248 Capitalism Essay Topics & Examples

Looking for capitalism essay topics? The economic system considered the most advanced and effective is worth exploring!

  • 💸 Research Questions
  • 🏆 Best Topic Ideas & Essay Examples
  • 👍 A+ Essay Examples
  • 🎓 Interesting Essay Topics
  • 📌 Hot Topics to Write about

💡 Most Interesting Capitalism Topics to Write about

✍️ capitalism essay topics for college.

  • ❓ Research Paper Topics

In your capitalism essay, you might want to focus on its key features or history. Another idea is to talk about the pros and cons of capitalism, discussing why it is good or bad. One more option is to compare capitalism and socialism. Whether you are assigned to write an argumentative essay, research paper, or thesis on capitalism, this article will be helpful. Here you’ll find everything you might need to write an A+ paper! Capitalism research questions, prompts, and title ideas are collected below. Best capitalism essay examples are also added to inspire you even more.

💸 Research Questions about Capitalism

  • How did capitalism in its modern form appear?
  • What are the key ideas of mercantilism?
  • What is the relationship between capitalism and democracy?
  • How did globalization help capitalism spread worldwide?
  • Is inequality inevitable in a capitalist economy?
  • What are the key characteristics of modern capitalism?
  • What are the ways to ensure fair competition in a capitalist economy?
  • What is the role of wage labor in capitalism?
  • How to protect private property in capitalist economy?
  • What are the disadvantages of capitalism?

🏆 Best Capitalism Topic Ideas & Essay Examples

  • Marx vs. Weber on Capitalism Besides, this time was the period of the close attention of the sociologists to the bourgeois society and the development of capitalism.”The debate over the relationship between Marx’s political economy and Max Weber’s interpretative sociology, […]
  • “The State in Capitalist Society” by Ralph Miliband According to Anonymous, this book has played a major role in the renewal of both “state theory and Marxist political thought”.”The state in capitalist society” is a piece of work that has remained to be […]
  • Max Weber – The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism Max Weber in his book the protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism sought to explain the emergence of the modern capitalism and the origin of the modern secular and industrial society.
  • Similarities Between Capitalism and Socialism. Compare & Contrast In this system, the government manages the overall means of production but the members have the duty of choosing the best setting for the production, the amount to produce and which product should be produced.
  • What Is the Relationship Between Capitalism and Democracy? The importance of the roles played by the stock market in the capitalistic economy is related considerably to the aspects of democracy and free market.
  • Nationalism Versus Capitalism: Compare & Contrast According to Marxist philosopher, Herbert Marcuse, the main disadvantage of capitalism is prosperity that seduces workers with the items of comfort and makes them forget their primarily aim of overthrowing the capitalism.
  • H.G. Wells’ “The Time Machine” as Critique of Capitalism In the reality of the world that the book inhabits, the Eloi, who live above ground, represent the upper class, and the Morlocks, who live below ground, represent the lower class.
  • Capitalism and Globalization Effects However, according to an article by Anderson, in free market capitalism, initial wealth is created, which then spreads; it then leads to the social and political change due to the increase of power in the […]
  • Karl Marx’s Critique of Capitalism They were enslaved by the bourgeoisie and machinery hence, they became a majority and were empowered in the light of the competitive bourgeoisie class, which created commercial conflicts and fluctuated the earning of the working […]
  • Evolution of Capitalism: Concept, Origin and Development The central idea in the ‘Evolution of Capitalism’ is that western society is archetypical of a radical change and gradual development of the capitalist system.
  • Lenin on Imperialism as the Highest Stage of Capitalism Lenin, in his analysis on imperialism as the highest stage of capitalism, stated that the integration of bank capital with the industrial capital facilitates the creation of financial oligarchy.
  • Varieties of Capitalism in China The field deals with the relationship between the labor market and investors within a country and the dynamics that govern them.
  • Differences Between Capitalism and Socialism In capitalist economic models, the rate of employment is determined by the pressures of demand and supply in the labor markets.
  • Christians in Communism and Capitalism After viewing the video “The Cold War in Context,” the role of Christians in analyzing the war and the concepts of capitalism and communism can be clarified.
  • The Effects of Capitalism on People’s Diet Food capitalism has brought about new changes in the human diet and has changed the nutritional value of foods eaten by human beings.
  • Chapters 4-6 of “After Capitalism” by D. Schweickart Also, the act of democracy does not seem to have any place in such a system since individuals who are wealthy take over the control of every process.
  • Capitalism Versus Environmental Sustainability Free market refers to a market where prices are derived through competition among the individual businesses and not under the regulation of the government.
  • Communism and Capitalism Through the History In this system, the means of product and service production is mainly carried out and owned by the individuals instead of the government while communism also known as fascism is contrary to this where production […]
  • Labor in Capitalism System The revenues from the entities are mainly for the owners and little is used to pay wages to workers.”In this system therefore production is done by the employees who use their employer, producing commodities which […]
  • Canada as a Liberal Capitalist Democracy It includes also the re-organization of the enterprises in order to make a profit, for instance, changing management of the enterprise or adding new departments in the organization.
  • Work Ethics in a Capitalist American Society This is unlike the employees at the restaurant who wanted to get rid of customers as fast as they could and had the contempt to the extent of provoking customers to seek management’s intervention.
  • Climate Change: Is Capitalism the Problem or the Solution? This means that capitalism, which is the ability to produce wealth lies in the solution and also the causes of the current global climatic governance.
  • Capitalism Characteristics and American Identity The aim of colonization was occupation of new lands and new ways of wealth accumulation for France and Britain. The plantation was an instrument in the growth of trade and industrial development, and can be […]
  • Capitalism and Its Influence on the Environment The characteristic will be determined by both benefits to the environment and the overall result for the company, as companies should implement the changes willingly. The results are expected to be a set of suggestions […]
  • Arguments Against Capitalism This is in the sense that capitalistic economies are influenced by free markets where the effects of pull and push of the demand, versus the supply affects the prices that are in the market.
  • Capitalism Versus Communism In the case of capitalism this comes in the form of the widening gap between the rich and the poor while in the case of communism this comes in the form of economic stagnation due […]
  • Corporate Social Responsibility: Socialist and Capitalist Perspective The state should ensure that tranquility and calmness is in the society. The role of the state is to provide guidelines that would bring sanity in business.
  • “New Capitalism” by Peston From that background, he then goes a mile further and circumspectly analyzes the current form of capitalism which he calls “New Capitalism” and explicates its diverse effects including: the progressively widening gap between the “haves” […]
  • Capitalism: Exploitation of the Poor and Resource Monopoly Most defenders to capitalism would not agree to this objection because they believe capitalism presents equal opportunity to both the poor and the rich.
  • Nature, Technology, Society, and Capitalism For the majority of human history, the approach towards the relationship between Humanity and Nature was perceived through the lens of binary interactions.
  • Rhetorical Analysis of Socialism vs. Capitalism by Thompson In order to convey this message, the author uses several rhetorical devices, the discussion of which is part of this analysis.
  • The Theory of Capitalism and Its Current Context One of the main acknowledgments correlating with the Scottish philosopher is the establishment of the notion and foundation of the “free market”, the system in which supply and demand shape prices.
  • Infrastructure in Capitalism and Socialism Systems The Garden City concept, based on building around the decentralized plant, does not reduce the pressure on the central part of the city and the growing population of the modern world.
  • The Capitalism Development in Russia In the book The Communist Manifesto, the authors view capitalism as a brief economic form destined to fail to lead to a rise in the communist system. Capitalism was attributed to the harsh inequalities of […]

👍 A+ Capitalism Essay Examples

  • Capitalism: Definition and History Further, this system indeed considers the needs and interests of private actors to be of vital importance and does not allow the authorities to control the trade and industry of the country.
  • Discussion of Racial Capitalism Issue on Modern Society This stance contributes to the idea of the significance of political processes in the worsening of the situation for individuals who are likely to be exploited by the system.
  • British Capitalism: Nature and Characteristics It discusses the nature and characteristics of Britain’s capitalism by outlining its history and how the principal city, London, plays a critical role in the spread of capitalism.
  • Discussion: Ecology and Capitalism The four laws of ecology include ‘everything is connected to everything else,’ ‘everything must go somewhere,’ ‘nature knows best,’ and ‘nothing comes from nothing.’ The four laws of capitalism are ‘the only lasting connection between […]
  • Jamaica and the Modern Capitalism Countries in Western Europe and Australia, and North American countries belong to the group of core countries. On the contrary, periphery countries in most of Africa, Latin America, and Eastern Europe tend to have relatively […]
  • Capitalism and Racism in Past and Present Racism includes social and economic inequalities due to racial identity and is represented through dispossession, colonialism, and slavery in the past and lynching, criminalization, and incarceration in the present.
  • Surveillance Capitalism on Digital Platforms The appearance of capitalism was associated with the formation of the working class and affluent owners of production, but the new surveillance capitalism altered the classic perception of this system.
  • Capitalism Is Not a Good Governance Solution in the Pandemic The capitalist flow of goods and services across the world and the role of governments in this was a major setback in the fight against the pandemic.
  • Social Inequality, Capitalism, and Globalization It replaces slavery of antiquity and negatively affects almost all aspects of society, from the inequality of men and women to the sphere of science and education.
  • Capitalism Development & Racial Issues in Rochester Hence, the authors show the importance of the topics about race through the extensive description of the development of the work culture in one city.
  • Varieties of Capitalism and Employee Relations In providing the comparison for employee relations, the VoC approach has the strength of drawing attention to sectoral, national, and social responses to the crisis and the globalization challenges.
  • Potency of Free Speech in Capitalist Society The rapid change in technology, discovery and rediscovery of the previous history, and the process of actively redefining what it means to be human, all contribute to the general diversification of the world.
  • Capitalism as an Economic System: Op-Ed The main point of the letter to the editor. The letter I have chosen to respond to concerns the topic of capitalism.
  • Capitalism, Black Marxism and Social Balance Thus, capitalism and racism developed as a consequence of the evolution of Western society, while Black radicalism was a response to this process.
  • Abstract Dynamics of Capitalism and Daily Experiences of Business and Society Crucial historical transformations such as the back-rolling of capitalist west welfare states, decline or crucial metamorphosis of party states which were bureaucratic in the communist East, and weakening of the economic sovereignty of nation-states have […]
  • Capitalism Approach: Attributes and Disadvantages It also offers theoretical and analytical methods to recognize the commonalities and dissimilarities between countries and groups of nations in the region.
  • Flint Water Crisis: Environmental Racism and Racial Capitalism The Flint crisis is a result of the neoliberal approach of the local state as opposed to the typical factors of environmental injustice; a polluter or a reckless emitter cutting costs. The two main factors […]
  • Modern Capitalism in Great Britain This leads to the emergence of social classes in society, with the elites who own most business enterprises at the top of the hierarchy.
  • “What Is Capitalism?” Article by Jahan and Mahmud Its main idea is based on the discussion of capitalism characteristics and its impact on the modern economy. On the other hand, inequality provokes controversies and questions the effectiveness of capitalism.
  • Is There an Ethical Case for Capitalism? The most essential feature of capitalism is the incentive to make a profit based on the canonical principles, including private property, self-interest, competition, market mechanism, freedom of choice, and the limited role of the state.
  • Financial Markets as an Element of the Capitalist Economy Model The story demonstrates various use of the financial market by involved stakeholders such as Credit Suisse, Archegos, investors and lenders for the Archegos, as well as shareholders of Credit Suisse.
  • The Supply of Money in the Capitalist Economy In the capitalist economy that the world is currently based on, the supply of money plays a significant role in not only affecting salaries and prices but also the growth of the economy.
  • “Buffett: The Making of an American Capitalist” by R. Lowenstein The book provides an avenue for Investors and businessmen to learn a lot from the thoughts of Warren Buffett on issues pertaining to business and the methods he applies when making investments.
  • Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism I agree with the statement because people with different cultures have different ways of doing things and architecture is one of the crucial tools used to express the culture of the people.
  • Shared Value: Business Organizations and Capitalism Systems The intention of the review, authors and the title of the article: This paper will review the views presented by the authors on business organizations and capitalism systems to draw informed and objective conclusion.
  • The Various Aspects of Capitalism Communism is a sociopolitical faction whereby the means of production, such as land, labor, and machinery, are possessed and managed by “the state”, and individuals control only a small portion of the means of production.
  • Edward Luttwak’s Turbo-Capitalism: Danger or Blessing? And these are some of the reasons to read his book and agree or disagree with the writer’s points of view on the present and future world economy. The main points of the author lie […]
  • Saving Capitalism: Video and the Articles Analysis The video and the articles analyzed in the paper allow for a comprehensive understanding of current issues, with the increasing income inequality that undermines the virtues of capitalism being the major challenge.
  • Stages of History, Capitalism, Class Conflict, and Labor Theory in Adam Smith’s Writings The stages of history in Adam Smith’s writing, as reiterated by Paganelli, are the age of hunters, the age of shepherds, the age of agriculture, and the age of commerce.
  • Trans-Atlantic Chattel Slavery and the Rise of the Modern Capitalist World System The reading provides an extensive background of the historical rise and fall of the African nations. The reading gives a detailed account of the Civil War and the color line within its context.
  • Triumph of Capitalism and Liberalism in Kagan’s “The Jungle Grows Back” In this situation, Kagan argues that it is not rational for the US “to mind its own business and let the rest of the world manage its problems”. It is to demonstrate the need to […]
  • “Capitalism in America: The History” by Alan Greenspan and Adrian Wooldridge Such books are now divided into the synchronic and diachronic ones, where the latter ones examine the economics in the context of history, and the first focus on modern development. Hence, the major value of […]
  • Capitalism: Contemporary Political Culture Various theories and ideologies have been introduced to try to establish awareness of the socio-economic and political nature of the life of various people in different societies.
  • Anti-Capitalism: Social Phenomenon Thus, the younger generations are most likely to be polarized by the ideology of anti-capitalism, which is a divisive issue, since they are opposed to the idea of a few individuals in society controlling trade […]

🎓 Interesting Capitalism Essay Topics

  • The Relations Between Capitalism and Socialism On the other hand, Marx defined socialism as a principle that ensures the most of these production factors are owned and controlled by the society or the state for the benefit of the whole community […]
  • Phenomenon of the Capitalism and Socialism The system values private ownership with the price system as the system of determining the rate of exchange of goods and services.
  • Capitalism in America in 1865-1930’s The capitalist economy of the US between the 1865 and 1930 laid a framework for the present American economic system. The objective of the union was to protect the rights of the workers, who were […]
  • Economic Way Between Communism or Socialism and Capitalism in China A positive example of this mix is Israel, where socialism is dominant in the rural areas and capitalism, is dominant in the urban areas, this has led to an increase in the welfare of the […]
  • Oligarchic Capitalism and Russia’s Global Resurgence The governments in many oligarchic societies are mainly focused on protecting and perpetuating the interests of the oligarchs while neglecting the economic growth and development that is vital in the prosperity of the country masses.
  • Jonathan Prude: Capitalism, Industrialization, Factory The aspects of historical industrialization were based on rural capitalism of the North-West regions and the co-existence of nonprofit factories along with private properties makes it difficult to understand the milieu of the factory of […]
  • Slave Trade and Rise of Capitalism Others consider the presence of capitalism to be the root of the slave trade as humans were in the earlier times viewed as factors of production similar to the current labor factor but different in […]
  • The American Capitalism and Technological Progress So, the first reason for the American Revolution to begin was a very strict policy of the British Empire towards colonies, particularly, the restriction of commerce to the limits of internal trade; the colonies should […]
  • Moore’s “Capitalism: A Love Story” Documentary The results of the research are deplorable, because the rate of unemployed people increases every day, people have nothing to pay for their homes, insurances, and education. Is it possible to make fortune in the […]
  • “Turbo-Capitalism: Winners and Losers in the Global Economy” by E. Luttwak Consequently, the thesis of the book may be formulated in the following way: human society should beware of the present state of capitalism, turbo-capitalism, which can bring very harmful results of its existence that will […]
  • Capitalism History: Ancient and Modern Capitalism During the 1st century, the double currency was stable and towards the end of 2nd century, the denars equivalent to gold started to rise.
  • Capitalism and Industrialization in the “Communist Manifesto” by Marx In fact, the Communist Manifesto is clear in indicating that industrialization was a process that led to the overall improvement of society in doing away with the hardships of the majority of the population.
  • How Best To Ensure US-Style Global Capitalism This research work aims to analyze the peculiarities of global capitalism and the impact that the United States has on other nations.
  • Boltanski and Chapello: New Spirit of Capitalism Analysis For example, in their book, Boltanski and Chapello describe the new paradigm of production to be one of the forms of workers’ exploitation.
  • Human Rights in the Disaster Capitalism Context By the word human rights, it is generally meant to be the protection of individual rights against the encroachment by the state and it also means the basic rights and freedom of individuals.
  • The Concept of Capitalism in China In actual by capitalist state Chinese dreamt of living a life style free of bureaucracy so that they may be able to offend their sense of pride and demean the life-style of the workers’ families.
  • Capitalism and Industrialization as a Cause of AIDS Spread Population growth rates are the highest in most of Asia, Africa, and Latin America due to the high degree of fertility and the dramatic decrease in mortality following World War II.
  • Capitalism: Competitional Free Trade This essay will try to highlight the first problem area of Competition and Free Trade, what some of the known authors had to say about the effect of capitalism on it, and finally the overall […]
  • The Synergy Between Capitalism and Democracy Democracy and its success: Democracy refers to a political system in which the political part of the government is elected through adult suffrage.
  • Great War & Liberal Capitalism in Russia, Germany, Italy The history of capitalism has for long term highlighted the basis of reference on the impact of material prosperity and the overall view on the economy in the context of time and region.
  • Capitalism, Individualism, and Social Responsibility This has largely been attributed to the regulation of modern societies by the state, the localization of the life-worlds, and the crisis of the subject in the post modernist culture of intellectuals.
  • Capitalist System in America The market forces of demand and supply determine the prices of goods and services without the interference of the government. The capitalist argues that the government must protect its citizens who are the production units […]
  • Does American Capitalism Allow Social Mobility? Sometimes, this process is called the distribution of talent, even though ratio can not be perfect, the more close it is to the ideal, the better principle of justice is applied in the society.
  • The Result of Western Capitalism Fueling Communism The paper starts with the history of China and elucidates the entry of western capitalism into China in different stages, including the historic opium wars.
  • Financial System, Financial Markets and Understanding of Capitalism in Germany and the U.S. The reason for this has been primarily identified as to the experiences and the events the countries have had to face in the past century.
  • A. Smith and K. Marx: Contrasting Views of Capitalism One important aspect of society that helps balance the needs and wants of the people is Economics, the social science that deals with goods and services.
  • Urban Democracy and Capitalism For example, surveys show that people increasingly identify with the planetary scale, the local scale, and a whole series of spaces in between.
  • Supermarkets. The Machinery of Capitalism Even the meat, which is placed in the market, seems to be losing the imprints of nature, as it is boneless and entirely processed out of human hands.
  • Capitalist Modernity After Feudal Mode The division of labor contributed immensely to the demise of feudalism and the rise of capitalism. Both lords and peasants sought to participate in the trade as a way of accessing markets for their products.
  • Environmental Sociology. Capitalism and the Environment Some evident examples of remarkable economic development in modern capitalism encompass the enormous industrial development of England in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the outstanding development levels of Western Europe, the emergence of East Asian […]
  • Population Pressure, Surplus Population, Nature, and Capitalist Development While a section of the society has more than they can consume in several generations, others are starving because of a system that favours only a section of the society.
  • American Individualism vs. Capitalism Norms However, a large number of people would agree that the possibility to satisfy one’s basic needs is one of the constituents of contentment.
  • Reciprocity in the Capitalist Workforce Thirdly, the majority of companies have failed to implement the policy of employee engagement despite the fact that the requirements are quite common and easy to follow.[1] All of these factors separately or in a […]
  • Profit and Capitalism on the Facebook Example Milton and Friedman’s school of thought discusses the power of the market in the sense that the majority of economic fallacies are driven by the lack of attention to simple insight and the tendency to […]

