Organizational Behavior Research Paper Topics

Academic Writing Service

This page provides a comprehensive list of 100 organizational behavior research paper topics that are divided into 10 categories, each containing 10 topics. These categories include communication and teamwork, organizational culture and climate, employee motivation and engagement, organizational leadership, diversity and inclusion, organizational communication, employee well-being and work-life balance, organizational change, human resource management, and organizational ethics and corporate social responsibility. In addition to the list of topics, the page also provides expert advice on how to choose a research topic and how to write an organizational behavior research paper. Finally, students can take advantage of iResearchNet’s writing services to order a custom organizational behavior research paper on any topic. With this page, students will be able to explore the wide range of topics in organizational behavior and excel in their academic pursuits.

Organizational Behavior Topics Guide

Organizational behavior is an important field of study that focuses on how individuals and groups behave in organizations. It is a multidisciplinary field that draws on insights from psychology, sociology, anthropology, economics, and management. Understanding organizational behavior is crucial for individuals who are interested in careers in management, human resources, or organizational development. Research papers are an important aspect of studying organizational behavior, as they allow students to explore various aspects of this field in-depth.

Academic Writing, Editing, Proofreading, And Problem Solving Services

Get 10% off with 24start discount code.

The purpose of this page is to provide students with a comprehensive list of organizational behavior research paper topics that will help them choose a topic for their research paper. The page is divided into 10 categories, each containing 10 topics. The categories include communication and teamwork, organizational culture and climate, employee motivation and engagement, organizational leadership, diversity and inclusion, organizational communication, employee well-being and work-life balance, organizational change, human resource management, and organizational ethics and corporate social responsibility. By providing a wide range of topics, students can find one that aligns with their interests and career goals.

Organizational Behavior Research Paper Topics

100 Organizational Behavior Research Paper Topics

Communication and Teamwork

1. Communication barriers in the workplace 2. Interpersonal communication and conflict resolution 3. The effects of technology on communication and teamwork 4. Cultural diversity and communication in global organizations 5. Communication strategies for effective leadership 6. Group dynamics and team performance 7. Decision-making processes in teams 8. Motivation and satisfaction in team-based work environments 9. Leadership styles and their impact on team effectiveness 10. Team training and development programs

Organizational Culture and Climate

1. The impact of organizational culture on employee behavior 2. The role of leadership in shaping organizational culture 3. Organizational change and resistance to change 4. Organizational culture and innovation 5. Ethical climates in organizations 6. Managing cultural diversity in organizations 7. The impact of organizational culture on employee well-being 8. Measuring and assessing organizational culture 9. The relationship between organizational culture and performance 10. The impact of organizational climate on employee motivation and job satisfaction

Employee Motivation and Engagement

1. Theories of employee motivation and their application in the workplace 2. The role of incentives and rewards in employee motivation 3. The impact of job design on employee motivation and engagement 4. The relationship between job satisfaction and employee motivation 5. Employee engagement and its impact on organizational performance 6. Employee empowerment and motivation 7. The role of leadership in employee motivation and engagement 8. The impact of organizational culture on employee motivation 9. Employee motivation and retention strategies 10. Employee motivation and its impact on organizational change

Organizational Leadership

1. Theories of leadership and their application in the workplace 2. Transformational leadership and its impact on organizational performance 3. Authentic leadership and its impact on organizational culture 4. Situational leadership and its effectiveness in different contexts 5. Servant leadership and its impact on employee well-being 6. The relationship between leadership and employee motivation 7. The impact of gender and cultural diversity on leadership 8. The role of emotional intelligence in leadership 9. The impact of leadership on organizational change 10. Developing effective leadership skills

Diversity and Inclusion

1. Defining diversity and inclusion in the workplace 2. The business case for diversity and inclusion 3. The relationship between diversity and innovation 4. Overcoming diversity challenges in global organizations 5. Managing diversity and inclusion through leadership 6. The impact of cultural diversity on team performance 7. Addressing diversity and inclusion in performance evaluations 8. The role of diversity and inclusion in employee retention 9. The impact of diversity and inclusion on organizational culture 10. Strategies for developing and implementing effective diversity and inclusion initiatives

Organizational Communication

1. The impact of communication on organizational effectiveness 2. Organizational communication strategies 3. Internal communication and its impact on employee engagement 4. The role of communication in change management 5. The impact of technology on organizational communication 6. The relationship between communication and organizational culture 7. The impact of communication on employee motivation and satisfaction 8. The role of nonverbal communication in organizational behavior 9. The impact of communication on organizational reputation 10. The role of feedback in organizational communication

Employee Well-being and Work-Life Balance

1. The impact of work-life balance on employee well-being 2. The relationship between stress and employee performance 3. Mental health in the workplace 4. Workplace wellness programs 5. The role of leadership in promoting employee well-being 6. The impact of job demands and resources on employee well-being 7. The impact of work schedule flexibility on employee well-being 8. The impact of job security on employee well-being 9. Burnout and its impact on employee well-being 10. Developing effective work-life balance policies

  Organizational Change

1. Theories of organizational change 2. Managing resistance to change 3. The role of leadership in organizational change 4. The impact of organizational culture on change management 5. The role of communication in change management 6. The impact of technology on organizational change 7. The impact of organizational change on employee motivation and satisfaction 8. The role of employee involvement in change management 9. Change management strategies for global organizations 10. The impact of organizational change on organizational performance

Human Resource Management

1. Recruitment and selection strategies 2. Performance management and appraisal 3. Training and development programs 4. The impact of compensation and benefits on employee motivation 5. The role of HR in promoting diversity and inclusion 6. The impact of technology on HRM 7. The impact of employee turnover on organizational performance 8. Employee retention strategies 9. HR metrics and analytics 10. HR strategy and its impact on organizational performance

Organizational Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility

1. The importance of ethical behavior in organizations 2. Ethical decision-making processes in organizations 3. The impact of corporate social responsibility on organizational performance 4. The relationship between ethics and organizational culture 5. Ethical leadership and its impact on employee behavior 6. The role of codes of ethics in organizations 7. The impact of social media on organizational ethics 8. The impact of globalization on organizational ethics 9. The role of stakeholders in promoting ethical behavior 10. Developing ethical organizational policies

Choosing an Organizational Behavior Topic

Choosing a research topic can be a daunting task, especially when there are so many organizational behavior research paper topics to choose from. The key to choosing a successful topic is to select one that is relevant, interesting, and manageable. In this section, we provide expert advice on how to choose an organizational behavior research paper topic that will help students succeed in their academic pursuits.

The importance of choosing a relevant and interesting topic

The first step in choosing an organizational behavior research paper topic is to select a relevant and interesting topic. A relevant topic is one that aligns with the course curriculum and the student’s area of interest. An interesting topic is one that is engaging and will hold the student’s attention throughout the research and writing process. Choosing a relevant and interesting topic is important because it will make the research and writing process more enjoyable and fulfilling.

Tips for choosing a topic that aligns with the student’s interests and career goals

To choose a topic that aligns with the student’s interests and career goals, it is important to consider what topics are relevant to the student’s area of study and future career aspirations. Students should consider their personal interests, as well as the interests of potential employers. They should also consider the latest trends and developments in the field of organizational behavior, and choose a topic that is timely and relevant.

How to narrow down a broad topic into a manageable research question

Once a broad topic has been selected, it is important to narrow it down into a manageable research question. This can be done by breaking the topic down into smaller, more manageable sub-topics. Students should consider the scope of the topic and the available resources, and choose a research question that is focused and manageable.

Examples of how to brainstorm ideas for research topics

Brainstorming is an effective way to generate ideas for research topics. Students can start by listing the topics that interest them and then narrowing down the list to the most relevant and interesting topics. They can also read academic journals and textbooks to identify current trends and issues in organizational behavior. Finally, they can talk to their instructors or peers to get ideas and feedback.

How to conduct preliminary research

Before choosing a research topic, it is important to conduct preliminary research to ensure that the topic is feasible and has enough available resources. Students can start by conducting a literature review to identify the latest research on the topic. They can also use online databases and search engines to find relevant articles and publications. Finally, they can consult with their instructors or academic advisors to get advice on the available resources and potential research topics.

Choosing the right organizational behavior research paper topic is essential for success in academic pursuits. By following these expert tips and advice, students can choose a relevant and interesting topic, narrow it down into a manageable research question, and conduct preliminary research to ensure the topic is feasible and has enough available resources.

How to Write an Organizational Behavior Research Paper

Once a research topic has been chosen, the next step is to write the research paper. Writing an organizational behavior research paper can be a challenging task, but with the right guidance and strategies, it can be a rewarding and fulfilling experience. In this section, we provide expert advice on how to write an organizational behavior research paper.

The structure and format of a research paper

The structure and format of an organizational behavior research paper should follow the standard guidelines for academic research papers. It should include an introduction, literature review, methodology, results, and discussion sections. The introduction should provide an overview of the research topic and the purpose of the study. The literature review should summarize the relevant research on the topic. The methodology section should describe the research design, sample, and data collection methods. The results section should present the findings of the study, and the discussion section should interpret the results and provide conclusions and recommendations.

How to conduct research and gather sources

To conduct research and gather sources for an organizational behavior research paper, students should start by conducting a literature review. This involves searching for relevant articles and publications on the research topic. Students can use online databases, search engines, and academic journals to find relevant sources. They should also consider the credibility and relevance of the sources they choose, and use a variety of sources to support their arguments.

How to organize and outline the paper

Organizing and outlining an organizational behavior research paper is an important step in the writing process. Students should start by creating an outline that includes the major sections of the paper and the key points they want to make in each section. They should then organize their sources and research findings according to the outline. This will help them write a clear and coherent paper.

How to write an introduction, literature review, methodology, results, and discussion sections

Each section of an organizational behavior research paper has a specific purpose and format. The introduction should provide an overview of the research topic and the purpose of the study. The literature review should summarize the relevant research on the topic. The methodology section should describe the research design, sample, and data collection methods. The results section should present the findings of the study, and the discussion section should interpret the results and provide conclusions and recommendations. Students should use clear and concise language and support their arguments with relevant sources and research findings.

How to properly cite sources and format the paper

Properly citing sources and formatting the paper is essential for academic integrity and professionalism. Students should follow the guidelines for the appropriate citation style, such as APA or MLA. They should also ensure that the paper is formatted according to the guidelines provided by their instructor or academic institution. This includes proper margins, headings, and references.

How to revise and edit the paper for clarity and coherence

Revising and editing the organizational behavior research paper is an important step in the writing process. Students should read the paper carefully and revise it for clarity, coherence, and organization. They should also check for spelling and grammar errors and ensure that the paper meets the requirements and guidelines provided by their instructor or academic institution.

Writing an organizational behavior research paper can be a challenging task, but with the right guidance and strategies, it can be a rewarding and fulfilling experience. By following these expert tips and advice, students can write a high-quality research paper that meets the academic standards and expectations.

Order Custom Organizational Behavior Research Papers from iResearchNet

Organizational behavior research is a dynamic and challenging field, and writing a research paper on the topic can be daunting. However, with the right guidance, strategies, and support, students can succeed in their academic pursuits and contribute to the ongoing discourse in the field.

We have provided a comprehensive list of organizational behavior research paper topics and expert advice on how to choose a topic, conduct research, and write a high-quality research paper. Additionally, iResearchNet offers writing services that provide customized solutions to students who need expert help with their organizational behavior research papers.

If you’re struggling to choose a topic, conduct research, or write your organizational behavior research paper, iResearchNet’s writing services can help. Our team of experienced writers can provide personalized assistance on any topic, ensuring that your paper meets the highest standards of quality. We offer flexible pricing, timely delivery, and a money-back guarantee, so you can trust us to provide the support you need to succeed.

Don’t let the challenges of writing an organizational behavior research paper hold you back. With the right tools and support, you can excel in your academic pursuits and make a valuable contribution to the field of organizational behavior. Contact iResearchNet today to get started!


organization research paper ideas

Proactive Grad

How to Organize Research Papers: A Cheat Sheet for Graduate Students

Aruna Kumarasiri

  • August 8, 2022

how to organize research papers cover

It is crucial to organize research papers so that the literature survey process goes smoothly once the data has been gathered and analyzed. This is where a research organizer is useful.

It may be helpful to plan the structure of your writing before you start writing: organizing your ideas before you begin to write will help you decide what to write and how to write it.

It can be challenging to keep your research organized when writing an essay. The truth is, there’s no one “ best ” way to get organized, and there’s no one answer. Whatever system you choose, make sure it works for your learning style and writing habits.

As a graduate student, learning how to organize research papers is therefore essential.

This blog post will cover the basics of organizing research papers and the tools I use to organize my research. 

Before you start

The importance of organizing research papers.

No matter how good your paper management system is, even if you keep all your literature in places that are easy to find, you won’t be able to “create” anything unless you haven’t thought about organizing what you get from them.

The goal of the research is to publish your own work to society for the benefit of everyone in the field and, ultimately, humanity.

In your final year of your PhD, when you see all the papers you’ve stored over the years, imagine the frustration you might experience if you hadn’t gathered the information from those papers in a way that allows you to “create” something with i.

This is why organizing research papers is important when starting your research.

Research with your final product in mind

It is very important to have a clear idea of what your research’s outcome will be to collect the information you really need.

If you don’t yet have all your information, consider what “subheadings” or chunks you could write about.

Write a concept map if you need help identifying your topic chunks. As an introduction to concept mapping, it involves writing down a term or idea and then brainstorming other ideas within it.

To gather information like this, you can use a mind map.

When you find useful information.

Come up with a proper file management system.

Sort your literature with a file management system. There’s no need to come up with a very narrow filing system at this point. Try sorting your research into broader areas of your field. When you’re more familiar with your own research, you’ll be able to narrow down your filing system.

Start with these methods:

Don’t waste your time on stuff that’s interesting but not useful :  

In your own research, what’s the most important part of a particular paper? You won’t have to pay attention to other sections of that paper if you find that section first. 

What is the argument behind your research? Make notes on that information, and then throw everything else away.

Create multiple folders :

Create a file containing related topics if you’re using a computer. Bind the related articles together if you like to print out papers. In other words, keep related things together!

Color code your research papers:   

To organize notes and articles, assign different colors to each sub-topic and use highlighters, tabs, or font colors.

Organize your literature chronologically: 

Even in a short period of time, you might have missed overarching themes or arguments if you hadn’t read them previously. It’s best to organize your research papers chronologically.

If you want to do all this at once, I suggest using a reference manager like Zotero or Mendeley (more on reference managers later).

File renaming 

Make sure you rename your files on your computer according to your own renaming strategy. Taking this step will save you time and confusion as your research progresses.

My usual way of naming a pdf is to use the first author’s last name, followed by the first ten letters of the title and then the year of publication. As an example, For the paper “ Temperature-Dependent Infrared Refractive Index of Polymers from a Calibrated Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Measurement ” by Azam et al., I renamed the file as “ Azam_Temperature-Dependent_2022.pdf “.

One thing to notice is that I don’t do this manually for all the papers I download. That wouldn’t be as productive, and I’d probably give up after some time renaming every single file. In my reference manager of choice (Zotero), I use a plugin called Zotfile to do this automatically. Zotfile automatically renames files and puts them in the folder I specify every time I add a new paper.

Organizing your research articles by the last names of the lead authors will simplify your citation and referencing process since you have to cite the names of the researchers everywhere. The articles will also be easier to find because they’ll be lined up alphabetically by any researcher’s name you can remember.

Use keywords wisely

Keywords are the most important part of sorting. It’s easy to forget to move a paper to a specific file sometimes because you’re overwhelmed. But you can tag a paper in seconds. 

When organizing research papers, don’t forget to develop a better keyword system, especially if you use a reference manager.

My reference manager, for instance, allows me to view all the keywords I have assigned in the main window, making life much easier.

Create annotations

When reading literature, it is very important to create your own annotations, as discussed in the blog post series, “ Bulletproof literature management system “.

This is the fourth post of the four-part blog series:  The Bulletproof Literature Management System . Follow the links below to read the other posts in the series:

  • How to How to find Research Papers
  • How to Manage Research Papers
  • How to Read Research Papers
  • How to Organize Research Papers (You are here)

The best thing to do is to summarize each section of the article/book you are reading that interests you. Don’t forget to include the key parts/arguments/quotes you liked.

Write your own notes

If you decide to read the whole paper, make sure you write your own summary. The reason is that 95% of the things you read will be forgotten after a certain period of time. When that happens, you may have to read the paper all over again if you do not take notes and write your own summary.

By writing your own summary, you will likely memorize the basic idea of the research paper. Additionally, you can link to other similar papers. In this way, you can benefit from the knowledge you gain from reading research papers.

After reading a paper, make sure to ask these questions:

  • Why is this source helpful for your essay?  
  • How does it support your thesis?  

Keep all the relevant information in one place so that you can refer to it when writing your own thesis.

Use an app like Obsidian to link your thinking if you keep all your files on a computer, making things much easier.

When you are ready to write

Write out of order .

Once you have all the necessary information, you can use your filing system, PDF renaming strategy, and keywords to draw the annotations and notes you need.

Now that you’re all set to write, don’t worry about writing the perfect paper or thesis right away.

Your introduction doesn’t have to come first.

If necessary, you can change your introduction at the end – sometimes, your essay takes a different direction. Nothing to worry about!

Write down ideas as they come to you

As you complete your research, many full-sentence paragraphs will come to your mind. Do not forget to write these down – even in your notes or annotations. Keep a notebook or your phone handy to jot down ideas as you get them. You can then find the information and revise it again to develop a better version if you’re working on the same project for a few days/weeks.

My toolbox to organize research papers

Stick with the free stuff.

Trying to be a productive grease monkey, I’ve tried many apps over the years. Here’s what I learned.

  • The simplest solution is always the best solution (the Occam razor principle always wins!).
  • The free solution is always the best (because they have the best communities to help you out and are more customizable).

As someone who used to believe that if something is free, you’re the product, I’ve learned that statement isn’t always true.

Ironically, open-source software tends to get better support than proprietary stuff. It’s better to have millions of enthusiasts working for free than ten paid support staff.

There are a lot of reviews out there, and EndNote usually comes out at the bottom. I used EndNote for five years – it worked fine, but other software improved faster. Now I use Zotero, which I like for its web integration. 

Obsidian, my note-taking app of choice, is also free software. Furthermore, you own your files; also, you’ve got a thriving community.

There are a lot of similarities between the software as they adopt each other’s features, and it’s just a matter of preference.

In any researcher’s toolbox, a reference manager is an essential tool.

A reference manager has two important features: the ability to get citation data into the app and the ability to use the citation data in your writing tool.

It should also work on Windows just as well as macOS or Linux, be free, and allow you to manage PDFs of papers or scanned book chapters.

Zotero , in my opinion, gives you all of this and more.

Zotero is one of the best free reference managers for collecting citation data. It includes a browser plugin that lets you save citation information on Google Scholar, journal pages, YouTube, Amazon, and many other websites, including news articles. It automatically downloads a PDF of the associated source when available for news articles, which is very convenient.

One of the things I really like about Zotero is that it has so many third-party plugins that we have almost complete control over how we use it.

With Zotero 6, you can also read and annotate PDFs, which is perfect for your needs.

My Research paper organizing workflow in Zotero :

  • Get References and PDF papers into Zotero : I use Zotero’s web plugin to import PDFs directly 
  • Filing and sorting : I save files from the web plugin into the file system I already have created in Zotero and assign tags as I do so.
  • File renaming : When I save the file, the Zotero plugin (Zotfile) automatically renames it and stores the pdf where I specified.
  • Extracting Annotations and taking notes : I use Zotero in the build pdf reader to take notes and annotate, and then I extract them and link them in Obsidian (next section).

You need to keep your notes organized and accessible once you’ve established a strong reading habit. For this purpose, I use Obsidian . I use Obsidian to manage everything related to my graduate studies, including notes, projects, and tasks. 

Using a plugin called mdnotes , Obsidian can also sync up with my reference manager of choice, Zotero. It automatically adds new papers to my Obsidian database whenever I add them to Zotero.

Obsidian may have a steep learning curve for those unfamiliar with bi-directional linking , but using similar software will make things much easier. Thus, you may be better off investing your time in devising a note-taking system that works for you.

You can also use a spreadsheet! Make a table with all the papers you read, whatever tool you choose. Include the paper’s status (e.g., whether you’ve read it) and any relevant projects. This is what mine looks like.

how to organize research papers

I keep all my notes on an associated page for each paper. In a spreadsheet, you can write your notes directly in the row or link to a Google document for each row. Zotero, for example, allows you to attach notes directly to reference files.

While it might seem like a lot of work, keeping a database of papers you’ve read helps with literature reviews, funding applications, and more. I can filter by keywords or relevant projects, so I don’t have to re-read anything.

The habit of reading papers and learning how to organize research papers has made me a better researcher. It takes me much less time to read now, and I use it to improve my experiments. I used this system a lot when putting together my PhD fellowship application and my candidacy exam. In the future, I will thank myself for having the foresight to take these steps today before starting to write my dissertation.

I am curious to know how others organize their research papers since there is no “ right ” way. Feel free to comment, and we will update the post with any interesting responses!

Images courtesy : Classified vector created by storyset –

Aruna Kumarasiri

Aruna Kumarasiri

Founder at Proactive Grad, Materials Engineer, Researcher, and turned author. In 2019, he started his professional carrier as a materials engineer with the continuation of his research studies. His exposure to both academic and industrial worlds has provided many opportunities for him to give back to young professionals.

Did You Enjoy This?

Then consider getting the ProactiveGrad newsletter. It's a collection of useful ideas, fresh links, and high-spirited shenanigans delivered to your inbox every two weeks.

