISSN 2053-8855
  • Copyright © 2024 Oxford University Press
  • About Oxford Academic
  • Publish journals with us
  • University press partners
  • What we publish
  • New features  
  • Open access
  • Institutional account management
  • Rights and permissions
  • Get help with access
  • Accessibility
  • Advertising
  • Media enquiries
  • Oxford University Press
  • Oxford Languages
  • University of Oxford

Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide

  • Copyright © 2024 Oxford University Press
  • Cookie settings
  • Cookie policy
  • Privacy policy
  • Legal notice

This Feature Is Available To Subscribers Only

Sign In or Create an Account

This PDF is available to Subscribers Only

For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription.

Search the world's largest collection of clinical case reports

Browse case reports by:

Publish in BMJ Case Reports

Global health case reports.

These are case reports that focus on the causes of ill health, the social determinants of health and access to healthcare services, prevailing local and national issues that affect health and wellbeing, and the challenges in providing care to vulnerable populations or with limited resources.

Read the full collection now

Images in… :

24 January 2024

31 July 2023

Unusual association of diseases/symptoms :

Case report :

5 March 2024

18 October 2023

Obstetrics and gynaecology :

Case Reports by specialty

  • Anaesthesia
  • Dentistry and oral medicine
  • Dermatology
  • Emergency medicine
  • Endocrinology
  • General practice and family medicine
  • Geriatric medicine
  • Haematology
  • Infectious diseases
  • Obstetrics and gynaecology
  • Ophthalmology
  • Orthopaedics
  • Paediatrics
  • Respiratory medicine
  • Rheumatology

altmetric badge

Global Health Competition

Every year BMJ Case Reports selects authors of global health case reports to join our editorial team as a global health associate editor.

This is an opportunity to gain some editorial experience or join our team on research and educational projects. Students and graduates may apply.

Simply select Global Health Competition when you submit.

Latest Articles

Case Reports: Unusual association of diseases/symptoms :

Case Reports: Rare disease :

13 May 2024

sample of a medical case study

  • Search by keyword
  • Search by citation

Page 1 of 143

Successful pregnancy with intracytoplasmic sperm injection after bacterial contamination of embryo culture in in vitro fertilization: a case report

Bacterial infection of embryo culture medium is rare but may be detrimental. The main source of embryo culture contamination is semen. Assisted reproduction centers currently lack consensus regarding the metho...

  • View Full Text

Unveiling a foreign body masquerading as periarticular calcification: a case report

Evaluating isolated extremity discomfort can be challenging when initial imaging and exams provide limited information. Though subtle patient history hints often underlie occult pathologies, benign symptoms ar...

Portal vein thrombosis as extraintestinal complications of Crohn’s disease: a case report and review of literature

Thrombotic events are more than twice as common in inflammatory bowel disease patients as in the general population. We report an interesting and rare case of portal vein thrombosis as a venous thromboembolic ...

Long-lasting severe anemia following treatment with natalizumab for relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis: a case report

Natalizumab is a monoclonal antibody used to treat patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis. Anemia is a recognized side effect, but it is usually mild and of a short duration when natalizumab is s...

Endovascular treatment in Danon disease: a case report

Danon disease is a lysosomal storage disorder with X-linked inheritance. The classic triad is severe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, myopathy, and intellectual disability, with different phenotypes between both g...

Unusual phenotype in 35delG mutation: a case report

Mutations in the GJB2 gene, which encodes the protein connexin 26 and is involved in inner ear homeostasis, are identified in approximately 50% of patients with autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss, m...

In situ ascending aortic thrombus in a patient with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma and no aortic atherosclerosis or cisplatin exposure: a case report

An ascending aortic thrombus is exceedingly rare. Two instances have been reported in the setting of lung cancer, but only after cisplatin use, which is associated with hypercoagulability. We present the first...

Management of complete intra-articular distal femur and patellar fractures in an achondroplastic young adult; small is challenging’ revisited: a case-report

People with achondroplasia exhibit distinct physical characteristics, but their cognitive abilities remain within the normal range. The challenges encountered during surgical procedures and perioperative care ...

Demonstrating antibiotic stewardship while diagnosing and treating bilateral pseudoseptic arthritis: a case report

Although viscosupplementation is a commonly used treatment for osteoarthritis and is widely regarded as a safe treatment option, it is associated with the rare complication of pseudoseptic arthritis. Most exis...

Chronic radiation proctitis refractory to steroid enema was successfully treated by metformin and sodium butyrate: a case report

Radiation proctitis (RP) is a significant complication of pelvic radiation. Effective treatments for chronic RP are currently lacking. We report a case where chronic RP was successfully managed by metformin an...

Carbon ion radiotherapy for mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix: a case report

Mesonephric adenocarcinoma is an extremely rare subtype of uterine cervical cancer that is associated with a poor prognosis and for which a standardized treatment protocol has not been established. Carbon ion ...

Stenting for subclavian steal phenomenon to restore cerebral perfusion due to acute carotid occlusion following carotid endarterectomy: a case report

Perioperative symptomatic carotid artery occlusion after carotid endarterectomy is a rare complication. In this study, we present a case of symptomatic acute carotid artery occlusion that occurred after caroti...

Solitary primary intraosseous xanthoma of the mandible in a 15-year-old boy: a case report

A xanthoma is a rare bone condition consisting of a predominant collection of lipid-rich, foamy histiocytes. The central xanthoma of the jaws is a unique benign tumor.

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy following pacemaker insertion complicated with polymorphic ventricular tachycardia: a case report

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a novel form of rapidly reversible heart failure occurring secondary to a stressor that mimics an acute coronary event. The underlying etiology of the stressor is highly variable an...

Sirenomelia or mermaid syndrome with a cleft lip in a Tanzanian newborn: a case report

Sirenomelia or sirenomelia sequence, also known as mermaid syndrome, is a rare congenital anomaly involving the caudal region of the body. The syndrome is characterized by partial or complete fusion of lower e...

Mature cystic teratoma with co-existent mucinous cystadenocarcinoma: describing a diagnostic challenge—a case report

Mature cystic teratoma co-existing with a mucinous cystadenocarcinoma is a rare tumor that few cases have been reported until now. In these cases, either a benign teratoma is malignantly transformed into adeno...

Primary omental smooth muscle tumor in an adult male: a diagnostic dilemma for leiomyoma: a case report

The greater omentum comprises peritoneal, adipose, vascular, and lymphoid tissues. Most omental malignancies are metastatic tumors, and the incidence of primary tumors is rare. We report on a prior omental smo...

Unusual presentation of Sjogren’s syndrome during pregnancy: a case report

Pregnancy imposes significant physiological changes, including alterations in electrolyte balance and renal function. This is especially important because certain disorders might worsen and make people more su...

A giant peripheral ossifying fibroma of the maxilla with extreme difficulty in clinical differentiation from malignancy: a case report and review of the literature

Peripheral ossifying fibroma is a nonneoplastic inflammatory hyperplasia that originates in the periodontal ligament or periosteum in response to chronic mechanical irritation. Peripheral ossifying fibroma dev...

Remission induced by renal protective therapy in nephrotic syndrome with thin basement membrane in an older patient: a case report

Adult nephrotic syndrome is a well-known kidney disease that causes heavy proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia, edema, and hypertension. The treatment varies according to its underlying cause but...

Lymphoma presenting as preauricular tumor in unilateral parotid gland agenesis: a case report and review of literature

Parotid gland agenesis is a rare, congenital, usually asymptomatic disorder. Until now, only 24 cases with unilateral, incidentally found, parotid gland agenesis have been described. Here, we present the first...

Colonic lymphomatous polyposis mantle cell lymphoma: a case report and review of literature

Mantle cell lymphoma is a rare lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract that may present as multiple lymphomatous polyposis. We report a case of lymphomatous polyposis with a review of the literature.

Cardiac evaluation in amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction with suspected cardiac ischemia?: a case report and review of the literature

Amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction (AIT) is a side-effect associated with the use of Amiodarone for the treatment of refractory arrythmias. Resulting hyperthyroidism can precipitate cardiac complications, ...

Nexplanonectomy—the surgical removal of an embolized implanted contraceptive device: a case report and review of the literature

Nexplanon implants are a common hormonal contraceptive modality. Though rare, these devices can embolize into the injured wall of the basilic vein, through the right heart, and finally wedge itself into a pulm...

An isolated vaginal metastasis from rectal cancer: a case report

Vaginal metastasis from colorectal cancer is a rare occurrence, typically associated with other metastatic lesions. Isolated metastasis is exceedingly uncommon, with only a few cases documented in the literatu...

Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy: a case report

Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI) is a rare clinically benign, pigmented, tumor of neural crest origin which commonly occurs in the maxilla. It is a rare tumor that may pose difficulty in diffe...

Metastasis of small cell lung cancer to bilateral extraocular muscles: a case report

Orbital metastasis is a possible complication of small cell lung cancer and a pattern of bilateral invasion of the extraocular muscles has rarely been reported in literature.

Mycophenolate-induced colitis in a patient with lupus nephritis: a case report and review of the literature

Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is an immunosuppressive drug that is frequently prescribed to patients with rheumatological diseases. MMF’s side effects include abdominal discomfort, nausea, vomiting, and other ga...

Pembrolizumab response in stage IV luminal-type breast cancer with high microsatellite instability: a case report

Pembrolizumab (PEM), an immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI), is often used for triple-negative breast cancer, but can also be used to treat solid tumors that exhibit high microsatellite instability (MSI-High). H...

Refractory pneumonia caused by Prevotella heparinolytica : a case report

Prevotella heparinolytica is a Gram-negative bacterium that is commonly found in the oral, intestinal, and urinary tracts. It has been extensively studied in lower respiratory tract infections in horses, which ha...

Giant intraperitoneal non-pancreatic pseudocyst: a case report

Non-pancreatic pseudocysts are rare lesions that typically form from the omentum and mesentery. These cysts have a thick fibrotic wall made up of fibrous tissue and may show signs of calcifications and inflamm...

Neglected Sprengel’s deformity in an 80-year-old female cadaver: a case report

Sprengel’s deformity is a congenital abnormality of the shoulder girdle. Because scapular retraction, such as the Green procedure, is usually performed during childhood to improve esthetics and shoulder functi...

An 11-month-old boy with tuberculous meningitis presenting as progressive limb weakness, fever, developmental retardation, and loss of consciousness: a case report

Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) accounts for about 1% of all tuberculosis cases and about 5% of extrapulmonary tuberculosis cases. However, it poses major importance because approximately half of those affected d...

Successful preimplantation genetic testing for fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva: a case report

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare autosomal dominant condition that leads to significant disability and morbidity, characterised by the formation of heterotopic hard tissues within connecti...

An unusual case of severe asphyxia with the fetal position unexpectedly inverted in a malformed uterus: a case report

We present a severe neonatal consequence due to the unexpected and crucial inversion of the fetal position after sudden termination of tocolysis during early labor of a woman with congenital uterine anomaly. I...

Optic neuritis and mydriasis after vaccination: a case report

Optic neuritis (ON) is an inflammatory demyelinating condition of the optic nerve, with various causes. Its incidence is higher in children and young adults than in older adults of both genders, but is more co...

Postoperative delayed massive bleeding in gastric cancer: a case report

Postoperative delayed bleeding of gastric cancer is a complication of radical gastrectomy with low incidence rate and high mortality.

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in an adult male patient: a case report and review of the literature

Headache is a frequent symptom in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, and idiopathic intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri) has been reported among patients who underwent lumbar puncture for...

Microblading reaction as a manifestation of systemic sarcoidosis: two case reports and a review of the literature

Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disease characterized by granulomatous inflammation. Sarcoidosis often poses a diagnostic challenge owing to its nonspecific or mild clinical features. In 20–35% of cases, sarcoi...

Exceptional lymph node recurrence of an unusual ovarian tumor 16 years later: a case report

Sex cord-stromal tumors with annular tubules are a rare tumor accounting for less than 1% of all ovarian malignancies. However, they are characterized by very late recurrence, which can be as late as 30 years ...

Real-time ultrasound-guided sacral plexus block combined with mild sedation for hemorrhoidectomy and hemorrhoidal artery ligation in a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a case report

Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis present perioperative challenges for clinical anesthesiologists for anesthesia-associated complications.

Genetic exploration of Dravet syndrome: two case report

Dravet syndrome is an infantile-onset developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) characterized by drug resistance, intractable seizures, and developmental comorbidities. This article focuses on manifesta...

Surgical management of renal cell carcinoma with subhepatic inferior vena cava tumor thrombus: a case report and review of the literature

Renal cell carcinomas are the most common form of kidney cancer in adults. In addition to metastasizing in lungs, soft tissues, bones, and the liver, it also spreads locally. In 2–10% of patients, it causes a ...

Laparoscopic extraction of a symptomatic upper abdominal pedunculated parietal peritoneal lipoma arising intermittent abdominal pain: a case report

Lipomas arising in the parietal peritoneum are rare, and some of them cause abdominal pain due to torsion of the pedunculated peritoneum. We encountered a case of parietal peritoneal lipoma arising upper perit...

Peripartal management of dichorial twin pregnancy in a bicornuate bicollis uterus: a case report and review of the literature

The management of a pregnancy in a bicornuate uterus is particularly challenging. A bicornuate uterus is a rare occurrence and a twin pregnancy in a bicornuate uterus even more rare. These pregnancies call for...

Immunoglobulin G4-related disease presenting with nephrotic syndrome due to minimal change disease: a case report

Immunoglobulin G4-related disease is an inflammatory disease affecting multiple organs including the kidney. Immunoglobulin G4-related kidney disease most commonly manifests as a tubulointerstitial nephritis a...

Renal artery pseudoaneurysm following robot assisted nephron sparing surgery: two case reports

Renal artery pseudoaneurysm following partial nephrectomy is a rare entity, the incidence of this entity is more common following penetrating abdominal injuries, percutaneous renal interventions such as percut...

Aripiprazole-induced quasi-neuroleptic malignant syndrome: two case reports

Significant elevation of creatine kinase levels (above three digits) and leucocytosis in the absence of muscle rigidity, tremors, or autonomic dysfunction can pose a real challenge in the context of antipsycho...

Pneumoperitoneum, pneumoretroperitoneum and pneumomediastinum: rare complications of perforation peritonitis: a case report

Gas extravasation complications arising from perforated diverticulitis are common but manifestations such as pneumoperitoneum, pneumoretroperitoneum, and pneumomediastinum happening at the same time are exceed...

Polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and cardiac arrest from abiraterone-induced hypokalemia: a case report

Polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (PMVT) is an unstable and often fatal cardiac tachyarrhythmia. While there are many causes of this rhythm, including electrolyte imbalances, ischemia, and genetic disorders,...

  • Editorial Board
  • Manuscript editing services
  • Meet the Editors
  • Instructions for Editors
  • Sign up for article alerts and news from this journal

Annual Journal Metrics

2022 Citation Impact 1.0 - 2-year Impact Factor 0.628 - SNIP (Source Normalized Impact per Paper) 0.284 - SJR (SCImago Journal Rank)

2023 Speed 33 days submission to first editorial decision for all manuscripts (Median) 148 days submission to accept (Median)

2023 Usage  4,048,208 downloads 2,745 Altmetric mentions

  • More about our metrics

New Content Item

  • Follow us on Twitter

Journal of Medical Case Reports

ISSN: 1752-1947

  • Submission enquiries: Access here and click Contact Us
  • General enquiries: [email protected]
  • Sample Research

FREE 10+ Medical Case Study Samples & Templates in MS Word | PDF

medical case study image

How is a medical case study done? In the American medical drama series titled House, you can see Dr. House and his team of doctors do a little huddle and a lot of whiteboard scribbling. Now, they’re actually not having a meeting, but they’re conducting a medical case study of their patient. Medical case studies are commonplace for doctors, especially those who are working in the hospital. Studying the case of each patient allows doctors to find the best treatment plan  based on the patient’s condition. So, how does this medical case study work? Let’s find out.

Medical Case Study

Free 10+ medical case study samples & templates in ms word | pdf, 1. medical center case study template, 2. sample prospective control case study summary, 3. medical treatment case study template, 4. sample medical education case study, 5. school hospital case study template, 6. medical nutrition case study template, 7. community medical hospital case study, 8. medical hospital case study sample, 9. children hospital case study template, 10. basic medical database case study, 11. medical governance case study, whta is a medical case study, how to make a medical case study, 1. determine your case study type, 2. determine the topic to focus, 3. study similar published materials, 4. conduct interviews, 5. analyze data, 6. write your case study content, what is the difference between a medical case study and a nursing case study, what are the advantages of a medical case study.