📌 Hot Capitalism Topics to Write about

  • Race and Ethnicity: Capitalism, Law, and Biology Stemming from the bigoted perspective that the colonialist thinking provided, legal regulations and biological theories have aggravated the quality of relationships between members of different racial and ethnic groups, creating the scenario in which the […]
  • “The People’s Republic of Capitalism” Documentary The central themes of The People’s Republic of Capitalism are the intricacies of the Chinese experiment with capitalism restrained by the authoritarian government and interdependence of American and Chinese economies.
  • Economics: Socialism vs. Liberal Capitalism Karl Marx, a great proponent of socialism, refers to the ethical, economic, and political contribution of socialism to the welfare of the society in asserting his position on the debate of the best economic model.
  • Federici’s “Caliban and the Witch” and Capitalism The main thesis of the book is multilayered and addresses the development of capitalism and the role women, as well as violence, played in the process.
  • Weber’s “The Protestant Sects and the Spirit of Capitalism” Much of the book focuses on the concept of capitalism as witnessed in northern Europe and the United States of America due to the influence of the Protestants.
  • David Harvey’s Movie “Crises of Capitalism?” According to the opinion of the expert, the problem is that every system has some risks and the crises that society is experiencing today are the result of how the conflicts were managed and mitigated […]
  • 2008 Global Financial Crisis: Crises of Capitalism? Although I had an idea of the possible catalysts of the 2008 global financial meltdown before watching the video, Harvey presented a clear report of the events that occurred before the crisis and put them […]
  • Economics: Episode 6 of “Capitalism” Documentary In the meantime, while Keynes simply rejects the potential of the invisible hand of the market, Polanyi develops this idea and comes to a conclusion that the liberalistic attempt to establish the self-regulating market system […]
  • Economics: Episode 5 of “Capitalism” Documentary The pivot point of the Hayek’s theory is the consideration of those factors that illustrate the market’s failure to coordinate human’s actions in an appropriate manner and the consequences of this failure such as unemployment.
  • Astrology in Socialist, Capitalist, Psychological Views The fact that many people overlook what astrologers do or say has resulted in the unavailability of information in the area of study.
  • The Protestant Sects and the Spirit of Capitalism by Max Weber At the time of producing the document, society expected its people to believe in something. The sociologist used the concept of Ascetic Protestantism to investigate the origin and nature of capitalism.
  • Chapters 1-3 of “After Capitalism” by Schweickart According to the author, moral and pragmatic failures of capitalism are vividly evident in the modern world. In order to comprehend these lessons, it is necessary to compare and contrast socialism both in the 20th […]
  • Economy of Capitalism, Communism, Fascism and Socialism Government structure: the structure of the government in the two countries, involves federal governments that are led by the political elites in the countries. The government has the duty of formulating policies that regulate the […]
  • “Capitalism and Freedom” by Milton Friedman In turn, the competition will be one of the factors that can improve the quality of education. Moreover, the increased competition can make school administrators more responsive to the suggestions and critique of parents who […]
  • “State Capitalism Comes of Age” by Ian Bremmer Thus, Bremmer concentrates on the discussion of the opposition of the models realized in such countries as Russia, China, Brazil, and India with basing on the principles of state capitalism and the model of free […]
  • Capitalism System: David Harvey’s View David Harvey tries to convince the viewers that capitalism is a horrible system that leads humanity to self-destruction on a global scale.
  • Capitalism Problem: Video Analysis However, the lack of resources and their disproportionate distribution will inevitably lead to a serious crisis. Admittedly, people’s nature will not change, and many people will not want to build a fair society where resources […]
  • Labor Market, Social Organizations and Wages in Capitalism Therefore, employers are forced to pay efficiency wages to increase work intensity and the cost of job loss. The intention is to reduce wages as employees are pressurized to work harder and to the extreme.
  • Socialist vs. Capitalist Approach to Social Issues Capitalism also refers to a system where the economy is independent of the state. In a Socialist economy, the intellectual property belongs to the government.
  • “Redeeming Capitalism” by Kenneth J. Barnes With such gaps, the central thesis of the text is that there is a need for the global society to combine aspects of morality and ethics with modern capitalism and ensure that it meets the […]
  • Capitalism in Poland and Its Transitional Stage The decades of socialism had a significant impact on the transition countries and resulted in the lack of institutions involved in the provision of the functioning of a market economy.
  • Stakeholder and Shareholder Capitalism Models In the shareholder capitalism model, shareholder interests are the main concern, while in stakeholder model shareholder interest is on equal ground with concerns and interests of other stakeholders, such as the community, the employees, the […]
  • Protestantism, Capitalism, and Predestination Calvinism and Predestination are central to the book because Weber considers the actions and beliefs of Calvinists as two of the major factors in the development of capitalism.
  • Saving Capitalism: Its Role in Modern World This type of economic structure is called capitalistic, and one of its central conditions is the right to private property and free trade within the limits of the norms established by the law.
  • Eduardo Porter’s Views on Capitalism In the meantime, the latest change in the economic trends shows that the economist’s expectations were inflated as well as the potential that he assigned to the free market turned out to be exaggerated.
  • The Destructive Nature of Capitalism The author emphasizes the tendency in the modern popular culture to humanize the technological aspects of our lives, probably in order to compensate for the exacerbated violence and a lack of compassion that human beings […]
  • Poverty: An Echo of Capitalism Poverty is a word that has always been a part of people’s lives at different stages of the development of human society. Relative poverty is often defined as the lack of material resources needed to […]
  • The Dutch Republic and Capitalism The production of silk brought by merchants from China to Italy and Turkey is an excellent example of the influence that merchants had during that time period.
  • Capitalism in Milanovic’s and Ferguson’s Views Other economists establish that there is a need for the government to intervene to avoid the risk of monopolies. The question of wages in labor also calls for the intervention of the government to make […]
  • Division of Labor: Aspects of Capitalism The paper then focuses on the differences between the social division of labor and the detailed division of labor. It is important to look at the difference between the social division of labor and the […]
  • Capitalism in Marx’s, Weber’s, Durkheim’s Theories Conceptualizing change as a feature of social modernity using analogies such as growth, cyclical renewal, progress, modernity, development, and evolution gives us presuppositions for understanding the world and the concept of individual, society, and culture. […]
  • Russia’s Transition to Capitalism First, lack of a robust system of property rights was the greatest drawback to the successful implementation of the transition policies. Russia experienced the assassination of famous economists and lawyers that advocated the transition from […]
  • The Development of Capitalism in Canada To begin with, Pentland states that by the middle of the nineteenth century there were a plenty of signs indicating that the changes of the course of the economy “had gone too far to be […]
  • Society, Culture, Economy in “Capitalism” Mini-Series While certain points, such as the historical, sociological, and anthropological grounds for the Smith’s work are persuasive and present a solid basis for further inquiry, some of the conclusions, such as the inherent malevolence of […]
  • Capitalism and Its Influence on Globalization
  • “The Protestant Sects and the Spirit of Capitalism” by Weber
  • Capitalism in Adam Smith’s and Karl Marx’s Views
  • Globalization, Art and Capitalism
  • Karl Marx: Critique of Capitalism
  • Varieties of Capitalism – Comparative Advantages
  • Shared Value Capitalism by Porter and Kramer
  • Capitalism and Just Eat It Documentaries Contrast
  • Capitalism in the US: Criticism and Alternative
  • Globalization and Its Impact on Capitalism
  • Documentaries – Capitalism: A Love Story by Michael Moore
  • Capitalism Spirit and the Protestant Ethic
  • Capitalism in Canadian Society
  • History Fukuzawa Yukishi: From Samurai to Capitalist
  • Economic Issues in “Capitalism” by Joan Robinson
  • Marxist Critique of Capitalism: Expropriation of Surplus Value
  • Clean Capitalism in Organizations
  • Weber and the Rise of Capitalism
  • Natural Capitalism in Economic
  • Relationship Between Capitalism and a Logically Formal Rational Legal System
  • Marxist Critiques of Capitalism: Theory of Surplus Value
  • Socialist Market Economy of China Shift Toward Capitalism
  • Robert Brenner on the Development of Capitalism
  • Biggart and Swedberg Views on Capitalist Development
  • Capitalism and Colonialism
  • The Transition of Russia to Capitalism
  • Capitalism: Theoretical and Operational Limitations
  • The Role of Capitalism and the Life of Workers: XX Century
  • Global Capitalism and Its Discontent
  • An Invisible Hand of Capitalism in the Business
  • Market Structure during Post-Mao China: Capitalism or Socialism?
  • Entrepreneurship, Innovation & Dynamic Capitalism
  • Marxists’ Critique of Crises With the Capitalist System
  • Capitalism, Democracy and the Treaty of Waitangi are Three Ways Through Which We in Aotearoa ‘Organise’ Ourselves
  • Taxes, Capitalism, and Democracy: Karl Marx vs. Plato
  • Racial Capitalism and Colonialism
  • Racial Capitalism and Colonialism in African Diasporic Culture and Western Culture
  • Capitalist Societies Economic Disparities
  • How Is Today’s Capitalism Society Changed by the “New Left?”
  • Video Report “China’s Capitalist Revolution”
  • Capitalism in Modern Societies
  • The Political and Economic Spheres in Capitalist Societies
  • The Global Financial Crisis and Capitalism for the Elite Rich
  • David Harvey About Capitalism
  • Weber’s Ideal Type of the Spirit of Capitalism
  • Understanding Economics: The Nature and Logic of Capitalism
  • Richard Sennett’s Account of the ‘New Capitalism’ in Relation to Current Organizations
  • Economic Principles and Theories of Adam Smith: A Case for Free Markets and Capitalism
  • Capitalism and World Inequality
  • Weber’s Conception of the Capitalist Entrepreneur and the Modern Bureaucrat
  • Capitalism Concept Evolution
  • British Capitalism Development
  • Capitalist Economy Support
  • John Gray: Fast Capitalism and the End of Management
  • Running Economies: Capitalism and Socialism
  • Capitalist Economies in the US
  • Scholars on the Effects of Capitalism
  • Political Ideologies: Capitalism vs. Socialism
  • Adam Smith’s Understanding of Capitalism
  • Can Capitalism Be Ethical?
  • Capitalism and Its Role in Commodity Exchange and Value
  • Capitalism and Poverty
  • Alienation and Capitalism
  • Karl Marx: From Feudal Society to Modern Capitalism
  • Compare of Capitalism and Socialism
  • Capitalism: A Love Story: A Reflective Paper
  • Development of the Atlantic Trade Triangle a Colonial Capitalism (Mercantilism)
  • How Capitalism Beat Communism/Socialism
  • Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism by Weber
  • US Economic Success: Rise of Capitalism
  • Forced Labor and Free Enterprise on Sugar Plantations Created a Feudal and Capitalism Society

❓ Capitalism Research Paper Topics

  • Why Has Liberal Capitalism Failed To Stimulate a Democratic Culture in Africa?
  • What Is the Connection Between Capitalism and Modern Culture?
  • How Government Policies Affected Global Capitalism?
  • What Are the Positive and Negative Outcomes of Market Capitalism?
  • How Does Capitalism Differ From Socialism?
  • What Is the Connection Between Slavery, the Rise of Capitalism, and Colonization?
  • What Is the Relationship Between Race and Capitalism?
  • How Does Modern Capitalism Looks Like?
  • Will Global Capitalism Fall Again?
  • What Is the Relationship Between Capitalism and Democracy?
  • How Capitalism Contributes Towards Unemployment?
  • What Is the Difference and Similarity Between Socialism and Capitalism?
  • How Does Shared Capitalism Affect Economic Performance in the UK?
  • Why Doesn’t Capitalism Flow to Poor Countries?
  • How Does Capitalism Affect Population Growth?
  • Did the New Deal Strengthen or Weakened the USA Capitalism?
  • How Has the Rise of Capitalism Contributed to the Persistent Gender Inequity?
  • How Can Capitalism Take Control of People’s Lives?
  • What Is the Conflict Between Socialism and Capitalism?
  • What Can Marx’s Work on Capitalism Tell Us About Modernity?
  • How Does the Spirit of Capitalism Affect Stock Market Prices?
  • How Capitalism and the Bourgeois Virtues Transformed and Humanized the Family?
  • Who Are Capitalists and What Is Capitalism?
  • How Does the Capitalism Influence the Debt of Developing Countries?
  • Why Does Market Capitalism Fail To Deliver a Sustainable Environment and Greater Equality of Incomes?
  • How Can Capitalism Save American Healthcare?
  • How Slavery Shifted the Economy Towards Capitalism?
  • How Has the Internet Changed Modern-Day Capitalism?
  • Why China Chose the Socialism Instead of Capitalism as the Country Political System When Prc Was Established?
  • How Capitalism Thwarts Creativity?
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187 Capitalism Essay Topics

🏆 best essay topics on capitalism, ✍️ capitalism essay topics for college, 👍 good capitalism research topics & essay examples, 🔥 hot capitalism ideas to write about, 🎓 most interesting capitalism research titles, 💡 simple capitalism essay ideas, 📌 easy capitalism essay topics, ❓ research questions about capitalism.