I accept the Privacy Policy

Hand-picked related articles

a productive morning routine

Why do graduate students struggle to establish a productive morning routine? And how to handle it?

  • March 17, 2024

how to stick to a schedule

How to stick to a schedule as a graduate student?

  • October 10, 2023

best note-taking apps for graduate students obsidian app

The best note-taking apps for graduate students: How to choose the right note-taking app

  • September 20, 2022

Leave a Reply Cancel Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Name  *

Email  *

Add Comment  *

Notify me of follow-up comments by email.

Notify me of new posts by email.

Post Comment

  • Browse All Articles
  • Newsletter Sign-Up

Organizations →

organization research paper ideas

  • 21 May 2024
  • Cold Call Podcast

The Importance of Trust for Managing through a Crisis

In March 2020, Twiddy & Company, a family-owned vacation rental company known for hospitality rooted in personal interactions, needed to adjust to contactless, remote customer service. With the upcoming vacation season thrown into chaos, President Clark Twiddy had a responsibility to the company’s network of homeowners who rented their homes through the company, to guests who had booked vacations, and to employees who had been recruited by Twiddy’s reputation for treating staff well. Who, if anyone, could he afford to make whole and keep happy? Harvard Business School professor Sandra Sucher, author of the book The Power of Trust: How Companies Build It, Lose It, Regain It, discusses how Twiddy leaned into trust to weather the COVID-19 pandemic in her case, “Twiddy & Company: Trust in a Chaotic Environment.”

organization research paper ideas

  • 30 Apr 2024

When Managers Set Unrealistic Expectations, Employees Cut Ethical Corners

Corporate misconduct has grown in the past 30 years, with losses often totaling billions of dollars. What businesses may not realize is that misconduct often results from managers who set unrealistic expectations, leading decent people to take unethical shortcuts, says Lynn S. Paine.

organization research paper ideas

  • 23 Apr 2024

Amazon in Seattle: The Role of Business in Causing and Solving a Housing Crisis

In 2020, Amazon partnered with a nonprofit called Mary’s Place and used some of its own resources to build a shelter for women and families experiencing homelessness on its campus in Seattle. Yet critics argued that Amazon’s apparent charity was misplaced and that the company was actually making the problem worse. Paul Healy and Debora Spar explore the role business plays in addressing unhoused communities in the case “Hitting Home: Amazon and Mary’s Place.”

organization research paper ideas

  • In Practice

Getting to Net Zero: The Climate Standards and Ecosystem the World Needs Now

What can companies and regulators do as climate predictions grow grimmer? They should measure impact, strengthen environmental institutions, and look to cities to lead, say Robert Kaplan, Shirley Lu, and Rosabeth Moss Kanter.

organization research paper ideas

  • 22 Apr 2024
  • Research & Ideas

When Does Impact Investing Make the Biggest Impact?

More investors want to back businesses that contribute to social change, but are impact funds the only approach? Research by Shawn Cole, Leslie Jeng, Josh Lerner, Natalia Rigol, and Benjamin Roth challenges long-held assumptions about impact investing and reveals where such funds make the biggest difference.

organization research paper ideas

  • 09 Apr 2024

Why Work Rituals Bring Teams Together and Create More Meaning

From weekly lunch dates with colleagues to bedtime stories with children, we often rely on rituals to relax and bond with others. While it may feel awkward to introduce teambuilding rituals in the workplace, the truth is, the practices improve performance, says Michael Norton in his book The Ritual Effect.

organization research paper ideas

  • 18 Mar 2024

When It Comes to Climate Regulation, Energy Companies Take a More Nuanced View

Many assume that major oil and gas companies adamantly oppose climate-friendly regulation, but that's not true. A study of 30 years of corporate advocacy by Jonas Meckling finds that energy companies have backed clean-energy efforts when it aligns with their business interests.

organization research paper ideas

  • 12 Mar 2024

How Used Products Can Unlock New Markets: Lessons from Apple's Refurbished iPhones

The idea of reselling old smartphones might have seemed risky for a company known for high-end devices, but refurbished products have become a major profit stream for Apple and an environmental victory. George Serafeim examines Apple's circular model in a case study, and offers insights for other industries.

organization research paper ideas

  • 16 Feb 2024

Is Your Workplace Biased Against Introverts?

Extroverts are more likely to express their passion outwardly, giving them a leg up when it comes to raises and promotions, according to research by Jon Jachimowicz. Introverts are just as motivated and excited about their work, but show it differently. How can managers challenge their assumptions?

organization research paper ideas

  • 05 Feb 2024

The Middle Manager of the Future: More Coaching, Less Commanding

Skilled middle managers foster collaboration, inspire employees, and link important functions at companies. An analysis of more than 35 million job postings by Letian Zhang paints a counterintuitive picture of today's midlevel manager. Could these roles provide an innovation edge?

organization research paper ideas

  • 17 Jan 2024

Are Companies Getting Away with 'Cheap Talk' on Climate Goals?

Many companies set emissions targets with great fanfare—and never meet them, says research by Shirley Lu and colleagues. But what if investors held businesses accountable for achieving their climate plans?

organization research paper ideas

  • 09 Jan 2024

Could Clean Hydrogen Become Affordable at Scale by 2030?

The cost to produce hydrogen could approach the $1-per-kilogram target set by US regulators by 2030, helping this cleaner energy source compete with fossil fuels, says research by Gunther Glenk and colleagues. But planned global investments in hydrogen production would need to come to fruition to reach full potential.

organization research paper ideas

  • 02 Jan 2024

Should Businesses Take a Stand on Societal Issues?

Should businesses take a stand for or against particular societal issues? And how should leaders determine when and how to engage on these sensitive matters? Harvard Business School Senior Lecturer Hubert Joly, who led the electronics retailer Best Buy for almost a decade, discusses examples of corporate leaders who had to determine whether and how to engage with humanitarian crises, geopolitical conflict, racial justice, climate change, and more in the case, “Deciding When to Engage on Societal Issues.”

organization research paper ideas

10 Trends to Watch in 2024

Employees may seek new approaches to balance, even as leaders consider whether to bring more teams back to offices or make hybrid work even more flexible. These are just a few trends that Harvard Business School faculty members will be following during a year when staffing, climate, and inclusion will likely remain top of mind.

organization research paper ideas

  • 12 Dec 2023

Can Sustainability Drive Innovation at Ferrari?

When Ferrari, the Italian luxury sports car manufacturer, committed to achieving carbon neutrality and to electrifying a large part of its car fleet, investors and employees applauded the new strategy. But among the company’s suppliers, the reaction was mixed. Many were nervous about how this shift would affect their bottom lines. Professor Raffaella Sadun and Ferrari CEO Benedetto Vigna discuss how Ferrari collaborated with suppliers to work toward achieving the company’s goal. They also explore how sustainability can be a catalyst for innovation in the case, “Ferrari: Shifting to Carbon Neutrality.” This episode was recorded live December 4, 2023 in front of a remote studio audience in the Live Online Classroom at Harvard Business School.

organization research paper ideas

  • 05 Dec 2023

Tommy Hilfiger’s Adaptive Clothing Line: Making Fashion Inclusive

In 2017, Tommy Hilfiger launched its adaptive fashion line to provide fashion apparel that aims to make dressing easier. By 2020, it was still a relatively unknown line in the U.S. and the Tommy Hilfiger team was continuing to learn more about how to serve these new customers. Should the team make adaptive clothing available beyond the U.S., or is a global expansion premature? Assistant Professor Elizabeth Keenan discusses the opportunities and challenges that accompanied the introduction of a new product line that effectively serves an entirely new customer while simultaneously starting a movement to provide fashion for all in the case, “Tommy Hilfiger Adaptive: Fashion for All.”

organization research paper ideas

  • 21 Nov 2023

Cold Call: Building a More Equitable Culture at Delta Air Lines

In December 2020 Delta Air Lines CEO Ed Bastian and his leadership team were reviewing the decision to join the OneTen coalition, where he and 36 other CEOs committed to recruiting, hiring, training, and advancing one million Black Americans over the next ten years into family-sustaining jobs. But, how do you ensure everyone has equal access to opportunity within an organization? Professor Linda Hill discusses Delta’s decision and its progress in embedding a culture of diversity, equity, and inclusion in her case, “OneTen at Delta Air Lines: Catalyzing Family-Sustaining Careers for Black Talent.”

organization research paper ideas

The Beauty Industry: Products for a Healthy Glow or a Compact for Harm?

Many cosmetics and skincare companies present an image of social consciousness and transformative potential, while profiting from insecurity and excluding broad swaths of people. Geoffrey Jones examines the unsightly reality of the beauty industry.

organization research paper ideas

  • 31 Oct 2023

Beyond the 'Business Case' in DEI: 6 Steps Toward Meaningful Change

Diversity and inclusion efforts that focus on business outcomes alone rarely address root causes. Jamillah Bowman Williams, a visiting fellow at the Institute for the Study of Business in Global Society, offers tips for companies navigating their next stage of the DEI journey.

organization research paper ideas

  • 24 Oct 2023

How the United States Air Force Accelerated AI Adoption

In August 2022, the Pentagon tasked U.S. Air Force Captain Victor Lopez with launching a new Air Force innovation unit that leveraged commercial developers and military talent to acquire advanced technologies. Having been granted flexibility in the setup of the office, Lopez pondered the complexities of his assignment and the decisions around organizational design he would have to make. It’s often believed that only small start-up organizations can innovate, but a lot of innovation happens in big organizations, including government. Harvard Business School assistant professor Maria Roche is joined by Major Lopez to discuss the challenges of digital transformation in a large bureaucratic organization and the specific choices the U.S. Air Force needed to make when launching its AI Accelerator in her case, "Accelerating AI Adoption in the United States Air Force."

200 Organizational Behavior Topics

Looking for some top-notch organizational behavior topics? Organizational behavior studies how individuals and groups interact, make decisions, and contribute to the overall dynamics of workplaces. To learn more details, have a look at our organizational behavior research topics and find the best one for your paper or presentation!

🗂️ TOP 7 Organizational Behavior Topics

🏆 best organizational behavior essay topics, 👍 catchy organizational behavior research topics, 🎓 interesting organizational behavior topics, 🖥️ organizational behavior topics for presentation, 🌶️ organizational behavior topics for research paper, 💡 simple organizational behavior topics, 📌 easy organizational behavior topics for presentation, ❓ more organizational behavior topics ideas.

  • Apple Organizational Behavior, Structure, & Culture
  • Organizational Behavior in the Nursing Settings
  • Organizational Behavior in the “Up in the Air” Film
  • Organizational Behavior in a Criminal Justice Agency
  • Organizational Behavior on Lack of Motivation
  • Enron Scandal: Financial Fraud and Organizational Behavior
  • Organizational and Consumer’s Buying Behavior
  • The Concept of Organizational Behavior The concept of organizational behavior has been studied for several decades as theorists try to establish the link between individual behaviors and the performance of corporations.
  • Social Sciences and Organizational Behavior The contribution of psychology and sociology to the individual and group level of analysis of organizational behavior as applied science.
  • Informal Group’s Effect on Organizational Behavior The processes of socialization and regular association among group members assist informal group members to wed and develop among themselves.
  • Organizational Behavior. Emotion and Personality The articles under analysis discuss the question of emotional intelligence and its impact on leadership skills and strategies.
  • Leadership in Organizational Behavior Organizational Behavior (OB) is basically the study of how individuals and people groups act in a given organization.
  • Organization Behavior, Its History and Theories Organizational behavior is the application of human actions to other elements of an organization including social system, structure, and technology.
  • Management Structure and Organizational Behaviour The organizational structure affects how people and groups behave in an organization. It endows with a framework that shapes the attitudes, behaviors, and performance of the employees.
  • Organizational Behavior Terminology and Concepts Organizational behavior can be defined as the study of human behavior in an organization; in addition, success of an organization depends greatly on the people.
  • A Positive Organizational Behavior in Organization Any organization should strive to have a positive organizational behavior not only to avoid conflicts but to also enhance harmony among its stakeholders.
  • Organizational Behavior. Leadership and Self-Assessment The internal character of a leader can be measured through testing, and this can pave way for self-development.
  • Organizational Behavior Trends and Decision-Making Decision making in modern organizations should be based on moral and ethical principles followed by employees and management staff.
  • Chrysler Company’s Organizational Behavior Changing an organization’s culture has never been an easy task since it entails behavior transformation. In this paper, the organizational culture of Chrysler will be analyzed in various aspects.
  • Kirloskar India Limited: Organizational Behaviour Organizational behaviour refers to the study of how people interact within an organization. In this case, the chosen company is situated in India and is known as Kirloskar India Limited.
  • Change Management and Management of Organizational Behavior Organizational changes and behavioral patterns are important aspects of management. The ability to make people feel different can be attributed to modern business operations.
  • Role of Communication in Organizational Behavior The most important factor in organizational behavior is communication. Many successes and failures can be attributed to communication.
  • Relations Between Organizational Structures and Behavior Researching organizational behavior helps employers obtain an insight into covert patterns of their employees’ performance at work.
  • Budgeting Impact on Organizational Behavior This paper seeks to discuss how budgeting can impact organizational behavior. This paper explores how the impact can be both positive and negative.
  • Organizational Behavior in “Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory” Movie The analysis and interpretation of the “Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory” movie are likely to provide essential insights into the core of organizational behavior (OB).
  • Apple Inc.’s Organizational Behavior Management Apple Inc. requires a self-directed work team in order to continue holding the top position as the worlds’ largest producer of electronics.
  • The Role of Human Resource Management in an Organization Management is the activity of administering an organization. It includes the formulation of the strategy for an organization.
  • Reflection on Organizational Behavior Theories Organizational behavior knowledge is of utmost importance in the workplace since it provides an understanding of why people behave in a particular way.
  • Organizational Behaviour Analysis and Evaluation Organisational behaviour study is a discipline that is gaining more and more important because organisations are becoming larger and more complex now than ever before.
  • Organizational Behavior and Leadership – Donna Dubinsky and Apple Computer
  • Good Business Plan About Organizational Behavior Action Plan
  • How Organizational Behavior Will Make Me an Effective Manager
  • The Organizational Behavior and the Loyalty of the Workers
  • Safeway Incorporated and Organizational Behavior
  • Social Environment and Decisions, Factors in Organizational Behavior of a Business School in Mexico
  • Organizational Behavior and Barriers to Effective Communication Assignment
  • Organizational Behavior and Its Importance in Managing a Business Organization
  • The Realities and Challenges of Organizational Behavior
  • What Are Effectiveness and Efficiency, and How Are They Related to Organizational Behavior
  • Technology and Workplace Stress for Organizational Behavior Course
  • Sleep and Organizational Behavior: Implications for Workplace Productivity and Safety
  • Zappos Leadership and Organizational Behavior
  • Organizational Behavior and Leadership of the 21st Century
  • Why Should Every Manager Study the Discipline of Organizational Behavior?
  • How Globalization Has Changed Organizational Behavior
  • The Organizational Behavior Influences the Ethical Behavior
  • Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness Project
  • The Challenges and Problems Addressed by Organizational Behavior
  • Interpersonal Communication Enhances Organizational Behavior and Increase
  • Unethical Pro Organizational Behavior Is Accounting Fraud
  • Pursuing Criminal Justice Through Effective Organizational Behavior Organization Behavior should be emphasized within criminal justice organizations because it is linked to how cultures are created.
  • Organizational Behavior Management in Health Care The anxieties of the health care occupation have triggered doctors to agree to take risk and view faults as inevitable and essential particularities of their job.
  • The Link Between Organizational Behavior and Change Management This article analyzes the difficulties faced by International Power Global Developments and provides recommendations for overcoming them.
  • Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior The article’s main theme relates the significance of global teams and how they play their part in this global business environment.
  • Organizational Behavior and Culture for Employees Culture directly affects the climate of an organization, as both factors are part of the interaction of employees in the workspace.
  • The Aspects of Organizational Behavior The paper discusses the aspects of organizational behavior. It studies how people behave and interact with others in a working environment.
  • Organizational Justice Effect on Organizational Citizenship Behavior Observance of organizational justice is necessary to protect the labor rights, interests and health of employees, which is primarily the key to the prosperity of the organization itself.
  • Leadership and Organizational Behavior: U.S. and India In this paper, we will discuss the communication differences between U.S. and India, analyze the cultural and workforce differences, and would devise a strategy to deal with HRM issues.
  • An Introduction to Organizational Behavior: Chapter Summary Bauer and Erdogan provided a number of descriptions of concepts that play an important role in defining a high-performance workplace where the needs of a worker can be considered.
  • Organizational Behavior: Theory X, Theory Y, and the Hawthorne Studies The paper discusses organizational behavior theories, such as McGregor’s Theory X and Y, and the original purpose of the Hawthorne Studies.
  • New Castle Hotels’ Leadership and Organizational Behavior This assignment gives information about the subject of organizational behavior, high employee turnover, and discusses the cause of high attrition faced by New Castle Hotels.
  • Organizational Behavior: Issues of Personnel Management Human resources management is one role of managers; it is concerned with people at work and their relationship with their employer.
  • Conflict Resolution Strategies and Organizational Behavior The phenomenon of organizational conflict and its impact on the performance of organizations has generated increasing attention from organizational scholars.
  • “A Few Good Man” by Rob Reiner: Organizational Behavior Regarding the film “A Few Good Man” by Rob Reiner, the following three deserve special attention: autocratic, support, and collegial model.
  • Organizational Behavior Business: HR Dilemma HR’s Daily Dilemma: Between Management and Staff. HR should operate on equal footing with both management and employees.
  • Organizational Behaviour Overview: National Iranian Oil Company The organization should have general objectives set to be attained by everyone and the Management should carefully manage them so as to be productive.
  • Organizational Behavior in the “Troy” Film The study examines theories of motivation and leadership and their implementation in the film “Troy” because the plot of the picture is based on the war between two large armies.
  • Employee Motivation and Organizational Behavior The paper discusses the influence of employee motivation and relevant appraisal techniques on organizational behavior. It implies using a qualitative design.
  • Organizational Citizenship Behavior at Work Organizational citizenship behavior defines workers’ voluntary and optional practices that encourage effectiveness.
  • Managing Organizational Behavior: Group Decision-Making Group decision-making can improve the quality of decisions, provide a variety of perspectives, and assist in developing the skills of the members.
  • Organizational Behavior: Definition and Structure For any employee, manager, entrepreneur, and administrator working in the field of business, understanding organizational behavior is essential.
  • Global Financial Crisis: Organizational Behaviour and Analysis Reports on the global financial crisis seem to associate psychopathic leadership with the financial losses experienced by firms during the world economic crunch.
  • Company’s Organizational Behavior in COVID-19 Outbreak Today successfully managing a company is as challenging as ever during a COVID-19 outbreak with no clear perspective.
  • The Impact of Organizational Culture on Employee Performance.
  • Effective Leadership Styles in Modern Organizations.
  • Motivating Factors in the Workplace: Beyond Monetary Incentives.
  • Emotional Intelligence and its Role in Organizational Behavior.
  • Diversity and Inclusion: Enhancing Team Dynamics.
  • Conflict Management Strategies in Multicultural Teams.
  • Communication Skills for Effective Organizational Collaboration.
  • The Psychology of Employee Engagement and Job Satisfaction.
  • The Role of Ethics in Shaping Organizational Behavior.
  • Adapting to Change: Navigating Organizational Transitions.
  • Power and Influence in Organizational Hierarchies.
  • Team Building: Strategies for Cohesive and Productive Teams.
  • Work-Life Balance and its Impact on Employee Well-Being.
  • Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Going Beyond Job Roles.
  • The Science of Decision-Making in Organizational Settings.
  • Emotional Labor and its Implications for Employee Burnout.
  • Managing Stress in High-Pressure Work Environments.
  • Organizational Justice: Fairness and Equity in the Workplace.
  • Organizational Learning: Continuous Improvement and Innovation.
  • Cross-Cultural Communication Challenges in Global Organizations.
  • Organizational Behavior and the Digital Transformation Era.
  • Gender Dynamics and Women in Leadership Roles.
  • Authentic Leadership: Building Trust and Credibility.
  • Psychological Contracts and Employee Commitment.
  • Employee Empowerment and Autonomy in Decision-Making.
  • Organizational Politics: Navigating Power Struggles.
  • Technology’s Influence on Remote Work and Virtual Teams.
  • Employee Resilience and Adaptability in Uncertain Times.
  • Employee Turnover: Causes, Costs, and Strategies for Retention.
  • The Psychology of Organizational Creativity and Innovation.
  • Organizational Behavior Analysis: Japanese Soccer School Kurt Lewin’s theory of change is a framework most often used to describe and plan organizational change due to its relative simplicity, intuitive nature, and ease of use.
  • International Power Company’s Organizational Behavior and Change Management The culture at International Power is very strong; they believe in constant changes and keeping up with the international standards.
  • Organizational Behavior and Motivation in Hurricane Response This article examines methods that could be used to manage the aftermath of the Katrina disaster by some theorists in the field of creating mechanisms to regulate human behavior.
  • Organizational Behavior Practical Application Field Organizational behavior is a science that studies the behavior of people in organizations aiming to use this knowledge to improve the efficiency of a person’s labor activity.
  • Organizational Behavior Motivation of Employees The issue of motivating employees is an extremely crucial undertaking of the management in an organization as it is vital towards achieving high performance.
  • Palm Inc.’s Organizational Behavior Diagnostics In this study, a model for diagnosing organizational behavior is presented. This model provides how Palm Inc. has been doing in terms of its performance.
  • John Mackey: Organizational Behavior Mackey is highly intelligent emotionally and that is why he is successful in his position. Mackey best presents a democratic leadership model.
  • Organizational Behavior and Motivation Scheme of an Employee The subject of the present study is the way organizational behavior is influenced by the issue of payment and what role payment plays in the whole motivation scheme of an employee.
  • Organization Behavior Within a Criminal Justice Setting Workers’ behavior, performance and attitude otherwise organization behavior highly determines the efficiency and the effectiveness of an organization.
  • The Pseudo-Wire Company: Organizational Behavior With the empirical evidence of The Pseudo-Wire Company (PWC), this paper would analyze the organizational culture of the company and argue where it is supportive to the goals of the Company and where not.
  • Organizational Behavior and Criminal Organizations Many criminal justice agencies are trying to reinvent themselves so as to improve efficiency and effectiveness. Doing so often requires that the organizational culture change.
  • Organizational Behavior: Term Definition This paper discusses the ethical issues in an organization, the individual influences that impact ethical behaviors, and how organizations can influence ethical behavior in employees.
  • Leadership and its Role in the Organizational Behavior The role of the leadership on the workplace is impossible to overvalue, as the whole organizational process is influenced by the leader’s attitude
  • Organizational Behavior. Job Design Around Groups Job design aims to satisfy the requirements of the organization for productivity, operational deficiency and quality of product or service, and the need of the individual interest.
  • AAR Corporation’s Organizational Environment & Behavior This paper will study the AAR Company’s organizational environment to analyze the issues that the firm is currently experiencing and define the course of further improvements.
  • Antecedents of Organizational Citizenship Behavior Article Review In the present paper, the contents and the main sections of the selected study will be discussed, and the implications of its findings will be identified.
  • Organizational Behavior in the Workplace Organizational behavior impacts the functioning of all organizations. It suggests several effective approaches to attain improved decision-making.
  • Organizational Behavior: Managing Employees The existing approach to management presupposes that a specialist responsible for the growth should be ready to evaluate all essentials and introduce appropriate strategies to success.
  • Organizational Behavior Business Write-Up Plan A pay-for-performance plan allows employees to increase their remuneration that depends on their performance, thus providing motivation and enhancing a company’s profits.
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management Customer relationship management is a concept that, when applied properly, creates value for all stakeholders, including both suppliers and customers.
  • Organizational Culture and Behavior This paper discusses the process of adopting assimilation strategies and describes developing an organizational culture in an organization.
  • Organizational Behavior on the Pacific Rim Focus The paper discusses the impact that an organization’s structure has on its performance, power distribution and the general operation of issues.
  • Organizational Behavior Aspects and Leadership Style For an effective business, leaders should ensure they have orchestrated teams that are focused and responsive to the needs of an organization.
  • Organizational Behavior: Principles, Models and Theories Organizational behavior analysis is very important in explaining how people interact and relate within a given social setting.
  • Organizational Behavior Practices: Positive Change To facilitate growth, every organization has to undergo the process of change at some point. Changes could be aimed to accommodate the employees to a different working format.
  • Leadership and Organizational Behavior This paper assumes this connection to be true, tries to develop two viable structures for a given organization. The organization we intend to study is Procter and Gamble (P&G).
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resources Management
  • Internal and External Forces That Impact Organizational Behavior
  • International Human Resource Management and Organizational Behavior
  • The Role and Future of Globe Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior
  • Human Resource Management and Efforts to Create or Promote Positive Organizational Behavior
  • How Internal and External Forces Affect Organizational Behavior
  • Organizational Behavior Analysis for McDonald’s
  • Organizational Behavior and Communication in the Walt Disney Company
  • The Organizational Behavior Problem at a Public Elementary School
  • Organizational Behavior and Contemporary Strategy Analysis
  • Health and the Focal Organizational Behavior
  • Factors That Influence and Shape Organizational Behavior
  • Organizational Behavior and Its Value Add to Business
  • Vicarious Learning: The Influence of Modeling on Organizational Behavior
  • Healthcare Organizational Behavior and Design
  • How Does Opportunistic Behavior Influence Firm Size? An Evolutionary Approach to Organizational Behavior
  • Harvard Business School Chooses Sapient as an Example of Excellence in Leadership and Organizational Behavior
  • Workers Morale and Organizational Behavior Management
  • Xerox: Leadership and Organizational Behavior in Action
  • Organizational Behavior and Its Effect on the Employees
  • Key Concepts and Terms of Organizational Behavior
  • Concepts and Terms Used in the Study of Organizational Behavior
  • Organizational Behavior and Criminal Justice Agencies Assignment
  • Organizational Behavior and Customer Satisfaction
  • Organizational Behavior Across Cultures
  • Leadership and Organizational Behavior Allstate Insurance Company
  • Understanding Organizational Behavior and the Workplace
  • Internal and External Challenges to Organizational Behavior Creative Writing
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes
  • Teamwork, Stress and Organizational Behavior
  • Information Technology and Modelisation of Organizational Behavior
  • Organizational Behavior and Its Impact on Human Behavior
  • The Organizational Behavior and Structuring on Hickling
  • Customer Satisfaction and Organizational Behavior
  • Effective Management and Organizational Behavior
  • Organizational Behavior and Its Effect on Work Performance
  • Employee Motivation and Organizational Behavior
  • Organizational Behavior and Group Dynamics
  • Roadhouse Film, Management, and Organizational Behavior
  • Coolburst Organizational Behavior Analysis
  • The Connection Between Organizational Behavior and Facility Management
  • Organizational Behavior and Globalization
  • The Work Culture and Methods of Organizational Behavior
  • General Electric and How They Espouse Organizational Behavior Concepts
  • Organizational Behavior and Ethics: An Evaluation of Microsoft
  • Leaders and Leadership: Understanding and Managing Organizational Behavior
  • What Are the Principles of Organizational Behavior?
  • What Is the Difference Between Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior?
  • Why Are There Few Absolutes in Organizational Behavior?
  • What Are the Emerging Issues in Organizational Behaviour?
  • Why Is Organizational Behavior a Multidisciplinary Subject?
  • What Is the Perception Process in Organizational Behavior?
  • Is Organizational Behavior a Key to an Organization’s Success?
  • What Are Effectiveness and Efficiency, and How Are They Related to Organizational Behavior?
  • What Are the Differences and Similarities Between Management and Organizational Behavior?
  • How Does Narcissism Affect Organizational Behavior?
  • What Is a Managerial Perspective on Organizational Behavior?
  • What Are the Foundational Texts in the Organizational Behavior Field?
  • What Are the Core Topics of Organizational Behavior?
  • What Is the Role of Ethics in Organizational Behavior?
  • How Is Organizational Behavior Related to Finance?
  • What Is the Relationship Between Organizational Behavior and Hrm?
  • How Is Emotional Labor Important to Organizational Behavior?
  • How Does Organizational Structure Affects Organizational Behavior?
  • Can Organizational Behavior Explain the Export Intention of Firms?
  • What Is Servant Leadership Theory in Organizational Behavior?
  • Why the Subject Organizational Behavior Might Be Criticized as Being Only Common Sense?
  • How Internal and External Forces Affect Organizational Behavior?
  • How Organizational Behavior Impacts Health Care?
  • What Is the Terminology and Concepts of Organizational Behavior?