Once complete, medical case studies are reported to hospital heads for further research. Here, we have medical case study samples and templates to help you with making a presentable  case report output.

medical center case study template

Size: 45 KB

sample control study for prospective case

Size: 554 KB

medical treatment case study template

Size: 346 KB

sample medical education case study

Size: 392 KB

school hospital case study template

Size: 285 KB

medical nutrition case study template

Size: 14 KB

hospital case study sample

Size: 169 KB

children hospital case study template

Size: 218 KB

medical database case study

Size: 147 KB

medical governance case study

Size: 207 KB

A medical case study is an in-depth or thorough investigation of a health condition, particularly those that are rare or illnesses that are elicited differently from the usual. Data gathering and analysis of data play an important role in this study because it is the means by which doctors and other medical practitioners can correctly diagnose the patient’s condition. Doctors go through trial and error before an actual diagnosis is decided. There are risks in a trial and error process; that is why the benefits should always outweigh the risks when it is done. The focus of a medical case study is on the identification and treatment of a known or unknown disease. Before the case is put into writing, a brainstorming session between the members of the medical team takes place. This is where the exchange of information and the realization of the data gathered is used.

The information gathered for a medical case study is biological. They are information about the patient’s past and present day-to-day activities. The methods used in a case study are determined through research. Different methods are essential in the study because it helps in making suitable materials for the case. Medical case studies greatly help in furthering the knowledge of doctors and other medical professionals in their field of expertise. It is a study material that applies both medical theory and actual practice. Similar case studies include a  nursing case study and a patient case study .

A medical case study requires time, patience, and a lot of knowledge on the case at hand. Formatting the study is simple. The difficult part is putting together all of the information gathered and make some sense out of it that will help find a treatment for a patient’s illness. To help you prepare your medical case study, here are a few steps that will help you get started.

Base the design, style, and format of your case study according to your audience or readers. Using the audience’s references over your style will help them effectively understand your medical presentation, especially if it is about a critical case. Using the appropriate  case study template is helpful.

You will find more than one illness in the same patient because of the complications brought about by the actual disease. While it is necessary to include all relevant findings about the patient, you should be specific about the main focus of the study and explain how other illnesses are related to it.

It’s possible that the same case has been studied by other medical professionals before. It could be from another hospital or another country in a different language. Your research will be more effective if you make use of previously published materials. It will help you gain more understanding of the illness and make the necessary preparations to complete the study.

Another easy to gather information by interviewing the patient and the people surrounding this patient. From them, you can get valuable information like habits and vices that the patient may not be willing to share.

Once you have all the data you need, proceed with connecting the relation of one information with another. If your case analysis is missing something, do another research or conduct another interview until you have the missing piece.

Now that you have all the prices of information together, you can start working on your case study presentation. Make sure to use guides or references to make the task easier and convenient.

Medical case studies are conducted by doctors and focus more on the disease and its treatment. A nursing case study, on the other hand, is conducted by nursing students and licensed nurses. While a nursing case study also includes treatment of the disease, its main focus is on the care of the patient before, during, and after treatment. It is more about making the patient feel at ease throughout the treatment of the disease.

A medical case study is most useful in studying rare diseases with a long latency period. It allows the researcher more time to study how an individual is infected and how the illness manifests. They are also less time consuming compared to actual large scale research.

New information about a known disease can be learned and communicated by medical professionals through a medical case study. That is why even if it is one of the earliest forms of medical communication, the study is still practiced in the present. If you’re learning how to make a medical case study, you will find the samples and templates above useful. You can even download them for free!

Related Posts

Free 10+ content validity samples & templates in pdf, free 10+ construct validity samples & templates in ms word | pdf, free 10+ code of human research ethics samples & templates in ms word | pdf, free 10+ biography research report samples and templates in pdf, free 10+ system documentation samples & templates in ms word | pdf, free 10+ process document samples & templates in ms word | pdf, free 10+ action research samples & templates in pdf, free 10+ longitudinal research samples & templates in pdf | ms word, free 10+ causal research samples & templates in ms word | pdf, free 10+ client discovery samples & templates in ms word | pdf, free 10+ null hypothesis samples & templates in ms word | pdf, free 9+ product knowledge samples & templates in pdf, free 10+ software documentation samples & templates in ms word | pdf, free 10+ exploratory research samples & templates in pdf | ms word, free 10+ experimental research samples & templates in ms word | pdf, free 6+ sample dap note templates in pdf ms word, free 8+ medical school recommendation letter templates in pdf ..., free 4+ sample case files [business, cd], free 6+ business case samples in pdf ms word.

  • Open access
  • Published: 14 May 2024

Developing a survey to measure nursing students’ knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, influences, and willingness to be involved in Medical Assistance in Dying (MAiD): a mixed method modified e-Delphi study

  • Jocelyn Schroeder 1 ,
  • Barbara Pesut 1 , 2 ,
  • Lise Olsen 2 ,
  • Nelly D. Oelke 2 &
  • Helen Sharp 2  

BMC Nursing volume  23 , Article number:  326 ( 2024 ) Cite this article

Metrics details

Medical Assistance in Dying (MAiD) was legalized in Canada in 2016. Canada’s legislation is the first to permit Nurse Practitioners (NP) to serve as independent MAiD assessors and providers. Registered Nurses’ (RN) also have important roles in MAiD that include MAiD care coordination; client and family teaching and support, MAiD procedural quality; healthcare provider and public education; and bereavement care for family. Nurses have a right under the law to conscientious objection to participating in MAiD. Therefore, it is essential to prepare nurses in their entry-level education for the practice implications and moral complexities inherent in this practice. Knowing what nursing students think about MAiD is a critical first step. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a survey to measure nursing students’ knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, influences, and willingness to be involved in MAiD in the Canadian context.

The design was a mixed-method, modified e-Delphi method that entailed item generation from the literature, item refinement through a 2 round survey of an expert faculty panel, and item validation through a cognitive focus group interview with nursing students. The settings were a University located in an urban area and a College located in a rural area in Western Canada.

During phase 1, a 56-item survey was developed from existing literature that included demographic items and items designed to measure experience with death and dying (including MAiD), education and preparation, attitudes and beliefs, influences on those beliefs, and anticipated future involvement. During phase 2, an expert faculty panel reviewed, modified, and prioritized the items yielding 51 items. During phase 3, a sample of nursing students further evaluated and modified the language in the survey to aid readability and comprehension. The final survey consists of 45 items including 4 case studies.

Systematic evaluation of knowledge-to-date coupled with stakeholder perspectives supports robust survey design. This study yielded a survey to assess nursing students’ attitudes toward MAiD in a Canadian context.

The survey is appropriate for use in education and research to measure knowledge and attitudes about MAiD among nurse trainees and can be a helpful step in preparing nursing students for entry-level practice.

Peer Review reports

Medical Assistance in Dying (MAiD) is permitted under an amendment to Canada’s Criminal Code which was passed in 2016 [ 1 ]. MAiD is defined in the legislation as both self-administered and clinician-administered medication for the purpose of causing death. In the 2016 Bill C-14 legislation one of the eligibility criteria was that an applicant for MAiD must have a reasonably foreseeable natural death although this term was not defined. It was left to the clinical judgement of MAiD assessors and providers to determine the time frame that constitutes reasonably foreseeable [ 2 ]. However, in 2021 under Bill C-7, the eligibility criteria for MAiD were changed to allow individuals with irreversible medical conditions, declining health, and suffering, but whose natural death was not reasonably foreseeable, to receive MAiD [ 3 ]. This population of MAiD applicants are referred to as Track 2 MAiD (those whose natural death is foreseeable are referred to as Track 1). Track 2 applicants are subject to additional safeguards under the 2021 C-7 legislation.

Three additional proposed changes to the legislation have been extensively studied by Canadian Expert Panels (Council of Canadian Academics [CCA]) [ 4 , 5 , 6 ] First, under the legislation that defines Track 2, individuals with mental disease as their sole underlying medical condition may apply for MAiD, but implementation of this practice is embargoed until March 2027 [ 4 ]. Second, there is consideration of allowing MAiD to be implemented through advanced consent. This would make it possible for persons living with dementia to receive MAID after they have lost the capacity to consent to the procedure [ 5 ]. Third, there is consideration of extending MAiD to mature minors. A mature minor is defined as “a person under the age of majority…and who has the capacity to understand and appreciate the nature and consequences of a decision” ([ 6 ] p. 5). In summary, since the legalization of MAiD in 2016 the eligibility criteria and safeguards have evolved significantly with consequent implications for nurses and nursing care. Further, the number of Canadians who access MAiD shows steady increases since 2016 [ 7 ] and it is expected that these increases will continue in the foreseeable future.