  • Marx vs. Weber: Capitalism – Compare and Contrast Essay
  • Protestant Work Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
  • Why Capitalism is Better Than Socialism
  • Strengths and Weaknesses of the Theories of Capitalist Imperialism Proposed by Hobson-Lenin
  • Division of Labor in the Context of Capitalism
  • East Asian Capitalism and Its History
  • Capitalism vs. Socialism: Comparing and Contrasting
  • Conscious Capitalism and Fair Trade The paper discusses the concept of conscious capitalism. It supports fair trade and is relevant to many types of businesses.
  • Weber’s and Marx’s Views on Capitalism Comparison The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast political theories and highlight similarities and differences between Marx and Weber.
  • Population, Consumerism and Capitalism The author analyzes examines the joint impact of population, consumerism and capitalism on the economy and on the environment.
  • Deleuze’s “A Thousand Plateaus” and Guattari’s “Capitalism and Schizophrenia” The book “A Thousand Plateaus” written by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and the psychoanalyst Felix Guattari is the second part of the project “Capitalism and Schizophrenia”.
  • “Money, Greed, and God: Why Capitalism Is the Solution and Not a Problem” by Jay Richards In his book “Money, Greed, and God,” Jay Richards, an American analytical philosopher, seeks to address the most common myths about capitalism.
  • The Market Economy and Capitalism The choice of an economic model is determined by the nation’s economic state and governmental influences. Market economies are characterized by demand and supply forces.
  • Poverty and Capitalism in Trash by Dorothy Allison The paper discusses the book titled Trash, author Dorothy Allison. It features the struggles of a violent survivor from a poverty-stricken family.
  • Capitalism and Democracy: The Problem of Coexistence The paper examines whether the coexistence of capitalism and democracy provides mutual benefits or enforces detremial mechanisms that strain the relationship between these forces.
  • Whole Foods Market Inc.’s Conscious Capitalism Whole Foods Market Inc. is an American chain of supermarkets. The paper describes Whole Foods in terms of its practice of conscious capitalism.
  • Capitalism, Climate Change, and Globalization Globalization allowed significant corporations to put a substantial strain on the environment in developing countries.
  • Karl Marx’s Critique of Capitalism This paper will examine the key ideas of Marx regarding class division, labor, ideology, and fetishism of commodities in the context of capitalism.
  • Inheritance in Capitalism and Ethical Grid Society still goes ahead to praise those who seem to have amassed a lot of wealth for their future generations.
  • Capitalism and Gay Identity by D’Emilio and Berube In this paper, the author will review the link between gay identity and capitalism from the perspective of two essays written by D’Emilio and Berube.
  • The Industrial Age Impact and the Rise of Capitalism The project focuses on defining the key characteristics of the Industrial Age and analyzing their impact on the worldview of modern people in developed countries.
  • Avant-Garde Art, Urban Capitalism and Modernization The avant-garde artists provided experimental and innovative arts, which transformed the social, cultural, economic, and political aspects of society.
  • Capitalist Modernity in the 19th and the 20th Century This essay examines the problems, discomforts, benefits and drawbacks created by capitalist modernity in the 19th and the 20th century and its impact on the human society.
  • Zuboff’s “Surveillance Capitalism” and Hiring Bias The paper explains what Zuboff means by surveillance capitalism, and how this concept could be used to understand problems like information pollution and hiring bias.
  • Capitalism vs. Socialism: Principles and Arguments The rhetorical argument is effective because another claim is the statement about fair distribution based on the market mechanism.
  • Economic Systems: Attitude to Work in Capitalism Capitalism highly contributes to the “I-don’t-care” attitude among workers because workers’ duty is to produce more products without concern for their welfare.
  • Capitalism and Socialism Systems’ Morality The paper focuses on the capitalistic views as more moral due to the opportunities for individual freedom and open markets that support the development of society.
  • Capitalism and Socialism in the Marxist School of Thought The Marxist school of thought claims that capitalism would ultimately evolve into socialism in the same manner that feudalism had developed into capitalism.
  • Social Classes and Capitalism: Sociological Theories This article focuses on the ideas of capitalism based on social classes while describing the concepts of perspective, conflict, symbolic interaction, and functionalism.
  • “The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism” by Max Weber In his work “The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism”, Max Weber gives his ethical views on the protestant religion and its contribution to capitalism.
  • Globalization: Climate Crisis and Capitalist Ideology One of the main features of the development of the world community in recent decades has been globalization as part of integration processes that are changing the world structure.
  • Raciolinguistic Ideology: Language, Capitalism, Colonialism Raciolinguistic ideology was born from European colonialism, and it suggests that language and race are correlated.
  • Capitalism: History and Basics Capitalism represents the dominant economic concept in modern reality, based on private property, the competence of actors, and the principle of supply and demand.
  • Capitalism as a Means of Promoting Inequality The degree to which capitalism has impacted the distribution of wealth and opportunities in society has shaped the course of events in the world.
  • The Essay “Capitalism and Freedom” by Milton Friedman While ‘some’ time has passed since 1962, Milton Friedman’s essay titled “Capitalism and Freedom” remains relevant to this day.
  • Surveillance Capitalism in Shoshana Zuboff’s View Surveillance capitalism is different from information capitalism in that it is based on the commodification of behavioral analysis.
  • Church’s Responses to Development of Capitalism This paper analyzes different reactions of the Christian society to the Industrial revolution and defines which is the most consistent with Biblical Scripture.
  • Disconnectedness of Political Freedom and Capitalism The paper is about the disconnectedness of political freedom and capitalism, which indicates that the latter does not promote or guarantee the former.
  • Contemporary Racial Capitalism in Flint The research shows the poor living standards in Flint, which the author attributes to the deliberate negative activities of the administration.
  • Marx’s Objections to Capitalism This essay describes and evaluates Marx’s three main objections to capitalism and criticizes them on the grounds of his underestimation of capitalism’s creative force.
  • “Modern Capitalism Needs a Revolution…” by Cohen The social and climatic consequences caused by people’s desire to produce more and more unnecessary goods become so devastating that humanity cannot cope with them.
  • Capitalism and Religion: Sociological Perspective In sociological tradition, such scholars as Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, and Max Weber are the most prominent researchers of religion’s role in society.
  • Christian Business Operation in Capitalism Although some Christians agree with the fundamentals of capitalism, other Christian theologians propose different economic strategies that best represent Christian traditions.
  • Capitalism as a Form of Social Competition This paper aims to describe the thesis that capitalism drives society toward competition and rivalry with the help of scholarly literature and real-life examples.
  • Conscious Capitalism: Marketing Plan Actions The intensity of the market competitiveness is reduced by the company’s deliberate focus on recreation and speed as key features of its products.
  • Marxian Alienation in Modern Capitalist Countries This paper aims at answering a more specific version of this question – “is Marxian alienation present in modern capitalist societies?”
  • Small Business in an Ideal Capitalist Economy The purpose of this piece of work is to examine the process and includes activities of small businesses ownership in ideal capitalism and evaluate the possible sides of the concept.
  • Why Capitalism Is Superior to Socialism The comparison of the two economic systems is rather complex and involves many aspects, but various facts and numbers are showing the superiority of capitalism over socialism.
  • Capitalism in Business and Modern World With all the criticism it receives, capitalism has played a key role in many of the humaachievests, including technology, science, and culture.
  • Capitalism in Brook’s Vermeer’s Hat and Rediker’s Slave Ship This essay comprises a comparison of Brook’s and Rediker’s depiction of how global capitalism was perpetuated in a social, political, and economic context.
  • Alienated Labor in Capitalist Societies The alienation of labor is an integral part of capitalist society since it is built on producing and exchanging goods.
  • Universal Health Care Under Free-Market Capitalism During the last centuries, certain attempts were made to stabilize healthcare services and choose between universal and single-payer care types.
  • The Theory of Capitalism: Hayek’s Arguments Friedrich Hayek strove to defend traditional concepts of morality in economics and fought the progressive representatives of the new era who sought to destroy the classical canons.
  • The Superiority of Socialism Over Capitalism In the capitalist environment, which leaves large corporations to dominate the economic discourse, the planning process becomes disrupted and starts lacking homogeneity.
  • Conscious Capitalism Description: Humanity and Business Conscious capitalism or marketing is gaining popularity as companies seek to embrace compassion in their business ventures.
  • Crumbling American Dream: The Thrive of Capitalism The notion of the American dream has now become a universal matter. The thrive of capitalism has made the American dream a desirable state of things unachievable in the near future.
  • Rhetorical Analysis: Capitalism and Socialism Both systems have their flaws, but capitalism is more practical and efficient in bringing prosperity and reducing scarcity, which means that it is better.
  • The Impact of the Industrial Age and the Rise of Capitalism The definition of the key features of the industrial epoch and the early capitalism would help discuss them in relation to modern times and values.
  • Capitalism and Socialism, Democracy This kind of system is illustrated by having recognized equality rights and freedom both in a social setting and political locale.
  • The Industrial Age and Capitalism: Key Features and Impacts on Society Capitalism can largely contribute to the deterioration of interpersonal connections in communities and lead to the overall worsening of the quality of life in the long run.
  • Understanding Economics: Definition of the Capitalism Wealth creation in a capitalist system relies on private ownership of property. Individuals are given the freedom to own and control the property.
  • Authoritarian Capitalism and Western Liberal Version This paper supports authoritarianism for economic development as compared to a democratic system. It mostly examines a state that advocates for the authoritarian regime.
  • Democratic Capitalism and Morality in America The problem of the level of the salary in the modern world remains core in economics in the condition of the free market.
  • Marx’s Criticism of Capitalism and Sociological Theory This paper tells about Marx who contributed to sociological theory by linking the economic structure of the society and how it affected social interactions.
  • Democratic Capitalism and Individual Liberty Democratic capitalism is the economic and political system based on individuals’ potentials in an environment of cooperation and trust.
  • Social, Technical, Economic and Ideological Factors of a Capitalist Economy Capitalism has been defined as that economic system that that allows both wealth as well as its production means to be controlled and owned privately.
  • Marx’s and Weber’s Opposing Views of Capitalism Weber is among the profound critics of Marxist ideologies. They have opposing views on the issue of capitalism even though they share some similarities on the same topic.
  • US Capitalism. William Leach’s “Land of Desire” William Leach’s “Land of Desire” is concerned with exploring the development of consumer capitalism in the US between 1890 and 1932.
  • The Industrial Age and Capitalism Industrial Age can be defined as the time when people became actively engaged in the development of manufacturing machinery.
  • Capitalism and Its Benefits to the Public Goods The basis of capitalism is the freedom of economic activity of individuals within the state, which provides protection, justice, and order for the functioning of the system by political power.
  • Socialism as an Alternative to Capitalism in the United States This report seeks to evaluate socialism as an alternative to capitalism as the primary economic system of the United States and present viable solutions to the issue.
  • Public Capitalism in Promoting the Common Good Capitalism is both an economic and political system in which the financial market, production, and concepts of private ownership are driving factors for operation and success.
  • Capitalism: Benefiting the Public Good In the purest form of capitalism, which is a laissez-faire economy, power is concentrated in the hands of private individuals or businesses that own capital goods.
  • “Freedom and Capitalism” by Milton Friedman The principle behind the book “Capitalism and Freedom” was that the government only existed for the will of the people, and thus served as the means towards a goal.
  • The Industrial Revolution & the Rise of Capitalism The Industrial Age and early capitalism have made a significant contribution to the perceptions of wealth and business. This paper discusses this theme in presentation style.
  • Friedman’s Free Market Capitalism A free market economy is a system in which the prices of goods and services are determined purely by the demand and supply in the market.
  • Capitalism in “Out of This Furnace” by Thomas Bell This paper is intended to discuss the structure and general ideas of capitalism based on the phrase of the main character of the book “Out of This Furnace” by Thomas Bell.
  • Exploitation and Profit in Capitalism Although the exploitation of people by other people has always existed, the capitalist rule has transformed this practice into something unique and to some degree acceptable.
  • Industrial Age and Early Capitalism The Industrial Age and early capitalism have made a significant contribution to the perceptions of wealth and business in contemporary society.
  • The Vision of Capitalism: Adam Smith vs Karl Marx Comparing Smith’s vision of the impact of the capitalist economy to that of Marx, it can be claimed that the former offers a more positive evaluation of the relevant outcomes.
  • Work Motivation: Capitalism, Individualism, Institutionalism The reasons why people work can be found in Weber’s Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. The key constituents are calling, predestination, and asceticism.
  • The Status of Capitalism in Communist China In the current paper, the author reviews some of the important factors needed for a capitalist economy to produce wealth. The discussion will be made in relation to DeSoto’s arguments.
  • The Role of Markets and the State in Different Approaches to Understanding a Capitalist Economy Capitalism is an economic policy used by the government aimed at minimal participation in production. This paper looks into issues associated with capitalism.
  • Consecrating Capitalism: The United States Prosperity Gospel and Neoliberalism
  • Capital Ownership via Capitalism: Main Features and Differences
  • Knowledge Capitalism: Business, Work, and Learning in the New Economy
  • Capitalism’s Anglo-American Model and the German Economic Alternative
  • Industrial Production and Capitalism Drivers of Social Change in History
  • Investor Capitalism and the Reshaping of Business in India
  • How Did Communism and Capitalism Lead To the Cold War?
  • Europe and the Economic Crisis: Forms of Labour Market Adjustment and Varieties of Capitalism
  • How Does Shared Capitalism Affect Economic Performance in the UK
  • Understanding Capitalism: Competition, Command, and Change
  • Cooperative Capitalism: Self-Regulation, Trade Associations, and the Antimonopoly Law in Japan
  • Capitalism, Socialism and the Mixed Economic System Compared
  • Corporate Islam, Global Capitalism and the Performance of Economic Moralities
  • Criminal Justice System, Capitalism, and Victimization
  • Free Marxism, Global Capitalism and the Human Being as a Commodity
  • Global Capitalism and Imperialism Theory: Methodological and Substantive Insights From Rosa Luxemburg
  • State-Monopoly Capitalism and Bourgeois Political Economy
  • How Does the Spirit of Capitalism Affect Stock Market Prices in a Small-Open Economy
  • Making Capitalism Work: Social Capital and Economic Growth in Italy, 1970-1995
  • The Link Between State Making and Mercantile Capitalism
  • Cutthroat Capitalism Versus Cuddly Socialism: Are Americans More Meritocratic and Efficiency-Seeking Than Scandinavians
  • The Link Between Colombia’s Capitalism and Drug Trade
  • Workplace Relations, Unemployment, and Finance-Dominated Capitalism
  • Cognitive Capitalism, Welfare, and Labour: The Common fare Hypothesis
  • Finance Capitalism and Germany’s Rise to Industrial Power
  • Max Weber and Karl Marx on Modern Capitalism
  • Wealth and Inequality Over Eight Centuries of British Capitalism
  • Globalization and the Contradiction of Peripheral Capitalism in Nigeria
  • Why Does Marx Believe That Capitalism Will Inevitably Give Way to Socialism?
  • When Managerial Capitalism Embraced Shareholder-Value Ideology?
  • Imperialism and Colonialism Are Obstacles to Global Capitalism
  • Capitalism Was Behind American Colonization of Puerto
  • Capitalism Dominates the Way How Human’s Acquire Goods and Wealth
  • Corporate Social Responsibility and Crony Capitalism in Taiwan
  • Why Inheritance Undermines Capitalism?
  • The Role of Deng Xiaoping and the Origins of Chinese Capitalism
  • The Truth Behind the Political System of Capitalism in the United States
  • The Vanishing Hand: The Changing Dynamics of Industrial Capitalism
  • Capitalism, Globalization and the Perpetuation of Women’s Oppression: A Vicious Cycle
  • The Global Financial Crisis, Neoclassical Economics, and the Neoliberal Years of Capitalism
  • Milton Friedman’s Capitalism and Freedom: A Binary Economic Critique
  • Class System and Alienation Under Capitalism According to Karl Marx
  • The Cotton Kings: Capitalism and Corruption in Turn-Of-The-Century New York and New Orleans
  • Municipal Capitalism, Regulatory Federalism and Politics
  • The Relationships Between Capitalism, Colonialism and the Libratory Struggles
  • Capitalist Transformation Without Political Participation: German Capitalism in the First Half of the 19th Century
  • Civilizing Capitalism: “Good” and “Bad” Greed From the Enlightenment to Thorstein Veblen (1857-1929)
  • How Capitalism, University, and Mathematics as Institutions Shaped Mainstream Economics
  • Capitalism and Patriarchy Effect on Woman Abuse
  • Unregulated Capitalism Undermines the Legitimacy of Liberal Democracy
  • Colonial Capitalism: Changing Cultures and Lives
  • How Sweet Capitalism Has Risen in Great Britain?
  • Corporative Capitalism: Civil Society and the Politics of Accumulation in Small Town India
  • The Trade-off Between Capitalism and Democracy in a Historical Perspective
  • The Causes and Effects of the Cold War Between Communism and Capitalism
  • Learning Capitalism the Hard Way – Evidence From German Reunification
  • The History and Impact of the Free Market System or Capitalism in the United States
  • Capitalism and Western Philosophy Have Taken the World by Storm
  • Re-Imaging Capitalism Through Social Entrepreneurship
  • Vietnam War: The Product of Capitalism and Communism
  • European Monetary Integration and the Incompatibility of National Varieties of Capitalism
  • Entrepreneurship and the Defense of Capitalism: An Examination of the Work of Israel Kirzner
  • Coordination and Organization: The Two Dimensions of Nonliberal Capitalism
  • Does Karl Marx’s Critique of Capitalism Rest on a Fallacious Philosophy of History
  • Differentiate Laissez-Faire Capitalism From State-Directed Capitalism
  • The Nature and Functioning of European Capitalism: A Historical and Comparative Perspective
  • Modern Capitalism: Its Origin and Evolution
  • Welfare Over Time: Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism in Panel Perspective
  • Why Does Market Capitalism Fail to Deliver a Sustainable Environment and Greater Equality of Incomes?
  • The Differences Between Capitalism vs. Socialism
  • The Contradiction Between Capitalism and Democracy in the United States
  • What Can Marx’s Work on Capitalism Tell Us About Modernity?
  • Capitalism, the State, and the Underlying Drivers of Human Development
  • Slovenia’s Transition From Labor Managed Economy to Privately Owned Capitalism
  • Are Democracy and Capitalism Compatible?
  • Did John Maynard Keynes Save or Destroy Capitalism?
  • How Does Capitalism Contribute Towards Unemployment?
  • Why Did Karl Marx Condemn Capitalism?
  • Does Capitalism Destroy Culture?
  • How Did the Successive Stages of Capitalism Change the UK’s Accounting and Financial Reporting Processes?
  • Can Democracy Survive Global Capitalism?
  • What Does Advertisement Tell Us About America Before and After Capitalism?
  • Did the New Deal Weaken or Strengthen Capitalism in the US?
  • Has Capitalism Lifted Billions Out of Poverty?
  • How Has the Internet Changed Modern-Day Capitalism?
  • What Caused the Clash Between Communism and Capitalism During the Cold War?
  • How Did Government Policies Affect Global Capitalism?
  • Does Global Capitalism Mean Free Trade?
  • Why Has Liberal Capitalism Failed to Stimulate a Democratic Culture in Africa?
  • Are Managerial Capitalism and Crony Capitalism Incompatible?
  • Did the Progressive Reform Substantially Restrain the Power of American Capitalism?
  • Can the BRICS Help Global Capitalism Escape Its Crisis?
  • Why Did Marx Believe That Capitalism Is Destined to Self-Destruction?
  • Does Capitalism Maximize Human Well-Being?
  • How Does Capitalism Differ From Socialism and Communism?
  • Does Capitalism Promote Social Inequality?
  • Is Capitalism Good for Poor Countries?
  • Has Socialism Been Defeated by Capitalism?
  • Did Marx Condemn Capitalism as Unjust?
  • How Can Capitalism Take Control of People’s Lives?
  • Why Did Early Capitalism Benefit the Majority?
  • Does the Current Financial Crisis Mean the Crisis of Liberal Capitalism?
  • How Does Capitalism Influence the Debt of Developing Countries?
  • Did the USSR Really Benefit From Its Transition to Capitalism?

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StudyCorgi. (2021, November 12). 187 Capitalism Essay Topics. https://studycorgi.com/ideas/capitalism-essay-topics/

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This essay topic collection was updated on January 5, 2024 .


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123 Capitalism Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

Inside This Article

Capitalism is an economic system that has been widely adopted across the globe. It promotes private ownership, free markets, and competition as the driving forces behind economic growth. As a complex and dynamic system, capitalism offers a plethora of research topics for students and scholars. In this article, we present 123 capitalism essay topic ideas and examples to inspire and guide your research.

  • The history and evolution of capitalism: From its origins to the present day.
  • Capitalism vs. socialism: A comparative analysis of economic systems.
  • The impact of capitalism on income inequality.
  • The role of entrepreneurship in capitalism.
  • Capitalism and consumer culture: How advertising shapes our desires.
  • The relationship between capitalism and democracy.
  • The role of multinational corporations in capitalism.
  • Capitalism and globalization: Opportunities and challenges.
  • The impact of capitalism on the environment.
  • Capitalism and technological innovation: A symbiotic relationship?
  • Capitalism and the gig economy: Pros and cons for workers.
  • The role of government regulation in a capitalist society.
  • Capitalism and social mobility: Is it a myth?
  • Capitalism and the welfare state: Balancing economic growth and social protection.
  • The role of financial markets in capitalism.
  • The influence of economic recessions on capitalism.
  • The impact of capitalism on gender equality.
  • Capitalism and the healthcare industry: Pros and cons.
  • Capitalism and education: The commodification of knowledge.
  • The role of intellectual property rights in capitalism.
  • Capitalism and income mobility: Can anyone achieve the American Dream?
  • Capitalism and poverty: Can the market system alleviate or exacerbate it?
  • The impact of capitalism on the arts and culture.
  • Capitalism and philanthropy: The role of wealthy individuals and corporations.
  • The relationship between capitalism and social unrest.
  • The impact of capitalism on worker rights and labor conditions.
  • Capitalism and the housing market: Affordable housing and gentrification.
  • The influence of capitalism on political ideologies.
  • Capitalism and economic imperialism: The impact on developing countries.
  • The role of capitalism in technological advancements in healthcare.
  • Capitalism and income taxation: Progressive or regressive?
  • The impact of capitalism on mental health and well-being.
  • Capitalism and the media industry: Concentration of ownership and its consequences.
  • The relationship between capitalism and innovation in renewable energy.
  • Capitalism and the pharmaceutical industry: Drug pricing and access.
  • The role of capitalism in shaping economic policies.
  • Capitalism and economic bubbles: Causes and consequences.
  • The impact of capitalism on indigenous communities.
  • Capitalism and the gig economy: The rise of platform capitalism.
  • The role of capitalism in shaping urban development.
  • Capitalism and artificial intelligence: Opportunities and risks.
  • The influence of capitalism on the criminal justice system.
  • Capitalism and economic inequality in developing countries.
  • The impact of capitalism on worker alienation.
  • Capitalism and corporate social responsibility: Genuine commitment or mere PR?
  • The role of capitalism in shaping trade policies and international relations.
  • Capitalism and the rise of the sharing economy.
  • The influence of capitalism on the education gap between rural and urban areas.
  • Capitalism and the prison-industrial complex: Profit-driven incarceration.
  • The impact of capitalism on food production and distribution.
  • Capitalism and the rise of the gig economy in developing countries.
  • The role of capitalism in the financialization of the economy.
  • Capitalism and the impact of automation on employment.
  • The influence of capitalism on the cost of higher education.
  • Capitalism and income inequality in developed countries.
  • The impact of capitalism on worker solidarity and unionization.
  • Capitalism and the rise of the informal economy.
  • The role of capitalism in shaping the global food industry.
  • Capitalism and the privatization of public services.
  • The influence of capitalism on workplace diversity and inclusion.
  • Capitalism and the gig economy: The erosion of worker benefits and protections.
  • The impact of capitalism on the welfare of indigenous communities.
  • Capitalism and the rise of the sharing economy: Collaborative consumption or exploitation?
  • The role of capitalism in shaping the gig economy in developed countries.
  • Capitalism and the financialization of housing markets.
  • The influence of capitalism on the access to and affordability of healthcare.
  • Capitalism and the impact of digital platforms on labor markets.
  • The impact of capitalism on cultural diversity and heritage.
  • Capitalism and the rise of precarity in the labor force.
  • The role of capitalism in shaping the global fashion industry.
  • Capitalism and the privatization of natural resources.
  • The influence of capitalism on the development of smart cities.
  • Capitalism and the impact of the sharing economy on traditional industries.
  • The impact of capitalism on the mental health of workers in the gig economy.
  • Capitalism and the rise of automation in manufacturing industries.
  • The role of capitalism in shaping the global tourism industry.
  • Capitalism and the commodification of water resources.
  • The influence of capitalism on the accessibility of affordable housing.
  • Capitalism and the rise of remote work in the gig economy.
  • The impact of capitalism on cultural imperialism and cultural diversity.
  • Capitalism and the rise of the platform economy in developing countries.
  • The role of capitalism in shaping the global entertainment industry.
  • Capitalism and the privatization of education.
  • The influence of capitalism on the gig economy in rural areas.
  • Capitalism and the impact of automation on service industries.
  • The impact of capitalism on the preservation of natural habitats.
  • Capitalism and the rise of freelance work in the gig economy.
  • The role of capitalism in shaping the global gaming industry.
  • Capitalism and the commodification of healthcare services.
  • The influence of capitalism on the accessibility of affordable transportation.
  • Capitalism and the rise of remote work in the gig economy: Pros and cons.
  • The impact of capitalism on cultural appropriation and representation.
  • Capitalism and the role of government in regulating the gig economy.
  • The role of capitalism in shaping the global sports industry.
  • Capitalism and the privatization of public transportation.
  • The influence of capitalism on the gig economy in urban areas.
  • Capitalism and the impact of automation on creative industries.
  • The impact of capitalism on sustainable development and environmental justice.
  • Capitalism and the rise of the sharing economy: Empowering or disempowering marginalized communities?
  • The role of capitalism in shaping the global music industry.
  • Capitalism and the commodification of mental health services.
  • The influence of capitalism on the affordability of higher education.
  • Capitalism and the rise of remote work in the gig economy: Implications for work-life balance.
  • The impact of capitalism on cultural heritage preservation and indigenous rights.
  • Capitalism and the influence of government policies on the gig economy.
  • The role of capitalism in shaping the global film industry.
  • Capitalism and the privatization of healthcare.
  • The influence of capitalism on the accessibility of affordable internet services.
  • Capitalism and the rise of the gig economy: Implications for gender equality.
  • The impact of capitalism on cultural diversity and inclusion.
  • Capitalism and the rise of the sharing economy: Addressing ethical concerns.
  • The role of capitalism in shaping the global publishing industry.
  • Capitalism and the commodification of eldercare services.
  • The influence of capitalism on the affordability of vocational education.
  • Capitalism and the rise of remote work in the gig economy: Implications for mental health.
  • The impact of capitalism on cultural preservation and traditional knowledge.
  • Capitalism and the influence of government policies on worker rights in the gig economy.
  • The role of capitalism in shaping the global beauty industry.
  • Capitalism and the privatization of mental health services.
  • The influence of capitalism on the accessibility of affordable childcare.
  • Capitalism and the rise of the gig economy: Implications for racial equality.
  • The impact of capitalism on cultural imperialism and the dominance of Western culture.
  • Capitalism and the rise of the sharing economy: Promoting ethical and sustainable practices.