Cite this post

  • Chicago (N-B)
  • Chicago (A-D)

StudyCorgi. (2021, September 9). 200 Organizational Behavior Topics.

"200 Organizational Behavior Topics." StudyCorgi , 9 Sept. 2021,

StudyCorgi . (2021) '200 Organizational Behavior Topics'. 9 September.

1. StudyCorgi . "200 Organizational Behavior Topics." September 9, 2021.


StudyCorgi . "200 Organizational Behavior Topics." September 9, 2021.

StudyCorgi . 2021. "200 Organizational Behavior Topics." September 9, 2021.

These essay examples and topics on Organizational Behavior were carefully selected by the StudyCorgi editorial team. They meet our highest standards in terms of grammar, punctuation, style, and fact accuracy. Please ensure you properly reference the materials if you’re using them to write your assignment.

This essay topic collection was updated on January 21, 2024 .

5 Organizational Behavior Research Topics

  • Published February 26, 2019
  • Last Updated March 24, 2023

Find Your Degree!

Topics for Master’s in Organizational Behavior Research

  • Artificial Intelligence and Reducing Bias
  • Effective Use of Contractors
  • Office Design and Productivity
  • Globalization and Corporate Culture
  • Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility

Organizational behavior is best defined as the study of human behavior in the workplace.  Organizational behavior is closely related to human resources management and industrial-organizational psychology.   Pursuing a Master’s in Organization Behavior usually requires a thesis.  A thesis is an extended piece of original research on an important topic in the field.

The best organizational behavior research topics are sufficiently narrow.  A narrow focus is important so that one can feasibly read the majority of existing research on the topic.  Then they can build on that to create an original contribution. Writing about the generic qualities of a good leader is too broad of a topic to tackle.  Instead, a narrower focus might be on the factors accounting for the success of three leaders in small manufacturing firms in a single industry. Here are five research topics in organizational behavior to consider.

Related Resource:   50 Most Affordable Master’s in Organizational Behavior Degree Programs

1. Artificial Intelligence and Reducing Bias

Bias in recruitment and promotion is seen as increasingly problematic for companies. According to a recent article in Forbes , more companies are turning to AI.  Artificial intelligence has the potential to reduce bias and increase diversity within an organization.  Within this exciting new field, there are plenty of unique organizational topics .  Organizational behavior essay topics might include:

  • case studies of implementation in individual companies
  • analysis of specific technologies
  • meta-studies examining the existing literature in the field

2. Effective Use of Contractors

A growing number of tasks are being outsourced to contractors.  An organization’s overall productivity depends on the effective use of contractors and freelancers working alongside permanent staff. Under this rubric, organizational behavior research paper topics might include the study of contractors in a specific organization or an investigation of how multiple companies in a single industry use contractors in an attempt to understand best practices. Other topics in organizational behavior might include:

  • The role of contractors in different organizational structures
  • The impact of contractors on organizational behavior in the workplace
  • The challenges of contract workers in a global business environment
  • Does organizational structure influence the productivity of contract workers?

Related Resource:  What is Workforce Diversity?

3. Office Design and Productivity

There is much enthusiasm for open offices and other forms of innovative workspace design.  It is important to analyze how design factors impact productivity. Organizational behavior topics might include:

  • An ethnographic study by closely observing workers in a particular setting and documenting how their environment affects their workflow and interactions with colleagues
  • A comparison of similar companies that have different physical workspace designs

4. Globalization and Corporate Culture

Globalization and cultural diversity present ongoing challenges in organizational behavior and many potential areas of investigation. One could compare and contrast how cultural differences affect employee behavior in two similar organizations in different countries.  One could also study how staff from one culture need to learn how to interact with members of a different culture. Other OB research topics could include:

  • The ways effective behaviors from other cultures could improve productivity in American firms
  • The effects of organizational culture change in a global business environment
  • Employee mental health in international business
  • Organizational change and development strategies used in global business
  • The different ways globalization has changed organizational behavior

5. Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility

One trending topic in organizational behavior is how corporate ethics and social responsibility can help:

  • attract the right employees
  • retain and promote the right employees
  • improve the morale of employees

Another related topic is the use of the behavioral concept of the “nudge” to create more ethical behavior.

Other organizational development topics include:

  • an investigation of fair treatment of a diverse workforce
  • environmentally responsible practices
  • the impact of ethical leadership in criminal justice agencies on officer behavior

The right choice of a topic can enhance one’s career opportunities.  A quality piece of writing can attract the interest of potential employers. Publishing a revised thesis in a journal or expanding it into a book signals expertise.  This can make a potential employee stand out from a crowd of applicants. Overall, one’s research project for a Master’s in Organizational Behavior can have a positive effect on obtaining jobs or promotions.

Related Articles:

Top 10 PhD in HR Degree Programs

107 Organizational Design Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

🏆 best organizational design topic ideas & essay examples, 📌 simple & easy organizational design essay titles, 👍 good essay topics on organizational design, ❓ research questions on organizational design.

  • Microsoft Corporation Organizational Design Additionally, they decide on the overall budget of the company; they influence the amount to be distributed in the running of their branches and the amount used in running different activities of the company.
  • Organizational Analysis and Design – Etisalat The company has a combination of the area-division structure and the product structure. The degree of competition is a force for change because the company needs to innovate in order to ensure its survival.
  • Walmart Company Organizational Design and Structure The Chief Executive Officer and the representatives of the annual shareholders general meeting are responsible for making strategic decisions in the organization, which are then implemented by the board of directors.
  • Spotify’s Issues of Operational Activities and Organizational Design Due to the division of the company’s personnel into small teams in which tasks are performed separately by the type of outsourcing, the excessive spans of control are the result of an increased burden on […]
  • The Future of Organizational Design In conclusion, the author notes that there is the need to balance the tensions of organization design in order for managers to align their organizations relative to the current changes in the market.
  • Organizational Training Design The ninth thing that has to be known is the section of people in the organization who are interested in the success of the training program.
  • “Effect of Organizational Structure on Strategy Implementation”: Organization Structure and Design Therefore, the reconsideration of the organizational structure and the effects that its design has on the creation and implementation of strategic management is critical to a company’s performance.
  • Organizational Design and Development The further evolution of the theoretical framework resulted in the increased importance of management and reconsideration of the role of people.
  • Organizational Analysis and Design The analysis of the OAD case regarding two companies enables the students to understand the importance of management style in the overall performance of the organization.
  • Articles on the Future of Organizational Design The source contributes to the discussion of OD’s future in many ways by reflecting larger trends and proposing new directions for OD research. Another implication for OD’s future relates to the academic understandings of organizational […]
  • Organizational Design for Effectiveness and Productivity Aronowitz et al.highlight the importance of a company’s redesign and the possible outcomes of this process. The second step is to timely research the scene and perspectives.
  • Cash Flow Problems and Organizational Design Accordingly, it is required to purchase them in a continuous manner in order to ensure the uninterrupted functioning of the enterprise.
  • Organizational Design and Culture in Hospitals Additionally, these structures have increased the productivity of this hospital by allowing many patients both in and out patient to be served with ease.
  • Organizational Design: Defenition and Causes to Provide Organizational behavior interprets the relationship between employees and the organization it terms of an individual as a whole, an entire group of people, the whole organization and the society as a whole.
  • Intel Corporation’s Strategies and Organizational Design This made the engineers to be at their toes to design on how to increase the speed of the microprocessors by doubling the number of transistors.
  • Anti-HIV Nonprofit’s Organizational Design Particularly, three areas of concern are of the primary interest: the design and functional characteristics of NGOs, the problem of HIV in the context of NGOs, and differences between organic and mechanistic organizational structures.
  • Literature Review in Dissertation on Organizational Design In the provided dissertation “A Quantitative Approach To The Organizational Design Problem”, the student Jes s A. The major shortcoming noticeable in this chapter is the exclusion of the historical perspectives of the problem.
  • Herbert A. Simon’s Organizational Design Problem Simon on what ails business schools: More than ‘a problem in organizational design’”, Khurana and Spender discuss Simon’s key ideas regarding the organizational design of American business schools in the period of Ford and Carnegie […]
  • LPA Group Plc: Organizational Design and Structure The diagram below shows the organizational structure of this firm at the top management unit. The organization is finding it difficult to have a uniform organizational behavior for all the employees of the firm.
  • Organizational Design: Elements and Types In turn, centralization, chain of command, and span of control have been important for the implementation of decisions. Finally, one should speak about divisional design, which means that the enterprise consists of units that are […]
  • Kingsway Restaurant’s Organizational Design This lack of clear definition of strategic goals have confused a number of employees on the primary strategic goal of the organization, because many do not know whether the strategic goal of the company is […]
  • The Process of Organizational Redesigning Johnson et al.affirm that the major determinant of the level of success of a certain organizational design is the level of skills that the designer has and the management quality.
  • Managing Conflict: Decision-Making Process in Organizations Conflicts in this institution also arise from among the physicians, the management team and physicians and between other professionals and the physicians.
  • Conflict, Decision Making and Organizational Design Decision making is basically a process of the mind aimed at the selection of a desirable course of action from a variety of alternative solutions in response to a given problem at hand.
  • Organizational Design Wise Medical Center Identify the Individual and His or Her Management Position in the Organization Paul Bones is a chief of medicine at the center who takes care of research and teaching programs that should also be financed […]
  • Wise Medical Center Organizational Design In the course of the 1980s as well as in the 1990s, there was publication of several cases and articles in the professional press which made a prediction of a net increase in the business […]
  • The Organizational Structure and Design of Veema Enterprises These include the computer sales division, which deals in computers and laptops; the internet set up and supplies division, which offers the services of internet installation and maintenance; the software division, which deals in the […]
  • Organizational Change, Diagnosis and Redesign The company CEO who is democratic encourages workers contribution to the management and running of the company whereas the autocratic leader is strict and runs a one man show.
  • Organizational Design and Culture In this organization, the front-line workers are accountable only to the heads of interdisciplinary teams. The key issue is that members of these multi-disciplinary teams do not have to wait for the approval of head […]
  • Organizational Structure and Design in Southwest Gas and Qualcomm An organizational structure is the hierarchical organization of authority and duties of organizations and it comprises of activities like allocation of duties, supervision and coordination that is intended to make an organization realize its goals.
  • Boosting Business: Organizational Theory and Design The factors that affect the balance between centralization and decentralization are purpose and goals of an organization, knowledge, and experience of the executives, size of the organization, geographical dispersion, technical complexity of tasks, and the […]
  • Optimizing Organization Design for the Future The article further argues that the first decade of the 21st century was to be a challenging period for colleges and universities in their quest to review the mission and services without compromising the quality […]
  • Organizational Design, Organizational Learning, and the Market Value of the Firm
  • Trust and Organizational Design: Explaining Cross-National Differences in Work Autonomy
  • Problem Solution: Best Snacks Inc. Creativity, Innovation, and Organizational Design
  • The Creation of a Middle-Management Level by Entrepreneurial Ventures: Testing Economic Theories of Organizational Design
  • Old and New Theories of Fiscal Federalism, Organizational Design Problems, and Tiebout
  • The Cultural Values of Organizational Design
  • The Strategy Applied Through the Organizational Design
  • Organizational Design: Management and Organization Theory
  • The Role of Organizations and Organizational Design
  • The Organizational Design of Intelligence Failures
  • Organizational Design and the Failure of Enron
  • The Classical Theory of Organizational Design
  • Organizational Design and Organizational Structure
  • The Development of Trust and Implications for Organizational Design: A Game- and Attribution-Theoretical Framework
  • Conflict, Decision Making, and Organizational Design
  • Effects of Organizational Design Dimensions on Inter-Unit Knowledge Sharing
  • A Note on Organizational Design and the Optimal Allocation of Environmental Liability
  • Organizational Design for Performance Growth
  • Managing Organizational Change for Organizational Design
  • Organizational Design, Project Selection, and Incentives
  • Future Planning and Organizational Design Research
  • A Recommendation on the Organizational Design and Strategy for Apple Inc.
  • Intertemporal Common Agency and Organizational Design: How much Decentralization
  • Formal Organizational Design and Informal Culture
  • On Evaluation Costs in Strategic Factor Markets: The Implications for Competition and Organizational Design
  • Organizational Consultant: Creating a Useable Theory for Organizational Design
  • Human Factors in Organizational Design and Management of Industrial Plants
  • Effective Organizational Design for Small Businesses
  • Reciprocal Supervision, Collusion and Organizational Design
  • Afinity, Animosity and Organizational Design
  • Organizational Design, Structures and Decisions
  • Organizational Design, Technology and the Boundaries of the Firm
  • Organizational Design, Management Knowledge, and the Contributions of Contingency Thinking
  • Organizational Design Is Far More Than Creating A Diagrammatic
  • How Does Clubs’ Organizational Design Affect Competition Among Clubs
  • Subjective Performance Evaluations, Collusion, and Organizational Design
  • The Future of Organizational Design
  • Organizational Design and Political Control of Administrative Agencies
  • The Philadelphia Seventy-Sixers, Strategic Management, and Organizational Design
  • Simulating Project Work Processes and Organizations: Toward a Micro-Contingency Theory of Organizational Design
  • The Role of International Strategy and Organizational Design in Global Market
  • Informal Help in the Workplace: Workers ‘Free Agency By-Product or Firms’ Organizational Design By-Product
  • An Empirical Framework for Testing Theories About Complimentarity in Organizational Design
  • Technology and the Effects on Organizational Design
  • Delegation, Externalities and Organizational Design
  • Organizational Design of Elmhurst General Hospital
  • What Are the Four Types of Organizational Design?
  • What Are the Six Key Elements in Organizational Design?
  • What Are the Components of Organisational Design?
  • What Are the Traditional Organizational Design Theories?
  • What Is the Role of Organization Design in the Company Success?
  • What Is Organizational Design and Development?
  • Who Is Responsible for Organizational Design?
  • How Do You Create an Organizational Design?
  • What Is the Best type of Organizational Design?
  • What Is Simple Organizational Design?
  • What Is Organizational Design and Why Is It Important?
  • What Is the Beginning of the Organizational Design Process?
  • What Is the Difference Between Organizational Design and Structure?
  • What Are the Three Modern Organizational Design Types?
  • What Is Functional Organizational Design?
  • What Are the Six Types of Modern Organizational Design Theories?
  • What Are Two Major Issues That Are Important in Organizational Design?
  • What Are the Disadvantages of Organizational Design?
  • What Are Aspects of Organizational Design?
  • What Are the Essence of Organizational Design and Structure?
  • What Type of Organizational Design Is More Effective?
  • How Do You Determine if an Organizational Design Structure Is Efficient or Not?
  • What Is the First Step in Organizational Design?
  • What Is Organizational Design Example?
  • How Many Types of Organizational Designs Are There?
  • What Are the Organizational Design Principles?
  • Promotion Strategy Paper Topics
  • Six Sigma Ideas
  • Work Environment Research Topics
  • Bureaucracy Paper Topics
  • Cross-Cultural Management Research Topics
  • Organizational Learning Essay Titles
  • Process Management Questions
  • Management Skills Research Topics
  • Chicago (A-D)
  • Chicago (N-B)

IvyPanda. (2024, March 2). 107 Organizational Design Essay Topic Ideas & Examples.