Nurses have been integral to MAiD care in the Canadian context. While other countries such as Belgium and the Netherlands also permit euthanasia, Canada is the first country to allow Nurse Practitioners (Registered Nurses with additional preparation typically achieved at the graduate level) to act independently as assessors and providers of MAiD [ 1 ]. Although the role of Registered Nurses (RNs) in MAiD is not defined in federal legislation, it has been addressed at the provincial/territorial-level with variability in scope of practice by region [ 8 , 9 ]. For example, there are differences with respect to the obligation of the nurse to provide information to patients about MAiD, and to the degree that nurses are expected to ensure that patient eligibility criteria and safeguards are met prior to their participation [ 10 ]. Studies conducted in the Canadian context indicate that RNs perform essential roles in MAiD care coordination; client and family teaching and support; MAiD procedural quality; healthcare provider and public education; and bereavement care for family [ 9 , 11 ]. Nurse practitioners and RNs are integral to a robust MAiD care system in Canada and hence need to be well-prepared for their role [ 12 ].

Previous studies have found that end of life care, and MAiD specifically, raise complex moral and ethical issues for nurses [ 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 ]. The knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of nurses are important across practice settings because nurses have consistent, ongoing, and direct contact with patients who experience chronic or life-limiting health conditions. Canadian studies exploring nurses’ moral and ethical decision-making in relation to MAiD reveal that although some nurses are clear in their support for, or opposition to, MAiD, others are unclear on what they believe to be good and right [ 14 ]. Empirical findings suggest that nurses go through a period of moral sense-making that is often informed by their family, peers, and initial experiences with MAID [ 17 , 18 ]. Canadian legislation and policy specifies that nurses are not required to participate in MAiD and may recuse themselves as conscientious objectors with appropriate steps to ensure ongoing and safe care of patients [ 1 , 19 ]. However, with so many nurses having to reflect on and make sense of their moral position, it is essential that they are given adequate time and preparation to make an informed and thoughtful decision before they participate in a MAID death [ 20 , 21 ].

It is well established that nursing students receive inconsistent exposure to end of life care issues [ 22 ] and little or no training related to MAiD [ 23 ]. Without such education and reflection time in pre-entry nursing preparation, nurses are at significant risk for moral harm. An important first step in providing this preparation is to be able to assess the knowledge, values, and beliefs of nursing students regarding MAID and end of life care. As demand for MAiD increases along with the complexities of MAiD, it is critical to understand the knowledge, attitudes, and likelihood of engagement with MAiD among nursing students as a baseline upon which to build curriculum and as a means to track these variables over time.

Aim, design, and setting

The aim of this study was to develop a survey to measure nursing students’ knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, influences, and willingness to be involved in MAiD in the Canadian context. We sought to explore both their willingness to be involved in the registered nursing role and in the nurse practitioner role should they chose to prepare themselves to that level of education. The design was a mixed-method, modified e-Delphi method that entailed item generation, item refinement through an expert faculty panel [ 24 , 25 , 26 ], and initial item validation through a cognitive focus group interview with nursing students [ 27 ]. The settings were a University located in an urban area and a College located in a rural area in Western Canada.

Participants

A panel of 10 faculty from the two nursing education programs were recruited for Phase 2 of the e-Delphi. To be included, faculty were required to have a minimum of three years of experience in nurse education, be employed as nursing faculty, and self-identify as having experience with MAiD. A convenience sample of 5 fourth-year nursing students were recruited to participate in Phase 3. Students had to be in good standing in the nursing program and be willing to share their experiences of the survey in an online group interview format.

The modified e-Delphi was conducted in 3 phases: Phase 1 entailed item generation through literature and existing survey review. Phase 2 entailed item refinement through a faculty expert panel review with focus on content validity, prioritization, and revision of item wording [ 25 ]. Phase 3 entailed an assessment of face validity through focus group-based cognitive interview with nursing students.

Phase I. Item generation through literature review

The goal of phase 1 was to develop a bank of survey items that would represent the variables of interest and which could be provided to expert faculty in Phase 2. Initial survey items were generated through a literature review of similar surveys designed to assess knowledge and attitudes toward MAiD/euthanasia in healthcare providers; Canadian empirical studies on nurses’ roles and/or experiences with MAiD; and legislative and expert panel documents that outlined proposed changes to the legislative eligibility criteria and safeguards. The literature review was conducted in three online databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Medline. Key words for the search included nurses , nursing students , medical students , NPs, MAiD , euthanasia , assisted death , and end-of-life care . Only articles written in English were reviewed. The legalization and legislation of MAiD is new in many countries; therefore, studies that were greater than twenty years old were excluded, no further exclusion criteria set for country.

Items from surveys designed to measure similar variables in other health care providers and geographic contexts were placed in a table and similar items were collated and revised into a single item. Then key variables were identified from the empirical literature on nurses and MAiD in Canada and checked against the items derived from the surveys to ensure that each of the key variables were represented. For example, conscientious objection has figured prominently in the Canadian literature, but there were few items that assessed knowledge of conscientious objection in other surveys and so items were added [ 15 , 21 , 28 , 29 ]. Finally, four case studies were added to the survey to address the anticipated changes to the Canadian legislation. The case studies were based upon the inclusion of mature minors, advanced consent, and mental disorder as the sole underlying medical condition. The intention was to assess nurses’ beliefs and comfort with these potential legislative changes.

Phase 2. Item refinement through expert panel review

The goal of phase 2 was to refine and prioritize the proposed survey items identified in phase 1 using a modified e-Delphi approach to achieve consensus among an expert panel [ 26 ]. Items from phase 1 were presented to an expert faculty panel using a Qualtrics (Provo, UT) online survey. Panel members were asked to review each item to determine if it should be: included, excluded or adapted for the survey. When adapted was selected faculty experts were asked to provide rationale and suggestions for adaptation through the use of an open text box. Items that reached a level of 75% consensus for either inclusion or adaptation were retained [ 25 , 26 ]. New items were categorized and added, and a revised survey was presented to the panel of experts in round 2. Panel members were again asked to review items, including new items, to determine if it should be: included, excluded, or adapted for the survey. Round 2 of the modified e-Delphi approach also included an item prioritization activity, where participants were then asked to rate the importance of each item, based on a 5-point Likert scale (low to high importance), which De Vaus [ 30 ] states is helpful for increasing the reliability of responses. Items that reached a 75% consensus on inclusion were then considered in relation to the importance it was given by the expert panel. Quantitative data were managed using SPSS (IBM Corp).

Phase 3. Face validity through cognitive interviews with nursing students

The goal of phase 3 was to obtain initial face validity of the proposed survey using a sample of nursing student informants. More specifically, student participants were asked to discuss how items were interpreted, to identify confusing wording or other problematic construction of items, and to provide feedback about the survey as a whole including readability and organization [ 31 , 32 , 33 ]. The focus group was held online and audio recorded. A semi-structured interview guide was developed for this study that focused on clarity, meaning, order and wording of questions; emotions evoked by the questions; and overall survey cohesion and length was used to obtain data (see Supplementary Material 2  for the interview guide). A prompt to “think aloud” was used to limit interviewer-imposed bias and encourage participants to describe their thoughts and response to a given item as they reviewed survey items [ 27 ]. Where needed, verbal probes such as “could you expand on that” were used to encourage participants to expand on their responses [ 27 ]. Student participants’ feedback was collated verbatim and presented to the research team where potential survey modifications were negotiated and finalized among team members. Conventional content analysis [ 34 ] of focus group data was conducted to identify key themes that emerged through discussion with students. Themes were derived from the data by grouping common responses and then using those common responses to modify survey items.

Ten nursing faculty participated in the expert panel. Eight of the 10 faculty self-identified as female. No faculty panel members reported conscientious objector status and ninety percent reported general agreement with MAiD with one respondent who indicated their view as “unsure.” Six of the 10 faculty experts had 16 years of experience or more working as a nurse educator.

Five nursing students participated in the cognitive interview focus group. The duration of the focus group was 2.5 h. All participants identified that they were born in Canada, self-identified as female (one preferred not to say) and reported having received some instruction about MAiD as part of their nursing curriculum. See Tables  1 and 2 for the demographic descriptors of the study sample. Study results will be reported in accordance with the study phases. See Fig.  1 for an overview of the results from each phase.

figure 1

Fig. 1  Overview of survey development findings

Phase 1: survey item generation

Review of the literature identified that no existing survey was available for use with nursing students in the Canadian context. However, an analysis of themes across qualitative and quantitative studies of physicians, medical students, nurses, and nursing students provided sufficient data to develop a preliminary set of items suitable for adaptation to a population of nursing students.