These 123 capitalism essay topic ideas and examples encompass a wide range of areas and perspectives within the study of capitalism. Whether you are interested in its historical development, its impact on different industries, or its relationship with social and environmental issues, there is a topic that suits your research interests. Remember to choose a topic that aligns with your academic discipline, personal interests, and the available resources for conducting research. Happy writing!

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1000-Word Philosophy: An Introductory Anthology

1000-Word Philosophy: An Introductory Anthology

Philosophy, One Thousand Words at a Time

Arguments for Capitalism and Socialism

Author: Thomas Metcalf Category: Social and Political Philosophy Wordcount: 993

Editor’s Note: This essay is the second in a two-part series authored by Tom on the topic of capitalism and socialism. The first essay, on defining capitalism and socialism, is available here .

Listen here

Suppose I had a magic wand that allowed one to produce 500 donuts per hour. I say to you, “Let’s make a deal. You use this wand to produce donuts, and then sell those donuts for $500 and give me the proceeds. I’ll give you $10 for every hour you spend doing this. I’ll spend that time playing video games.”

My activity—playing video games—seems pretty easy. Your job requires much more effort. And I might end up with a lot more money than $10 for every hour you work. How is that fair?

In the story, the magic wand is analogous to capital goods : assets (typically machinery and buildings, such as robots, sewing machines, computers, and factories) that make labor, or providing goods and services, more productive. Standard definitions of ‘capitalism’ and ‘socialism’ indicate that, in general, capitalist systems permit people to privately own and control capital goods, whereas socialist systems do not. And capitalist systems tend to contain widespread wage labor, absentee ownership, and property income; socialist systems generally don’t. [1]

Capital goods are morally interesting. As in the case of the magic wand, ownership of capital goods can allow one to make lots of money without working. In contrast, other people have to work for a living. This might be unfair or harmful. This essay surveys and explains the main arguments in this debate. [2]

Commercial donut manufacturing.

1. Capitalism

Arguments for capitalism tend to hold that it’s beneficial to society for there to be incentives to produce, own, and use capital goods like the magic wand, or that it’s wrong to forcibly prevent people from doing so. Here are four arguments for capitalism, stated briefly:

(1) Competition: ‘When individuals compete with each other for profits, this benefits the consumer.’ [3]

Critique : Competition also may encourage selfish and predatory behavior. Competition can also occur in some socialist systems. [4]

(2) Freedom: ‘Preventing people from owning capital restricts their freedom. Seizing their income in the form of taxes may constitute theft.’ [5]

Critiques : Maybe owning property, itself, restricts freedom, by excluding others from using it. [6] If I announce that I own something, I may be thereby announcing that I will force you not to use it. And maybe “freedom” requires the ability to pursue one’s own goals, which in turn requires some amount of wealth. [7] Further, if people must choose between work and starvation, then their choice to work may not be really “free” anyway. [8] And the general distribution of wealth is arguably the result of a morally arbitrary “natural lottery,” [9] which may not actually confer strict property-rights over one’s holdings. [10] I didn’t choose where I was born, nor my parents’ wealth, nor my natural talents, which allow me to acquire wealth. So perhaps it’s not a violation of my rights to take some of that property from me.

(3) Public Goods: [11] ‘When objects, including capital, must be shared with others, then no one is strongly motivated to produce them. In turn, society is poorer and labor is more difficult because production is inefficient.’ [12]

Critique : People might be motivated to produce capital for altruistic reasons, [13] or may be coerced in some socialist systems to do so. Some putatively socialist systems allow for profitable production of capital goods. [14]

  (4) Tragedy of the Commons: ‘When capital, natural resources, or the environment are publicly controlled, no one is strongly motivated to protect them.’ [15]

Critique : As before, people might be motivated by altruism. [16] Some systems with partially-private control of capital may nevertheless qualify as socialist. [17]

2. Socialism

Arguments for socialism tend to hold that it’s unfair or harmful to have a system like in the story of the magic wand, a system with widespread wage labor and property income. Here are four arguments for socialism, stated briefly:

(1) Fairness: ‘It’s unfair to make money just by owning capital, as is possible only in a capitalist system.’ [18]

Critique : Perhaps fairness isn’t as morally important as consent, freedom, property rights, or beneficial consequences. And perhaps wage laborers consent to work, and capital owners have property rights over their capital. [19]

(2) Inequality: ‘When people can privately own capital, they can use it to get even richer relative to the poor, and the wage laborers are left poorer and poorer relative to the rich, thereby worsening the inequality that already exists between capital-owners and wage-laborers.’ [20]

Critiques : This is a disputable empirical claim. [21] And perhaps the ability to privately own capital encourages people to invest in building capital goods, thereby making goods and services cheaper. Further, perhaps monopolies commonly granted by social control over capital are “captured” by wealthy special-interests, [22] which harm the poor by enacting regressive laws. [23]

(3) Labor: ‘Wage laborers are alienated from their labor, exploited, and unfree because they must obey their bosses’ orders.’ [24]

Critiques : If this alienation and exploitation are net-harmful to workers, then why do workers consent to work? If the answer is ‘because they’ll suffer severe hardship otherwise,’ then strictly speaking, this is a critique of allowing poverty, not a critique of allowing wage labor.

(4) Selfishness: ‘When people can privately own capital, they selfishly pursue profit above all else, which leads to further inequality, environmental degradation, non-productive industries, economic instability, colonialism, mass murder, and slavery.’

Critique : These are also disputable empirical claims. Maybe when people are given control over socially -owned capital, they selfishly extract personal wealth from it. [25] Maybe when the environment is socially controlled, everyone is individually motivated to over-harvest and pollute. [26] State intervention in the economy may be a major cause of the existence of non-productive industry, pollution, and economic instability. [27] Last, some of the worst perpetrators of historical evils are governments, not private corporations. [28]

  3. Conclusion

It is difficult to justifiably draw general conclusions about what a pure capitalism or socialism would be like in practice. [29] But an examination of the merits and demerits of each system gives us some guidance about whether we should move a society in either direction.

[1] See my Defining Capitalism and Socialism for an explanation of how to define these systems.

[2] For much-more-extensive surveys, see Gilabert and O’Neill n.d. and Arnold n.d.

[3] By analogy, different people might try to construct even better magic wands, or use them for better purposes. Typically the benefits are thought to include lower prices, increased equality, innovation, and more options. See Smith 2003 [1776]: bk. 1, ch. 2 and Friedman and Friedman 1979: ch. 1.

[4] Schweickart 2011 presents an outline of a market socialism comprising much competition.

[5] By analogy, if I legitimately own the magic wand, then what gives you the right to threaten violence against me if I don’t give it to you? Nozick 1974: ch. 7 presents a general discussion of how socialism might restrict freedom and how taxation may be akin to theft or forced labor.

[6] Spencer 1995 [1871]: 103-4 and Zwolinski 2015 discuss how property might require coercion. See also Scott 2011: 32-33. Indeed, property in general may essentially be theft (Proudhon 1994 [1840]).

[7] See Rawls (1999: 176-7) for this sort of argument. See John Rawls’ ‘A Theory of Justice’ by Ben Davies for an introduction.

[8] See e.g. Burawoy 1979 for a discussion of whether workers consent to work. See also Marx 2004 (1867): vol. IV, ch. VII.

[9] Rawls 1999: 62 ff.

[10] Relatedly, while one may currently hold capital, one may greatly owe the existence of that product to many other people or to society in general. See e.g. Kropotkin 2015 [1913]: chs. 1-3 and Murphy and Nagel 2002.

[11] A public good is a good that is non-excludable (roughly, it is expensive to prevent people from using it) and non-rivalrously consumed (roughly, preventing people from using it causes harm without benefiting anyone) (Cowen 2008).

[12] By analogy, why bother building magic wands at all if someone else is immediately going to take it from me and start using it? Standard economic theory holds that public goods (non-excludable and non-rivalrous goods) will, on the free market, be underproduced. This is normally taken to be an argument for government to produce public goods. See e.g. Gaus 2008: 84 ff.

[13] For example, according to Marxist communism, the ideal socialist society would comprise production for use, not for profit. See e.g. Marx 2004 [1867]: vol. 1 ch. 7. See also Kropotkin 1902, which is a defense of the general claim that humans will tend to be altruistic, at least in anarcho-communist systems.

[14] In a market-socialist system (cf. Schweickart 2011), it is possible to make capital goods and sell them at a profit that gets distributed to the laborers.

[15] By analogy, if I know that anyone in the neighborhood can use the magic wand, I might not invest my own time and money to maintain it. But if it’s mine alone, I care a lot more about maintaining it. This is the basis of the well-known ‘Tragedy of the Commons’ alleged problem. See, e.g., Hardin 1968.

[16] Kropotkin 1902.

[17] As before, in Schweickart’s (2011) system, firms will be motivated to protect capital if they must pay for capital’s deprecation, even though the capital is owned by society.

[18] By analogy, as noted, the wand-owner might make lots of money for basically doing no work. Sherman 1995: 130; Schweickart 2011: § 3.2.

[19] See e.g. Friedman 2002 for a collection of consequentialist arguments for capitalism, and Nozick 1974: chs. 3 and 7 for some arguments concerning freedom and capitalist systems.

[20] By analogy, the wand-owner might accumulate so much money as to start buying other magic wands and renting those out as well. See e.g. Piketty 2014.

[21] Taking the world as a whole, wealth in absolute terms has been increasing greatly, and global poverty has been decreasing steeply, including in countries that have moved in mostly capitalist directions. See e.g. World Bank Group 2016: 3. Friedman 1989: ch. 5 argues that capitalism is responsible for the improved position of the poor today compared to the past.

[22] See e.g. Friedman 1989: ch. 7 for a discussion of regulatory capture.

[23] Friedman 2002: chs. IV and IX; Friedman 1989: ch. 4.

[24] By analogy, the person I’ve hired to use the wand might need to obey my orders, because they don’t have a wand of their own to rent out, and they might starve without the job I’ve offered them. Marx 2009 [1932] introduces and develops this concept of alienation. See Dan Lowe’s 2015 Karl Marx’s Conception of Alienation for an overview. See also Anderson 2015 for an argument that private corporations coercively violate their workers’ freedom.

[25] See n. 21 above. This result is most-obvious in countries in which dictators enrich themselves, but there is nothing in principle preventing rulers of ostensibly democratic countries from doing so as well. Presumably this worry explains the presence of the Emoluments Clause in the U. S. Constitution.

[26] See n. 14.

[27] See e.g. Friedman 2002: chs. III and V and the example of compliance costs for regulations.

[28] See Huemer 2013: ch. 6 ff.

[29] All or nearly all large-scale economies have been mixed economies. In contrast, a pure capitalism would be an anarcho-capitalism (see e.g. Gaus 2010: 75 ff. and Huemer 2013), and a pure socialism wouldn’t permit people to privately own scissors. See also the entry “Defining Capitalism and Socialism.”

Anderson, Elizabeth. 2015. Private Government: How Employers Rule Our Lives (and Why We Don’t Talk about It) . Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Arnold, Samuel. N. d. “Socialism.” In The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (ed.), The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy , URL = < https://www.iep.utm.edu/socialis/ >

Burawoy, Michael. 1979. Manufacturing Consent: Changes in the Labor Process under Monopoly Capitalism . Chicago, IL and London, UK: The University of Chicago Press.

Cohen, G. A. 2009. Why Not Socialism? Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Cowen, Tyler. 2008. “Public Goods.” In David R. Henderson (ed.), The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics . Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund.

Dagger, Richard and Terence Ball. 2019. “Socialism.” In Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. (ed.), E ncyclopædia Britannica . Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/socialism

Dahl, Robert A. 1993. “Why All Democratic Countries have Mixed Economies.” Nomos 35: 259-82.

Dictionary.com. N.d. “Capitalism.” URL = < https://www.dictionary.com/browse/capitalism >

Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. 2019. “Henri de Saint-Simon.” In Encyclopædia Britannica , Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Henri-de-Saint-Simon

Friedman, David D. 1989. The Machinery of Freedom: Guide to a Radical Capitalism , Second Edition. La Salle, IL: Open Court Publishing Company.

Friedman, Milton. 2002. Capitalism and Freedom . Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Friedman, Milton and Rose Friedman. 1979. Free to Choose: A Personal Statement . New York, NY: Harcourt Brace.

Gaus, Gerald. 2010. “The Idea and Ideal of Capitalism.” In George G. Brenkert and Tom L. Beauchamp (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Business Ethics . New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Gaus, Gerald. 2008. On Philosophy, Politics, and Economics . Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

Gilabert, Pablo and Martin O’Neill. 2019. “Socialism.” In E. N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy . Retrieved from https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/socialism/ .

Hardin, Garrett. 1968. “The Tragedy of the Commons.” Science 162(3859): 1243-48.

Herzog, Lisa. 2019. “Markets.” In E. N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy , Spring 2019 Edition, URL =https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2019/entries/markets/

Huemer, Michael. 2013. The Problem of Political Authority: An Examination of the Right to Coerce and the Duty to Obey . Houndmills, UK and New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Investopedia. 2019. “Mixed Economic System.” Retrieved from https://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/mixed-economic-system.asp

Kropotkin, P. 1902. Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution . New York, NY: McClure Phillips & Co.

Kropotkin, Peter. 2015 [1913]. The Conquest of Bread. London, UK: Penguin Classics.

Lowe, Dan. 2015. “Karl Marx’s Conception of Alienation.” 1000-Word Philosophy . Retrieved from https://1000wordphilosophy.com/2015/05/13/karl-marxs-conception-of-alienation/.

Marx, Karl. 2009 [1932]. “Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844.” In Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 and the Communist Manifesto , tr. Martin Milligan (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books), pp. 13-202.

Marx, Karl. 2004 [1867]. Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, Volume One . New York, NY: Penguin Classics.

Merriam-Webster. N.d. “Capitalism.” URL = < https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/capitalism >

Mill, John Stuart. 1965 [1848]. Principles of Political Economy with Some of Their Applications to Social Philosophy, Volume I: The Principles of Political Economy I , ed. J. M. Robson. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Murphy, Liam and Thomas Nagel. 2002. The Myth of Ownership: Taxes and Justice. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Nozick, Robert. 1974. Anarchy, State, and Utopia . New York, NY: Basic Books.

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Scott, Bruce R. 2011. Capitalism: Its Origins and Evolution as a System of Governance . New York, NY: Springer Science+Business Media.

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Tom Metcalf is an associate professor at Spring Hill College in Mobile, AL. He received his PhD in philosophy from the University of Colorado, Boulder. He specializes in ethics, metaethics, epistemology, and the philosophy of religion. Tom has two cats whose names are Hesperus and Phosphorus. shc.academia.edu/ThomasMetcalf

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Essay on Capitalism

Students are often asked to write an essay on Capitalism in their schools and colleges. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic.

Let’s take a look…

100 Words Essay on Capitalism

What is capitalism.

Capitalism is an economic system where private individuals or businesses own goods and services. They make things or provide services to sell for profit. In this system, the market decides prices based on supply and demand. If many people want something that’s hard to get, it becomes expensive. If nobody wants something or it’s easy to get, it’s cheap.

Benefits of Capitalism

Capitalism can lead to innovation because companies compete to make better products. It also gives people freedom to choose their jobs and what they want to buy. When businesses succeed, they can create more jobs for people.

Challenges of Capitalism

Sometimes capitalism can make the rich richer and the poor poorer. This happens because not everyone starts with the same chance to succeed. Also, without rules, businesses might harm the environment or treat workers badly to lower costs and increase profits.

Capitalism in the World

Many countries have capitalism, but they also have laws to protect workers and the environment. Some countries mix capitalism with government programs that help people, like free healthcare or education. This mix can help fix some problems of pure capitalism.

250 Words Essay on Capitalism

Capitalism is like a big game where businesses and people try to make as much money as they can. Imagine a marketplace where everyone is free to sell their goods and services and set their prices. People can start their own businesses, and the ones with the best products or services often make the most money.

Freedom to Choose

In a capitalist system, you get to make choices. You can decide what to buy, which job to take, and even start your own company. This freedom means that if someone makes something really good or useful, they can become successful. But it also means that if they don’t do a good job, they might not make money, and someone else who does it better could win the customers.


Competition is a big deal in capitalism. It’s like a race where businesses try to outdo each other to win customers. This can lead to better products and lower prices. It’s good for customers because they get more choices and can find things that are better or cheaper.

Money and Wealth

Capitalism can make some people very rich. When a person or a company does really well, they can earn a lot of money. But this also means that not everyone gets the same amount. Some people might have a lot, while others have very little.

Capitalism is all about making money, having the freedom to choose, and competing in the market. It has its good sides, like better products and choices, but it also means not everyone will have the same amount of money. It’s a system that can help people succeed if they have a good idea and work hard.

500 Words Essay on Capitalism

Capitalism is a way of running an economy where private individuals or businesses own and operate the different things needed to make and sell goods and services. This includes factories, tools, and shops. In a capitalist system, the main goal is to make money. People who have money to invest, known as capitalists, spend their money on things that can make more money, like factories or machines.

Freedom of Choice

One big part of capitalism is freedom of choice. This means that businesses can decide what to make, and people can choose what to buy. If a toy company thinks that making a new toy will earn them money, they can go ahead and make it. Then, it’s up to the kids and parents to decide if they want to buy that toy. This freedom allows for lots of different products to be available in the market.

Competition is another important aspect of capitalism. Imagine there are two shops in your town that sell ice cream. One shop might try to have better flavors or lower prices to get more customers. This competition can lead to better products and services for everyone. Companies are always trying to improve what they sell and how they sell it to beat their rivals and attract more customers.

Pros of Capitalism

Capitalism has some good points. It encourages people to work hard and be creative, because they can keep most of the money they make. This can lead to new inventions and businesses. Also, since there is competition, customers usually get to choose from a variety of goods and services that might be better quality or less expensive.

Cons of Capitalism

However, capitalism isn’t perfect. Sometimes, it can lead to a few people getting very rich while others stay poor. If a business owner becomes successful, they might make a lot of money, but the people working for them might not earn as much. Also, in the race to make more money, businesses might harm the environment or not treat their workers well.

Many countries have a capitalist system, but they all do it a bit differently. For example, in some places, the government has rules to make sure businesses treat workers fairly and don’t hurt the environment. In other countries, the government lets businesses do more of what they want.

In conclusion, capitalism is a way of organizing an economy that focuses on private ownership and making profits. It has benefits like encouraging hard work and innovation, and it also has downsides such as inequality and potential harm to people or the planet. Countries around the world practice capitalism in various ways, with different rules and regulations to balance these pros and cons. Understanding capitalism is important because it affects how businesses operate, what products are available, and the overall economy of a country.