"107 Organizational Design Essay Topic Ideas & Examples." IvyPanda , 2 Mar. 2024,

IvyPanda . (2024) '107 Organizational Design Essay Topic Ideas & Examples'. 2 March.

IvyPanda . 2024. "107 Organizational Design Essay Topic Ideas & Examples." March 2, 2024.

1. IvyPanda . "107 Organizational Design Essay Topic Ideas & Examples." March 2, 2024.


IvyPanda . "107 Organizational Design Essay Topic Ideas & Examples." March 2, 2024.

organization research paper ideas

  • Master Your Homework
  • Do My Homework

Organizing Research Papers: A Step-by-Step Guide

Writing research papers can be an arduous task, especially when it comes to organizing the materials needed for a successful paper. In order to simplify this process, this article will provide a step-by-step guide on how to effectively organize your research papers. It will discuss topics such as where and how to store information, proper citing practices, effective note taking strategies and more in depth guidance that is essential for producing quality work. By following these instructions you will not only save time but also produce better results from your efforts in writing comprehensive research papers.

I. Introduction to Organizing Research Papers

Ii. benefits of an effective research paper organization system.

  • III. Creating a Research Plan: A Step-by-Step Guide

IV. The Importance of Properly Formatting and Referencing Sources

V. utilizing index cards for topic outlining and categorization, vi. constructing file folders to store relevant materials efficiently, vii . conclusion: implementing structured strategies for long-term success.

Research papers can be a daunting task for any student. To make the process easier, it’s important to have an organized approach . A research paper organizer helps keep all of your notes and resources in one place so that you don’t miss anything or lose focus while writing. It also allows you to easily search for relevant information and quickly move between sources.

An easy way to start organizing is by using a basic outline format with headers and subheaders such as: I. Introduction; II. Background Information; III. Methodology & Results; IV Conclusion & Future Directions.

  • The introduction should provide context on why the topic is being discussed and how your work relates.
  • Background info should include prior works related to the topic from other authors, if applicable.
  • Methodology outlines what data was collected, how it was analyzed, etc..

Maximizing the Outcomes of Research Paper Writing Organization is a crucial part in producing an effective research paper. Having a systematic system to structure one’s work will yield results that are both productive and efficient, especially when it comes to meeting deadlines. A research paper organizer can help organize ideas before committing them onto written form. This allows for more structured thought process with better clarity on which information should be included or excluded from the final product. The use of an organized approach can lead to higher-quality outputs as well as increased productivity overall due to less time spent revising after submission deadline passes. It is also easier for readers or evaluators of the document follow through its content if there exists a logical flow between sections instead of having all arguments scattered throughout the entire page without any tangible direction linking these together.

Furthermore, organizing one’s thoughts with the aid of devices such as color coding makes it simpler to navigate within texts by visually highlighting important points while potentially disregarding those that may not be necessary at first glance; allowing researchers better efficiency in identifying which areas need further examination or expansion upon during their writing journey thus creating an effective organizational tool for researchers looking improve their quality and increase output timeliness.

  • Color Coding:

A simple yet highly useful organization technique used in arranging text.

  • Research Paper Organizer:

Developing a Research Plan: Creating an effective research plan is essential for successful execution of the project. It involves formulating questions, selecting appropriate sources and materials, establishing timelines and budgets, and outlining tasks that need to be completed. Here is a step-by-step guide to help you create your own customized research plan:

  • Establish Your Goals – Start by deciding what information or results you hope to gain from your project.
  • Research Paper Organizer – Use this tool to keep track of references used in the paper as well as other relevant resources.

Organize Resources & Collect Data – Establish parameters for data collection (e.g., type of source material). Gather all relevant documents, reports, articles etc that support your goal objectives.

  • Outline Tasks – Draft up a comprehensive list outlining steps necessary for completion.

Create Timeline/Set Deadlines – Set deadlines for each task along with due dates on key milestones such as drafts , revisions etc Finally , develop an efficient system so you can stay on top of everything . Monitor progress frequently while remaining flexible enough if changes have to be made midway through .

Correctly Citing Sources and Proper Formatting Enhance Academic Writing It is essential for students to properly cite sources when writing an academic paper. Proper citation allows readers to identify the origin of borrowed ideas, thoughts, and information used in a text. Additionally, correctly citing sources helps authors avoid accusations of plagiarism which can lead to serious consequences including failure on assignments or even expulsion from college. Referencing outside materials also provides authors with credibility since they are able to back up their work with reliable evidence that has been obtained by other well-respected professionals within a field of study. To ensure proper citations are utilized throughout an entire paper, writers should create a research paper organizer . This will help them remember all applicable references as well as provide them with accurate formatting information such as:

  • The typeface size.
  • Spacing between lines.

Moreover, correctly referencing sources can also add value to one’s own written work due it allowing others potential access into other related fields of research often generated by experts in those respective areas; thus providing readers with further points for consideration not originally included within the body itself. Therefore following correct source formats gives any writer additional insight into topics being discussed while strengthening his/her argument overall through useful contextual support sourced externally beyond their original scope of content generation alone.

Organizing Ideas with Index Cards Index cards are an excellent tool for organizing ideas and structuring research papers. Not only do they help keep information organized, but index cards also allow you to quickly move around pieces of your project as needed while keeping everything together in one place.

Using the right colors for different categories can make a big difference when it comes to sorting through data. For example, red could be used to designate all primary sources; yellow could denote secondary sources; green or blue might identify keywords associated with the topic being researched. Once each card has been properly labeled and categorized, using them becomes much easier because you know exactly where everything should go!

An easy way to organize multiple lines of thought is by writing a main idea on an individual card then taping several other related cards underneath it. This makes for quick access when trying to find certain notes at a later date – just flip over the original card and voila! It’s like having your own personal research paper organizer.

  • Create separate sections in notebooks (or on digital documents) so that changes can be made without compromising existing work.
  • Label each page according to its category—for instance: “Primary Sources” or “Secondary Sources”.

Having this system allows researchers not only track progress but easily refer back if necessary. Assembling topics into logical sequences is another key component when utilizing index cards during outlining stages — use numbering systems that connect subtopics under headings so they’re more cohesive upon completion

Organizing Your Research Materials

Research papers can quickly become overwhelming if materials are not stored in an organized manner. One of the most efficient ways to keep everything together is by constructing file folders for each research paper topic you cover. You can use any type of filing system such as manila files, plastic folders or online documents that all store information related to a particular project.

When making your folder, it’s important to remember what materials need to be included within the designated space. This may include:

  • Drafts and outlines of research papers
  • Notes from relevant books, articles and other sources
  • Audio recordings from interviews conducted

Any items that could help further support your paper should also be saved along with these above materials – creating a comprehensive research paper organizer. Keep all physical copies in labeled manilla envelopes so they don’t get mixed up while digital versions can stay sorted on different drives or external hard disks. Having this organized will save time when having to refer back at some point during the writing process.

Structured strategies are essential for achieving long-term success in any endeavor. To that end, there have been a number of research studies exploring the various elements of successful strategy implementation.

  • Motivation: What drives individuals and organizations to achieve success?

The key is not only setting realistic objectives but also having a comprehensive approach when it comes time for implementing those objectives. This requires an understanding of the particular context in which the organization finds itself—which means being aware of both internal and external factors such as technological advancements, changes in consumer tastes, or economic cycles—and taking steps toward bridging any gaps between current capabilities and desired outcomes. Companies should take a holistic view when constructing their strategies, making sure each element serves its own unique purpose while working together with others towards common goal attainment over time.

As this step-by-step guide to organizing research papers illustrates, a well thought out and organized approach can save time and ensure more successful research outcomes. By following the outlined steps from creating a preliminary structure to utilizing efficient information retrieval systems, researchers can easily refine their process in order to maximize productivity while still producing quality results. It is imperative that those conducting research remain cognizant of the importance of organization for not only successful completion but also for ethical considerations related to reproducibility and accuracy of data collection methods. Such intentional structuring should be applied consistently throughout all stages of the project’s lifecycle in order create greater efficiencies in both time management as well as resources used along the way—ultimately resulting in higher quality output with fewer missteps along the path toward success.

Reference management. Clean and simple.

Getting started with your research paper outline

organization research paper ideas

Levels of organization for a research paper outline

First level of organization, second level of organization, third level of organization, fourth level of organization, tips for writing a research paper outline, research paper outline template, my research paper outline is complete: what are the next steps, frequently asked questions about a research paper outline, related articles.

The outline is the skeleton of your research paper. Simply start by writing down your thesis and the main ideas you wish to present. This will likely change as your research progresses; therefore, do not worry about being too specific in the early stages of writing your outline.

A research paper outline typically contains between two and four layers of organization. The first two layers are the most generalized. Each layer thereafter will contain the research you complete and presents more and more detailed information.

The levels are typically represented by a combination of Roman numerals, Arabic numerals, uppercase letters, lowercase letters but may include other symbols. Refer to the guidelines provided by your institution, as formatting is not universal and differs between universities, fields, and subjects. If you are writing the outline for yourself, you may choose any combination you prefer.

This is the most generalized level of information. Begin by numbering the introduction, each idea you will present, and the conclusion. The main ideas contain the bulk of your research paper 's information. Depending on your research, it may be chapters of a book for a literature review , a series of dates for a historical research paper, or the methods and results of a scientific paper.

I. Introduction

II. Main idea

III. Main idea

IV. Main idea

V. Conclusion

The second level consists of topics which support the introduction, main ideas, and the conclusion. Each main idea should have at least two supporting topics listed in the outline.

If your main idea does not have enough support, you should consider presenting another main idea in its place. This is where you should stop outlining if this is your first draft. Continue your research before adding to the next levels of organization.

  • A. Background information
  • B. Hypothesis or thesis
  • A. Supporting topic
  • B. Supporting topic

The third level of organization contains supporting information for the topics previously listed. By now, you should have completed enough research to add support for your ideas.

The Introduction and Main Ideas may contain information you discovered about the author, timeframe, or contents of a book for a literature review; the historical events leading up to the research topic for a historical research paper, or an explanation of the problem a scientific research paper intends to address.

  • 1. Relevant history
  • 2. Relevant history
  • 1. The hypothesis or thesis clearly stated
  • 1. A brief description of supporting information
  • 2. A brief description of supporting information

The fourth level of organization contains the most detailed information such as quotes, references, observations, or specific data needed to support the main idea. It is not typical to have further levels of organization because the information contained here is the most specific.

  • a) Quotes or references to another piece of literature
  • b) Quotes or references to another piece of literature

Tip: The key to creating a useful outline is to be consistent in your headings, organization, and levels of specificity.

  • Be Consistent : ensure every heading has a similar tone. State the topic or write short sentences for each heading but avoid doing both.
  • Organize Information : Higher levels of organization are more generally stated and each supporting level becomes more specific. The introduction and conclusion will never be lower than the first level of organization.
  • Build Support : Each main idea should have two or more supporting topics. If your research does not have enough information to support the main idea you are presenting, you should, in general, complete additional research or revise the outline.

By now, you should know the basic requirements to create an outline for your paper. With a content framework in place, you can now start writing your paper . To help you start right away, you can use one of our templates and adjust it to suit your needs.

word icon

After completing your outline, you should:

  • Title your research paper . This is an iterative process and may change when you delve deeper into the topic.
  • Begin writing your research paper draft . Continue researching to further build your outline and provide more information to support your hypothesis or thesis.
  • Format your draft appropriately . MLA 8 and APA 7 formats have differences between their bibliography page, in-text citations, line spacing, and title.
  • Finalize your citations and bibliography . Use a reference manager like Paperpile to organize and cite your research.
  • Write the abstract, if required . An abstract will briefly state the information contained within the paper, results of the research, and the conclusion.

An outline is used to organize written ideas about a topic into a logical order. Outlines help us organize major topics, subtopics, and supporting details. Researchers benefit greatly from outlines while writing by addressing which topic to cover in what order.

The most basic outline format consists of: an introduction, a minimum of three topic paragraphs, and a conclusion.

You should make an outline before starting to write your research paper. This will help you organize the main ideas and arguments you want to present in your topic.

  • Consistency: ensure every heading has a similar tone. State the topic or write short sentences for each heading but avoid doing both.
  • Organization : Higher levels of organization are more generally stated and each supporting level becomes more specific. The introduction and conclusion will never be lower than the first level of organization.
  • Support : Each main idea should have two or more supporting topics. If your research does not have enough information to support the main idea you are presenting, you should, in general, complete additional research or revise the outline.

organization research paper ideas

  • Skip to main content
  • Skip to primary sidebar


Industrial-Organizational Psychology Topics

Industrial-Organizational (I-O)Psychology is defined simply as “psychology applied to work” (APA 1971). It studies “work” in its broadest sense, including paid and unpaid effort, recreation, and any purpose-driven effort (sports, hobbies). Compared with other specialties, I-O is more “applied” – putting practice above theory, since it typically aims to solve specific problems, increase efficiency, and maximize outcomes.

Industrial-Organizational Psychology Research Topics

  • Corporate Ethics Topics
  • Group Dynamics Topics
  • Individual Differences Topics
  • Job Satisfaction Topics
  • Leadership and Management Topics
  • Organizational Behavior Topics
  • Organizational Development Topics
  • Recruitment Topics
  • Work Motivation Topics

Compared with other fields of psychology, I-O psychology today has several features: (a) Small: I-O is a small specialty, including just 5% of US psychologists. (b) High-employment: Since I-O is in high demand in the industry; it has a negative unemployment rate below zero. (c) Lucrative: I-O has long had the highest salary, averaging at least 25% higher than 14 other psychology specialties. (d) Separate: I-O has become a very separate specialty within psychology, with its own independent association since 1987 – the Society for I-O Psychology (SIOP). (e) Hybrid: I-O overlaps with business and other social sciences. (f) Credentials: There is no one credential to define who is an I-O psychologist – be this a M.A., M.S., M.B.A., Ph.D., Psy.D., state license, APA or SIOP membership, or ABPP Diploma. (g) Demographics: SIOP members today are 6% ethnic minorities, 37% female, only 26% licensed, and 85% have a doctorate. I-O work settings vary greatly – employees in large firms, small “boutique” consulting firms, professors in psychology or business programs, or solo-practitioners.

Today, I-O psychology faces several challenges – such as globalization of organizations, the increased diversity of the US workforce, increased regulation by government and labor law, and the changing nature of work. These same challenges make a science-based I-O psychology more indispensable to successful organizations.


  • American Psychological Association (APA). (1971). Effective practice of psychology in industry: Task Force on the practice of psychology in industry. American Psychologist, 26, 974–991.
  • Benjamin, L.T.,&Baker, D. B. (2004). Fromse´ance to science: Ahistory of the profession of psychology in America. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
  • Dunnette, M. D., & Hough, L. (Eds.). (1990–1994). Handbook of industrial-organizational psychology. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.
  • Jones, J.W., Steffy, B. D., & Bray, D.W. (1991). Applying psychology in business: Handbook for managers and HR professionals. Lexington: Lexington Books.
  • McGregor, D. M. (1960). The human side of enterprise. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Riggio, R. E. (2008). Introduction to industrial-organizational psychology (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
  • Roethlisberger, F. J., & Dickson, W. J. (1939). Management and the worker. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Scott, W. D. (1903). The theory of advertising. Boston: Small, Maynard, & Co.
  • Zedeck, S. (Ed.) (2011). APA Handbook of industrial-organizational psychology. Washington, DC: APA.

Have a language expert improve your writing

Run a free plagiarism check in 10 minutes, generate accurate citations for free.

  • Knowledge Base
  • Research paper

How to Create a Structured Research Paper Outline | Example

Published on August 7, 2022 by Courtney Gahan . Revised on August 15, 2023.

How to Create a Structured Research Paper Outline

A research paper outline is a useful tool to aid in the writing process , providing a structure to follow with all information to be included in the paper clearly organized.

A quality outline can make writing your research paper more efficient by helping to:

  • Organize your thoughts
  • Understand the flow of information and how ideas are related
  • Ensure nothing is forgotten

A research paper outline can also give your teacher an early idea of the final product.

Instantly correct all language mistakes in your text

Upload your document to correct all your mistakes in minutes


Table of contents

Research paper outline example, how to write a research paper outline, formatting your research paper outline, language in research paper outlines.

  • Definition of measles
  • Rise in cases in recent years in places the disease was previously eliminated or had very low rates of infection
  • Figures: Number of cases per year on average, number in recent years. Relate to immunization
  • Symptoms and timeframes of disease
  • Risk of fatality, including statistics
  • How measles is spread
  • Immunization procedures in different regions
  • Different regions, focusing on the arguments from those against immunization
  • Immunization figures in affected regions
  • High number of cases in non-immunizing regions
  • Illnesses that can result from measles virus
  • Fatal cases of other illnesses after patient contracted measles
  • Summary of arguments of different groups
  • Summary of figures and relationship with recent immunization debate
  • Which side of the argument appears to be correct?

Don't submit your assignments before you do this

The academic proofreading tool has been trained on 1000s of academic texts. Making it the most accurate and reliable proofreading tool for students. Free citation check included.

organization research paper ideas

Try for free

Follow these steps to start your research paper outline:

  • Decide on the subject of the paper
  • Write down all the ideas you want to include or discuss
  • Organize related ideas into sub-groups
  • Arrange your ideas into a hierarchy: What should the reader learn first? What is most important? Which idea will help end your paper most effectively?
  • Create headings and subheadings that are effective
  • Format the outline in either alphanumeric, full-sentence or decimal format

There are three different kinds of research paper outline: alphanumeric, full-sentence and decimal outlines. The differences relate to formatting and style of writing.

  • Alphanumeric
  • Full-sentence

An alphanumeric outline is most commonly used. It uses Roman numerals, capitalized letters, arabic numerals, lowercase letters to organize the flow of information. Text is written with short notes rather than full sentences.

  • Sub-point of sub-point 1

Essentially the same as the alphanumeric outline, but with the text written in full sentences rather than short points.

  • Additional sub-point to conclude discussion of point of evidence introduced in point A

A decimal outline is similar in format to the alphanumeric outline, but with a different numbering system: 1, 1.1, 1.2, etc. Text is written as short notes rather than full sentences.

  • 1.1.1 Sub-point of first point
  • 1.1.2 Sub-point of first point
  • 1.2 Second point

To write an effective research paper outline, it is important to pay attention to language. This is especially important if it is one you will show to your teacher or be assessed on.

There are four main considerations: parallelism, coordination, subordination and division.

Parallelism: Be consistent with grammatical form

Parallel structure or parallelism is the repetition of a particular grammatical form within a sentence, or in this case, between points and sub-points. This simply means that if the first point is a verb , the sub-point should also be a verb.

Example of parallelism:

  • Include different regions, focusing on the different arguments from those against immunization

Coordination: Be aware of each point’s weight

Your chosen subheadings should hold the same significance as each other, as should all first sub-points, secondary sub-points, and so on.

Example of coordination:

  • Include immunization figures in affected regions
  • Illnesses that can result from the measles virus

Subordination: Work from general to specific

Subordination refers to the separation of general points from specific. Your main headings should be quite general, and each level of sub-point should become more specific.

Example of subordination:

Division: break information into sub-points.

Your headings should be divided into two or more subsections. There is no limit to how many subsections you can include under each heading, but keep in mind that the information will be structured into a paragraph during the writing stage, so you should not go overboard with the number of sub-points.

Ready to start writing or looking for guidance on a different step in the process? Read our step-by-step guide on how to write a research paper .

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Gahan, C. (2023, August 15). How to Create a Structured Research Paper Outline | Example. Scribbr. Retrieved June 9, 2024, from

Is this article helpful?

Courtney Gahan

Courtney Gahan

Other students also liked, research paper format | apa, mla, & chicago templates, writing a research paper introduction | step-by-step guide, writing a research paper conclusion | step-by-step guide, get unlimited documents corrected.

✔ Free APA citation check included ✔ Unlimited document corrections ✔ Specialized in correcting academic texts

  • USC Libraries
  • Research Guides

Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper

  • Types of Research Designs
  • Purpose of Guide
  • Design Flaws to Avoid
  • Independent and Dependent Variables
  • Glossary of Research Terms
  • Reading Research Effectively
  • Narrowing a Topic Idea
  • Broadening a Topic Idea
  • Extending the Timeliness of a Topic Idea
  • Academic Writing Style
  • Applying Critical Thinking
  • Choosing a Title
  • Making an Outline
  • Paragraph Development
  • Research Process Video Series
  • Executive Summary
  • The C.A.R.S. Model
  • Background Information
  • The Research Problem/Question
  • Theoretical Framework
  • Citation Tracking
  • Content Alert Services
  • Evaluating Sources
  • Primary Sources
  • Secondary Sources
  • Tiertiary Sources
  • Scholarly vs. Popular Publications
  • Qualitative Methods
  • Quantitative Methods
  • Insiderness
  • Using Non-Textual Elements
  • Limitations of the Study
  • Common Grammar Mistakes
  • Writing Concisely
  • Avoiding Plagiarism
  • Footnotes or Endnotes?
  • Further Readings
  • Generative AI and Writing
  • USC Libraries Tutorials and Other Guides
  • Bibliography


Before beginning your paper, you need to decide how you plan to design the study .