Four major themes and factors that influence knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about MAiD were evident from the literature: (i) endogenous or individual factors such as age, gender, personally held values, religion, religiosity, and/or spirituality [ 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 , 41 , 42 ], (ii) experience with death and dying in personal and/or professional life [ 35 , 40 , 41 , 43 , 44 , 45 ], (iii) training including curricular instruction about clinical role, scope of practice, or the law [ 23 , 36 , 39 ], and (iv) exogenous or social factors such as the influence of key leaders, colleagues, friends and/or family, professional and licensure organizations, support within professional settings, and/or engagement in MAiD in an interdisciplinary team context [ 9 , 35 , 46 ].

Studies of nursing students also suggest overlap across these categories. For example, value for patient autonomy [ 23 ] and the moral complexity of decision-making [ 37 ] are important factors that contribute to attitudes about MAiD and may stem from a blend of personally held values coupled with curricular content, professional training and norms, and clinical exposure. For example, students report that participation in end of life care allows for personal growth, shifts in perception, and opportunities to build therapeutic relationships with their clients [ 44 , 47 , 48 ].

Preliminary items generated from the literature resulted in 56 questions from 11 published sources (See Table  3 ). These items were constructed across four main categories: (i) socio-demographic questions; (ii) end of life care questions; (iii) knowledge about MAiD; or (iv) comfort and willingness to participate in MAiD. Knowledge questions were refined to reflect current MAiD legislation, policies, and regulatory frameworks. Falconer [ 39 ] and Freeman [ 45 ] studies were foundational sources for item selection. Additionally, four case studies were written to reflect the most recent anticipated changes to MAiD legislation and all used the same open-ended core questions to address respondents’ perspectives about the patient’s right to make the decision, comfort in assisting a physician or NP to administer MAiD in that scenario, and hypothesized comfort about serving as a primary provider if qualified as an NP in future. Response options for the survey were also constructed during this stage and included: open text, categorical, yes/no , and Likert scales.

Phase 2: faculty expert panel review

Of the 56 items presented to the faculty panel, 54 questions reached 75% consensus. However, based upon the qualitative responses 9 items were removed largely because they were felt to be repetitive. Items that generated the most controversy were related to measuring religion and spirituality in the Canadian context, defining end of life care when there is no agreed upon time frames (e.g., last days, months, or years), and predicting willingness to be involved in a future events – thus predicting their future selves. Phase 2, round 1 resulted in an initial set of 47 items which were then presented back to the faculty panel in round 2.

Of the 47 initial questions presented to the panel in round 2, 45 reached a level of consensus of 75% or greater, and 34 of these questions reached a level of 100% consensus [ 27 ] of which all participants chose to include without any adaptations) For each question, level of importance was determined based on a 5-point Likert scale (1 = very unimportant, 2 = somewhat unimportant, 3 = neutral, 4 = somewhat important, and 5 = very important). Figure  2 provides an overview of the level of importance assigned to each item.

figure 2

Ranking level of importance for survey items

After round 2, a careful analysis of participant comments and level of importance was completed by the research team. While the main method of survey item development came from participants’ response to the first round of Delphi consensus ratings, level of importance was used to assist in the decision of whether to keep or modify questions that created controversy, or that rated lower in the include/exclude/adapt portion of the Delphi. Survey items that rated low in level of importance included questions about future roles, sex and gender, and religion/spirituality. After deliberation by the research committee, these questions were retained in the survey based upon the importance of these variables in the scientific literature.

Of the 47 questions remaining from Phase 2, round 2, four were revised. In addition, the two questions that did not meet the 75% cut off level for consensus were reviewed by the research team. The first question reviewed was What is your comfort level with providing a MAiD death in the future if you were a qualified NP ? Based on a review of participant comments, it was decided to retain this question for the cognitive interviews with students in the final phase of testing. The second question asked about impacts on respondents’ views of MAiD and was changed from one item with 4 subcategories into 4 separate items, resulting in a final total of 51 items for phase 3. The revised survey was then brought forward to the cognitive interviews with student participants in Phase 3. (see Supplementary Material 1 for a complete description of item modification during round 2).

Phase 3. Outcomes of cognitive interview focus group

Of the 51 items reviewed by student participants, 29 were identified as clear with little or no discussion. Participant comments for the remaining 22 questions were noted and verified against the audio recording. Following content analysis of the comments, four key themes emerged through the student discussion: unclear or ambiguous wording; difficult to answer questions; need for additional response options; and emotional response evoked by questions. An example of unclear or ambiguous wording was a request for clarity in the use of the word “sufficient” in the context of assessing an item that read “My nursing education has provided sufficient content about the nursing role in MAiD.” “Sufficient” was viewed as subjective and “laden with…complexity that distracted me from the question.” The group recommended rewording the item to read “My nursing education has provided enough content for me to care for a patient considering or requesting MAiD.”

An example of having difficulty answering questions related to limited knowledge related to terms used in the legislation such as such as safeguards , mature minor , eligibility criteria , and conscientious objection. Students were unclear about what these words meant relative to the legislation and indicated that this lack of clarity would hamper appropriate responses to the survey. To ensure that respondents are able to answer relevant questions, student participants recommended that the final survey include explanation of key terms such as mature minor and conscientious objection and an overview of current legislation.

Response options were also a point of discussion. Participants noted a lack of distinction between response options of unsure and unable to say . Additionally, scaling of attitudes was noted as important since perspectives about MAiD are dynamic and not dichotomous “agree or disagree” responses. Although the faculty expert panel recommended the integration of the demographic variables of religious and/or spiritual remain as a single item, the student group stated a preference to have religion and spirituality appear as separate items. The student focus group also took issue with separate items for the variables of sex and gender, specifically that non-binary respondents might feel othered or “outed” particularly when asked to identify their sex. These variables had been created based upon best practices in health research but students did not feel they were appropriate in this context [ 49 ]. Finally, students agreed with the faculty expert panel in terms of the complexity of projecting their future involvement as a Nurse Practitioner. One participant stated: “I certainly had to like, whoa, whoa, whoa. Now let me finish this degree first, please.” Another stated, “I'm still imagining myself, my future career as an RN.”

Finally, student participants acknowledged the array of emotions that some of the items produced for them. For example, one student described positive feelings when interacting with the survey. “Brought me a little bit of feeling of joy. Like it reminded me that this is the last piece of independence that people grab on to.” Another participant, described the freedom that the idea of an advance request gave her. “The advance request gives the most comfort for me, just with early onset Alzheimer’s and knowing what it can do.” But other participants described less positive feelings. For example, the mature minor case study yielded a comment: “This whole scenario just made my heart hurt with the idea of a child requesting that.”

Based on the data gathered from the cognitive interview focus group of nursing students, revisions were made to 11 closed-ended questions (see Table  4 ) and 3 items were excluded. In the four case studies, the open-ended question related to a respondents’ hypothesized actions in a future role as NP were removed. The final survey consists of 45 items including 4 case studies (see Supplementary Material 3 ).

The aim of this study was to develop and validate a survey that can be used to track the growth of knowledge about MAiD among nursing students over time, inform training programs about curricular needs, and evaluate attitudes and willingness to participate in MAiD at time-points during training or across nursing programs over time.

The faculty expert panel and student participants in the cognitive interview focus group identified a need to establish core knowledge of the terminology and legislative rules related to MAiD. For example, within the cognitive interview group of student participants, several acknowledged lack of clear understanding of specific terms such as “conscientious objector” and “safeguards.” Participants acknowledged discomfort with the uncertainty of not knowing and their inclination to look up these terms to assist with answering the questions. This survey can be administered to nursing or pre-nursing students at any phase of their training within a program or across training programs. However, in doing so it is important to acknowledge that their baseline knowledge of MAiD will vary. A response option of “not sure” is important and provides a means for respondents to convey uncertainty. If this survey is used to inform curricular needs, respondents should be given explicit instructions not to conduct online searches to inform their responses, but rather to provide an honest appraisal of their current knowledge and these instructions are included in the survey (see Supplementary Material 3 ).

Some provincial regulatory bodies have established core competencies for entry-level nurses that include MAiD. For example, the BC College of Nurses and Midwives (BCCNM) requires “knowledge about ethical, legal, and regulatory implications of medical assistance in dying (MAiD) when providing nursing care.” (10 p. 6) However, across Canada curricular content and coverage related to end of life care and MAiD is variable [ 23 ]. Given the dynamic nature of the legislation that includes portions of the law that are embargoed until 2024, it is important to ensure that respondents are guided by current and accurate information. As the law changes, nursing curricula, and public attitudes continue to evolve, inclusion of core knowledge and content is essential and relevant for investigators to be able to interpret the portions of the survey focused on attitudes and beliefs about MAiD. Content knowledge portions of the survey may need to be modified over time as legislation and training change and to meet the specific purposes of the investigator.