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Capitalism - Free Essay Examples And Topic Ideas

Capitalism is an economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and the pursuit of profit. Essays on capitalism could explore its principles, historical evolution, its impact on global economies, and its role in technological and societal advancements. Critiques of capitalism and its inequalities, as well as its contrast with other economic systems, could also be discussed. We’ve gathered an extensive assortment of free essay samples on the topic of Capitalism you can find in Papersowl database. You can use our samples for inspiration to write your own essay, research paper, or just to explore a new topic for yourself.

Capitalism According to Marx and Engel

Capitalism according to Marx and Engel in the communist manifesto is viewed as a class-based model in the society where individuals are divided into classes based on wealth. The class separation results in class struggle and competition. The capitalism system first causes exploitation of those providing labour that according to Marx and Engel belongs to the proletariat. Because the middle class or the bourgeoisie are in control of everything, including the means of production, the market, politics, and laws of […]

The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism

In Max Weber's work The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, he attempts to discern a reason why Protestants continuously find themselves with far more wealth than their Catholic counterparts. In part one, Weber will attempt to formulate a reason as to why this observed phenomenon occurs, by looking at key differences between Protestants and Catholics, capitalism, and Martin Luther's key idea of a calling that is absent in the totality of Catholicism. Weber starts chapter one of his […]

Political Problem

The rapid development of the modern world in regards to political growth and independence has resulted in political problems and particular political terrorism and state-sponsored violence. Nations together with their governments are faced with security problems caused by the nuclear proliferation leading to misuse of this materials through wars and violence and terrorism. State-sponsored terrorism occurs when government regime forces or oppresses the minority group. Terrorism is the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror to […]

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Global Capitalism during the Enlightenment

History throughout time has led us to where we are today. With the rise and fall of several nations, it has helped shape countries and the people in them, building the world for a better tomorrow. The World Systems Theory is an approach that submits there is a structure for how the world is shaped by history of the modern world which can explain the outcome based on global capitalism. By looking into the past through the eyes of people […]

Global Capitalism

This class has highlighted Globalization and resistance throughout the world. Capitalism has played a major role in the daily lives we live. The free market's adage of "stay out of my way and I'll stay out of your way" has long been how it is viewed by the world. It has driven society apart ever since it took its place in the global system. Exploitation from large corporations has widened the gap between the rich and the poor. Capitalism does […]

Bill Gates Entrepreneur

Bill Gates, along with other companions, created the famous software of Microsoft. Microsoft has, and is continuing to prosper around the globe due to it being created in a free enterprise system economy. However, people may say he only succeeded due to his families wealth and not the free enterprise system. Bill Gates is famously known for his great development of Microsoft in 1976. Microsoft could not have been possible if the united states did not have free enterprise. Without […]

An Idea of Capitalism

Capitalism has expanded and changed in a multitude of ways. From the 1500s, when capitalism slowly began to take shape, up until today, we live in a society dominated by capitalism. In "Capitalism: A Short History" by Jurgen Kocka, he argues that capitalism is "mostly used to denote an economic practice or an economic system, frequently with special attention to its social and cultural consequences." Kocka goes to great lengths to argue that capitalism changed over time because it was […]

Christianity and Capitalism

The founding fathers of the United States wrote the Constitution without any formal role for religion in government activities, but with very broad protections for religious liberty as they expected religious morals to play a large role in shaping the country. Most of the early settlers of the United States were Christians. In the early half of the 18th century, 75 to 80% of the U.S. population attended church (Locke), so the early economy of the U.S. was put in […]

Positives and Negatives of Marxism

Many people believe that 'there is no place for the political doctrine of Karl Marx in 2018'. While this statement sounds sensible and reasonable, some people think that it may be a little unfair to generalize all of Marx's beliefs as being negative and absurd. Negatives of Marxism One of the downsides of Marxism is its attempt to abrogate religion. The reason it does this is because one of the key features of Marxism is to have everyone be fully […]

An Issue of Modern Capitalism

The rise of the current capitalist economy is believed to trace back to the American history. Both Quijano and Wallerstein, "Americanity as a Concept, or the Americas in the Modern World-System, believed that the capitalist economy would not exist without America. The authors draw various evidence that support claims on why America is considered the basis of the rise of a capitalist economy. For instance, three factors are viewed as critical for the development of the capitalist world economy such […]

What is Capitalism?

"Freedom is the open window through which pours the sunlight of the human spirit and human dignity" (Herbert Hoover). In the 1920s, America turned away from worldly concerns and began concentrating on domestic affairs. Some might refer to this period in America as the Decade of Optimism. It ushered in many forward thinkers, innovators, innovations, and cultural changes. For example, Henry Ford created an efficient and cheap means to mass produce automobiles. This allowed even those who earned a modest […]

Democratic Peace Theory

After World War II, a known characteristic of affluent, liberal, democratic states is that they tend to not not engage in war with one another. The democratic peace theory attributes to this tendency to democracy itself, claiming that it is a key peacekeeper due to the obligatory culture of democracy to cooperate with the regime, both leaders and citizens for their own benefit. The capitalist peace theory justifies the maintenance of peace on the incentive of trade to maintain peace […]

The War System of Colombia Capitalism

When people think of Colombia they might think of the popular singer- songwriter Shakira or, possibly, cocaine. This paper will discuss Colombia's ongoing Civil War. Colombia can be found on a map in the northern tip of South America. In 1525 Spain began to colonize Colombia but in 1813 Colombia, finally, won its independence back. Colombia has a free market economy, its GDP in 2017 was 309.2 billion USD, ranking at number 39 out of the 200 countries documented in […]

Free Market Capitalism Vs State Driven Policies

Today, in the 21st century, a countries' economy is running one of three ways. One option is being ran on state driven policies. Another is to be ran on capitalism approach. Most countries in the world today are a mixed economy, which is a combination of these two forms. Free market capitalism means the people of the country have economic freedom to buy and sell goods and services without any government intervention, such as price setting, and prices are all […]

Capitalism and Consumerism Throughout Art

How can art be utilized in exposing consumerism's destruction to a Capitalist society? Capitalism is a form of government based on demand and supply. Consumerism is an ideology found within Capitalism. Consumerism is a social and economic order that encourages the acquisition of goods and services in ever-increasing amounts (Dictionary.com) This ties into and benefits Capitalism because this type of society runs based on demand and supply. Meaning, the people get what they want (or think they want), even if […]

Racism Interconnection to Capitalism

Racial unrest has made a ton of social distress all through the pilgrim time frame up to the postmodern time of American history. Institutional restraint and basic bigotry have been the center of social control systems that have kept up mastery over the African American people group and different races considered sub-par compared to white Americans. European Americans, particularly white Anglo-Saxon Protestants, were given uncommon benefits in parts of citizenship, arrive procurement, migration, instruction, and criminal strategy as from the […]

The History and Understanding of the Concept of a Minimum Wage

The concept of a minimum wage is self-explanatory: employees are guaranteed a pay rate that their employers cannot legally reduce. Today, minimum wage laws play a critical role in our economy; but this was not always the case. The first minimum wage laws were enacted in New Zealand in 1894 but did not come to the United States until 1938. The 1930s were defined by the Great Depression, an economic catastrophe that crippled the world, resulting in monumental levels of […]

The Temporalities of Capitalism

With the contemporary fiscal platform that our unyielding human consumption must serve as a catalyst for economic growth, nature is tasked with the impossible. Our environment and the most impoverished people often bear the brunt of the biodiversity collapse brought about by climate change. This change arises from the large-scale production and consumption processes of capitalism. Karl Marx's early philosophical manuscripts of 1844 are best known for developing his concept of "alienated labor," proposing a source for our estrangement from […]

Comparison of Capitalism and Socialism

Our world is steadily evolving, while the wealthy can keep up, the poor stay left behind. With the introduction of the internet we are constantly connected to the rest of the world. This is both beneficial and detrimental to the world. With this expansion of the global market we have become interdependent however we also have access to an abundance of resources. Capitalism is based around the idea of competition, who can work the hardest whereas communism is based around […]

Karl Marx Ideas of Capitalism and Communism

Karl Mar introduced a very thoughtful but controversial communism idea. He believed that social-economic structures influence the world's societal stages of history and revolution rather than reformation as the production cause in society. Moving from primitive society to the slavery principle (master vs. slave) to capitalism (factory owner vs. worker). Marx perceived that the last as well as greatest stage ought to be a classless society, one in which conflicts relating to class come to an end. This kind of […]

Capitalism is an Unparalleled Economic and Political System

Capitalism is a system known for promoting prosperity, wealth, freedom, and more. It goes without saying that any country that has ever existed will have inevitable setbacks. Ideally, the supposed lack of investment of S&P 500 companies in themselves, and homelessness in Seattle, did not come into fruition because of Capitalism. Nevertheless, critics suggest that an alternative to Capitalism is required to fix these issues. But these alternative systems, that they insist on implementing, have consistently failed to meet the […]

Childhood Obesity is an Epidemic in the USA

Introduction Childhood obesity has become an epidemic in the United States and other western industrialized societies. "Childhood obesity affects more than 18 percent of children in the United States, making it the most common chronic disease of childhood" (Obesity Action Coalition). According to the OAC, the percentage of children suffering from childhood obesity has tripled since 1980. A child is considered obese if their body mass index for their age is greater than 95 percent. Childhood obesity is both an […]

Capitalism and its Role

Can radical, rebellious music remain authentic in a modern global society? Alternatively, will the hip-hop message change once it is absorbed into the mainstream? Hip Hop started in the 1970s on the South Bronx streets, and it was a way for black people to deal with experiences of marginalization and oppression. Like punk rock, hip-hop was not considered to be a commercial thing in the first place, but it was an attitude of opposition to mainstream society through sampling, dance, […]

Understanding of Capitalism

Capitalism has been defined in different ways, but the main point is that it involves several organizations holding factors of production and a large number of potential investors unable to get into the market.  This essay will mostly address the issue of capitalism as it is in American continent the first part looks into the authors who have supported the ideas that capitalism is driven by the greed of investors and has related costs for its success.  The second portion […]

Pink Capitalism for LGBTQ Community

Pink Capitalism, plainly, is the incorporation of the LGBTQ movement and sexual diversity to capitalism and the market economy. It is a targeted inclusion of the LGBTQ community to generate a market focused specifically on them. And even though pride parades sweep away the world and legal turnarounds change our perspectives, it’s hard to deny that discrimination against the LGBTQ community exists, especially in the workplace. Pride parades are about celebrating diversity and inclusion. And while we do celebrate the […]

Capitalism in History

Capitalism is historically progressive in the sense that it creates material conditions for communism. It creates the condition to build the beginning of real human history and gives incentive for people to be productive under pretense of equal opportunity. A capitalist economic system rewards creating new products for profit. It is true that the rise in living standards, technological innovations and expanded freedom have come about under our capitalist economy, but it is also true that we have to give […]

What is Marxism?

Karl Heinrich Marx (1818-1883) was a radical social theorist, whose thoughts on social, economic and political systems are generally referred to as "Marxism" (Honderich, 1995). The basic tenets of Marxist philosophy are predicated on Marx's theory of history, which regards human history as a continuous struggle between socio-economic classes (Witt, et al, 1980). According to Marx, a particular class could rule over the rest of society only so long as that class best represented the economically productive forces of that […]

Weber, Exploitation, Capitalism, Protestantism

Introduction Religion is an aspect of the society that has both social and economic ties. As a part of the society, religion interacts with both the social and economic aspects of the society, thus shaping each other. Weber is one of the social theorists who have touched on religion in their theories. The rise of Protestantism in the world brought about various changes, especially in the working sector. While some of the people became hardworking others turned to exploit others. […]

Conscious Capitalism: what is It?

The primary concept of this case is Conscious Capitalism' which introduces a new holistic approach of doing business that seeks for the winning situations for all stakeholders by creating a higher purpose and foster the well-being of all stakeholders from various aspects. This new emerging paradigm eventually is more beneficial for the firm and the shareholders compared to the outcome of chasing after the profit maximization. "Conscious Capitalism: What Is It? Why Do We Need It? Does It Work?"  illustrates […]

Capitalism: a Love Story

The paper will begin by giving a general impression of the narrative, trailed by an assessment of how the narrative affected me. This will be trailed by an examination of whether I concur with Moore's message in the film or not, and why. The decision will be a conversation on whether the film has in any capacity changed my discernment on capitalism. There will be incorporated a catalog page refering to the assets utilized in the paper. In the event […]

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Home Essay Samples Economics

Essay Samples on Capitalism

Business and society: the fairer economic system for the society.

While researching the three different economic systems I became torn on the decision of which system I considered to be fairer on society. I am torn between capitalism and socialism as I believe both systems are fair in their own way. Capitalism is an economic...

  • Economic systems

The Two Largest Economic Systems: Socialism and Communism

Over the course of history, socialism and communism have been two of the most disputed topics among people and government officials. Socialism is an economic and political system where the ways of making a living are owned by the workers who run them and the...

Baby Boomers vs Others: The Interesting Generation Gap

You would see Baby Boomers complaining about millennials whereas the silent generation also had complains about Baby Boomers and vice versa. It seems to be going on since the start of mankind. Infact, the generations that have existed uptil now had some differences among them....

  • Baby Boomers

Cultural Capital: Main Topics of Conflict

Capital - 'accumulated labour' Economic Capital - easily translated to money Social Capital - made up of social connections that can be transformed into economic capital Cultural Capital – in the form of books or writings, can be institutionalised through the education system The ability...

  • Cultural Capital

Ronald Reagan's Speech On Capitalism And Communism

Reagan's speech was delivered to crowd of thousands while at the Berlin Wall to order Gorbachev bring the wall down to protect citizens freedoms. By arguing against the wall, the president would be able to repress communism which is what George Kennan attempted to do...

  • Ronald Reagan

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The Different Ideologies Of Capitalism, Socialism And Communism

The two belief systems are altogether different, they are both financial frameworks dependent on how society should function and its objective. Free enterprise depends on the normal challenge of creation in ventures and ranches for instance while communism is driven by balance with various classes....

The Issues Of America: Capitalism Vs Communism

Following quite a while of being a verboten belief system, communism is presently being proclaimed as an answer for the issues of America. Many in the broad communications, lawmakers both old and new, surely understood online life characters have all been vocally for the United...

The Debate About Socialism And Capitalism Among Young People

People should be able to keep what they earn, simple as that. Capitalism, although slightly drastic at times, supports that idea without question. However, an abundance of people strongly believe in socialism: the idea the everything is “fair and equal” and the government provides the...

  • Political Philosophy

Karl Marx's Criticism Of Capitalism And View Of Communism

Marx criticized capitalism and proposed a solution for a better and stronger economy system, a system that will make our future safer where no one is lift behind (communism). Karl was not a big fan of capitalism because he saw how the workers are being...

The Debate On Capitalism And Communism Under Karl Marx's Philosophy

No one would be opposed to a world without poverty, but this is a tough concept to imagine. What most people fail to realize is that a world without poverty is not as far out of reach as most might think. Communism is an economic...

The Battle Of Two Political Theories: Capitalism And Socialism

“Socialism never seems to have any theory of wealth creation, only fanciful schemes for its reallocation,” so why do some economists favor socialism over capitalism if there has not been any sustainable wealth creation over the years and instead economic destruction (Reed). Whether or not...

How Social Conflict Can Explain The Emergence Of Capitalism

Introduction The primary objective of this essay is to explain how social conflict could result in the emergence of capitalism. In sociology, the social conflict theory is a macro-oriented radicalism perspective, which assumes society as a subject of inequality that produces conflict and social change...

  • Communist Manifesto

Analysis Of Political Philosophy Theories And Moral Issues Within Them

Aristotle’s views on private property, interest, and the “fair” or “good” price of a good Aristotle (350 BC/1984) says that property should be private, but have common use (p. 13). He says this because men work the land, and cannot get along if they have...

  • Mercantilism

North and South: The Role of Victorian Women in the Capitalistic Marketplace

Capitalism, Marketplace, and Class were some of the most dominant themes in the 19th century and Victorian age. These themes were essential not only because they defined society but because they also played an important role in the understanding of economic structure and developments in...

  • North and South
  • Victorian Era

Analysis of Eva's Role in Inspector Calls

Priestley’s character, Eva Smith, in An Inspector Calls, never appears in the play, but is omnipresent throughout and the audience gets to know about her as the chain of events unfold. From Inspector Goole’s enquiry with other characters into her suicidal death, we can perceive...

  • Inspector Goole
  • Social Class

The Impacts of Liberalism, Mercantilism and Marxism on International Political Economy

Mercantilism, liberalism, and Marxism all play an enormous role in international political economy. Each have their own ideas of the major actors, state-market relationships, and the overall international cooperation between states. Neo-mercantilists and Liberals both agree that 1979 was a significant year for China because...

Capitalism in the Movie Avatar by James Cameron

The movie Avatar takes place in a futuristic time on a planet called Pandora. On Pandora lives an indigenous people called the Na’vi. The Na’vi people live in perfect peace with nature and worship Eywa, a mother goddess. However, a large corporation called RDA is...

Avatar by James Cameron As the Concept of Capitalism

Avatar, James Cameron’s 3D epic, is the world’s highest-grossing movie of all time. Everything about it is extravagant: computer generated images to vivid graphics. Many people have seen it, but have they ever thought of what the film is truly about? Avatar offers us a...

Universal Basic Income: A Modern Society’s Dream Come True

Imagine receiving a thousand dollars in your bank account every month, for the rest of your life, regardless of your status or income, no questions asked, no work or payback required. - Impractical you say? Andrew Yang, a 2020’s presidential candidate is running for president...

  • Modern Society
  • Universal Basic Income

John Berger, Publicity and Denaturalisation

John Peter Berger (5 November 1926 – 2 January 2017) was an English art critic, novelist, painter and poet. He is best known for his novel G. and his book and BBC series Ways of Seeing. His books’ ideas and arguments (Ways of Seeings and...

  • John Berger

Max Weber and the Iron Cage of Bureaucracy

The technological and scientific advances of history are said to have been the prime motivators for the change from traditional to modern day society, but German sociologist Max Weber argued that it was rather a shift of ideas that drove this change. In feudal society,...

  • Bureaucracy

Max Weber and His Views on Capitalism in Europe

In this essay, I will discuss Weber’s thoughts in relation to medieval legal systems across the globe, and how the law has developed alongside the dimensions of polity, economics and aspects of society. I will draw attention to legal issues which have developed through modernity,...

Critical Analysis of the Articles: Social Class and the Hidden Curriculum of Work by Jean Anyon and The Forms of Capital by Pierre Bourdieu

In today’s society social capital is integrated throughout family’s cultural traditions, social networks and educational policy. In the article, “Social Class and the Hidden Curriculum of Work” by Jean Anyon, she argues the education system in America today reinforces the social inequalities we currently face...

Milton Friedman's Capitalism and Freedom: Questioning Socialism

Capitalism and Freedom by Milton Friedman battles against the effects of capitalism and to justify the government intervention in the market. The link between democracy and capitalism, or governmental and economic freedom. Friedman asserts his argument around the relation between the economic freedom and governmental...

Socialism as the Promising Population's Philosophy

Today, socialism is one of the most prevalent alternatives to capitalism. So it's only natural that, as the poster child for capitalism, the United States has a very tricky relationship with socialism. The history of socialism within the U.S. is one of ineffective execution within...

  • Human Population

The Social Stratification in Uzbekistan: Structure and Standards

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112 Capitalism Research Topics & Essay Examples

📝 capitalism research paper examples, 🏆 best capitalism essay titles, 🎓 simple research topics about capitalism, ❓ capitalism research questions.