The research design refers to the overall strategy and analytical approach that you have chosen in order to integrate, in a coherent and logical way, the different components of the study, thus ensuring that the research problem will be thoroughly investigated. It constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and interpretation of information and data. Note that the research problem determines the type of design you choose, not the other way around!

De Vaus, D. A. Research Design in Social Research . London: SAGE, 2001; Trochim, William M.K. Research Methods Knowledge Base. 2006.

General Structure and Writing Style

The function of a research design is to ensure that the evidence obtained enables you to effectively address the research problem logically and as unambiguously as possible . In social sciences research, obtaining information relevant to the research problem generally entails specifying the type of evidence needed to test the underlying assumptions of a theory, to evaluate a program, or to accurately describe and assess meaning related to an observable phenomenon.

With this in mind, a common mistake made by researchers is that they begin their investigations before they have thought critically about what information is required to address the research problem. Without attending to these design issues beforehand, the overall research problem will not be adequately addressed and any conclusions drawn will run the risk of being weak and unconvincing. As a consequence, the overall validity of the study will be undermined.

The length and complexity of describing the research design in your paper can vary considerably, but any well-developed description will achieve the following :

  • Identify the research problem clearly and justify its selection, particularly in relation to any valid alternative designs that could have been used,
  • Review and synthesize previously published literature associated with the research problem,
  • Clearly and explicitly specify hypotheses [i.e., research questions] central to the problem,
  • Effectively describe the information and/or data which will be necessary for an adequate testing of the hypotheses and explain how such information and/or data will be obtained, and
  • Describe the methods of analysis to be applied to the data in determining whether or not the hypotheses are true or false.

The research design is usually incorporated into the introduction of your paper . You can obtain an overall sense of what to do by reviewing studies that have utilized the same research design [e.g., using a case study approach]. This can help you develop an outline to follow for your own paper.

NOTE: Use the SAGE Research Methods Online and Cases and the SAGE Research Methods Videos databases to search for scholarly resources on how to apply specific research designs and methods . The Research Methods Online database contains links to more than 175,000 pages of SAGE publisher's book, journal, and reference content on quantitative, qualitative, and mixed research methodologies. Also included is a collection of case studies of social research projects that can be used to help you better understand abstract or complex methodological concepts. The Research Methods Videos database contains hours of tutorials, interviews, video case studies, and mini-documentaries covering the entire research process.

Creswell, John W. and J. David Creswell. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches . 5th edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2018; De Vaus, D. A. Research Design in Social Research . London: SAGE, 2001; Gorard, Stephen. Research Design: Creating Robust Approaches for the Social Sciences . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2013; Leedy, Paul D. and Jeanne Ellis Ormrod. Practical Research: Planning and Design . Tenth edition. Boston, MA: Pearson, 2013; Vogt, W. Paul, Dianna C. Gardner, and Lynne M. Haeffele. When to Use What Research Design . New York: Guilford, 2012.

Action Research Design

Definition and Purpose

The essentials of action research design follow a characteristic cycle whereby initially an exploratory stance is adopted, where an understanding of a problem is developed and plans are made for some form of interventionary strategy. Then the intervention is carried out [the "action" in action research] during which time, pertinent observations are collected in various forms. The new interventional strategies are carried out, and this cyclic process repeats, continuing until a sufficient understanding of [or a valid implementation solution for] the problem is achieved. The protocol is iterative or cyclical in nature and is intended to foster deeper understanding of a given situation, starting with conceptualizing and particularizing the problem and moving through several interventions and evaluations.

What do these studies tell you ?

  • This is a collaborative and adaptive research design that lends itself to use in work or community situations.
  • Design focuses on pragmatic and solution-driven research outcomes rather than testing theories.
  • When practitioners use action research, it has the potential to increase the amount they learn consciously from their experience; the action research cycle can be regarded as a learning cycle.
  • Action research studies often have direct and obvious relevance to improving practice and advocating for change.
  • There are no hidden controls or preemption of direction by the researcher.

What these studies don't tell you ?

  • It is harder to do than conducting conventional research because the researcher takes on responsibilities of advocating for change as well as for researching the topic.
  • Action research is much harder to write up because it is less likely that you can use a standard format to report your findings effectively [i.e., data is often in the form of stories or observation].
  • Personal over-involvement of the researcher may bias research results.
  • The cyclic nature of action research to achieve its twin outcomes of action [e.g. change] and research [e.g. understanding] is time-consuming and complex to conduct.
  • Advocating for change usually requires buy-in from study participants.

Coghlan, David and Mary Brydon-Miller. The Sage Encyclopedia of Action Research . Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage, 2014; Efron, Sara Efrat and Ruth Ravid. Action Research in Education: A Practical Guide . New York: Guilford, 2013; Gall, Meredith. Educational Research: An Introduction . Chapter 18, Action Research. 8th ed. Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon, 2007; Gorard, Stephen. Research Design: Creating Robust Approaches for the Social Sciences . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2013; Kemmis, Stephen and Robin McTaggart. “Participatory Action Research.” In Handbook of Qualitative Research . Norman Denzin and Yvonna S. Lincoln, eds. 2nd ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2000), pp. 567-605; McNiff, Jean. Writing and Doing Action Research . London: Sage, 2014; Reason, Peter and Hilary Bradbury. Handbook of Action Research: Participative Inquiry and Practice . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2001.

Case Study Design

A case study is an in-depth study of a particular research problem rather than a sweeping statistical survey or comprehensive comparative inquiry. It is often used to narrow down a very broad field of research into one or a few easily researchable examples. The case study research design is also useful for testing whether a specific theory and model actually applies to phenomena in the real world. It is a useful design when not much is known about an issue or phenomenon.

  • Approach excels at bringing us to an understanding of a complex issue through detailed contextual analysis of a limited number of events or conditions and their relationships.
  • A researcher using a case study design can apply a variety of methodologies and rely on a variety of sources to investigate a research problem.
  • Design can extend experience or add strength to what is already known through previous research.
  • Social scientists, in particular, make wide use of this research design to examine contemporary real-life situations and provide the basis for the application of concepts and theories and the extension of methodologies.
  • The design can provide detailed descriptions of specific and rare cases.
  • A single or small number of cases offers little basis for establishing reliability or to generalize the findings to a wider population of people, places, or things.
  • Intense exposure to the study of a case may bias a researcher's interpretation of the findings.
  • Design does not facilitate assessment of cause and effect relationships.
  • Vital information may be missing, making the case hard to interpret.
  • The case may not be representative or typical of the larger problem being investigated.
  • If the criteria for selecting a case is because it represents a very unusual or unique phenomenon or problem for study, then your interpretation of the findings can only apply to that particular case.

Case Studies. Writing@CSU. Colorado State University; Anastas, Jeane W. Research Design for Social Work and the Human Services . Chapter 4, Flexible Methods: Case Study Design. 2nd ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999; Gerring, John. “What Is a Case Study and What Is It Good for?” American Political Science Review 98 (May 2004): 341-354; Greenhalgh, Trisha, editor. Case Study Evaluation: Past, Present and Future Challenges . Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing, 2015; Mills, Albert J. , Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010; Stake, Robert E. The Art of Case Study Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 1995; Yin, Robert K. Case Study Research: Design and Theory . Applied Social Research Methods Series, no. 5. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2003.

Causal Design

Causality studies may be thought of as understanding a phenomenon in terms of conditional statements in the form, “If X, then Y.” This type of research is used to measure what impact a specific change will have on existing norms and assumptions. Most social scientists seek causal explanations that reflect tests of hypotheses. Causal effect (nomothetic perspective) occurs when variation in one phenomenon, an independent variable, leads to or results, on average, in variation in another phenomenon, the dependent variable.

Conditions necessary for determining causality:

  • Empirical association -- a valid conclusion is based on finding an association between the independent variable and the dependent variable.
  • Appropriate time order -- to conclude that causation was involved, one must see that cases were exposed to variation in the independent variable before variation in the dependent variable.
  • Nonspuriousness -- a relationship between two variables that is not due to variation in a third variable.
  • Causality research designs assist researchers in understanding why the world works the way it does through the process of proving a causal link between variables and by the process of eliminating other possibilities.
  • Replication is possible.
  • There is greater confidence the study has internal validity due to the systematic subject selection and equity of groups being compared.
  • Not all relationships are causal! The possibility always exists that, by sheer coincidence, two unrelated events appear to be related [e.g., Punxatawney Phil could accurately predict the duration of Winter for five consecutive years but, the fact remains, he's just a big, furry rodent].
  • Conclusions about causal relationships are difficult to determine due to a variety of extraneous and confounding variables that exist in a social environment. This means causality can only be inferred, never proven.
  • If two variables are correlated, the cause must come before the effect. However, even though two variables might be causally related, it can sometimes be difficult to determine which variable comes first and, therefore, to establish which variable is the actual cause and which is the  actual effect.

Beach, Derek and Rasmus Brun Pedersen. Causal Case Study Methods: Foundations and Guidelines for Comparing, Matching, and Tracing . Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2016; Bachman, Ronet. The Practice of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice . Chapter 5, Causation and Research Designs. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press, 2007; Brewer, Ernest W. and Jennifer Kubn. “Causal-Comparative Design.” In Encyclopedia of Research Design . Neil J. Salkind, editor. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2010), pp. 125-132; Causal Research Design: Experimentation. Anonymous SlideShare Presentation; Gall, Meredith. Educational Research: An Introduction . Chapter 11, Nonexperimental Research: Correlational Designs. 8th ed. Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon, 2007; Trochim, William M.K. Research Methods Knowledge Base. 2006.

Cohort Design

Often used in the medical sciences, but also found in the applied social sciences, a cohort study generally refers to a study conducted over a period of time involving members of a population which the subject or representative member comes from, and who are united by some commonality or similarity. Using a quantitative framework, a cohort study makes note of statistical occurrence within a specialized subgroup, united by same or similar characteristics that are relevant to the research problem being investigated, rather than studying statistical occurrence within the general population. Using a qualitative framework, cohort studies generally gather data using methods of observation. Cohorts can be either "open" or "closed."

  • Open Cohort Studies [dynamic populations, such as the population of Los Angeles] involve a population that is defined just by the state of being a part of the study in question (and being monitored for the outcome). Date of entry and exit from the study is individually defined, therefore, the size of the study population is not constant. In open cohort studies, researchers can only calculate rate based data, such as, incidence rates and variants thereof.
  • Closed Cohort Studies [static populations, such as patients entered into a clinical trial] involve participants who enter into the study at one defining point in time and where it is presumed that no new participants can enter the cohort. Given this, the number of study participants remains constant (or can only decrease).
  • The use of cohorts is often mandatory because a randomized control study may be unethical. For example, you cannot deliberately expose people to asbestos, you can only study its effects on those who have already been exposed. Research that measures risk factors often relies upon cohort designs.
  • Because cohort studies measure potential causes before the outcome has occurred, they can demonstrate that these “causes” preceded the outcome, thereby avoiding the debate as to which is the cause and which is the effect.
  • Cohort analysis is highly flexible and can provide insight into effects over time and related to a variety of different types of changes [e.g., social, cultural, political, economic, etc.].
  • Either original data or secondary data can be used in this design.
  • In cases where a comparative analysis of two cohorts is made [e.g., studying the effects of one group exposed to asbestos and one that has not], a researcher cannot control for all other factors that might differ between the two groups. These factors are known as confounding variables.
  • Cohort studies can end up taking a long time to complete if the researcher must wait for the conditions of interest to develop within the group. This also increases the chance that key variables change during the course of the study, potentially impacting the validity of the findings.
  • Due to the lack of randominization in the cohort design, its external validity is lower than that of study designs where the researcher randomly assigns participants.

Healy P, Devane D. “Methodological Considerations in Cohort Study Designs.” Nurse Researcher 18 (2011): 32-36; Glenn, Norval D, editor. Cohort Analysis . 2nd edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2005; Levin, Kate Ann. Study Design IV: Cohort Studies. Evidence-Based Dentistry 7 (2003): 51–52; Payne, Geoff. “Cohort Study.” In The SAGE Dictionary of Social Research Methods . Victor Jupp, editor. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2006), pp. 31-33; Study Design 101. Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library. George Washington University, November 2011; Cohort Study. Wikipedia.

Cross-Sectional Design

Cross-sectional research designs have three distinctive features: no time dimension; a reliance on existing differences rather than change following intervention; and, groups are selected based on existing differences rather than random allocation. The cross-sectional design can only measure differences between or from among a variety of people, subjects, or phenomena rather than a process of change. As such, researchers using this design can only employ a relatively passive approach to making causal inferences based on findings.

  • Cross-sectional studies provide a clear 'snapshot' of the outcome and the characteristics associated with it, at a specific point in time.
  • Unlike an experimental design, where there is an active intervention by the researcher to produce and measure change or to create differences, cross-sectional designs focus on studying and drawing inferences from existing differences between people, subjects, or phenomena.
  • Entails collecting data at and concerning one point in time. While longitudinal studies involve taking multiple measures over an extended period of time, cross-sectional research is focused on finding relationships between variables at one moment in time.
  • Groups identified for study are purposely selected based upon existing differences in the sample rather than seeking random sampling.
  • Cross-section studies are capable of using data from a large number of subjects and, unlike observational studies, is not geographically bound.
  • Can estimate prevalence of an outcome of interest because the sample is usually taken from the whole population.
  • Because cross-sectional designs generally use survey techniques to gather data, they are relatively inexpensive and take up little time to conduct.
  • Finding people, subjects, or phenomena to study that are very similar except in one specific variable can be difficult.
  • Results are static and time bound and, therefore, give no indication of a sequence of events or reveal historical or temporal contexts.
  • Studies cannot be utilized to establish cause and effect relationships.
  • This design only provides a snapshot of analysis so there is always the possibility that a study could have differing results if another time-frame had been chosen.
  • There is no follow up to the findings.

Bethlehem, Jelke. "7: Cross-sectional Research." In Research Methodology in the Social, Behavioural and Life Sciences . Herman J Adèr and Gideon J Mellenbergh, editors. (London, England: Sage, 1999), pp. 110-43; Bourque, Linda B. “Cross-Sectional Design.” In  The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods . Michael S. Lewis-Beck, Alan Bryman, and Tim Futing Liao. (Thousand Oaks, CA: 2004), pp. 230-231; Hall, John. “Cross-Sectional Survey Design.” In Encyclopedia of Survey Research Methods . Paul J. Lavrakas, ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2008), pp. 173-174; Helen Barratt, Maria Kirwan. Cross-Sectional Studies: Design Application, Strengths and Weaknesses of Cross-Sectional Studies. Healthknowledge, 2009. Cross-Sectional Study. Wikipedia.

Descriptive Design

Descriptive research designs help provide answers to the questions of who, what, when, where, and how associated with a particular research problem; a descriptive study cannot conclusively ascertain answers to why. Descriptive research is used to obtain information concerning the current status of the phenomena and to describe "what exists" with respect to variables or conditions in a situation.

  • The subject is being observed in a completely natural and unchanged natural environment. True experiments, whilst giving analyzable data, often adversely influence the normal behavior of the subject [a.k.a., the Heisenberg effect whereby measurements of certain systems cannot be made without affecting the systems].
  • Descriptive research is often used as a pre-cursor to more quantitative research designs with the general overview giving some valuable pointers as to what variables are worth testing quantitatively.
  • If the limitations are understood, they can be a useful tool in developing a more focused study.
  • Descriptive studies can yield rich data that lead to important recommendations in practice.
  • Appoach collects a large amount of data for detailed analysis.
  • The results from a descriptive research cannot be used to discover a definitive answer or to disprove a hypothesis.
  • Because descriptive designs often utilize observational methods [as opposed to quantitative methods], the results cannot be replicated.
  • The descriptive function of research is heavily dependent on instrumentation for measurement and observation.

Anastas, Jeane W. Research Design for Social Work and the Human Services . Chapter 5, Flexible Methods: Descriptive Research. 2nd ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999; Given, Lisa M. "Descriptive Research." In Encyclopedia of Measurement and Statistics . Neil J. Salkind and Kristin Rasmussen, editors. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2007), pp. 251-254; McNabb, Connie. Descriptive Research Methodologies. Powerpoint Presentation; Shuttleworth, Martyn. Descriptive Research Design, September 26, 2008; Erickson, G. Scott. "Descriptive Research Design." In New Methods of Market Research and Analysis . (Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2017), pp. 51-77; Sahin, Sagufta, and Jayanta Mete. "A Brief Study on Descriptive Research: Its Nature and Application in Social Science." International Journal of Research and Analysis in Humanities 1 (2021): 11; K. Swatzell and P. Jennings. “Descriptive Research: The Nuts and Bolts.” Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants 20 (2007), pp. 55-56; Kane, E. Doing Your Own Research: Basic Descriptive Research in the Social Sciences and Humanities . London: Marion Boyars, 1985.

Experimental Design

A blueprint of the procedure that enables the researcher to maintain control over all factors that may affect the result of an experiment. In doing this, the researcher attempts to determine or predict what may occur. Experimental research is often used where there is time priority in a causal relationship (cause precedes effect), there is consistency in a causal relationship (a cause will always lead to the same effect), and the magnitude of the correlation is great. The classic experimental design specifies an experimental group and a control group. The independent variable is administered to the experimental group and not to the control group, and both groups are measured on the same dependent variable. Subsequent experimental designs have used more groups and more measurements over longer periods. True experiments must have control, randomization, and manipulation.

  • Experimental research allows the researcher to control the situation. In so doing, it allows researchers to answer the question, “What causes something to occur?”
  • Permits the researcher to identify cause and effect relationships between variables and to distinguish placebo effects from treatment effects.
  • Experimental research designs support the ability to limit alternative explanations and to infer direct causal relationships in the study.
  • Approach provides the highest level of evidence for single studies.
  • The design is artificial, and results may not generalize well to the real world.
  • The artificial settings of experiments may alter the behaviors or responses of participants.
  • Experimental designs can be costly if special equipment or facilities are needed.
  • Some research problems cannot be studied using an experiment because of ethical or technical reasons.
  • Difficult to apply ethnographic and other qualitative methods to experimentally designed studies.

Anastas, Jeane W. Research Design for Social Work and the Human Services . Chapter 7, Flexible Methods: Experimental Research. 2nd ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999; Chapter 2: Research Design, Experimental Designs. School of Psychology, University of New England, 2000; Chow, Siu L. "Experimental Design." In Encyclopedia of Research Design . Neil J. Salkind, editor. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2010), pp. 448-453; "Experimental Design." In Social Research Methods . Nicholas Walliman, editor. (London, England: Sage, 2006), pp, 101-110; Experimental Research. Research Methods by Dummies. Department of Psychology. California State University, Fresno, 2006; Kirk, Roger E. Experimental Design: Procedures for the Behavioral Sciences . 4th edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2013; Trochim, William M.K. Experimental Design. Research Methods Knowledge Base. 2006; Rasool, Shafqat. Experimental Research. Slideshare presentation.

Exploratory Design

An exploratory design is conducted about a research problem when there are few or no earlier studies to refer to or rely upon to predict an outcome . The focus is on gaining insights and familiarity for later investigation or undertaken when research problems are in a preliminary stage of investigation. Exploratory designs are often used to establish an understanding of how best to proceed in studying an issue or what methodology would effectively apply to gathering information about the issue.

The goals of exploratory research are intended to produce the following possible insights:

  • Familiarity with basic details, settings, and concerns.
  • Well grounded picture of the situation being developed.
  • Generation of new ideas and assumptions.
  • Development of tentative theories or hypotheses.
  • Determination about whether a study is feasible in the future.
  • Issues get refined for more systematic investigation and formulation of new research questions.
  • Direction for future research and techniques get developed.
  • Design is a useful approach for gaining background information on a particular topic.
  • Exploratory research is flexible and can address research questions of all types (what, why, how).
  • Provides an opportunity to define new terms and clarify existing concepts.
  • Exploratory research is often used to generate formal hypotheses and develop more precise research problems.
  • In the policy arena or applied to practice, exploratory studies help establish research priorities and where resources should be allocated.
  • Exploratory research generally utilizes small sample sizes and, thus, findings are typically not generalizable to the population at large.
  • The exploratory nature of the research inhibits an ability to make definitive conclusions about the findings. They provide insight but not definitive conclusions.
  • The research process underpinning exploratory studies is flexible but often unstructured, leading to only tentative results that have limited value to decision-makers.
  • Design lacks rigorous standards applied to methods of data gathering and analysis because one of the areas for exploration could be to determine what method or methodologies could best fit the research problem.

Cuthill, Michael. “Exploratory Research: Citizen Participation, Local Government, and Sustainable Development in Australia.” Sustainable Development 10 (2002): 79-89; Streb, Christoph K. "Exploratory Case Study." In Encyclopedia of Case Study Research . Albert J. Mills, Gabrielle Durepos and Eiden Wiebe, editors. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2010), pp. 372-374; Taylor, P. J., G. Catalano, and D.R.F. Walker. “Exploratory Analysis of the World City Network.” Urban Studies 39 (December 2002): 2377-2394; Exploratory Research. Wikipedia.

Field Research Design

Sometimes referred to as ethnography or participant observation, designs around field research encompass a variety of interpretative procedures [e.g., observation and interviews] rooted in qualitative approaches to studying people individually or in groups while inhabiting their natural environment as opposed to using survey instruments or other forms of impersonal methods of data gathering. Information acquired from observational research takes the form of “ field notes ” that involves documenting what the researcher actually sees and hears while in the field. Findings do not consist of conclusive statements derived from numbers and statistics because field research involves analysis of words and observations of behavior. Conclusions, therefore, are developed from an interpretation of findings that reveal overriding themes, concepts, and ideas. More information can be found HERE .