Given the sensitive nature of the topic, it is strongly recommended that surveys be conducted anonymously and that students be provided with an opportunity to discuss their responses to the survey. A majority of feedback from both the expert panel of faculty and from student participants related to the wording and inclusion of demographic variables, in particular religion, religiosity, gender identity, and sex assigned at birth. These and other demographic variables have the potential to be highly identifying in small samples. In any instance in which the survey could be expected to yield demographic group sizes less than 5, users should eliminate the demographic variables from the survey. For example, the profession of nursing is highly dominated by females with over 90% of nurses who identify as female [ 50 ]. Thus, a survey within a single class of students or even across classes in a single institution is likely to yield a small number of male respondents and/or respondents who report a difference between sex assigned at birth and gender identity. When variables that serve to identify respondents are included, respondents are less likely to complete or submit the survey, to obscure their responses so as not to be identifiable, or to be influenced by social desirability bias in their responses rather than to convey their attitudes accurately [ 51 ]. Further, small samples do not allow for conclusive analyses or interpretation of apparent group differences. Although these variables are often included in surveys, such demographics should be included only when anonymity can be sustained. In small and/or known samples, highly identifying variables should be omitted.

There are several limitations associated with the development of this survey. The expert panel was comprised of faculty who teach nursing students and are knowledgeable about MAiD and curricular content, however none identified as a conscientious objector to MAiD. Ideally, our expert panel would have included one or more conscientious objectors to MAiD to provide a broader perspective. Review by practitioners who participate in MAiD, those who are neutral or undecided, and practitioners who are conscientious objectors would ensure broad applicability of the survey. This study included one student cognitive interview focus group with 5 self-selected participants. All student participants had held discussions about end of life care with at least one patient, 4 of 5 participants had worked with a patient who requested MAiD, and one had been present for a MAiD death. It is not clear that these participants are representative of nursing students demographically or by experience with end of life care. It is possible that the students who elected to participate hold perspectives and reflections on patient care and MAiD that differ from students with little or no exposure to end of life care and/or MAiD. However, previous studies find that most nursing students have been involved with end of life care including meaningful discussions about patients’ preferences and care needs during their education [ 40 , 44 , 47 , 48 , 52 ]. Data collection with additional student focus groups with students early in their training and drawn from other training contexts would contribute to further validation of survey items.

Future studies should incorporate pilot testing with small sample of nursing students followed by a larger cross-program sample to allow evaluation of the psychometric properties of specific items and further refinement of the survey tool. Consistent with literature about the importance of leadership in the context of MAiD [ 12 , 53 , 54 ], a study of faculty knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes toward MAiD would provide context for understanding student perspectives within and across programs. Additional research is also needed to understand the timing and content coverage of MAiD across Canadian nurse training programs’ curricula.

The implementation of MAiD is complex and requires understanding of the perspectives of multiple stakeholders. Within the field of nursing this includes clinical providers, educators, and students who will deliver clinical care. A survey to assess nursing students’ attitudes toward and willingness to participate in MAiD in the Canadian context is timely, due to the legislation enacted in 2016 and subsequent modifications to the law in 2021 with portions of the law to be enacted in 2027. Further development of this survey could be undertaken to allow for use in settings with practicing nurses or to allow longitudinal follow up with students as they enter practice. As the Canadian landscape changes, ongoing assessment of the perspectives and needs of health professionals and students in the health professions is needed to inform policy makers, leaders in practice, curricular needs, and to monitor changes in attitudes and practice patterns over time.

Availability of data and materials

The datasets used and/or analysed during the current study are not publicly available due to small sample sizes, but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Abbreviations

British Columbia College of Nurses and Midwives

Medical assistance in dying

Nurse practitioner

Registered nurse

University of British Columbia Okanagan

Nicol J, Tiedemann M. Legislative Summary: Bill C-14: An Act to amend the Criminal Code and to make related amendments to other Acts (medical assistance in dying). Available from: https://lop.parl.ca/staticfiles/PublicWebsite/Home/ResearchPublications/LegislativeSummaries/PDF/42-1/c14-e.pdf .

Downie J, Scallion K. Foreseeably unclear. The meaning of the “reasonably foreseeable” criterion for access to medical assistance in dying in Canada. Dalhousie Law J. 2018;41(1):23–57.

Nicol J, Tiedeman M. Legislative summary of Bill C-7: an act to amend the criminal code (medical assistance in dying). Ottawa: Government of Canada; 2021.

Google Scholar  

Council of Canadian Academies. The state of knowledge on medical assistance in dying where a mental disorder is the sole underlying medical condition. Ottawa; 2018. Available from: https://cca-reports.ca/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/The-State-of-Knowledge-on-Medical-Assistance-in-Dying-Where-a-Mental-Disorder-is-the-Sole-Underlying-Medical-Condition.pdf .

Council of Canadian Academies. The state of knowledge on advance requests for medical assistance in dying. Ottawa; 2018. Available from: https://cca-reports.ca/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/The-State-of-Knowledge-on-Advance-Requests-for-Medical-Assistance-in-Dying.pdf .

Council of Canadian Academies. The state of knowledge on medical assistance in dying for mature minors. Ottawa; 2018. Available from: https://cca-reports.ca/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/The-State-of-Knowledge-on-Medical-Assistance-in-Dying-for-Mature-Minors.pdf .

Health Canada. Third annual report on medical assistance in dying in Canada 2021. Ottawa; 2022. [cited 2023 Oct 23]. Available from: https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/medical-assistance-dying/annual-report-2021.html .

Banner D, Schiller CJ, Freeman S. Medical assistance in dying: a political issue for nurses and nursing in Canada. Nurs Philos. 2019;20(4): e12281.

Article   PubMed   Google Scholar  

Pesut B, Thorne S, Stager ML, Schiller CJ, Penney C, Hoffman C, et al. Medical assistance in dying: a review of Canadian nursing regulatory documents. Policy Polit Nurs Pract. 2019;20(3):113–30.

Article   PubMed   PubMed Central   Google Scholar  

College of Registered Nurses of British Columbia. Scope of practice for registered nurses [Internet]. Vancouver; 2018. Available from: https://www.bccnm.ca/Documents/standards_practice/rn/RN_ScopeofPractice.pdf .

Pesut B, Thorne S, Schiller C, Greig M, Roussel J, Tishelman C. Constructing good nursing practice for medical assistance in dying in Canada: an interpretive descriptive study. Global Qual Nurs Res. 2020;7:2333393620938686. https://doi.org/10.1177/2333393620938686 .

Article   Google Scholar  

Pesut B, Thorne S, Schiller CJ, Greig M, Roussel J. The rocks and hard places of MAiD: a qualitative study of nursing practice in the context of legislated assisted death. BMC Nurs. 2020;19:12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-020-0404-5 .

Pesut B, Greig M, Thorne S, Burgess M, Storch JL, Tishelman C, et al. Nursing and euthanasia: a narrative review of the nursing ethics literature. Nurs Ethics. 2020;27(1):152–67.

Pesut B, Thorne S, Storch J, Chambaere K, Greig M, Burgess M. Riding an elephant: a qualitative study of nurses’ moral journeys in the context of Medical Assistance in Dying (MAiD). Journal Clin Nurs. 2020;29(19–20):3870–81.

Lamb C, Babenko-Mould Y, Evans M, Wong CA, Kirkwood KW. Conscientious objection and nurses: results of an interpretive phenomenological study. Nurs Ethics. 2018;26(5):1337–49.

Wright DK, Chan LS, Fishman JR, Macdonald ME. “Reflection and soul searching:” Negotiating nursing identity at the fault lines of palliative care and medical assistance in dying. Social Sci & Med. 2021;289: 114366.

Beuthin R, Bruce A, Scaia M. Medical assistance in dying (MAiD): Canadian nurses’ experiences. Nurs Forum. 2018;54(4):511–20.

Bruce A, Beuthin R. Medically assisted dying in Canada: "Beautiful Death" is transforming nurses' experiences of suffering. The Canadian J Nurs Res | Revue Canadienne de Recherche en Sci Infirmieres. 2020;52(4):268–77. https://doi.org/10.1177/0844562119856234 .

Canadian Nurses Association. Code of ethics for registered nurses. Ottawa; 2017. Available from: https://www.cna-aiic.ca/en/nursing/regulated-nursing-in-canada/nursing-ethics .

Canadian Nurses Association. National nursing framework on Medical Assistance in Dying in Canada. Ottawa: 2017. Available from: https://www.virtualhospice.ca/Assets/cna-national-nursing-framework-on-maidEng_20170216155827.pdf .

Pesut B, Thorne S, Greig M. Shades of gray: conscientious objection in medical assistance in dying. Nursing Inq. 2020;27(1): e12308.