  • Capitalism Institutions The models of capitalism present various institutional frameworks characterizing the capitalist ideals practiced around the globe.
  • The Destructive Nature of Capitalism The modern world of capitalism and globalization provides a framework for each member of the global community to follow.
  • Capitalism in the United States Capitalism in the United States seems to be unsustainable. Although the US economy is the largest in the world, economic performance does not translate into living standards.
  • Public Administration in Canada Canadian Public Administration is unique in the sense that, unlike its neighboring countries, it includes every non-elected person employed by the government.
  • Why Capitalism Started in Europe and Dominated the World This line of argument holds that as city residents accrued enough primitive capital, they started reinvesting in production.
  • Sustainable Capitalism: Utopia or Reality Industrialism, combined with capitalism, led the world economy to the most significant increase in terms of material wealth that human history ever witnessed.
  • Marx’s Reasons of Capitalist Economy Collapse This essay will explain the reasons of Karl Marx prediction of a collapse of capitalist economy, it will be mainly on the crises and impacts of capitalist economies.
  • Karl Marx’s Theory of Exploitation: A Critical Analysis The essence of this exercise, therefore, is to develop a deeper understanding of Marx’s ideological perspective as well as the considerations of capitalism in the global market economy.
  • The Modern Application of Economic Socialism Coming to the aspect of economic socialism in Western economies, the paper seeks to demonstrate a recent appreciation of socialist measures by Western populations.
  • Marxism: Speech for the Presentation About Marxism The paper will tell about Marxism, its history, fundamental theories, and principles, as well as its significance for the world and science.
  • Technology in Utopian Society According to Engels This paper discusses the Engels utopia, where technological advancements in a utopian society would imply transformation that diminishes the structural facilitators of capitalism.
  • Capitalism v. Socialism Think Piece Demand and supply are two natural market counter forces that cannot be harnessed by the government, which is why the planned economy never yields any positive results.
  • Pan-Asianism Movement and Geopolitics Pan-Asianism represents a movement with aim of liberating Asia from foreign occupation. The main phase of cooperation was for a longer time represented by Japan and China.
  • Capitalism: The Good, the Bad, and the Greedy Many people associate capitalism with such a human feature as greed. Interestingly, some believe that socialistic societies have nothing to do with greed.
  • Transformation to Communism and Societal Problems Communism is fascinating in the way that it is humanistic, aiming to improve people’s lives and establish justice for everyone.
  • Theory and Practice of International Relations Diplomatic relationships and foreign policies on sustainability and accountable leadership are used by international institutions to influence interstate interaction.
  • Labor Internationalism. “In Praise of the Empire” by Connolly The paper aims to analyze how one of Connolly’s writings, “In Praise of the Empire,” helps to shed light on the values of labor internationalism.
  • Capitalism and Socialism in the Modern World This discussion post will focus on capitalism and socialism as two primary economic models and their place and roles in the modern world.
  • Spread of Capitalism, Imperialism and Globalization Starting from the late 16th century, European nations, especially Britain, had started overseas occupations starting with the Americas.
  • The Antebellum Capitalism and Jeffersonians and Jacksonians Capitalist Ideals The government played a significant role in shaping antebellum capitalism, but Jeffersonians and Jacksonians represented capitalist ideals better than the Federalists and Whigs.
  • The Variety of Capitalism (VoC) Approach and Examples The Variety of Capitalism approach’s multi-dimensional framework enables comparing and contrasting the models of industrial relationships that are polar but equally successful.
  • Discussion of Capitalism Political Ideology As a particular economic system, capitalism has already become an intrinsic part of modern Western society that affects millions of people which has four fundamental features.
  • Nationalism, Socialism, and Capitalism in Indonesia The paper states that nationalism, socialism, and capitalism are three central concepts that Indonesian political and social life revolves around.
  • Discussion of Capitalism and Socialism The paper discusses the idea of capitalism and the philosophy of socialism and describes its specifics - differencies and similarities.
  • Marxist-Inspired Theory: Why It Is Still Relevant The paper discusses Marxist-inspired theory, the ways in which it was different from other theoretical traditions, and why it remains relevant in the 21st century.
  • The Communist Manifesto: Overview, Purpose, and Significance The purpose of the Communist Manifesto was a detailed analysis of the society's structure and the presentation of communist ideas in the authors' vision.
  • Socialism and Communism According to Marx and Engels "The Communist Manifesto" by Marx and Engels discusses three types of socialism: conservative socialism, critical-utopian socialism, and reactionary socialism.
  • Building a Communist Society in East Germany The paper discusses why did East Germany become the place where the realization of the Marxian utopia of building a communist society was destined to occur.
  • Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, and Max Weber Views on Modernity, Capitalism, and Materialism Karl Marx was in defense and criticism of the changes in modernity; he was an outstanding supporter of modernization, arguing that it would bring human liberation.
  • Indonesian Politics and Its Major Tendencies The report discusses the major trends in Indonesian politics. Indonesia made substantial progress in ensuring human rights and liberties.
  • Marxism, Fascism, Capitalism, Socialism, and Liberalism Concepts This essay will intend to discuss the essence of Marxism, fascism, capitalism, socialism, and liberalism concepts and clarify the difference between them.
  • Does Karl Marx’s Critique of Capitalism Still Hold True in the 21st Century? The economic system now corresponds to capitalism, which affects all strata of society, making huge gaps between them culturally and socially.
  • Marx and Waltz Philosophy Comparison Ideology is the frame of reference through which an individual sees the world and defined to be the total sum of a combination of values, attitudes, beliefs, and aspirations.
  • Capitalist System and Its Flaws Analysis This paper analyzes capitalism's flaws. The fundamental flaws of capitalism are worker exploitation, capitalistic governments, and consolidation of power.
  • American International Relations and the Concepts of Capitalism and Liberalism
  • American Capitalism and the Economic System
  • Contested Capitalism: Financial Politics and Implications for China
  • Cognitive Capitalism, Welfare, and Labour: The Common Fare Hypothesis
  • After the Wall Fell: The Poor Balance Sheet of the Transition to Capitalism
  • Scientific Management, Welfare Capitalism, and Organizational Culture This paper will analyze the essence and features of such rhetorics, as scientific management, welfare capitalism, and organizational culture.
  • Agricultural Interests and the Origins of Capitalism
  • Capitalism and Frederick Engels’ Views on Economic System
  • Capitalism and Feudalism: The Lowell System
  • First Industrial Revolution and the Rise of Capitalism
  • Ages, Race, Capitalism, and Criminal Theories
  • Karl Marx vs Max Weber: Views on Capitalism Marx, and Weber both criticized capitalism, although, Weber’s ideas on class interaction seem to be more applicable today.
  • Capitalism and Collapse: Contradictions of Jared Diamond’s Market Meliorist Strategy to Save the Humans
  • Fiscal Policies, Capital Formation, and Capitalism
  • Agency Problems and the Fate of Capitalism
  • Anglo-American Capitalism: The Role and Potential Role of Social Accounting
  • Capitalism and the Issue of Economic Systems
  • “Manifesto of the Communist Party” by Karl Marx In his work “Manifesto of the Communist Party”, Karl Marx highlighted various elements of his criticism of capitalism, such as the class struggles and wage-labor disparity.
  • Economic Insecurity and the Institutional Prerequisites for Successful Capitalism
  • American Alliance Capitalism: Flagship-Led Clusters
  • Modern American Capitalism and Its Impact on American
  • Alliance Capitalism for the New American Economy
  • Bringing Politics Back Into Varieties of Capitalism
  • Role of Capitalism in Criminology The paper argues capitalism and its subsequent unfair criminal justice system are the primary sources of crimes in a society.
  • Evaluating the Current State of Democracy, Capitalism, and Freedom in the United States
  • Austerity Economics and the Struggle for the Soul of U.S. Capitalism
  • Ayn Rand and the Idea of Capitalism, Democracy, and Objectivism
  • Consumer Behavior in Capitalism The contemporary system of capitalism allows people to find the goods and services they want or require with the freedom to choose what best suits one’s needs.
  • European Explorers and Growth of Capitalism
  • Alienation and the Future of Capitalism
  • Marx’s Claim That Communism Would Be Superior to Capitalism
  • Capitalism and Its Impact on the Transgender Movement
  • Capitalism: The World’s Dominant Form of Economic Model The capitalist economic system was developed in Europe between 16th and 19th centuries. This paper describes capitalism as the world’s most dominant form of the economic model.
  • Capitalism and Its Origins in Imperialism
  • Piketty’s Second Law of Capitalism
  • American Capitalism and Global Convergence: After the Bubble
  • Chinas Authoritarian Capitalism Success or Failure
  • American Government and Capitalism
  • Moral Issues in Business: Capitalism and Socialism The current economic global crisis in this age of capitalism has raised many questions on whether it is time to change our economic policies.
  • Capitalism and Consumerism Effects on the Division of Social Classes
  • Disinvestment: Capitalism and Public Sector
  • Capitalism and the Great Depression
  • Capitalism and the Industrial Revolution According to Marx and Engels
  • Collapsing Worlds and Varieties of Welfare Capitalism
  • UAE and Chinese Economies and Capitalism This report compares and contrasts the UAE and the China economy, evaluating some of the key factors that determine the level and development of each country.
  • Europe and the Economic Crisis: Forms of Labour Market Adjustment and Varieties of Capitalism
  • Capitalism Benefits Everybody Reflective
  • Economic Changes, Internationalism, and Capitalism
  • Does Global Capitalism Mean Free Trade?
  • How Capitalism, University, and Mathematics as Institutions Shaped Mainstream Economics?
  • Did the USSR Really Benefit From Its Transition Into Capitalism?
  • How Does the Spirit of Capitalism Affect Stock Market Prices?
  • Are There More Similarities Between Feudalism and Capitalism Than We’d Like to Admit?
  • How Does Shared Capitalism Affect Economic Performance in the UK?
  • Can Russia’s State-Managed, Network Capitalism Be Competitive?
  • Has Capitalism Defeated Socialism?
  • Can Democracy Survive Global Capitalism?
  • How Fast and Why Did Early Capitalism Benefit the Majority?
  • Did the New Deal Weaken or Strengthen Capitalism in the USA?
  • How Does Kafka Comment on 20th Century Capitalism?
  • Does Karl Marx’s Critique of Capitalism Rest on a Fallacious Philosophy of History?
  • How Does the Capitalism Influence the Debt of Developing Countries?
  • Did Marx Condemn Capitalism as Unjust Sociology?
  • Are Democracy and Capitalism Compatible?
  • How Does Modern Capitalism Looks Like?
  • Did the Progressive Reform Substantially Restrain the Power of American Capitalism?
  • Does Capitalism Promote Social Inequality?
  • Did John Maynard Keynes Save or Destroy Capitalism?
  • Does the Current Financial Crisis Mean the Crisis of Liberal Capitalism?
  • Did the New Deal Strengthen or Weakened the USA Capitalism?
  • Can the BRICS Help Global Capitalism Escape Its Crisis?
  • How Capitalism Contributes Towards Unemployment?
  • How Capitalism Only Produces Poverty?
  • How Capitalism Alienates Workers According to Marx?
  • How Global Capitalism Creates Economic Zones?
  • Are Managerial Capitalism and Crony Capitalism Incompatible?
  • Can Capitalism Save the Planet?
  • Has Capitalism Seen Its Day?

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Research Questions about Capitalism

essay topics on capitalism

  • How Did Capitalism in Its Modern Form Appear?
  • What Are the Key Ideas of Mercantilism?
  • What Is the Relationship between Capitalism and Democracy?
  • How Did Globalization Help Capitalism Spread Worldwide?
  • Is Inequality Inevitable In a Capitalist Economy?
  • What Are the Key Characteristics of Modern Capitalism?
  • What Are the Ways to Ensure Fair Competition in a Capitalist Economy?
  • What Is the Role of Wage Labor in Capitalism?
  • How to Protect Private Property in a Capitalist Economy?
  • What Are the Disadvantages of Capitalism?

Fascinating Capitalism Topics to Write about

  • The Relations between Capitalism and Socialism
  • Anti-Capitalism: Social Phenomenon
  • Nationalism vs. Capitalism: Compare and Contrast
  • Capitalism: Contemporary Political Culture
  • “ Capitalism In America: The History ” by Alan Greenspan and Adrian Wooldridge
  • Triumph of Capitalism and Liberalism in Kagan’s The Jungle Grows Back
  • Stages of History, Capitalism, Class Conflict, and Labor Theory in Adam Smith’s Writings
  • Saving Capitalism: Videos and Articles Analysis
  • Edward Luttwak’s Turbo-Capitalism: Danger or Blessing?

 Capitalism Research Paper Topics

  • Why Has Liberal Capitalism Failed to Stimulate a Democratic Culture in Africa?
  • What Is the Connection between Capitalism and Modern Culture?
  • How Government Policies Affected Global Capitalism?
  • What Are the Positive and Negative Outcomes of Market Capitalism?
  • How Does Capitalism Differ From Socialism?
  • What Is the Connection Between Slavery, the Rise of Capitalism, and Colonization?
  • Why Doesn’t Capitalism Flow to Poor Countries?
  • How Does Capitalism Affect Population Growth?
  • Did the New Deal Strengthen or Weakened the USA Capitalism?
  • How Has the Rise of Capitalism Contributed to the Persistent Gender Inequity?
  • How Can Capitalism Take Control of People’s Lives?
  • What Is the Conflict Between Socialism and Capitalism?
  • What Can Marx’s Work on Capitalism Tell Us About Modernity?
  • How Capitalism and the Bourgeois Virtues Transformed and Humanized the Family?
  • Who Are Capitalists and What Is Capitalism?
  • How Does the Capitalism Influence the Debt of Developing Countries?
  • How Can Capitalism Save American Healthcare?
  • How Slavery Shifted the Economy Towards Capitalism?
  • How Has the Internet Changed Modern-Day Capitalism?
  • Why China Chose the Socialism Instead of Capitalism as the Country Political System When PRC Was Established?
  • How Capitalism Thwarts Creativity?

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Essays on Capitalism

Your capitalism essay will be easy to write as long as you understand the meaning of capitalism. Capitalism is an economic system that has dominated the Western world after the collapse of feudalism. It implies that most production means are privately owned, while production and distribution occur under the influence of market mechanisms. Our capitalism essay samples will surely further your understanding of the topic – you can click on the essays that interest you below. Don’t know which angle to pick for your essay? You needn’t worry, simply browse the samples of capitalism essays we picked out for you – some of the provided essays on capitalism are bound to pick your fancy.

There is indeed a noticeable difference between capitalist development and democracy especially when viewed from the perspective of two different countries practicing either of the above. Ideally, capitalist development entails an economic system that revolves around private ownership and freedom in markets, capitalism can also be compared to a great...

Words: 1088

There is indeed a noticeable difference between capitalist development and democracy especially when viewed from the perspective of two different countries practicing either of the above. Ideally, capitalist development entails an economic system that revolves around private ownership and freedom in markets, capitalism can also be compared to a great philosophy...

Words: 1083

Democracy and Capitalism: A Complex Relationship Democracy refers to a system of governance by the rule of the people. Most countries have embraced this system of government whereby the citizens elect their representatives. On the other hand, capitalism refers to an economic system which is characterized by private ownership of the...

Words: 1327

Part 1:             Orthodox liberalism as presented by Adam Smith was developed to present an argument against the theory of mercantilist as well as the theory of colonialism. Liberalism established an approach that significance of the state should not come before the economy (Hobson 2018a). Classical liberalism presents an argument that...

Words: 2111

Sociology and Sociological Canons Sociology focuses on the society, culture, patterns of social relationships and social interaction of the everyday life. Its advancement has been influenced by the contributions of sociological canons most of which are still applicable in modern society. While assessing their works, I noted a couple of overlapping...

Words: 1527

For the past decades, historians have tried in earnest to explain the origin of capitalism, how it evolved, and how it spread to other countries in the world. In most cases, historians view capitalism to have originated as a result of trade and commerce, and this made it possible for...

Words: 1733

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Karl Marx and the Capitalist Mode of Production Karl Marx provided very succinct and undeniable evidence and arguments about the capitalist mode of production whose roots are ingrained in the ideologies of political economy. He notes that despite the political economy failing to adequately and confidently convince nor define the capitalist...

Words: 1510

Stephan Resnick and Richard Wolff, "The Economic Crisis: A Marxian Interpretation. This research paper frames the discussion about capitalist crisis in the United States around the matters of exploited workers, wealth distribution, the injustices arising from the issues and the consequences they have on the economic system. Resnick and Wolff...

Words: 1270

Capitalism is a system of the economy in which the entire trading and associated business activities of a particular country are majorly controlled by the private sector at the expense of the peoples’ time and labor that is of the essence towards industries. The system is different from other economic...

Words: 1893

Marxism Theory and Its Components Karl Marx and Friedrich Engel are the founders of the socioeconomic theory that frames capitalism as a means of exploitation. The theory represents Marx's initial efforts of trying to understand social inequality and changes in the capitalist community. Marx addressed the philosophical, social and economic aspects...

Words: 1778

The Capitalism Theory The capitalism theory argues the existence of an economy marked by private property, markets, and firms (Barnes, 2018). Here, the establishment of a capitalistic system is founded on ownership rights of properties, the presence of defined markets where entities undertake the exchange of goods and services for mutual...

Economists' Views on the Falling Rate of Profit Economists in the 19th century had their different and straightforward opinion on the falling rate of profit of the industries. For instance, Ricardo argued that profits due to a natural tendency cost by high cost of hiring labor to produce foodstuffs which demanded...

Words: 1634

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Does capitalism have a future? A review essay of Peter Boettke’s The Struggle for a Better World and Daniel Bromley’s Possessive Individualism: A Crisis of Capitalism

Ilia murtazashvili.

Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA

In this review essay, I compare and contrast Peter Boettke’s The Struggle for a Better World (Mercatus Center, 2021) and Daniel Bromley’s Possessive Individualism: A Crisis of Capitalism (Oxford University Press, 2019). Each of these books considers the future of capitalism. Boettke’s Struggle sees capitalism as the only morally and economically justifiable system but that continual effort is necessary to ensure the capitalist enterprise succeeds. Bromley’s Crisis sees capitalism as a spent force that no longer does what it was meant to do—namely, improve the economic well-being of households. There are surprisingly many points of agreement in these books, most notably a concern for the downtrodden in society and an appreciation for the legitimation crisis confronting capitalism. There are also important differences that will give anyone interested in the future of capitalism much to ponder. Boettke sees unconstrained government as the primary threat to legitimacy; Bromley identifies the possessive individualism that lies at the heart of our current capitalist system as the source of the crisis. Both books make a significant contribution to our understanding of the institutions governing capitalist economies and powerful arguments as we contemplate the future of capitalism.


Does capitalism have a future? In this review essay, I compare and contrast two books that offer sweeping, insightful accounts of the past, present, and future of capitalism. Peter Boettke’s The Struggle for a Better World ( 2021 ) (hereafter Struggle ) is an eloquent defense of liberalism—a “doctrine of economic and political life grounded in the recognition that we are one another’s dignified equals, and that justice demands equal treatment of equals” (p. 7). Liberalism is about power for the people, not the privileged elites. Boettke’s collection of essays offers a superb defense of capitalism grounded in an appreciation for the way that spontaneous order makes the best use of the human imagination and a deep concern for the damage done when government becomes unshackled Leviathan.

Daniel Bromley’s Possessive Individualism: A Crisis of Capitalism ( 2019 ) (hereafter Crisis ) sees capitalism as a spent force because its concern with improving the well-being of households has been replaced by its singular focus on profiting by what Bromley calls “wrangler capitalists” – those capitalists who specialize in buying, selling, and reorganizing businesses (pp. 55–56). According to Bromley, the problem is possessive individualism: an overwhelming concern is to “stay focused on controlling costs,” much like what a comptroller does (p. 23). Economics used to be concerned with how households provide for themselves but has become preoccupied with the atomistic individual. Did, as Boettke suggests, and as Deirdre McCloskey and Art Carden ( 2020 ) have persuasively argued, liberalism make us better and richer humans? Not so, for Bromley. We have more stuff, but what about the quality of our working lives? For many workers, the current situation is nothing to gloat about.