  • Field research is often necessary to fill gaps in understanding the research problem applied to local conditions or to specific groups of people that cannot be ascertained from existing data.
  • The research helps contextualize already known information about a research problem, thereby facilitating ways to assess the origins, scope, and scale of a problem and to gage the causes, consequences, and means to resolve an issue based on deliberate interaction with people in their natural inhabited spaces.
  • Enables the researcher to corroborate or confirm data by gathering additional information that supports or refutes findings reported in prior studies of the topic.
  • Because the researcher in embedded in the field, they are better able to make observations or ask questions that reflect the specific cultural context of the setting being investigated.
  • Observing the local reality offers the opportunity to gain new perspectives or obtain unique data that challenges existing theoretical propositions or long-standing assumptions found in the literature.

What these studies don't tell you

  • A field research study requires extensive time and resources to carry out the multiple steps involved with preparing for the gathering of information, including for example, examining background information about the study site, obtaining permission to access the study site, and building trust and rapport with subjects.
  • Requires a commitment to staying engaged in the field to ensure that you can adequately document events and behaviors as they unfold.
  • The unpredictable nature of fieldwork means that researchers can never fully control the process of data gathering. They must maintain a flexible approach to studying the setting because events and circumstances can change quickly or unexpectedly.
  • Findings can be difficult to interpret and verify without access to documents and other source materials that help to enhance the credibility of information obtained from the field  [i.e., the act of triangulating the data].
  • Linking the research problem to the selection of study participants inhabiting their natural environment is critical. However, this specificity limits the ability to generalize findings to different situations or in other contexts or to infer courses of action applied to other settings or groups of people.
  • The reporting of findings must take into account how the researcher themselves may have inadvertently affected respondents and their behaviors.

Historical Design

The purpose of a historical research design is to collect, verify, and synthesize evidence from the past to establish facts that defend or refute a hypothesis. It uses secondary sources and a variety of primary documentary evidence, such as, diaries, official records, reports, archives, and non-textual information [maps, pictures, audio and visual recordings]. The limitation is that the sources must be both authentic and valid.

  • The historical research design is unobtrusive; the act of research does not affect the results of the study.
  • The historical approach is well suited for trend analysis.
  • Historical records can add important contextual background required to more fully understand and interpret a research problem.
  • There is often no possibility of researcher-subject interaction that could affect the findings.
  • Historical sources can be used over and over to study different research problems or to replicate a previous study.
  • The ability to fulfill the aims of your research are directly related to the amount and quality of documentation available to understand the research problem.
  • Since historical research relies on data from the past, there is no way to manipulate it to control for contemporary contexts.
  • Interpreting historical sources can be very time consuming.
  • The sources of historical materials must be archived consistently to ensure access. This may especially challenging for digital or online-only sources.
  • Original authors bring their own perspectives and biases to the interpretation of past events and these biases are more difficult to ascertain in historical resources.
  • Due to the lack of control over external variables, historical research is very weak with regard to the demands of internal validity.
  • It is rare that the entirety of historical documentation needed to fully address a research problem is available for interpretation, therefore, gaps need to be acknowledged.

Howell, Martha C. and Walter Prevenier. From Reliable Sources: An Introduction to Historical Methods . Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2001; Lundy, Karen Saucier. "Historical Research." In The Sage Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods . Lisa M. Given, editor. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2008), pp. 396-400; Marius, Richard. and Melvin E. Page. A Short Guide to Writing about History . 9th edition. Boston, MA: Pearson, 2015; Savitt, Ronald. “Historical Research in Marketing.” Journal of Marketing 44 (Autumn, 1980): 52-58;  Gall, Meredith. Educational Research: An Introduction . Chapter 16, Historical Research. 8th ed. Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon, 2007.

Longitudinal Design

A longitudinal study follows the same sample over time and makes repeated observations. For example, with longitudinal surveys, the same group of people is interviewed at regular intervals, enabling researchers to track changes over time and to relate them to variables that might explain why the changes occur. Longitudinal research designs describe patterns of change and help establish the direction and magnitude of causal relationships. Measurements are taken on each variable over two or more distinct time periods. This allows the researcher to measure change in variables over time. It is a type of observational study sometimes referred to as a panel study.

  • Longitudinal data facilitate the analysis of the duration of a particular phenomenon.
  • Enables survey researchers to get close to the kinds of causal explanations usually attainable only with experiments.
  • The design permits the measurement of differences or change in a variable from one period to another [i.e., the description of patterns of change over time].
  • Longitudinal studies facilitate the prediction of future outcomes based upon earlier factors.
  • The data collection method may change over time.
  • Maintaining the integrity of the original sample can be difficult over an extended period of time.
  • It can be difficult to show more than one variable at a time.
  • This design often needs qualitative research data to explain fluctuations in the results.
  • A longitudinal research design assumes present trends will continue unchanged.
  • It can take a long period of time to gather results.
  • There is a need to have a large sample size and accurate sampling to reach representativness.

Anastas, Jeane W. Research Design for Social Work and the Human Services . Chapter 6, Flexible Methods: Relational and Longitudinal Research. 2nd ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999; Forgues, Bernard, and Isabelle Vandangeon-Derumez. "Longitudinal Analyses." In Doing Management Research . Raymond-Alain Thiétart and Samantha Wauchope, editors. (London, England: Sage, 2001), pp. 332-351; Kalaian, Sema A. and Rafa M. Kasim. "Longitudinal Studies." In Encyclopedia of Survey Research Methods . Paul J. Lavrakas, ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2008), pp. 440-441; Menard, Scott, editor. Longitudinal Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2002; Ployhart, Robert E. and Robert J. Vandenberg. "Longitudinal Research: The Theory, Design, and Analysis of Change.” Journal of Management 36 (January 2010): 94-120; Longitudinal Study. Wikipedia.

Meta-Analysis Design

Meta-analysis is an analytical methodology designed to systematically evaluate and summarize the results from a number of individual studies, thereby, increasing the overall sample size and the ability of the researcher to study effects of interest. The purpose is to not simply summarize existing knowledge, but to develop a new understanding of a research problem using synoptic reasoning. The main objectives of meta-analysis include analyzing differences in the results among studies and increasing the precision by which effects are estimated. A well-designed meta-analysis depends upon strict adherence to the criteria used for selecting studies and the availability of information in each study to properly analyze their findings. Lack of information can severely limit the type of analyzes and conclusions that can be reached. In addition, the more dissimilarity there is in the results among individual studies [heterogeneity], the more difficult it is to justify interpretations that govern a valid synopsis of results. A meta-analysis needs to fulfill the following requirements to ensure the validity of your findings:

  • Clearly defined description of objectives, including precise definitions of the variables and outcomes that are being evaluated;
  • A well-reasoned and well-documented justification for identification and selection of the studies;
  • Assessment and explicit acknowledgment of any researcher bias in the identification and selection of those studies;
  • Description and evaluation of the degree of heterogeneity among the sample size of studies reviewed; and,
  • Justification of the techniques used to evaluate the studies.
  • Can be an effective strategy for determining gaps in the literature.
  • Provides a means of reviewing research published about a particular topic over an extended period of time and from a variety of sources.
  • Is useful in clarifying what policy or programmatic actions can be justified on the basis of analyzing research results from multiple studies.
  • Provides a method for overcoming small sample sizes in individual studies that previously may have had little relationship to each other.
  • Can be used to generate new hypotheses or highlight research problems for future studies.
  • Small violations in defining the criteria used for content analysis can lead to difficult to interpret and/or meaningless findings.
  • A large sample size can yield reliable, but not necessarily valid, results.
  • A lack of uniformity regarding, for example, the type of literature reviewed, how methods are applied, and how findings are measured within the sample of studies you are analyzing, can make the process of synthesis difficult to perform.
  • Depending on the sample size, the process of reviewing and synthesizing multiple studies can be very time consuming.

Beck, Lewis W. "The Synoptic Method." The Journal of Philosophy 36 (1939): 337-345; Cooper, Harris, Larry V. Hedges, and Jeffrey C. Valentine, eds. The Handbook of Research Synthesis and Meta-Analysis . 2nd edition. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2009; Guzzo, Richard A., Susan E. Jackson and Raymond A. Katzell. “Meta-Analysis Analysis.” In Research in Organizational Behavior , Volume 9. (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1987), pp 407-442; Lipsey, Mark W. and David B. Wilson. Practical Meta-Analysis . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2001; Study Design 101. Meta-Analysis. The Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library, George Washington University; Timulak, Ladislav. “Qualitative Meta-Analysis.” In The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Data Analysis . Uwe Flick, editor. (Los Angeles, CA: Sage, 2013), pp. 481-495; Walker, Esteban, Adrian V. Hernandez, and Micheal W. Kattan. "Meta-Analysis: It's Strengths and Limitations." Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine 75 (June 2008): 431-439.

Mixed-Method Design

  • Narrative and non-textual information can add meaning to numeric data, while numeric data can add precision to narrative and non-textual information.
  • Can utilize existing data while at the same time generating and testing a grounded theory approach to describe and explain the phenomenon under study.
  • A broader, more complex research problem can be investigated because the researcher is not constrained by using only one method.
  • The strengths of one method can be used to overcome the inherent weaknesses of another method.
  • Can provide stronger, more robust evidence to support a conclusion or set of recommendations.
  • May generate new knowledge new insights or uncover hidden insights, patterns, or relationships that a single methodological approach might not reveal.
  • Produces more complete knowledge and understanding of the research problem that can be used to increase the generalizability of findings applied to theory or practice.
  • A researcher must be proficient in understanding how to apply multiple methods to investigating a research problem as well as be proficient in optimizing how to design a study that coherently melds them together.
  • Can increase the likelihood of conflicting results or ambiguous findings that inhibit drawing a valid conclusion or setting forth a recommended course of action [e.g., sample interview responses do not support existing statistical data].
  • Because the research design can be very complex, reporting the findings requires a well-organized narrative, clear writing style, and precise word choice.
  • Design invites collaboration among experts. However, merging different investigative approaches and writing styles requires more attention to the overall research process than studies conducted using only one methodological paradigm.
  • Concurrent merging of quantitative and qualitative research requires greater attention to having adequate sample sizes, using comparable samples, and applying a consistent unit of analysis. For sequential designs where one phase of qualitative research builds on the quantitative phase or vice versa, decisions about what results from the first phase to use in the next phase, the choice of samples and estimating reasonable sample sizes for both phases, and the interpretation of results from both phases can be difficult.
  • Due to multiple forms of data being collected and analyzed, this design requires extensive time and resources to carry out the multiple steps involved in data gathering and interpretation.

Burch, Patricia and Carolyn J. Heinrich. Mixed Methods for Policy Research and Program Evaluation . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2016; Creswell, John w. et al. Best Practices for Mixed Methods Research in the Health Sciences . Bethesda, MD: Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, National Institutes of Health, 2010Creswell, John W. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches . 4th edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2014; Domínguez, Silvia, editor. Mixed Methods Social Networks Research . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2014; Hesse-Biber, Sharlene Nagy. Mixed Methods Research: Merging Theory with Practice . New York: Guilford Press, 2010; Niglas, Katrin. “How the Novice Researcher Can Make Sense of Mixed Methods Designs.” International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches 3 (2009): 34-46; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J. and Nancy L. Leech. “Linking Research Questions to Mixed Methods Data Analysis Procedures.” The Qualitative Report 11 (September 2006): 474-498; Tashakorri, Abbas and John W. Creswell. “The New Era of Mixed Methods.” Journal of Mixed Methods Research 1 (January 2007): 3-7; Zhanga, Wanqing. “Mixed Methods Application in Health Intervention Research: A Multiple Case Study.” International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches 8 (2014): 24-35 .

Observational Design

This type of research design draws a conclusion by comparing subjects against a control group, in cases where the researcher has no control over the experiment. There are two general types of observational designs. In direct observations, people know that you are watching them. Unobtrusive measures involve any method for studying behavior where individuals do not know they are being observed. An observational study allows a useful insight into a phenomenon and avoids the ethical and practical difficulties of setting up a large and cumbersome research project.

  • Observational studies are usually flexible and do not necessarily need to be structured around a hypothesis about what you expect to observe [data is emergent rather than pre-existing].
  • The researcher is able to collect in-depth information about a particular behavior.
  • Can reveal interrelationships among multifaceted dimensions of group interactions.
  • You can generalize your results to real life situations.
  • Observational research is useful for discovering what variables may be important before applying other methods like experiments.
  • Observation research designs account for the complexity of group behaviors.
  • Reliability of data is low because seeing behaviors occur over and over again may be a time consuming task and are difficult to replicate.
  • In observational research, findings may only reflect a unique sample population and, thus, cannot be generalized to other groups.
  • There can be problems with bias as the researcher may only "see what they want to see."
  • There is no possibility to determine "cause and effect" relationships since nothing is manipulated.
  • Sources or subjects may not all be equally credible.
  • Any group that is knowingly studied is altered to some degree by the presence of the researcher, therefore, potentially skewing any data collected.

Atkinson, Paul and Martyn Hammersley. “Ethnography and Participant Observation.” In Handbook of Qualitative Research . Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna S. Lincoln, eds. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1994), pp. 248-261; Observational Research. Research Methods by Dummies. Department of Psychology. California State University, Fresno, 2006; Patton Michael Quinn. Qualitiative Research and Evaluation Methods . Chapter 6, Fieldwork Strategies and Observational Methods. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2002; Payne, Geoff and Judy Payne. "Observation." In Key Concepts in Social Research . The SAGE Key Concepts series. (London, England: Sage, 2004), pp. 158-162; Rosenbaum, Paul R. Design of Observational Studies . New York: Springer, 2010;Williams, J. Patrick. "Nonparticipant Observation." In The Sage Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods . Lisa M. Given, editor.(Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2008), pp. 562-563.

Philosophical Design

Understood more as an broad approach to examining a research problem than a methodological design, philosophical analysis and argumentation is intended to challenge deeply embedded, often intractable, assumptions underpinning an area of study. This approach uses the tools of argumentation derived from philosophical traditions, concepts, models, and theories to critically explore and challenge, for example, the relevance of logic and evidence in academic debates, to analyze arguments about fundamental issues, or to discuss the root of existing discourse about a research problem. These overarching tools of analysis can be framed in three ways:

  • Ontology -- the study that describes the nature of reality; for example, what is real and what is not, what is fundamental and what is derivative?
  • Epistemology -- the study that explores the nature of knowledge; for example, by what means does knowledge and understanding depend upon and how can we be certain of what we know?
  • Axiology -- the study of values; for example, what values does an individual or group hold and why? How are values related to interest, desire, will, experience, and means-to-end? And, what is the difference between a matter of fact and a matter of value?
  • Can provide a basis for applying ethical decision-making to practice.
  • Functions as a means of gaining greater self-understanding and self-knowledge about the purposes of research.
  • Brings clarity to general guiding practices and principles of an individual or group.
  • Philosophy informs methodology.
  • Refine concepts and theories that are invoked in relatively unreflective modes of thought and discourse.
  • Beyond methodology, philosophy also informs critical thinking about epistemology and the structure of reality (metaphysics).
  • Offers clarity and definition to the practical and theoretical uses of terms, concepts, and ideas.
  • Limited application to specific research problems [answering the "So What?" question in social science research].
  • Analysis can be abstract, argumentative, and limited in its practical application to real-life issues.
  • While a philosophical analysis may render problematic that which was once simple or taken-for-granted, the writing can be dense and subject to unnecessary jargon, overstatement, and/or excessive quotation and documentation.
  • There are limitations in the use of metaphor as a vehicle of philosophical analysis.
  • There can be analytical difficulties in moving from philosophy to advocacy and between abstract thought and application to the phenomenal world.

Burton, Dawn. "Part I, Philosophy of the Social Sciences." In Research Training for Social Scientists . (London, England: Sage, 2000), pp. 1-5; Chapter 4, Research Methodology and Design. Unisa Institutional Repository (UnisaIR), University of South Africa; Jarvie, Ian C., and Jesús Zamora-Bonilla, editors. The SAGE Handbook of the Philosophy of Social Sciences . London: Sage, 2011; Labaree, Robert V. and Ross Scimeca. “The Philosophical Problem of Truth in Librarianship.” The Library Quarterly 78 (January 2008): 43-70; Maykut, Pamela S. Beginning Qualitative Research: A Philosophic and Practical Guide . Washington, DC: Falmer Press, 1994; McLaughlin, Hugh. "The Philosophy of Social Research." In Understanding Social Work Research . 2nd edition. (London: SAGE Publications Ltd., 2012), pp. 24-47; Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy . Metaphysics Research Lab, CSLI, Stanford University, 2013.

Sequential Design

  • The researcher has a limitless option when it comes to sample size and the sampling schedule.
  • Due to the repetitive nature of this research design, minor changes and adjustments can be done during the initial parts of the study to correct and hone the research method.
  • This is a useful design for exploratory studies.
  • There is very little effort on the part of the researcher when performing this technique. It is generally not expensive, time consuming, or workforce intensive.
  • Because the study is conducted serially, the results of one sample are known before the next sample is taken and analyzed. This provides opportunities for continuous improvement of sampling and methods of analysis.
  • The sampling method is not representative of the entire population. The only possibility of approaching representativeness is when the researcher chooses to use a very large sample size significant enough to represent a significant portion of the entire population. In this case, moving on to study a second or more specific sample can be difficult.
  • The design cannot be used to create conclusions and interpretations that pertain to an entire population because the sampling technique is not randomized. Generalizability from findings is, therefore, limited.
  • Difficult to account for and interpret variation from one sample to another over time, particularly when using qualitative methods of data collection.

Betensky, Rebecca. Harvard University, Course Lecture Note slides; Bovaird, James A. and Kevin A. Kupzyk. "Sequential Design." In Encyclopedia of Research Design . Neil J. Salkind, editor. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2010), pp. 1347-1352; Cresswell, John W. Et al. “Advanced Mixed-Methods Research Designs.” In Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social and Behavioral Research . Abbas Tashakkori and Charles Teddle, eds. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2003), pp. 209-240; Henry, Gary T. "Sequential Sampling." In The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods . Michael S. Lewis-Beck, Alan Bryman and Tim Futing Liao, editors. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2004), pp. 1027-1028; Nataliya V. Ivankova. “Using Mixed-Methods Sequential Explanatory Design: From Theory to Practice.” Field Methods 18 (February 2006): 3-20; Bovaird, James A. and Kevin A. Kupzyk. “Sequential Design.” In Encyclopedia of Research Design . Neil J. Salkind, ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2010; Sequential Analysis. Wikipedia.

Systematic Review

  • A systematic review synthesizes the findings of multiple studies related to each other by incorporating strategies of analysis and interpretation intended to reduce biases and random errors.
  • The application of critical exploration, evaluation, and synthesis methods separates insignificant, unsound, or redundant research from the most salient and relevant studies worthy of reflection.
  • They can be use to identify, justify, and refine hypotheses, recognize and avoid hidden problems in prior studies, and explain data inconsistencies and conflicts in data.
  • Systematic reviews can be used to help policy makers formulate evidence-based guidelines and regulations.
  • The use of strict, explicit, and pre-determined methods of synthesis, when applied appropriately, provide reliable estimates about the effects of interventions, evaluations, and effects related to the overarching research problem investigated by each study under review.
  • Systematic reviews illuminate where knowledge or thorough understanding of a research problem is lacking and, therefore, can then be used to guide future research.
  • The accepted inclusion of unpublished studies [i.e., grey literature] ensures the broadest possible way to analyze and interpret research on a topic.
  • Results of the synthesis can be generalized and the findings extrapolated into the general population with more validity than most other types of studies .
  • Systematic reviews do not create new knowledge per se; they are a method for synthesizing existing studies about a research problem in order to gain new insights and determine gaps in the literature.
  • The way researchers have carried out their investigations [e.g., the period of time covered, number of participants, sources of data analyzed, etc.] can make it difficult to effectively synthesize studies.
  • The inclusion of unpublished studies can introduce bias into the review because they may not have undergone a rigorous peer-review process prior to publication. Examples may include conference presentations or proceedings, publications from government agencies, white papers, working papers, and internal documents from organizations, and doctoral dissertations and Master's theses.

Denyer, David and David Tranfield. "Producing a Systematic Review." In The Sage Handbook of Organizational Research Methods .  David A. Buchanan and Alan Bryman, editors. ( Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2009), pp. 671-689; Foster, Margaret J. and Sarah T. Jewell, editors. Assembling the Pieces of a Systematic Review: A Guide for Librarians . Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2017; Gough, David, Sandy Oliver, James Thomas, editors. Introduction to Systematic Reviews . 2nd edition. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications, 2017; Gopalakrishnan, S. and P. Ganeshkumar. “Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis: Understanding the Best Evidence in Primary Healthcare.” Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care 2 (2013): 9-14; Gough, David, James Thomas, and Sandy Oliver. "Clarifying Differences between Review Designs and Methods." Systematic Reviews 1 (2012): 1-9; Khan, Khalid S., Regina Kunz, Jos Kleijnen, and Gerd Antes. “Five Steps to Conducting a Systematic Review.” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 96 (2003): 118-121; Mulrow, C. D. “Systematic Reviews: Rationale for Systematic Reviews.” BMJ 309:597 (September 1994); O'Dwyer, Linda C., and Q. Eileen Wafford. "Addressing Challenges with Systematic Review Teams through Effective Communication: A Case Report." Journal of the Medical Library Association 109 (October 2021): 643-647; Okoli, Chitu, and Kira Schabram. "A Guide to Conducting a Systematic Literature Review of Information Systems Research."  Sprouts: Working Papers on Information Systems 10 (2010); Siddaway, Andy P., Alex M. Wood, and Larry V. Hedges. "How to Do a Systematic Review: A Best Practice Guide for Conducting and Reporting Narrative Reviews, Meta-analyses, and Meta-syntheses." Annual Review of Psychology 70 (2019): 747-770; Torgerson, Carole J. “Publication Bias: The Achilles’ Heel of Systematic Reviews?” British Journal of Educational Studies 54 (March 2006): 89-102; Torgerson, Carole. Systematic Reviews . New York: Continuum, 2003.