Durojaiye A, Ryan R, Doody O. Student nurse education and preparation for palliative care: a scoping review. PLoS ONE. 2023. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0286678 .

McMechan C, Bruce A, Beuthin R. Canadian nursing students’ experiences with medical assistance in dying | Les expériences d’étudiantes en sciences infirmières au regard de l’aide médicale à mourir. Qual Adv Nurs Educ - Avancées en Formation Infirmière. 2019;5(1). https://doi.org/10.17483/2368-6669.1179 .

Adler M, Ziglio E. Gazing into the oracle. The Delphi method and its application to social policy and public health. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers; 1996

Keeney S, Hasson F, McKenna H. Consulting the oracle: ten lessons from using the Delphi technique in nursing research. J Adv Nurs. 2006;53(2):205–12.

Keeney S, Hasson F, McKenna H. The Delphi technique in nursing and health research. 1st ed. City: Wiley; 2011.

Willis GB. Cognitive interviewing: a tool for improving questionnaire design. 1st ed. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage; 2005. ISBN: 9780761928041

Lamb C, Evans M, Babenko-Mould Y, Wong CA, Kirkwood EW. Conscience, conscientious objection, and nursing: a concept analysis. Nurs Ethics. 2017;26(1):37–49.

Lamb C, Evans M, Babenko-Mould Y, Wong CA, Kirkwood K. Nurses’ use of conscientious objection and the implications of conscience. J Adv Nurs. 2018;75(3):594–602.

de Vaus D. Surveys in social research. 6th ed. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge; 2014.

Boateng GO, Neilands TB, Frongillo EA, Melgar-Quiñonez HR, Young SL. Best practices for developing and validating scales for health, social, and behavioral research: A primer. Front Public Health. 2018;6:149. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2018.00149 .

Puchta C, Potter J. Focus group practice. 1st ed. London: Sage; 2004.

Book   Google Scholar  

Streiner DL, Norman GR, Cairney J. Health measurement scales: a practical guide to their development and use. 5th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2015.

Hsieh H-F, Shannon SE. Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qual Health Res. 2005;15(9):1277–88.

Adesina O, DeBellis A, Zannettino L. Third-year Australian nursing students’ attitudes, experiences, knowledge, and education concerning end-of-life care. Int J of Palliative Nurs. 2014;20(8):395–401.

Bator EX, Philpott B, Costa AP. This moral coil: a cross-sectional survey of Canadian medical student attitudes toward medical assistance in dying. BMC Med Ethics. 2017;18(1):58.

Beuthin R, Bruce A, Scaia M. Medical assistance in dying (MAiD): Canadian nurses’ experiences. Nurs Forum. 2018;53(4):511–20.

Brown J, Goodridge D, Thorpe L, Crizzle A. What is right for me, is not necessarily right for you: the endogenous factors influencing nonparticipation in medical assistance in dying. Qual Health Res. 2021;31(10):1786–1800.

Falconer J, Couture F, Demir KK, Lang M, Shefman Z, Woo M. Perceptions and intentions toward medical assistance in dying among Canadian medical students. BMC Med Ethics. 2019;20(1):22.

Green G, Reicher S, Herman M, Raspaolo A, Spero T, Blau A. Attitudes toward euthanasia—dual view: Nursing students and nurses. Death Stud. 2022;46(1):124–31.

Hosseinzadeh K, Rafiei H. Nursing student attitudes toward euthanasia: a cross-sectional study. Nurs Ethics. 2019;26(2):496–503.

Ozcelik H, Tekir O, Samancioglu S, Fadiloglu C, Ozkara E. Nursing students’ approaches toward euthanasia. Omega (Westport). 2014;69(1):93–103.

Canning SE, Drew C. Canadian nursing students’ understanding, and comfort levels related to medical assistance in dying. Qual Adv Nurs Educ - Avancées en Formation Infirmière. 2022;8(2). https://doi.org/10.17483/2368-6669.1326 .

Edo-Gual M, Tomás-Sábado J, Bardallo-Porras D, Monforte-Royo C. The impact of death and dying on nursing students: an explanatory model. J Clin Nurs. 2014;23(23–24):3501–12.

Freeman LA, Pfaff KA, Kopchek L, Liebman J. Investigating palliative care nurse attitudes towards medical assistance in dying: an exploratory cross-sectional study. J Adv Nurs. 2020;76(2):535–45.

Brown J, Goodridge D, Thorpe L, Crizzle A. “I am okay with it, but I am not going to do it:” the exogenous factors influencing non-participation in medical assistance in dying. Qual Health Res. 2021;31(12):2274–89.

Dimoula M, Kotronoulas G, Katsaragakis S, Christou M, Sgourou S, Patiraki E. Undergraduate nursing students’ knowledge about palliative care and attitudes towards end-of-life care: A three-cohort, cross-sectional survey. Nurs Educ Today. 2019;74:7–14.

Matchim Y, Raetong P. Thai nursing students’ experiences of caring for patients at the end of life: a phenomenological study. Int J Palliative Nurs. 2018;24(5):220–9.

Canadian Institute for Health Research. Sex and gender in health research [Internet]. Ottawa: CIHR; 2021 [cited 2023 Oct 23]. Available from: https://cihr-irsc.gc.ca/e/50833.html .

Canadian Nurses’ Association. Nursing statistics. Ottawa: CNA; 2023 [cited 2023 Oct 23]. Available from: https://www.cna-aiic.ca/en/nursing/regulated-nursing-in-canada/nursing-statistics .

Krumpal I. Determinants of social desirability bias in sensitive surveys: a literature review. Qual Quant. 2013;47(4):2025–47. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-011-9640-9 .

Ferri P, Di Lorenzo R, Stifani S, Morotti E, Vagnini M, Jiménez Herrera MF, et al. Nursing student attitudes toward dying patient care: a European multicenter cross-sectional study. Acta Bio Medica Atenei Parmensis. 2021;92(S2): e2021018.

PubMed   PubMed Central   Google Scholar  

Beuthin R, Bruce A. Medical assistance in dying (MAiD): Ten things leaders need to know. Nurs Leadership. 2018;31(4):74–81.

Thiele T, Dunsford J. Nurse leaders’ role in medical assistance in dying: a relational ethics approach. Nurs Ethics. 2019;26(4):993–9.

Download references

Acknowledgements

We would like to acknowledge the faculty and students who generously contributed their time to this work.

JS received a student traineeship through the Principal Research Chairs program at the University of British Columbia Okanagan.

Author information

Authors and affiliations.

School of Health and Human Services, Selkirk College, Castlegar, BC, Canada

Jocelyn Schroeder & Barbara Pesut

School of Nursing, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC, Canada

Barbara Pesut, Lise Olsen, Nelly D. Oelke & Helen Sharp

You can also search for this author in PubMed   Google Scholar

Contributions

JS made substantial contributions to the conception of the work; data acquisition, analysis, and interpretation; and drafting and substantively revising the work. JS has approved the submitted version and agreed to be personally accountable for the author's own contributions and to ensure that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work, even ones in which the author was not personally involved, are appropriately investigated, resolved, and the resolution documented in the literature. BP made substantial contributions to the conception of the work; data acquisition, analysis, and interpretation; and drafting and substantively revising the work. BP has approved the submitted version and agreed to be personally accountable for the author's own contributions and to ensure that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work, even ones in which the author was not personally involved, are appropriately investigated, resolved, and the resolution documented in the literature. LO made substantial contributions to the conception of the work; data acquisition, analysis, and interpretation; and substantively revising the work. LO has approved the submitted version and agreed to be personally accountable for the author's own contributions and to ensure that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work, even ones in which the author was not personally involved, are appropriately investigated, resolved, and the resolution documented in the literature. NDO made substantial contributions to the conception of the work; data acquisition, analysis, and interpretation; and substantively revising the work. NDO has approved the submitted version and agreed to be personally accountable for the author's own contributions and to ensure that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work, even ones in which the author was not personally involved, are appropriately investigated, resolved, and the resolution documented in the literature. HS made substantial contributions to drafting and substantively revising the work. HS has approved the submitted version and agreed to be personally accountable for the author's own contributions and to ensure that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work, even ones in which the author was not personally involved, are appropriately investigated, resolved, and the resolution documented in the literature.

Authors’ information

JS conducted this study as part of their graduate requirements in the School of Nursing, University of British Columbia Okanagan.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Barbara Pesut .

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval and consent to participate.

The research was approved by the Selkirk College Research Ethics Board (REB) ID # 2021–011 and the University of British Columbia Behavioral Research Ethics Board ID # H21-01181.

All participants provided written and informed consent through approved consent processes. Research was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare they have no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s note.