Each author speaks from a position of credibility as a scholar and institution builder. Boettke has done as much as anyone to advance contemporary Austrian economics. Bromley is known for work in the tradition of the so-called old institutionalists, such as John Commons. There are important differences between the traditions. For one, Austrians and institutionalists differ in their beliefs about general economic truths: Austrians think there are such truths but question whether mathematical formalism is the way to find them, while institutionalists, especially the old institutionalists, find such truths chimeral (Boettke et al., 2003 ).

Despite differences in their perspectives, these books have much in common. The shared framework should not come as much of a surprise. Though institutionalism is sometimes contrasted with institutionalism in economics, Austrians, as Boettke ( 1989a ) explains, are and always have been institutionalist. Austrian institutionalists such as Hayek and Mises are completely in agreement with the old institutionalists (and the new version) that the structure and scope of economics ought to be concerned first and foremost with “the consequences of alternative institutional arrangements” (Boettke, 1989b , p. 78). Simply put, Austrian economics is institutional economics (Palagashvili et al., 2017 ).

Besides a shared concern with institutions, each of these books recognizes a legitimacy crisis. Boettke’s Struggle begins by noting that trust in public institutions of governance, private institutions of finance and commerce, and social institutions of community are confronting a severe stress test. For example, George Floyd’s murder cannot be tolerated in a liberal society. Rust Belt cities such as Detroit and Pittsburgh continue to grapple with economic malaise, despair, and addiction. True radical liberals, as Boettke explains, have inherited a problematic past and face a troubling present. There is no shortage of interesting work pointing out how we are so much better off now than in earlier centuries. But pointing out how economic freedom is associated with wealth does not really explain why there is so much anger, and the fact is that much of the world remains extremely poor. Boettke knows not all is well in society, though liberalism is not the problem.

Bromley’s Crisis is motivated in part by the recent electoral victory of populist leaders, including Donald Trump. Trump is a grifter, but this surprising victory was not a cause of the crisis. Trump, in Bromley’s words, is “merely a noxious messenger” (p. 232). Bromley contends that people are angry because managerial capitalism, with its emphasis on cutting costs, has failed them.

John Meadowcroft ( 2019 ) explains that James M. Buchanan was especially concerned with the status of the status quo. So too are Boettke and Bromley’s books. But their understandings of the causes differs. Boettke argues that public misconduct, not private misconduct, ruins nations. Unshackled Leviathan is the problem. For Bromley, the problem is capitalism.

My goal in this review essay is to consider where these books differ in their understanding of capitalism, their diagnosis of the problem giving rise to the legitimation crisis, and their suggestions about what ought to be done. It is not to choose one argument over another. Each of these books masterfully weaves together insights gained through the authors’ decades of careful inquiry on the nature of capitalism. Each shows a masterful understanding of institutions. I hope that anyone especially optimistic about capitalism will take Bromley’s critique seriously and that anyone especially optimistic about government’s ability to solve the problem will consider carefully Boettke’s impassioned arguments.

The rest of this essay is structured as follows. First, I suggest that an important difference is that Struggle focuses on capitalism as exchange of goods and services, while Crisis places much more emphasis on the transition from merchant capitalism to industrial, then financial, and then managerial capitalism. By the time we get to managerial capitalism, goods and services are still exchanged, but labor has far less bargaining power under the current system of capitalism than under previous ones. Next, I consider differences in how these books conceptualize the problem: Boettke’s issue is with government, while Bromley’s is with possessive individualism. Finally, I contrast the two authors’ advice about the future.

Capitalism or capitalisms?

Boettke’s Struggle places Adam Smith at the forefront. One might think this is an obvious starting point since we are concerned with economies. But anyone familiar with the typical PhD program’s course sequence in microeconomics will know that Smith is treated as a footnote in a course devoted mainly to proving one’s mathematical chops.

But ignoring Smith has significant costs, especially if we are concerned with vulnerable people. In Boettke’s hands, Smith becomes a figure much like Johnny Cash: someone profoundly concerned with the voiceless and the downtrodden. Liberalism, as Boettke explains, means extending a hand to strangers in order to lift the dispossessed and the desperate out of poverty. 1 Smith’s Wealth of Nations argued that individuals should be free from domination and that those who are more powerful should not determine the material conditions of those who have less power because no society can flourish if the greater part of its members are poor and miserable. This is the central theme in the liberal tradition. F.A. Hayek understood the liberal project as the abolition of privileges of the few that kept down the many. It is a point made explicitly in the 1956 edition of The Road to Serfdom “The essence of the liberal position is the denial of all privilege, if privilege is understood in its proper and original meaning of the state granting and protecting rights to some which are not available on equal terms to others” ( 1956 [1994], p. xxxvi). In addition, in The Constitution of Liberty , Hayek states that the “true contrast to a reign of status is the reign of general and equal laws, of the rules which are the same for all, or, we might say, of the rule of leges in the original meaning of the Latin word for laws – leges that is, as opposed to the privi-leges ” (emphasis original, Hayek, 1960 , p. 154). Buchanan believed that the struggle for political liberalism is an effort to free individuals from the ruling elite. Boettke favorably references McCloskey’s Why Liberalism Works ( 2019 ) in noting that true liberalism means no racism, no imperialism, no unnecessary taxes, and no slaves at all. 2

Boettke’s essays ( Crisis is a collection of essays bookended by a wonderful introduction and conclusion) are exceptionally useful as a corrective to any argument that classical liberalism supports oppressive institutions such as slavery and segregation. Others have debunked such arguments (see, for example, Fleury and Marciano 2018 ). Struggle is not a direct response to those criticisms. Rather, it shows that Smith was an ardent defender of consent as a general organizing principle and an enemy of privilege as a means of organizing economic activities.

But could Smith have foreseen the evolution of capitalism? And should we place blame on government when capitalism and democracy seem so intrinsically bound up that it seems impossible to even separate them? 3 Bromley’s Crisis recognizes that the capitalism that Smith understood so well has changed a great deal since his time. And we know that the core of Bromley’s book is to analyze the transition from merchant capitalism to industrial capitalism to financial capitalism and, finally, to the managerial capitalism of today. These gradual shifts are characterized by “the primacy of a central personified medium—the entrepreneur of merchant capitalism, the engineer of industrial capitalism, the banker of financial capitalism, and the wrangler of today’s managerial capitalism” (emphasis original, p. 55). 4

Bromley’s description of capitalism is significant and useful, especially when we consider that Smith introduced new ideas about how we think about capital and capitalism. 5 Before Smith wrote about it, capital was a sum of money that was to be invested or had been invested. But then it became the things themselves – the goods traded. Conceptualizing of capital as physical things and capitalism as exchange was a historical sleight of hand, one with important consequences: it makes us lose track of the changes in capitalism since we become concerned with physical things rather than legal relationships and the rules governing capitalism.

Smith’s novel approach to capital and capitalism meant that the conversation about capitalism was often less institutionally rich than it could have been. This does not mean Smith had no role for institutions. Gary Anderson and Robert Tollison ( 1982 ) showed that Smith was critical of the English East Indian Company. Smith believed the problem was government failure rather than a market failure. And Nathan Rosenberg recognized Smith’s preoccupation with establishing the conditions under which market mechanisms operate most effectively and that tree operation of “certain impulses, motivations, and behavior patterns were calculated to thwart, rather than to reinforce, the beneficent operation of market forces” ( 1960 , p. 569). Institutions, including government ones, are necessary because cooperation is not inevitable. Rather, Smith’s institutionalism, like Boettke’s, focuses on the political side of the institutions governing capitalism as the problem. 6 Thus, when Smith speaks of capitalism requiring an appropriate constitutional framework, it is mostly about ensuring that the government limits its activities – a view quite similar to Boettke’s Struggle . Bromley, in contrast, is much more interested in the evolutionary stages of capitalism, and the consequences of these shifts.

What changes ought we to be concerned with? The rigid hierarchies of precapitalist relations came under pressure as labor’s bargaining power improved as a result of plague and warfare in the fourteenth century. By the end of the fourteenth century, most agricultural laborers had become quasi-independent agricultural entrepreneurs who were no longer willing to underwrite wars. Copyhold emerged as an institution – and with it, rental contracts to use land replaced in-kind payment for privileges to use land. Now lords held the king’s land and independent families held the lord’s land. Copyhold put us on the road to fee simple, the most complete property right. 7 This institutional development enabled the rise of merchant capitalism and the entrepreneur, but much would be lost as capitalism evolved. Workers lost control of their means of production (labor) with the rise of industrial capitalism and the factory system and the accompanying separation between owners of capital—commercial land, sophisticated machines, large factories—and owners of labor power. Labor then became a commodity to be bought and sold just like any other factor of production. McCloskey’s Bourgeois Dignity ( 2010 ) concerns how we talk about entrepreneurs. Bromley’s concern is with the rise of a body of compliant laborers whose lives are very different from those of entrepreneurs.

The factory system was not the only development. Financial capitalism—which came because industry at a massive scale required financing on a grand scale—introduced rapid movement of liquidity around the world. But that was not the end. In managerial capitalism, “the wrangler rules. The entrepreneur of merchant capitalism surrendered his autonomy to the engineer of industrial capitalism. The engineer was soon pushed aside by the money managers and bankers of financial capitalism. Now, it seems reasonable to suggest that the financial wizards are answerable to the wrangler. Someone very meticulous is now minding the store” (Bromley, p. 82).

Bromley then shifts to an argument that scholars interested in collective action will appreciate. He describes firms as hedgehogs and households as foxes. Hedgehogs know one thing and foxes know many. Households, under managerial capitalism, have to know many things, and some even have to hold several jobs. The firm, however, is an artificial construct with a singular goal: to lower costs. It is for this reason that the hedgehogs dominate the foxes; the foxes have no chance. Walmart and Amazon are too big to resist. The foxes face a much larger collective action problem, one that is exacerbated by the massive scale of capitalism.

Boettke’s essays do not focus as much as Crisis on the historical evolution of capitalism; rather, they focus on the importance of freedom of choice. Struggle defends significant figures such as Ludwig von Mises, Hayek, and Milton Friedman. Bromley counters the arguments of the great defenders of capitalism. Freedom of choice—not being forced to work a specific job—is a narrow conception of freedom. Freedom to choose means little if the choice set, which is shaped by institutions, is not of our choosing. Bromley puts it this way: living is good (we have more stuff to consume), but what about work life? Capitalism is thriving in some parts of urban areas, but anger with the current situation is especially pronounced in rural areas in the United States, Britain, and Western Europe. And outside of those countries, many countries have experienced little improvement in material conditions in the past several centuries. Some workers may enjoy the life of the fox, moving from job to job in the gig economy, but for many, there is despair: “The unavoidable consequence of possessive individualism is that capitalism no longer comprises a source of hope. It has evolved into a system—an ‘ism’—without a compelling moral basis for its continuation” (Bromley, p. 123).

These books thus differ in what they mean by capitalism: trade in goods and services (in Struggle ) or trade in labor (in Crisis ). However, each aspect of capitalism is significant, and so they are in a sense complementary contributions. Trade in goods and services has its benefits, though the increase in goods and services available to us comes with greater vulnerability for households excepting their greater consumption choices. Together, the books offer profound insight into the productive power of capital and its costs.

Another reason to praise Boettke’s and Bromley’s books is that they move beyond Thomas Piketty’s ( 2014 ) concern with the empirical relationship between inequality and capitalism in at least three ways. First, they remind us that any attempt to relate capitalism to inequality leaves out important changes in the nature of capitalism over the past several hundred years. This is significant because unless we understand which capitalism we are talking about, we may misdiagnose the problem. Second, Boettke and Bromley each recognize that anger and illegitimacy are based not on inequality but on vulnerability. They disagree about their source of the problems: for Boettke, vulnerability is a result of government or regulation; for Bromley, capitalism – specifically, what he calls wrangler capitalism (and before it, industrial capitalism – is the reason households struggle to find meaningful employment). Third, it is abundantly clear that the wealth tax suggested by Piketty and increasingly supported by politicians is a magic bullet. Rather, our focus, if we agree with Boettke, is that we ought to be concerned with political institutions (why should we expect that the revenues will be spent addressing the real problems?). And if we agree with Bromley, we ought to direct our concern to economic institutions, not simply fiscal policies (why should we expect a wealth tax will solve the problem of vulnerability, if managerial capitalism remains unimpeded?).

One term that does not come up much in either book is neoliberalism, and for good reason: the term is often used as a pejorative to criticize a certain group of economists. 8 Critics of “neoliberalism” would do well to consider carefully specifying what kind of capitalism they are talking about and whether they have accurately diagnosed the problem they see, and whether it works. 9 Bromley’s work suggests their concern is not so much with the recommendations of scholars such as Friedman as with the specific institutional features of capitalism as we currently experience it, while Boettke suggests that the problems they see may be government failures rather than problems with supposedly laissez-faire economic policies.

Is unshackled Leviathan or capitalism the problem?

Each offers a diagnosis of the problem. In Struggle , the diagnosis is public predation. In Crisis , it is possessive individualism and the collective action problem confronting workers in their dealings with firms.

In chapter 2 of Struggle , “Economics and Public Administration,” Boettke contends that an institutional framework is necessary to realize gains from exchange because of the paradox of government: addressing private predation opens the possibility of public predation. The fundamental cause of development—as viewed by scholars from Mises to McCloskey—is ideas about what to produce and how to produce it, as well as idea about what kinds of rules make savings and capital accumulation safe. That is, idea about how to govern ourselves.

Chapter 5 of Struggle (aptly titled “Is State Intervention in the Economy Inevitable?”) argues that government intervention in the economy is not inevitable but probable without restraints on government, given that the demand for state intervention is constant. Chapter 6 is a clearly written essay that eloquently argues that government overspends because it has too much power. Nor is the problem with the people. One of the things that comes out in this book is Boettke’s deep appreciation for the role of institutions as an explanation of our current situation. As Boettke explains, “Blaming public unions for asking for improved benefits from their members or blaming elected officials for responding to those demands in order to win votes is like criticizing a wasp for stinging you when you step on its nest. The problem isn’t the people; it is the institutional regime that produces the pattern of behavior” (Boettke, p. 126). Like Bromley, Boettke is concerned above all with institutions and their consequences.

Boettke, as we know from his Public Administration in the Classical Liberal Tradition (Aligica et al.,  2019 ), written with Paul Dragos Aligica and Vlad Tarko, is deeply appreciative of Vincent and Elinor Ostroms’ vision of public administration. The essays of Struggle show the evolution of many of the ideas in the earlier book. In the emergent view of public administration, the idea of a unitary state populated by omniscient and benevolent expert bureaucrats is rejected in favor of a view of government populated by ordinary individuals who have limited knowledge and respond to incentives. This is the Ostromian vision. The implication is clear: we ought to adjust our expectations of what to expect from bureaucrats. Public entrepreneurs are the ones with the vision required to make changes, though making changes requires that these entrepreneurs and those who they interact with have some autonomy. The problem is not government. Our central problem is that government has gotten out of hand and that we have collectively moved away from the Ostromian vision of self-governance as the unifying theme of public administration.

Most of the examples in Boettke’s book are examples of unshackled Leviathan doing bad things. This is most obvious in his reflections on the evils of what Geoffrey Hodgson ( 2019 ) calls “big” socialism: central planning. But so too are there many significant examples of government predation, including in policing—arguably one of the most significant examples of the predatory state in society. 10

Turning to Crisis , we direct our gaze to the problems arising from capitalism. Central to Bromley’s diagnosis of the problem is the parable of the fox and the hedgehog. As noted above, managerial capitalists are the hedgehogs; households and workers are the foxes. The foxes of the world have to deal with increasing atomization: “In a fully atomized world, the flowering of meritocratic processes then tends to threaten political coherence and a shared sense of purpose within a community. Meritocracies reward merit, but they also begin to generate institutional arrangements—public policies—that tend to reinforce such self-interested inclinations” (Bromley, p. 16).

Bromley points to economics as the dubious enabler of the hedgehogs. Economics shifted its concern from organization to the atomized individual. It was originally concerned with how individuals and societies organize to provide for themselves. The two key organizations are the household (which is natural) and the firm (which is artificial). But then formalism took hold, and the maximizing individual became sovereign. Possessive individualism is the view that individual rationality and the sanctity of the consumer are the most significant building blocks of the economy. This view overlooks that there had to be organizations in order for there to be something to trade. As far as I can tell, Bromley and Boettke are fully in agreement on the problems that arise from the Max U or “man as machine” approach in much of economics. 11

Crisis offers up possessive individualism as the cause of the current dissatisfaction with capitalism. Bromley engages a topic of concern to many in the Austrian tradition: do markets make us more virtuous than we would otherwise be? 12 Bromley summarizes the case that markets make us moral as follows. Market economies come to be composed of individuals who are socialized to master the virtuous character traits of market societies. These acquired traits are inevitable consequences of the need to orient one’s actions toward mutually advantageous social interactions, which are the reason why societies adopted markets in the first place.

Bromley’s response to the markets-as-moral-spaces argument is that its proponents are concerned only with buyers and sellers seeking to exchange commodities or services in a normal market. However, the desire to engage in market transactions is not itself a virtue, as many exchanges are repugnant and many choices are not good even for the individuals doing the choosing. Most significantly, most of these market transactions reapportion wealth rather than create new wealth.

Any focus on buying and selling is thus incomplete. Labor has been commodified, and many workers cling to the belief that they need choice. But workers now have fewer choices and much less bargaining power. The hedgehog dominates under managerial capitalism, and many foxes do not even know it, and when they do, they cannot really do much about it. This is not a problem that arises from government. Rather, it is a problem of capitalism; more fundamentally, the problem is that the ideology of possessive individualism has been wielded to justify the institutions that give rise to the anger that has contributed to deplorable phenomena such as Trumpism.

These books are also an invitation to additional empirical research. Bromley offers sweeping critiques of managerial capitalism, with a masterful institutional analysis of our current situation. But many of the contentions are empirical ones. Does the market erode social capital? Mark Pennington and John Meadowcroft ( 2008 ) find that spontaneous order produces bridging and bonding social capital. Art Carden recently notes that Walmart is not as bad as it seems, contrary to corporate dystopia narratives in the tradition of John Kenneth Galbraith’s New Industrial State ( 1967 ). While Walmart is one of the largest firms in the world by profits, its profits are only about one-tenth of one percent of US GDP (Carden, 2021 ). Carden’s empirical studies provide further evidence that Walmart is actually good – there is less hunger (Courtemanche & Carden, 2011 ), more art and leisure (Carden & Courtemanche, 2009 ), and no decline in social capital, such as club membership, in communities with a Walmart (Carden et al., 2009 ). One might see this as empirical evidence in support of Boettke, though for reasons noted, Bromley is certainly on to something, as the anger with the current work situation is still palpable, despite low prices.

It is straightforward to see how Bromley and Boettke differ. It is certainly true, as Boettke claims, that goods being reshuffled and reallocated in response to changes in prices can be a good thing—even a great thing, as we know from Amazon Prime getting many of us through the COVID-19 pandemic or from how the supply lines for toilet paper and paper towels came through despite the hoarding behavior of some customers. But what if we replace goods and services in the above account with workers reshuffled and reallocated in response to changes in prices? After all, the definitive change in capitalism as we moved from merchant capitalism to industrial capitalism is that the worker became a fictitious commodity. Foxes are not simply buying goods and services; they are goods and services. The point here is not to choose a side, but to note that the Industrial Revolution ensured that the question of what is being purchased would become not only about the stuff we want, but about labor.