  • << Previous: Purpose of Guide
  • Next: Design Flaws to Avoid >>
  • Last Updated: May 30, 2024 9:38 AM
  • URL:

Site Logo

How to Search and Organize Research Articles

  • by Tiffany Yue Zhang
  • November 01, 2021

Quick Summary

  • Organizing research articles using a reference manager and other strategies will make life as a graduate student much easier.

As PhD students, reading is part of our life. There are so many new papers coming out every day, so many research blogs to follow, so many books to read. But, how would you find them and organize them? Certainly, I’ve seen people downloading everything to their desktop and piling up 100 pdfs with no labeling or grouping. To be honest, that was me at one point. When you start to write a report or research paper, it can become a nightmare to organize the reference list. If you are first year graduate student doing research, or if you are just looking for a method to organize your scientific literature, this blog can hopefully help.

Finding Articles

The best resources for starting to build your reading list are your advisor and lab mates.  This is definitely the fastest way to gain background on your research area. Simply ask around the lab about key articles in the research field. The downside of this method is that the pool of articles is limited by what’s already known by your advisor or lab mates. Starting by reading a review paper in your field, then finding and reading the most relevant references listed for the review, is also a good method.

Searching by key words is another common way to find scientific literature. I use Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Scopus, mostly.  Searches can be done by entering the key words, subject area, document type (e. g. review, articles), and sort by relevance. Start to read from the most cited papers in your field. If you are interested in a specific researcher’s publications, you can follow them on Google Scholar and you’ll get notified when they publish new articles. is another good resource for searching, analyzing and managing patent and scholarly data.

Subscribing to RSS feeds is another good way to keep up with recent research. There are a variety of apps that can send notifications when new research papers of interest are coming out, such as Researcher, Feedly and Academia. Pick your favorite topics or journals to follow and get your daily feeds about research topics. You can even track when a paper is cited. These tools are good for scientific literature, but you can also use them for your hobbies, your favorite magazines, etc.

Following blogs can be helpful, as well. As a chemistry student, I follow some of the ACS (American Chemical Society), RSC (The Royal Society of Chemistry) blogs, as well as blogs written by researchers and professors. If you are looking for something interesting to read, follow Retraction Watch. There, you’ll find the research articles that are retracted for fraud, ethical violations, and many other reasons.  Some stories can be quite interesting.

Listening to podcasts can be a good way to broaden your knowledge. Usually, the content in podcasts is less technical and you can learn some basics for topics that you are not familiar with.

Organizing Research Papers

Different people find different ways to organize research articles. Some prefer to print everything out and put them in binders, some prefer to read the digital versions and sort them in folders. Personally, I like to read on a computer screen and sort research papers by project. I usually keep important references in a reference manager. For papers that I want to go over multiple times, I usually print them out and read them carefully. It’s easier to take notes with a printed version and, for some reason, it seems like I can memorize the content longer when I read the printed paper. The main drawback in using hard copies is that it can be difficult to find a specific paper when you have a large pile. With digital versions, it’s much easier to locate specific research articles by keywords.


There are many digital reference managers. This type of software tool can allow you to keep research articles in different folders for each research project. Within the reference manager, you can also take notes, sort by author, year, or topic. Most reference managers also help with searching for research articles. When you write a report or publication, reference managers allow for import of references from these databases directly into Microsoft Word, which is very convenient.  Here are three of the most commonly used reference managers: EndNote, Mendeley  (Figure 1)  and Zotero. All of them can sync between devices and be shared between different people. EndNote is not free, but it is very powerful. It supports many unusual or complex citation formats. Some versions of Mendeley are free. It’s good at dealing with pdfs files and can extract citations from pdfs, as well as searching from pdfs. Zotero is also free and allows for saving snapshots of web pages and annotating them in your library, which is good for web-based publications.


When I read a paper, I usually ask myself the following questions: 1) what’s the purpose of reading this article?; 2) how is the article important or relevant to my work?; and, 3) what’s the take home message?. If the paper is important, I then write down the conclusions and methods. Taking notes makes reading more efficient ( Figure 2).  Notion is a good application to keep track of reading notes and allows for creation of lists of papers for different topics. You can also assign properties to each paper and tag papers with keywords. Notion also supports markdown which makes your notes clean and easy to read. When I read a research article, I usually start with the title and abstract and try to figure out the big picture conclusions or contributions to the research field.  Then, I skim through the figures and the figure captions to get an idea of the key points. If a figure is important, I keep it in my notes. I usually skip the introduction at first if I’m familiar with the author or the research field, instead jumping directly into the results and conclusion sections. From there, I’ll decide if I want to read the paper in detail or not. Different people have different ways of reading papers; find the one that works for you.

I hope you find these methods helpful for finding and organizing research articles and happy reading!

Marcus, Adam, and Ivan Oransky. Retraction Watch , Oct 24 2021, 

“Which Reference Manager? Comparision of Endnote, Medeley and Zotero.” Library Guides , Mar 2 2021,

“How to (Seriously) Read a Scientific Paper.” Science , Mar 21 2016,

Primary Category

Secondary categories.

Sacred Heart University Library

Organizing Academic Research Papers: Making an Outline

  • Purpose of Guide
  • Design Flaws to Avoid
  • Glossary of Research Terms
  • Narrowing a Topic Idea
  • Broadening a Topic Idea
  • Extending the Timeliness of a Topic Idea
  • Academic Writing Style
  • Choosing a Title
  • Making an Outline
  • Paragraph Development
  • Executive Summary
  • Background Information
  • The Research Problem/Question
  • Theoretical Framework
  • Citation Tracking
  • Content Alert Services
  • Evaluating Sources
  • Primary Sources
  • Secondary Sources
  • Tertiary Sources
  • What Is Scholarly vs. Popular?
  • Qualitative Methods
  • Quantitative Methods
  • Using Non-Textual Elements
  • Limitations of the Study
  • Common Grammar Mistakes
  • Avoiding Plagiarism
  • Footnotes or Endnotes?
  • Further Readings
  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Dealing with Nervousness
  • Using Visual Aids
  • Grading Someone Else's Paper
  • How to Manage Group Projects
  • Multiple Book Review Essay
  • Reviewing Collected Essays
  • About Informed Consent
  • Writing Field Notes
  • Writing a Policy Memo
  • Writing a Research Proposal
  • Acknowledgements

An outline is a formal system used to develop a framework for thinking about what the eventual contents and organization of your paper should be. An outline helps you predict the overall structure and flow of a paper.

Importance of...

Writing papers in college requires you to come up with sophisticated, complex, and sometimes very creative ways of structuring your ideas . Taking the time to draft an outline can help you see whether your ideas connect to each other, what order of ideas works best, where gaps in your thinking may exist, or whether you have sufficient evidence to support each of your points.

A good outline is important because :

  • You will be much less likely to get writer's block because an outline will show where you're going and what the next step is.
  • It will help you stay organized and focused throughout the writing process and helps ensure a proper coherence [flow of ideas] in your final paper. However, the outline should be viewed as a guide, not a straitjacket.
  • A clear, detailed outline ensures that you always have something to help re-calibrate your writing should you feel yourself drifting into subject areas unrelated to the larger research problem.
  • The outline can be key to staying motivated . You can put together an outline when you're excited about the project and everything is clicking; making an outline is never as overwhelming as sitting down and beginning to write a twenty page paper without any sense of where it is going.
  • An outline help you organize multiple ideas about a topic . Most research problems can be analyzed in any number of inter-related ways; an outline can help you sort out which modes of analysis are most appropriate or ensure the most robust findings.

How to Structure and Organize Your Paper . Odegaard Writing & Research Center. University of Washington.

Structure and Writing Style

I.   General Approaches

There are two general approaches you can take when writing an outline for your paper:

The topic outline consists of short phrases. This approach is useful when you are dealing with a number of different issues that could be arranged in a variety of different ways in your paper. Due to short phrases having more content than using simple sentences, they create better content from which to build your paper.

The sentence outline is done in full sentences. This approach is useful when your paper focuses on complex issues in detail. The sentence outline is also useful because sentences themselves have many of the details in them and it allows you to include those details in the sentences instead of having to create an outline of many short phrases that goes on page after page.

II.   Steps to Making the Outline

A strong outline details each topic and subtopic in your paper, organizing these points so that they build your argument toward an evidence-based conclusion. Writing an outline will also help you focused on the task at hand and avoid unnecessary tangents, logical fallacies, and underdeveloped paragraphs.

  • Identify the research problem . The research problem is the focal point from which the rest of the outline flows. Try to sum up the point of your paper in one sentence or phrase. It also can be key to deciding what the title of your paper should be.
  • Identify the main categories . What main points will you analyze? The introduction describes all of your main points, the rest of  your paper can be spent developing those points.
  • Create the first category . What is the first point you want to cover? If the paper centers around a complicated term, a definition can be a good place to start. For a paper about a particular theory, giving the general background on the theory can be a good place to begin.
  • Create subcategories . After you have the main point, create points under it that provide support for the main point. The number of categories that you use depends on the amount of information that you are trying to cover; there is no right or wrong number to use.

Once you have developed the basic outline of the paper, organize the contents to match the standard format of a research paper as described in this guide.

III.   Things to Consider When Writing an Outline

  • There is no rule dictating which approach is best . Choose either a topic outline or a sentence outline based on which one you believe will work best for you. However, once you begin developing an outline, it's helpful to stick to only one approach.
  • Both topic and sentence outlines use Roman and Arabic numerals along with capital and small letters of the alphabet arranged in a consistent and rigid sequence. A rigid format should be used especially if you are required to hand in your outline.
  • Although the format of an outline is rigid, it shouldn't make you inflexible about how to write your paper. Often when you start investigating a research problem [i.e., reviewing the research literature], especially if you are unfamiliar with the topic, you should anticipate the likelihood your analysis could go in different directions. If your paper changes focus, or you need to add new sections, then feel free to reorganize the outline.
  • If appropriate, organize the main points of your outline in chronological order . In papers where you need to trace the history or chronology of events or issues, it is important to arrange your outline in the same manner, knowing that it's easier to re-arrange things now than when you've almost finished your paper.
  • For a standard research paper of 15-20 pages, your outline should be no more than four pages in length . It may be helpful as your are developing your outline to also jot down a tentative list of references.

Four Main Components for Effective Outlines. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; How to Make an Outline. Psychology Writing Center. University of Washington; Organization: Informal Outlines . The Reading/Writing Center. Hunter College; Organization: Standard Outline Form . The Reading/Writing Center. Hunter College; Outlining. Department of English Writing Guide. George Mason University; Plotnic, Jerry. Organizing an Essay . University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Reverse Outline . The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Reverse Outlines: A Writer's Technique for Examining Organization . The Writer’s Handbook. Writing Center. University of Wisconsin, Madison; Using Outlines. Writing Tutorial Services, Center for Innovative Teaching and Learning. Indiana University; Writing: Considering Structure and Organization . Institute for Writing Rhetoric. Dartmouth College.

Writing Tip

A Disorganized Outline Means a Disorganized Paper!

If, in writing your paper, it begins to diverge from your outline, this is very likely a sign that you've lost your focus. How do you know whether to change the paper to fit the outline, or, that you need to reconsider the outline so that fits the paper? A good way to check yourself is to use what you have written to recreate the outline. This is an effective strategy for assessing the organization of your paper. If the resulting outline says what you want it to say and it is in an order that is easy to follow, then the organization of your paper has been successful. If you discover that it's difficult to create an outline from what you have written, then you likely need to revise your paper.

  • << Previous: Choosing a Title
  • Next: Paragraph Development >>
  • Last Updated: Jul 18, 2023 11:58 AM
  • URL:
  • QuickSearch
  • Library Catalog
  • Databases A-Z
  • Publication Finder
  • Course Reserves
  • Citation Linker
  • Digital Commons
  • Our Website

Research Support

  • Ask a Librarian
  • Appointments
  • Interlibrary Loan (ILL)
  • Research Guides
  • Databases by Subject
  • Citation Help

Using the Library

  • Reserve a Group Study Room
  • Renew Books
  • Honors Study Rooms
  • Off-Campus Access
  • Library Policies
  • Library Technology

User Information

  • Grad Students
  • Online Students
  • COVID-19 Updates
  • Staff Directory
  • News & Announcements
  • Library Newsletter

My Accounts

  • Interlibrary Loan
  • Staff Site Login

Sacred Heart University


Organizing a Kingdom

We develop a framework that examines the organizational challenges faced by central rulers governing large territories, where administrative power needs to be delegated to local elites. We describe how economic change can motivate rulers to empower different elites and emphasize the interaction between local and nationwide institutions. We show that rising economic potential of towns leads to local administrative power (self-governance) of urban elites. As a result, the ruler summons them to central assemblies in order to ensure effective communication and coordination between self-governing towns and the rest of the realm. This framework can explain the emergence of municipal autonomy and towns’ representation in early modern European parliaments—a blueprint for Western Europe’s institutional framework that promoted state-formation and economic growth in the centuries to follow. We provide empirical evidence for our core mechanisms and discuss how the model applies to other historical dynamics, and to alternative organizational settings.

We would like to thank David Austen-Smith, Alberto Bisin, Alessandro Bonatti, Micael Castanheira, Wouter Dessein, James Fenske, Garance Genicot, Robert Gibbons, Avner Greif, Alessandro Lizzeri, Massimo Morelli, Juan Ortner, Nicola Persico, Heikki Rantakari, Michael Ting, Felipe Valencia Caicedo, Michael Whinston, as well as seminar audiences at Berkeley, Bristol, Columbia, Exeter, Harvard, King's College London, MIT Sloan, Monash, San Diego, Stanford, Trinity, Warwick, the 2023 ESAM conference, the 2023 Utah Winter Organizational and Political Economics Conference, the 2023 ThReD conference, and the 2023 IBEO Political Economy Workshop for helpful comments and suggestions. Roi Orzach provided outstanding research assistance. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.


Download Citation Data

  • data appendix

Working Groups

More from nber.

In addition to working papers , the NBER disseminates affiliates’ latest findings through a range of free periodicals — the NBER Reporter , the NBER Digest , the Bulletin on Retirement and Disability , the Bulletin on Health , and the Bulletin on Entrepreneurship  — as well as online conference reports , video lectures , and interviews .

15th Annual Feldstein Lecture, Mario Draghi, "The Next Flight of the Bumblebee: The Path to Common Fiscal Policy in the Eurozone cover slide

American Psychological Association Logo

American Psychological Association

transgender woman looking out the window

The impact of transgender legislation

Psychological science points to an increased risk of suicide and poor mental health amid a record number of bills aimed at restricting the rights of the LGBTQ+ population

APA policy supporting transgender, gender diverse, nonbinary individuals

Membership in APA

group of colleagues talking

APA Community

A new exclusive destination tailored for APA members

woman looking at laptop that has the APA logo on the back

Membership benefits

Unlock the tools, discounts, and services included with your membership

APA logo superimposed on concrete walking paths

Renew your membership

Keep your benefits and access to leading psychological information

Psychology topics spotlight

traffic sign with words Fact Check

Misinformation and disinformation

Woman cries while holding husband and child.

Resources to navigate trauma

collage of people in varied workplaces, including an office, a warehouse, a factory, and at home

Tips to foster a healthy workplace

Science and practice of psychology

a compass

Ethics Code

Continuing Education

Continuing Education

Grants, Awards and Funding

Grants, Awards, and Funding

photo of compass

Standards and Guidelines

Networks and communities

woman relaxing in her office and looking at her smartphone

Network with peers, enhance your professional development, expand your personal growth, and more

happy people in sunshine

APA Divisions

APA TOPSS Excellence in Teaching Awards

High school teachers

Classroom student writing in her notebook

Undergraduate educators

Professional practice

Graduate students


Early career psychologists

African American woman working on a laptop

Managing your career

Resources to help you throughout your career in psychology, including finding a job, salary data, finances and money management, mentoring and supervision, and training and professional development

illustration of winding road with map pin at the end

Explore career paths

Alvin Thomas, PhD

Psychologist profiles

Woman smiling near laptop

How did you get that job?

man looking at laptop

Events and training

Featured jobs

Apa publications and products.

illustration of people working on their laptops surrounded by APA Style books

Write with clarity, precision, and inclusion

Children’s books

Monitor on Psychology


Reports and surveys

Continuing education


Real Siblings

Real Siblings

Jacob's Missing Book

Jacob's Missing Book

Harper Becomes a Big Sister

Harper Becomes a Big Sister

Attachment-Based Family Therapy for Sexual and Gender Minority Young Adults and Their Non-Accepting Parents

Dismantling Everyday Discrimination

APA Services

APA Advocacy

Learn how you can help APA advocate for psychology-informed federal policy and legislation, and support psychological research

APA Services, Inc.

A companion professional organization to APA, serving all members and advocating for psychology

Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

Welcome to the Purdue Online Writing Lab

OWL logo

Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

The Online Writing Lab at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue. Students, members of the community, and users worldwide will find information to assist with many writing projects. Teachers and trainers may use this material for in-class and out-of-class instruction.

The Purdue On-Campus Writing Lab and Purdue Online Writing Lab assist clients in their development as writers—no matter what their skill level—with on-campus consultations, online participation, and community engagement. The Purdue Writing Lab serves the Purdue, West Lafayette, campus and coordinates with local literacy initiatives. The Purdue OWL offers global support through online reference materials and services.

A Message From the Assistant Director of Content Development 

The Purdue OWL® is committed to supporting  students, instructors, and writers by offering a wide range of resources that are developed and revised with them in mind. To do this, the OWL team is always exploring possibilties for a better design, allowing accessibility and user experience to guide our process. As the OWL undergoes some changes, we welcome your feedback and suggestions by email at any time.

Please don't hesitate to contact us via our contact page  if you have any questions or comments.

All the best,

Social Media

Facebook twitter.

What is innovation?

A light bulb above four open cartons

When you think of innovation, what springs to mind? Maybe it’s a flashy new gadget—but don’t be mistaken. There’s much more to the world of innovation, which extends far beyond new products and things you’ll find on a store shelf.

Get to know and directly engage with senior McKinsey experts on innovation.

Marc de Jong is a senior partner in McKinsey’s Amsterdam office, Laura Furstenthal is a senior partner in the Bay Area office, and Erik Roth is a senior partner in the Stamford office.

If products alone aren’t the full story, what is innovation? In a business context, innovation is the ability to conceive, develop, deliver, and scale new products, services, processes, and business models for customers.

Successful innovation delivers net new growth that is substantial. As McKinsey senior partner Laura Furstenthal  notes in an episode of the Inside the Strategy Room podcast , “However you measure it, innovation has to increase value and drive growth.”

As important as innovation is, getting it right can be challenging. Over 80 percent of executives surveyed  say that innovation is among their top three priorities, yet less than 10 percent report being satisfied with their organizations’ innovation performance. Many established companies are better operators than innovators , producing few new and creative game changers. Most succeed by optimizing existing core businesses.

Why is innovation important in business?

Some companies do succeed at innovation. Our research considered how proficient 183 companies were at innovation, and compared that assessment against a proprietary database of economic profit  (the total profit minus the cost of capital). We found that companies that harness the essentials of innovation see a substantial performance edge that separates them from others—with evidence that mastering innovation can generate economic profit that is 2.4 times higher than that of other players .

Learn more about our Strategy & Corporate Finance  practice.

How can leaders decide what innovations to prioritize?

Successful innovation has historically occurred at the intersection of several elements, which can guide prioritization efforts. The three most important elements are the who, the what, and the how :

  • An unmet customer need (the ‘who’): Who is the customer and what problem do they need to solve? Are macrotrends such as automation driving changes in customer needs?
  • A solution (the ‘what’): Is the solution compelling and can it be executed?
  • A business model that allows for the solution to be monetized (the ‘how’): How will the solution create value? What is the business model?

Successful innovation requires answers to each of these questions.

An example from inventor and businessman Thomas Edison helps illustrate the concept. “In every case, he did not just invent the what, he also invented a how,” says Furstenthal in a conversation on innovation . “In the case of the light bulb, he created the filament and the vacuum tube that allowed it to turn on and off, and he developed the production process that enabled mass production.”

Circular, white maze filled with white semicircles.

Introducing McKinsey Explainers : Direct answers to complex questions

How do organizations become better innovators.

McKinsey conducted research into the attributes and behaviors behind superior innovation performance , which were validated in action at hundreds of companies. This research yielded eight critical elements  for organizations to master:

  • Aspire: Do you regard innovation-led growth as critical, and have you put in place cascaded targets that reflect this?
  • Choose: Do you invest in a coherent, time- and risk-balanced portfolio of initiatives, and do you devote sufficient resources to it?
  • Discover: Are your business, market, and technology R&D efforts actionable and capable of being translated into winning value propositions?
  • Evolve: Do you create new business models that provide defensible, robust, and scalable profit sources?
  • Accelerate: Do you develop and launch innovations quickly and effectively?
  • Scale: Do you launch innovations at the right scale in the relevant markets and segments?
  • Extend: Do you create and capitalize on external networks?
  • Mobilize: Are your people motivated, rewarded, and organized to innovate repeatedly?