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary Information

Supplementary material 1., supplementary material 2., supplementary material 3., rights and permissions.

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ . The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ ) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article.

Schroeder, J., Pesut, B., Olsen, L. et al. Developing a survey to measure nursing students’ knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, influences, and willingness to be involved in Medical Assistance in Dying (MAiD): a mixed method modified e-Delphi study. BMC Nurs 23 , 326 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-024-01984-z

Download citation

Received : 24 October 2023

Accepted : 28 April 2024

Published : 14 May 2024

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-024-01984-z

Share this article

Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.

Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative

  • Medical assistance in dying (MAiD)
  • End of life care
  • Student nurses
  • Nursing education

BMC Nursing

ISSN: 1472-6955

sample of a medical case study

IMAGES

  1. FREE 10+ Medical Case Study Samples & Templates in MS Word

    sample of a medical case study

  2. FREE 10+ Medical Case Study Samples & Templates in MS Word

    sample of a medical case study

  3. Medical Case Study

    sample of a medical case study

  4. Medical Case Study Template

    sample of a medical case study

  5. FREE 10+ Medical Case Study Samples & Templates in MS Word

    sample of a medical case study

  6. 🐈 Medical case study sample. 19 medical case study examples. 2022-11-15

    sample of a medical case study

VIDEO

  1. Case 3

  2. मानसिक बीमारी कुछ ही दिनो में ठीक करे

  3. medical case study on# DIARRHOEA# #nursingassignment#2nd year gnm

  4. The Lifesaving Choice #health #criticalcare #Pneumonia

  5. Case:8 Medical Case Study #casestudy#case#diagnosis#medicalconditions#clinicalcase#infant#disorders

  6. Case:11 Medical Case Study#case#casestudy#patient#pathology#diagnosis#liver#virus#usmle#disease#mbbs

COMMENTS

  1. Case Study: 33-Year-Old Female Presents with Chronic SOB and Cough

    Case Presentation. History of Present Illness: A 33-year-old white female presents after admission to the general medical/surgical hospital ward with a chief complaint of shortness of breath on exertion.She reports that she was seen for similar symptoms previously at her primary care physician's office six months ago.

  2. Case 24-2020: A 44-Year-Old Woman with Chest Pain, Dyspnea, and Shock

    A 44-year-old woman presented with cough, dyspnea, and chest pain. On examination, she had tachycardia and hypotension. Evaluation revealed SARS-CoV-2 RNA in a nasopharyngeal swab, as well as eleva...

  3. Writing a Medical Case Study: From Inspiration to Publication

    A case study report is an academic publication describing an unusual or unique case. Academic medical journals publish case study reports to inform and educate other medical practitioners. Case study reports might also prompt additional scholarly research on the medical condition or treatment plan discussed in the report.

  4. Case 19-2020: A 74-Year-Old Man with Acute Respiratory Failure and

    Emergency medical services were called, and on their arrival, treatment with continuous positive airway pressure was initiated. ... a Chaplain case study on existential distress and ...

  5. How to write a medical case report

    Writing a case report is an excellent way of documenting these findings for the wider medical community—sharing new knowledge that will lead to better and safer patient care. For many medical students and junior doctors, a case report may be their first attempt at medical writing. A published case report will look impressive on your ...

  6. Health Case Studies

    Health Case Studies is composed of eight separate health case studies. Each case study includes the patient narrative or story that models the best practice (at the time of publishing) in healthcare settings. Associated with each case is a set of specific learning objectives to support learning and facilitate educational strategies and evaluation.

  7. Writing a case report in 10 steps

    First steps. Begin by sitting down with your medical team to discuss the interesting aspects of the case and the learning points to highlight. Ideally, a registrar or middle grade will mentor you and give you guidance. Another junior doctor or medical student may also be keen to be involved. Allocate jobs to split the workload, set a deadline ...

  8. Developing a Beginner's Guide to Writing a Clinical Case Report: A

    In a previous study, we demonstrated that junior doctors feel that medical article publishing is an effective teaching method but little was done to help them bridge the gap between getting an interesting case and getting published . In a follow-up study, we highlighted the importance of establishing a medical article publishing club for junior ...

  9. PDF 10. Guideline and Template for Writing a Case Report/Case Series

    1 The following article was published in Oxford Medical Case Reports. Bottineau et al. A misleading appearance of a common diseases: tuberculosis with generalized lymphodenopathy - a Case Report." ... retrospective study in Zambia, TB was more commonly diagnosed among children with Kwashiorkor (47%) compared to Marasmus-Kwashiorkor (24% ...

  10. Writing A Case Report

    A medical case report, also known as a case study, is a detailed description of a clinical encounter with a patient. The most important aspect of a case report, i.e. the reason you would go to the trouble of writing one, is that the case is sufficiently unique, rare or interesting such that other medical professionals will learn something from it.

  11. Medical Case Study Template & Example

    Medical Case Study Example (sample) We have provided a comprehensive example as a downloadable PDF to help users effectively utilize the Medical Case Study Template. This sample case study is a practical guide, demonstrating how to document and analyze a clinical case in a structured and detailed manner. It is especially useful for medical ...

  12. Case 22-2020: A 62-Year-Old Woman with Early Breast Cancer during the

    Communication is at the core of the medical profession, and effective and empathic communication can have a positive effect on a patient's quality of life, satisfaction with care, and medical ...

  13. Medical Student Case Studies

    General Diagnostic Case Studies. Arteriovenous Fistula Secondary to Trauma. Chylothorax, Cellulitis, Gas Gangrene. Ectopic ACTH-Secreting Tumor. Epiphrenic Diverticula. Incidental Mediastinal Hilar Lymphadenopathy. Liver Metastasis. Neurocystercircosis. Pneumoperitoneum.

  14. Educational Case: A 57-year-old man with chest pain

    A 57 year-old male lorry driver, presented to his local emergency department with a 20-minute episode of diaphoresis and chest pain. The chest pain was central, radiating to the left arm and crushing in nature. The pain settled promptly following 300 mg aspirin orally and 800 mcg glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) spray sublingually administered by ...

  15. Homepage

    The largest online collection of medical case reports. Validation period: 5/13/2024, 11:33:44 PM - 5/14/2024, 5:33:44 AM. Subscribe Login. Latest content Archive For authors About Help. Email alerts. Search the world's largest collection of clinical case reports ... a multimodal imaging study. 13 May 2024. Case Reports: Rare disease:Neonatal ...

  16. PDF How to write a case study

    Case studies can help others (e.g., students, other organizations, employees) learn about • new concepts, • best practices, and • situations they might face. Writing a case study also allows you to critically examine your organizational practices. Examples The following pages provide examples of different types of case study formats. ...

  17. Case Studies

    Contact your system administrator for a resolution. Brought to you by Merck & Co, Inc., Rahway, NJ, USA (known as MSD outside the US and Canada) — dedicated to using leading-edge science to save and improve lives around the world. Learn more about the MSD Manuals and our commitment to Global Medical Knowledge.

  18. PDF PRIMARY CARE CASE STUDIES 101 Sampath Wijesinghe 101

    PRIMARY CARE CASE STUDIES. 101. 11 W. 42nd Street New York, NY 10036-8002 www.springerpub.com. 101PRIMARY CARE CASE STUDIES. A Workbook for Clinical and Bedside Skills. Sampath (Sam) Wijesinghe, DHSc, MS, MPAS, AAHIVS, PA-C. EDITOR/AUTHOR. Real-life primary care case studies* from more than 50 primary care providers, including physician ...

  19. Articles

    A xanthoma is a rare bone condition consisting of a predominant collection of lipid-rich, foamy histiocytes. The central xanthoma of the jaws is a unique benign tumor. A. Georgiev, S. Genova, P. Uchikov, Krasimir Kraev, M. Kraeva, D. Chakarov and A. Uchikov. Journal of Medical Case Reports 2024 18 :225.

  20. FREE 10+ Medical Case Study Samples & Templates in MS Word

    Let's find out. Medical Case Study. FREE 10+ Medical Case Study Samples & Templates in MS Word | PDF. 1. Medical Center Case Study Template. 2. Sample Prospective Control Case Study Summary. 3. Medical Treatment Case Study Template.

  21. Developing a survey to measure nursing students' knowledge, attitudes

    Medical Assistance in Dying (MAiD) was legalized in Canada in 2016. Canada's legislation is the first to permit Nurse Practitioners (NP) to serve as independent MAiD assessors and providers. Registered Nurses' (RN) also have important roles in MAiD that include MAiD care coordination; client and family teaching and support, MAiD procedural quality; healthcare provider and public education ...