Of these eight essentials, two merit particular attention : aspire and choose . Without these two elements, efforts may be too scattershot to make a lasting difference. It’s particularly crucial to ensure that leaders are setting bold aspirations and making tough choices when it comes to resource allocation and portfolio moves. To do so successfully, many leaders will need to shift their mindsets or management approaches.

What are examples of successful innovators?

Real-world examples of successful innovation, related to some of the eight essentials listed , can highlight the benefits of pursuing innovation systematically :

  • Mercedes-Benz Group invested extensively in digitizing its product development system. That allowed the company to shorten its innovation cycles significantly , and its capabilities for personalizing cars have improved, even as assembly efficiency rose by 25 percent.
  • Gavi, a public–private partnership founded to save children’s lives and protect their health by broadening access to immunization, used nonfinancial targets to help drive its innovation efforts —and this helped the organization broaden its aspiration for impact in a way that was bold, specific, measurable, and time bound.
  • Lantmännen, a large Nordic agricultural cooperative, faced flat organic growth. Leadership created a vision and strategic plan  connected to financial targets cascaded down to business units and product groups. Doing so allowed the organization to move from 4 percent annual growth to 13 percent, on the back of successfully launching several new brands.
  • The information services organization RELX Group brought discipline to choosing its innovation portfolio  by running ten to 15 experiments in each customer segment in its pipeline every year. It selects one or two of the most successful ideas from the portfolio to continue.
  • International insurance company Discovery Group mobilized the organization around innovation  by creating incentives for a thousand of the company’s leaders using semiannual divisional scorecards. Innovation isn’t a choice; it’s a requirement and a part of the organization’s culture.

These examples aren’t necessarily what you may think of when you imagine disruptive innovation—which calls to mind moves that shake up an entire industry, and might be more associated with top tech trends  such as the Bio Revolution . Yet these examples show how committing to innovation can make a sizable difference.

How can my organization improve the volume and quality of new ideas?

Steps to help aspiring innovators  get started include the following:

  • Hold collision sessions: Cross-functional groups gather in a structured process to think through the intersection of unmet customer needs, technology trends, and business models, bringing creativity and specificity to the process of idea generation. Then, a venture panel considers these ideas and iterates on them, prioritizing what to do.
  • Challenge orthodoxies: Participants gather and describe beliefs that are common but that prevent the organization from innovating for customers. Examples of these orthodoxies include statements such as “budgets are limited” or “we don’t have the digital capabilities to pull it off.” Once the orthodoxies are laid out, teams brainstorm after being prompted to consider if the opposite of the statement were true.
  • Make analogies to other industries: A team might create a list of companies with unique value propositions. Then, they systematically apply these value propositions to their ideas to see if the analogy can create new sources of value or fresh opportunities.
  • Apply constraints: Rather than searching for blue-sky ideas, tighten the constraints on an idea’s business or operating model and explore potential new solutions. What if you served only one type of customer? What if the only channel you could access was online?

In the words of chemist Linus Pauling, “The way to get to good ideas is to get lots of ideas and throw the bad ones away.”

What is an innovation portfolio?

An innovation portfolio  is a thoughtfully curated bundle of potentially innovative initiatives, with clear aspirations and required resources defined for each. Managing the portfolio this way helps find new opportunities and determine the appropriate number and mix of initiatives, including the following:

  • confirming the total value of the portfolio needed
  • evaluating existing innovation projects based on incremental value delivered, risk, and alignment with strategic priorities
  • getting comfortable saying “no” to stop projects that are dilutive, and resisting the siren song of incremental initiatives that are unlikely to pay for themselves
  • reallocating resources—including competencies and skills—to new initiatives or to current ones that additional support can accelerate or amplify
  • identifying portfolio gaps and defining new initiatives to close them

How to measure innovation?

One way to measure innovation is to look at innovation-driven net new growth, which we call the “green box.”  This phrase refers to how you quantify the growth in revenue or earnings that an innovation needs to provide within a defined timeframe. This concept can help clarify aspirations and influence choices on the innovation journey.

While many imagine that innovation is solely about creativity and generating ideas, at its core, innovation is a matter of resource allocation . To put it another way: it’s one thing to frame innovation as a catalyst for growth, and another to act upon it by refocusing people, assets, and management attention on the organization’s best ideas.

The green box can help to solidify a tangible commitment  by defining the value that a company creates from breakthrough and incremental innovation, on a defined timeline (say, five years), with quantifiable metrics such as net new revenue or earnings growth. Crucially, the green box looks at growth from innovation alone, setting aside other possible sources such as market momentum, M&A, and so forth. And once defined, the growth aspiration can be cascaded into a set of objectives and metrics that the company’s various operating units can incorporate into its individual innovation portfolios.

It’s useful to note that some organizations may find that measures not solely financial in nature are more appropriate or relevant. For instance, metrics such as the number of subscribers or patients—or customer satisfaction—can resonate. What’s critical is selecting a metric that is a proxy for value creation. A large US healthcare payer , for example, looked to spur innovation that would improve patient satisfaction and the quality of care.

Separate from the concept of the green box, two simple metrics  can also offer surprising insight about innovation vis-à-vis the effectiveness of an organization’s R&D spending. Both of these lend themselves to benchmarking, since they can be gauged from the outside in, and they offer insight at the level of a company’s full innovation portfolio. The two R&D conversion metrics are as follows:

  • R&D-to-product conversion: This metric is calculated by looking at the ratio of R&D spending (as a portion of sales) to sales from new products. It can show how well your R&D dollars convert to actual sales of new products—and it might reveal that spending more doesn’t necessarily translate into stronger performance.
  • New-products-to-margin conversion: This metric considers the ratio of gross margin percentage to sales from new products. It can indicate how new-product sales contribute to lifting margins.

While no metric is perfect, these may offer perspective that keeps the focus squarely on returns from innovation and the value it creates—often more meaningful than looking inward at measures of activity, such as the number of patents secured.

How do you create a high-performing innovation team?

Innovation is a team sport. Experience working with strong innovators and start-ups has helped identify ten traits of successful innovation teams . Those fall into four big categories: vision , or the ability to spot opportunities and inspire others to go after them; collaboration , which relates to fostering effective teamwork and change management (for instance, by telling a good innovation story ); learning or absorbing new ideas; and execution , with traits that facilitate snappy decision making even when uncertainty arises.

Being strategic about the composition of an innovation team can help minimize failures and bring discipline to the process.

What innovation advice can help business leaders?

One broad piece of advice centers on creating a culture that accounts for the human side of innovation . When people worry about failure, criticism, or the career impact of a wrong move, it can keep them from embracing innovation. In a recent poll, 85 percent of executives say fear holds back their organization’s innovation efforts often or always—but there are ways to overcome these barriers .

Additionally, the Committed Innovator podcast and related articles share perspectives from leading experts who have helped their organizations tackle inertia and unlock bold strategic moves. If you are looking for words of wisdom, their insights can help spark inspiration to innovate:

  • Naomi Kelman, CEO, Willow . “Creating a safe environment for innovation is really what you need to do to get the greatness out of the people who work with you, which is ultimately what drives growth.”
  • Safi Bahcall, author, Loonshots . “Most of the important breakthroughs failed many times before they succeeded. That is where ‘fail fast’ goes wrong. Most companies are too impatient.”
  • Amy Brooks, chief innovation officer, National Basketball Association . “You can use data or examples to convince people about what is working in the market or what other industries are doing. We like to share best practices within our own leagues and within sports, but we also pay attention to every other industry that sells to consumers.”
  • Tanya Baker, global leader, Goldman Sachs Accelerate . “If someone knowledgeable thinks what you are doing is a bad idea, make sure they have a seat at the table. Put them on your board; make them one of your advisers so you don’t have any blind spots.”
  • Neal Gutterson, former chief technology officer, Corteva . “[A] key skill is being able to hold two divergent thoughts and approaches in your brain and in your team at the same time. The great companies will be ambidextrous innovators, able to disrupt themselves in the future while serving the core [business] today.”
  • Anjali Sud, CEO, Vimeo . “What keeps me up at night is execution and, within that, focus. Because when you are in a market like ours, at a time like now, the opportunity is huge. We are this nimble, fast-growing, fast-moving company, and everywhere I look I see opportunity. But am I providing enough focus for my teams so that we can truly be great at something? You don’t want to miss a big boat, and it’s hard sometimes to say no to valid, exciting ideas that could be transformative.”

For more in-depth exploration of these topics, see McKinsey’s insights on Strategy & Corporate Finance . Learn more about McKinsey’s Growth & Innovation  work—and check out innovation-related job opportunities if you’re interested in working at McKinsey.

Articles referenced include:

  • “ Fear factor: Overcoming human barriers to innovation ,” June 3, 2022, Laura Furstenthal , Alex Morris, and Erik Roth
  • “ Innovation—the launchpad out of crisis ,” September 15, 2021, Laura Furstenthal  and Erik Roth
  • “ The innovation commitment ,” October 24, 2019, Daniel Cohen, Brian Quinn, and Erik Roth
  • “ Fielding high-performing innovation teams ,” January 17, 2019, Matt Banholzer , Fabian Metzeler, and Erik Roth
  • “ Taking the measure of innovation ,” April 20, 2018, Guttorm Aase, Erik Roth , and Sri Swaminathan
  • “ The eight essentials of innovation ,” April 1, 2015, Marc de Jong , Nathan Marston, and Erik Roth

A light bulb above four open cartons

Want to know more about innovation?

Related articles.


Fear factor: Overcoming human barriers to innovation

The innovation commitment

The innovation commitment


The eight essentials of innovation


Transforming the understanding and treatment of mental illnesses.

Información en español

Celebrating 75 Years! Learn More >>

  • Research Funded by NIMH

Research Conducted at NIMH (Intramural Research Program)

  • Priority Research Areas
  • Research Resources

Labs landing banner

The Division of Intramural Research Programs (IRP) at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is the internal research division of the NIMH. The division plans and conducts basic, clinical, and translational research to advance understanding of the diagnosis, causes, treatment, and prevention of psychiatric disorders. NIMH IRP conducts state-of-the-art research that utilizes the unique resources of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), provides an environment conducive to the training and development of clinical and basic scientists, and in part, complements extramural research activities.

Angela Langdon, Ph.D.


Gree Blue Neurons

Research Groups

Group looking at charts

About the Office of Fellowship Training

Circle and bar chart

Office of the Scientific Director (OSD)

Hands shaking with blue background

Collaborations and Partnerships

Man brain scan

Join a Study

Screenshot from NIMH video

News and Multimedia Featuring IRP

  • Basic Research Powers the First Medication for Postpartum Depression | May 14, 2024 ● Science News
  • Novel Treatment Helps Children With Severe Irritability | April 5, 2024 ● Science News
  • NIH Researchers Identify Brain Connections Associated With ADHD in Youth | March 13, 2024 ● Science News

Unfortunately we don't fully support your browser. If you have the option to, please upgrade to a newer version or use Mozilla Firefox , Microsoft Edge , Google Chrome , or Safari 14 or newer. If you are unable to, and need support, please send us your feedback .

We'd appreciate your feedback. Tell us what you think! opens in new tab/window

CRediT author statement

CRediT (Contributor Roles Taxonomy) was introduced with the intention of recognizing individual author contributions, reducing authorship disputes and facilitating collaboration. The idea came about following a 2012 collaborative workshop led by Harvard University and the Wellcome Trust, with input from researchers, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) and publishers, including Elsevier, represented by Cell Press.

CRediT offers authors the opportunity to share an accurate and detailed description of their diverse contributions to the published work.

The corresponding author is responsible for ensuring that the descriptions are accurate and agreed by all authors

The role(s) of all authors should be listed, using the relevant above categories

Authors may have contributed in multiple roles

CRediT in no way changes the journal’s criteria to qualify for authorship

CRediT statements should be provided during the submission process and will appear above the acknowledgment section of the published paper as shown further below.




Ideas; formulation or evolution of overarching research goals and aims


Development or design of methodology; creation of models


Programming, software development; designing computer programs; implementation of the computer code and supporting algorithms; testing of existing code components


Verification, whether as a part of the activity or separate, of the overall replication/ reproducibility of results/experiments and other research outputs

Formal analysis

Application of statistical, mathematical, computational, or other formal techniques to analyze or synthesize study data


Conducting a research and investigation process, specifically performing the experiments, or data/evidence collection


Provision of study materials, reagents, materials, patients, laboratory samples, animals, instrumentation, computing resources, or other analysis tools

Data Curation

Management activities to annotate (produce metadata), scrub data and maintain research data (including software code, where it is necessary for interpreting the data itself) for initial use and later reuse

Writing - Original Draft

Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work, specifically writing the initial draft (including substantive translation)

Writing - Review & Editing

Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work by those from the original research group, specifically critical review, commentary or revision – including pre-or postpublication stages


Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work, specifically visualization/ data presentation


Oversight and leadership responsibility for the research activity planning and execution, including mentorship external to the core team

Project administration

Management and coordination responsibility for the research activity planning and execution

Funding acquisition

Acquisition of the financial support for the project leading to this publication

*Reproduced from Brand et al. (2015), Learned Publishing 28(2), with permission of the authors.

Sample CRediT author statement

Zhang San:  Conceptualization, Methodology, Software  Priya Singh. : Data curation, Writing- Original draft preparation.  Wang Wu : Visualization, Investigation.  Jan Jansen :  Supervision. : Ajay Kumar : Software, Validation.:  Sun Qi:  Writing- Reviewing and Editing,

Read more about CRediT  here opens in new tab/window  or check out this  article from  Authors' Updat e:  CRediT where credit's due .


  1. 💋 How to organize research for a paper. How to organize a research

    organization research paper ideas

  2. Developing a Final Draft of a Research Paper

    organization research paper ideas

  3. (PDF) Editorial Essay: What Is Organizational Research For?

    organization research paper ideas

  4. (PDF) Organization of a Research Paper: The IMRAD Format

    organization research paper ideas

  5. 😂 How to organize research for a paper. Inside Track: Legal Research

    organization research paper ideas

  6. Part III Organizing Your Research Paper

    organization research paper ideas


  1. SST Project Paper ideas🎀⭐ ||Front page Design || #shorts #frontpage #sst @UPScREATION

  2. Sandpaper Organization Idea

  3. Pattern🎶🗒️ paper ideas for jornal #paperpattern #forjournal #art #ytshorts

  4. TOP 20 BEST RESEARCH PROJECTS FOR SCIENCE STUDENT IN 2024 #researchtopics#researchproject

  5. Research Paper Ideas For Business Students

  6. Top Computer Science Research Thesis Ideas Topics for Students


  1. Organizational Behavior Research Paper Topics

    This page provides a comprehensive list of 100 organizational behavior research paper topics that are divided into 10 categories, each containing 10 topics. These categories include communication and teamwork, organizational culture and climate, employee motivation and engagement, organizational leadership, diversity and inclusion, organizational communication, employee well-being and work ...

  2. How to Organize Research Papers: A Cheat Sheet for Graduate Students

    Create a file containing related topics if you're using a computer. Bind the related articles together if you like to print out papers. In other words, keep related things together! ... When organizing research papers, don't forget to develop a better keyword system, especially if you use a reference manager. My reference manager, for ...

  3. Organization Management Research from Harvard Business School

    Corporate misconduct has grown in the past 30 years, with losses often totaling billions of dollars. What businesses may not realize is that misconduct often results from managers who set unrealistic expectations, leading decent people to take unethical shortcuts, says Lynn S. Paine. 23 Apr 2024. Cold Call Podcast.

  4. 245 Organizational Behavior Topics & Essay Examples

    The Organizational Behavior of Walmart Company. Organizational behavior refers to the "understanding, prediction, and management of human behavior and how it affects the performance of the organization". The benefits of this culture to the company include the following. Organizational Behavior of Emirates Airlines.

  5. PDF How to Structure & Organize Your Paper

    Try to be aware of what your purpose is at any given point of your paper, and be sure that this purpose is arranged appropriately. It confuses the reader, after all, if you muddle together your description of a process with its effects. Constructing Paragraphs. Imagine that you've written your thesis.

  6. Organization Studies: Sage Journals

    Organization Studies (OS) publishes top quality theoretical and empirical research with the aim of promoting the understanding of organizations, organizing and the organized in and between societies. OS is a multidisciplinary journal with global reach, rooted in the social sciences, comparative in outlook and open to paradigmatic plurality.

  7. PDF Organizing a Research Paper

    Organizing a Research Paper - Cornell University

  8. 200 Organizational Behavior Topics & Ideas for Presentation

    Regarding the film "A Few Good Man" by Rob Reiner, the following three deserve special attention: autocratic, support, and collegial model. Organizational Behavior Business: HR Dilemma. HR's Daily Dilemma: Between Management and Staff. HR should operate on equal footing with both management and employees.

  9. 5 Organizational Behavior Research Topics

    Within this exciting new field, there are plenty of unique organizational topics . Organizational behavior essay topics might include: Featured Programs. case studies of implementation in individual companies. analysis of specific technologies. meta-studies examining the existing literature in the field. 2.

  10. Organization and Structure

    In order to communicate your ideas, you'll need to use a logical and consistent organizational structure in all of your writing. We can think about organization at the global level (your entire paper or project) as well as at the local level (a chapter, section, or paragraph). For an American academic situation, this means that at all times ...

  11. 107 Organizational Design Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

    Anti-HIV Nonprofit's Organizational Design. Particularly, three areas of concern are of the primary interest: the design and functional characteristics of NGOs, the problem of HIV in the context of NGOs, and differences between organic and mechanistic organizational structures. Literature Review in Dissertation on Organizational Design.

  12. Organizing Research Papers: A Step-by-Step Guide

    Organizing Ideas with Index Cards Index cards are an excellent tool for organizing ideas and structuring research papers. Not only do they help keep information organized, but index cards also allow you to quickly move around pieces of your project as needed while keeping everything together in one place.

  13. How to write a research paper outline

    The outline is the skeleton of your research paper. Simply start by writing down your thesis and the main ideas you wish to present. This will likely change as your research progresses; therefore, do not worry about being too specific in the early stages of writing your outline. Organize your papers in one place. Try Paperpile.

  14. Industrial-Organizational Psychology Topics

    Industrial-Organizational Psychology Research Topics. Compared with other fields of psychology, I-O psychology today has several features: (a) Small: I-O is a small specialty, including just 5% of US psychologists. (b) High-employment: Since I-O is in high demand in the industry; it has a negative unemployment rate below zero.

  15. How to Create a Structured Research Paper Outline

    A decimal outline is similar in format to the alphanumeric outline, but with a different numbering system: 1, 1.1, 1.2, etc. Text is written as short notes rather than full sentences. Example: 1 Body paragraph one. 1.1 First point. 1.1.1 Sub-point of first point. 1.1.2 Sub-point of first point.

  16. Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper

    Before beginning your paper, you need to decide how you plan to design the study.. The research design refers to the overall strategy and analytical approach that you have chosen in order to integrate, in a coherent and logical way, the different components of the study, thus ensuring that the research problem will be thoroughly investigated. It constitutes the blueprint for the collection ...

  17. Organizing Academic Research Papers: 1. Choosing a Topic

    A topic is the main organizing principle guiding the analysis of your research paper. Topics offer us an occasion for writing and a focus that governs what we want to say. Topics represent the core subject matter of scholarly communication, and the means by which we arrive at other topics of conversations and discover new knowledge.

  18. How to Search and Organize Research Articles

    Searching by key words is another common way to find scientific literature. I use Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Scopus, mostly. Searches can be done by entering the key words, subject area, document type (e. g. review, articles), and sort by relevance. Start to read from the most cited papers in your field.

  19. Organizing Academic Research Papers: Making an Outline

    Writing an outline will also help you focused on the task at hand and avoid unnecessary tangents, logical fallacies, and underdeveloped paragraphs. Identify the research problem. The research problem is the focal point from which the rest of the outline flows. Try to sum up the point of your paper in one sentence or phrase.

  20. Organizing a Kingdom

    Organizing a Kingdom. Charles Angelucci, Simone Meraglia & Nico Voigtländer. Working Paper 32542. DOI 10.3386/w32542. Issue Date June 2024. We develop a framework that examines the organizational challenges faced by central rulers governing large territories, where administrative power needs to be delegated to local elites.

  21. American Psychological Association (APA)

    The American Psychological Association (APA) is a scientific and professional organization that represents psychologists in the United States. APA educates the public about psychology, behavioral science and mental health; promotes psychological science and practice; fosters the education and training of psychological scientists, practitioners and educators; advocates for psychological ...

  22. Welcome to the Purdue Online Writing Lab

    Mission. The Purdue On-Campus Writing Lab and Purdue Online Writing Lab assist clients in their development as writers—no matter what their skill level—with on-campus consultations, online participation, and community engagement. The Purdue Writing Lab serves the Purdue, West Lafayette, campus and coordinates with local literacy initiatives.

  23. What is innovation?

    In a business context, innovation is the ability to conceive, develop, deliver, and scale new products, services, processes, and business models for customers. Successful innovation delivers net new growth that is substantial. As McKinsey senior partner Laura Furstenthal notes in an episode of the Inside the Strategy Room podcast, "However ...

  24. Research Conducted at NIMH (Intramural Research Program)

    The Division of Intramural Research Programs (IRP) is the internal research division of the NIMH. Over 40 research groups conduct basic neuroscience research and clinical investigations of mental illnesses, brain function, and behavior at the NIH campus in Bethesda, Maryland. Learn more about research conducted at NIMH.

  25. CRediT author statement

    CRediT author statement. CRediT (Contributor Roles Taxonomy) was introduced with the intention of recognizing individual author contributions, reducing authorship disputes and facilitating collaboration. The idea came about following a 2012 collaborative workshop led by Harvard University and the Wellcome Trust, with input from researchers, the ...