Another difference worth noting is about embracing people with open arms. Libertarians will love Boettke’s characterization of welcoming strangers with an open hand. 13 Bromley’s perspective is a bit more nuanced. The reason why people want to come to countries such as the United States is not that they do not have market freedom. Many African countries have an abundance of market freedom, but that is not enough to provide political order. Nor is it clear that the open hand comes without costs. George Borjas ( 2016 ) has made this point in reflecting on immigration. Nor is xenophobia or racism the obvious reason why people support Trump, as some workers have rational reasons to worry about their situation with inflows of people (Murtazashvili et al., 2021 ). But this should be clear enough from any economics lesson on immigration, since the argument is about net benefits from immigration, not that every single person is better off with new entrants into the labor force. And we cannot necessarily rely on government to address the challenge that comes with new migrants to a region, as those who are left out do not always feel they have much voice in politics. Possessive individualism is part of the reason people want to leave one place; and in their destination, its pernicious effects on politics mean that those people may be subject to the same forces of insecurity and instability brought on by wrangler capitalists. Bromley’s point is that today’s immigrants might be the disaffected Rust Belt workers of tomorrow, and we ought to spend more time thinking about why the disaffected Rust Belt workers might be concerned about immigration beyond merely asserting that they are economically irrational or xenophobic racists.

What is to be done?

Struggle leaves no uncertainty about what is not to be done: “There is no justice to be achieved from socialism, only equality in misery and despair as daily life devolves into one of economic deprivation and political terror” (Boettke, p. 7). The case is made more fully in Boettke’s collection of essays titled Calculation and Coordination ( 2001 ). Socialism ought to be eliminated from the menu of potentially desirable organizational forms of economic, political, and social life. Chapter 13 (“Rebuilding the Liberal Project”) is more constructive in suggesting that the liberal project cannot be saved by repackaging a fixed doctrine of eternal truths. True liberalism faces a threat from conservative movements on the right and socialism on the left. In the US and the UK, the populist threat comes from both the Left and Right. Liberalism above all is about toleration. The answer to populism is toleration. Cosmopolitanism is the answer to populism. Boettke’s argument is a case for freedom to choose. 14 One of the reasons openness is justified is, per Julian Simon ( 1981 ), that the ultimate resource is human imagination.

Boettke’s concluding chapter provides one of the most eloquent defenses of the liberal society as an open society. Libertarian champions of economic freedom would do well to consider Boettke’s nuanced perspective on the current situation. At best, we have pockets of liberal commerce that raise living standards tremendously. At worst, we have power and privilege. There is a growing concern about global inequality. In the end, the struggle of ideas is about correcting two misconceptions: (1) the rich get rich at the expense of the poor, and (2) the poor do not get rich faster than the rich get richer. Critics point to neoliberalism as the problem. Boettke explains why we ought not to do that.

For Bromley, inequality is the intended result of possessive individualism, which compels individuals to pursue a livelihood strategy, including the types of jobs we choose and what we collectively expect of our workers, based on the celebration of rights and the illusory idea of being free to choose. Despite many individuals believing that individualism is the only and right way to organize society, they seem not to realize that they are at the mercy of capitalist firms equally committed to possessive individualism, and that when push comes to shove, the capitalists mostly win. Consumers, as Bromley notes, are often all too eager to denounce China for predatory trade policies while filling up their minivans with abundant clothing, toys, and plastic products from China. Lower prices are a good thing. But Bromley argues that that is not a good reason, but rather an excuse. The more honest reason why consumers continue the endless quest for bargains is the “enduring culturally prized urge toward persistent low-cost acquisitiveness” (p. 237).

Bromley is not engaging in Marxist false consciousness theorizing. Rather, it is an empirical statement that many of the policies individuals support contribute to the vulnerability of workers and that the fact that they have more choice does not eliminate the more general precarity of their work situation. Low-cost acquisitiveness has costs.

One might of course respond that individualism is not necessarily bad, especially when we think of individualism as inquisitiveness and hard work. Certainly the empirical literature finds that individualism is associated with greater wealth (see, for example, Williamson and Mathers 2011 ). Bromley’s criticism is different. Freedom has come to mean aggressively pursuing self-interest and desiring to make sure others do not have what we enjoy. Possessive individualism is not the social capital that Boettke and colleagues have so clearly shown to be significant in responding to crises (Boettke et al., 2007 ). Overcoming possessive individualism – crass individualism – requires us to recognize that we can reconstitute a market economy in the interest of greater equality and other-regarding behavior. The capitalist firm must be transformed into a public trust. However, this will not be sufficient. Improved livelihoods will also require that the possessive individual be reimagined.

Bromley notes that the word “community” is now used to separate us into silos, a practice facilitated by identity politics. Rather than separating ourselves, it is crucial to recognize that personhood requires a community that acknowledges one’s personhood. It requires engagement. But managerial capitalism denies the relevance of community. Mindless and numb workers are the new automatons. Ultimately we need exchange on equal terms since under managerial capitalism the fox always loses.

These books also discuss the future of economics as a science. One of Boettke’s contributions is demonstrating the ongoing significance of the classical liberal tradition. Economics has lost its way in its search for clever research designs and its focus on mathematics. Paradoxically, that makes it challenging for us to understand how people behave since the assumption of maximization eliminates volition (as well as makes challenge consideration of time, uncertainty, and ignorance).

Bromley is perhaps more critical of economics, especially the kind that sees efficiency as a guide to policy. To quote Bromley: “Efficiency is not and cannot possibly be a design criterion. The only approach to meaningful institutional change is to: (1) focus on careful diagnosis of problematic settings and circumstances; (2) entertain new ideas that seem most promising in solving a particular problem; (3) embrace the most reasonable of those possibilities; and (4) then undertake ex post monitoring and assessment as the new policies are allowed to run their course” (p. 123). Anyone who agrees with Peter Leeson’s ( 2020 ) and Yoram Barzel’s ( 2002 ) eloquent defense of the idea that maximization is a critical concept to economists ought to consider Bromley’s explanation why utility maximization cannot provide a guide for human action and why efficiency can never explain why we choose a specific policy. Rather, we need to appreciate that the process of institutional change is one of realizing our collective and shared futures through a process of reasoning about what works, what does not work, and how things can be better. 15

Is capitalism a liberal emancipatory project worth saving? Or is it a spent force? Boettke does a masterful job clarifying what capitalism does well, explaining the problems arising from centralized-government intervention in the economy, and reminding us of the evils of socialism. But all is not well in the kingdom. Work life is not great, and while nobody doubts that the Bourgeois Deal contributed to riches, it only made some rich. And anger in places such as the rural United States is not simply a consequence of unrestrained government. Capitalism is to blame, according to Bromley, but it is not Adam Smith’s capitalism. Managerial capitalism puts workers in a bind, and collective action does not favor the fox.

Despite these differences, there are similarities between Boettke’s Austrian institutionalism and Bromley’s old institutionalism. Each author sees institutions as the central concern for economics. Boettke is also a self-professed disciple of mainline economics, which includes public choice (clearly concerned with rules) and the Ostroms’ polycentric view (also concerned with rules). Still, one discerns a richness in Bromley’s analysis of institutions that one does not see as often in much of the mainline tradition, except perhaps for McCloskey’s work and, arguably, Boettke’s work on socialism. The greatest strength of Boettke’s essays may be in the institutional criticism of socialism, and Bromley’s most significant contribution is to discern the institutional problem with managerial capitalism. 16 In my view, these are complementary insights that counsel humility when assessing capitalism and socialism.

The institutional approach of these books has profound policy significance. Much of the current conversation in the post-COVID economy is about infrastructure—some version of a new Marshall Plan, but for the rich countries. This simplistic application of Keynesian reasoning, as these books make so clear, is insufficient because it does not appreciate that the problem is institutional. Boettke and Bromley differ in their diagnosis of the problem; they agree that institutions are the key, and neither proposes a magic bullet. They understand that the process of institutional change is a struggle. Boettke and Bromley also appreciate the significance of ideas in the process of institutional change. Ideas give rise to beliefs, and changes in beliefs ultimately lead to changes in institutions. Their appreciation for ideas, along with history, is too often pushed aside in economics these days.

There is an important difference when it comes to spontaneous order. Boettke, like the great Austrians before him, appreciates spontaneous order. Hayek famously divided orders into planned and spontaneous orders. Hayek of course followed Menger’s distinction between organic and pragmatic orders. Austrian economists tend to see spontaneous orders as the more interesting aspect of social science, while old and new institutionalists tend to see directed orders as more significant, in part because such orders vary so much. Hayek also thought spontaneous order was the most interesting aspect of social science. Bromley shows why there is much we do not understand about the planned orders that are so important to capitalist economies and that there is nothing simple about understanding why and how planner orders work. But Boettke does not succumb to the view that only spontaneous order is interesting or try to define everything as a spontaneous order. Unlike many of the earlier Austrians, who were content to praise the virtues of the market, Boettke has a deep appreciation for Vincent Ostrom’s insights into public administration and therefore appreciates the problem of explaining the success of directed orders. Thus, each book can be thought of as a major contribution to institutionalism, however we define it.

Anyone interested in the future of capitalism will be better off after reading these books. The books could be read as a defense of markets and criticism of government by an Austrian–public choice economist versus an impassioned criticism of capitalism by a disciple of the progressive John Commons. But that would be a mistake. Each book illustrates a deep commitment to institutional analysis and offers a wealth of knowledge about how to compare institutions. They both put institutional analysis at the forefront of economics, where it should be. There is no Max U in either of these impressive books. The perspectives are very much complementary. The battle for the future of capitalism is indeed a battle of ideas, and the ideas in these books give us much to reflect on.


I had the idea to write this essay after a book talk by Dan Bromley at the Center for Governance and Markets at the University of Pittsburgh in March 2021. Mark Pennington served as a discussant for the seminar, and his willingness to engage Dan’s book constructively was a breath of fresh air. Mark’s constructive dialogue reminded me how much can be gained by carefully considering work with which we disagree. Since I had been reading Pete Boettke’s book at the time, it seemed natural to continue that conversation by comparing and contrasting these books. I thank Rosolino Candela for encouraging me to write this piece and for offering extensive and thoughtful suggestions on the essay. Thanks to Nick Cowen, Rabih Helou, and Jen Murtazashvili reding and commenting on the essay and Art Carden for sharing some of his recent work on Walmart that fit nicely with the themes of this essay. Most importantly, thanks to Dan and Pete for their mentorship over the years and for inspiring so many of us.

1 See also William Easterly’s ( 2020 ) brilliant essay on Adam Smith’s anticolonialism.

2 Boettke might also have added W.H. Hutt to the list of liberals against racism, as Hutt’s impassioned critique of apartheid was based on an appreciation for consumer sovereignty (Magness et al., forthcoming ).

3 Randall Holcombe’s ( 2018 ) concept of political capitalism also gets at Bromley’s concern about the close relationship between economic and political elites in capitalist democracies.

4 One could, as Aligica and Tarko ( 2015 ) suggest, simply do away with the notion of capitalism and recognize that we are dealing with capitalisms: crony capitalism, state capitalism, and so on. Bromley’s classification of capitalisms is a useful complement to the ones familiar to those in the public choice literature.

5 Two excellent books on the meaning of capitalism and the significance of legal rules are Geoffrey Hodgson’s Conceptualizing Capitalism (2015) and Katharina Pistor’s The Code of Capital ( 2019 ).

6 If there’s a limitation with Smith’s view, it may be that he did not anticipate how well self-governance works when people have these conflicts of interests. Peter Leeson’s Anarchy Unbound ( 2014 ) shows just how well it works, and why.

7 Though much attention is paid to fee simple, the most significant conclusion of the property rights approach regardless of school of thought—Austrian, public choice, or Ostromian—is that the most appropriate property regime is one that evolves in response to local conditions (Harris et al., 2020 ).

8 Nick Cowen’s ( 2021 ) perspective offers a compelling and productive framework that eschews the desire to see neoliberalism as a bogeyman standing in for policies one wishes to criticize.

9 For an excellent discussion of the history of the term neoliberalism, see Leeson and Harris ( Forthcoming ). They also explain why there is no good reason to see Hayek as a neoliberal who only argued for market fundamentalism. Some of Hayek’s writing were very much opposed to state efforts to implement markets, as Hayek of course understood the knowledge problem of doing so.

10 Brandon Davis ( 2021 ) explicitly places the American carceral state in the framework of the predatory state.

11 Indeed, Boettke et al. ( 2003 ) contend that only the Austrians and old institutionalists truly put people at the forefront of analysis.

12 Anyone looking for a response to Bromley’s criticism would do well to consider Ginny Choi and Virgil Storr’s Do Markets Corrupt Our Morals ? ( 2019 ).

13 Ben Powell and Alex Nowrasteh ( 2020 ) make an important case that the benefits of immigration exceed its costs.

14 Ilya Somin’s ( 2020 ) discussion of foot voting fits nicely with the defense of freedom to choose: through foot voting, people can choose better institutions, including political ones, and contribute to greater political freedom. Foot voting is just limited to voting, but where one lives, among other things.

15 Bromley’s Sufficient Reason ( 2006 ) more fully develops this argument about beliefs and the process of institutional change.

16 It would probably make the most sense to accept Smith as the first institutionalist, given his concern with the constitutional rules necessary for a well-functioning market, as Geoffrey Brennan and Buchanan ( 1985 ) argued.

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Home — Essay Samples — Economics — Capitalism — Essay On Capitalism And Communism


Essay on Capitalism and Communism

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Published: Mar 13, 2024

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Role of government, distribution of wealth, impact on society and economy.

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The Big List of Essay Topics for High School (120+ Ideas!)

Ideas to inspire every young writer!

What one class should all high schools students be required to take and pass in order to graduate?

High school students generally do a lot of writing, learning to use language clearly, concisely, and persuasively. When it’s time to choose an essay topic, though, it’s easy to come up blank. If that’s the case, check out this huge round-up of essay topics for high school. You’ll find choices for every subject and writing style.

  • Argumentative Essay Topics
  • Cause-and-Effect Essay Topics
  • Compare-Contrast Essay Topics
  • Descriptive Essay Topics
  • Expository and Informative Essay Topics
  • Humorous Essay Topics

Literary Essay Topics

  • Narrative and Personal Essay Topics
  • Personal Essay Topics
  • Persuasive Essay Topics

Research Essay Topics

Argumentative essay topics for high school.

When writing an argumentative essay, remember to do the research and lay out the facts clearly. Your goal is not necessarily to persuade someone to agree with you, but to encourage your reader to accept your point of view as valid. Here are some possible argumentative topics to try. ( Here are 100 more compelling argumentative essay topics. )

  • The most important challenge our country is currently facing is … (e.g., immigration, gun control, economy)
  • The government should provide free internet access for every citizen.
  • All drugs should be legalized, regulated, and taxed.
  • Vaping is less harmful than smoking tobacco.
  • The best country in the world is …
  • Parents should be punished for their minor children’s crimes.
  • Should all students have the ability to attend college for free?
  • Should physical education be part of the standard high school curriculum?

Should physical education be part of the standard high school curriculum?


  • Schools should require recommended vaccines for all students, with very limited exceptions.
  • Is it acceptable to use animals for experiments and research?
  • Does social media do more harm than good?
  • Capital punishment does/does not deter crime.
  • What one class should all high schools students be required to take and pass in order to graduate?
  • Do we really learn anything from history, or does it just repeat itself over and over?
  • Are men and women treated equally?

Cause-and-Effect Essay Topics for High School

A cause-and-effect essay is a type of argumentative essay. Your goal is to show how one specific thing directly influences another specific thing. You’ll likely need to do some research to make your point. Here are some ideas for cause-and-effect essays. ( Get a big list of 100 cause-and-effect essay topics here. )

  • Humans are causing accelerated climate change.
  • Fast-food restaurants have made human health worse over the decades.
  • What caused World War II? (Choose any conflict for this one.)
  • Describe the effects social media has on young adults.

Describe the effects social media has on young adults.

  • How does playing sports affect people?
  • What are the effects of loving to read?
  • Being an only/oldest/youngest/middle child makes you …
  • What effect does violence in movies or video games have on kids?
  • Traveling to new places opens people’s minds to new ideas.
  • Racism is caused by …

Compare-Contrast Essay Topics for High School

As the name indicates, in compare-and-contrast essays, writers show the similarities and differences between two things. They combine descriptive writing with analysis, making connections and showing dissimilarities. The following ideas work well for compare-contrast essays. ( Find 80+ compare-contrast essay topics for all ages here. )

  • Public and private schools
  • Capitalism vs. communism
  • Monarchy or democracy
  • Dogs vs. cats as pets

Dogs vs. cats as pets

  • Paper books or e-books
  • Two political candidates in a current race
  • Going to college vs. starting work full-time
  • Working your way through college as you go or taking out student loans
  • iPhone or Android
  • Instagram vs. Twitter (or choose any other two social media platforms)

Descriptive Essay Topics for High School

Bring on the adjectives! Descriptive writing is all about creating a rich picture for the reader. Take readers on a journey to far-off places, help them understand an experience, or introduce them to a new person. Remember: Show, don’t tell. These topics make excellent descriptive essays.

  • Who is the funniest person you know?
  • What is your happiest memory?
  • Tell about the most inspirational person in your life.
  • Write about your favorite place.
  • When you were little, what was your favorite thing to do?
  • Choose a piece of art or music and explain how it makes you feel.
  • What is your earliest memory?

What is your earliest memory?

  • What’s the best/worst vacation you’ve ever taken?
  • Describe your favorite pet.
  • What is the most important item in the world to you?
  • Give a tour of your bedroom (or another favorite room in your home).
  • Describe yourself to someone who has never met you.
  • Lay out your perfect day from start to finish.
  • Explain what it’s like to move to a new town or start a new school.
  • Tell what it would be like to live on the moon.

Expository and Informative Essay Topics for High School

Expository essays set out clear explanations of a particular topic. You might be defining a word or phrase or explaining how something works. Expository or informative essays are based on facts, and while you might explore different points of view, you won’t necessarily say which one is “better” or “right.” Remember: Expository essays educate the reader. Here are some expository and informative essay topics to explore. ( See 70+ expository and informative essay topics here. )

  • What makes a good leader?
  • Explain why a given school subject (math, history, science, etc.) is important for students to learn.
  • What is the “glass ceiling” and how does it affect society?
  • Describe how the internet changed the world.
  • What does it mean to be a good teacher?

What does it mean to be a good teacher?

  • Explain how we could colonize the moon or another planet.
  • Discuss why mental health is just as important as physical health.
  • Describe a healthy lifestyle for a teenager.
  • Choose an American president and explain how their time in office affected the country.
  • What does “financial responsibility” mean?

Humorous Essay Topics for High School

Humorous essays can take on any form, like narrative, persuasive, or expository. You might employ sarcasm or satire, or simply tell a story about a funny person or event. Even though these essay topics are lighthearted, they still take some skill to tackle well. Give these ideas a try.

  • What would happen if cats (or any other animal) ruled the world?
  • What do newborn babies wish their parents knew?
  • Explain the best ways to be annoying on social media.
  • Invent a wacky new sport, explain the rules, and describe a game or match.

Explain why it's important to eat dessert first.

  • Imagine a discussion between two historic figures from very different times, like Cleopatra and Queen Elizabeth I.
  • Retell a familiar story in tweets or other social media posts.
  • Describe present-day Earth from an alien’s point of view.
  • Choose a fictional character and explain why they should be the next president.
  • Describe a day when kids are in charge of everything, at school and at home.

Literary essays analyze a piece of writing, like a book or a play. In high school, students usually write literary essays about the works they study in class. These literary essay topic ideas focus on books students often read in high school, but many of them can be tweaked to fit other works as well.

  • Discuss the portrayal of women in Shakespeare’s Othello .
  • Explore the symbolism used in The Scarlet Letter .
  • Explain the importance of dreams in Of Mice and Men .
  • Compare and contrast the romantic relationships in Pride and Prejudice .

Analyze the role of the witches in Macbeth.

  • Dissect the allegory of Animal Farm and its relation to contemporary events.
  • Interpret the author’s take on society and class structure in The Great Gatsby .
  • Explore the relationship between Hamlet and Ophelia.
  • Discuss whether Shakespeare’s portrayal of young love in Romeo and Juliet is accurate.
  • Explain the imagery used in Beowulf .

Narrative and Personal Essay Topics for High School

Think of a narrative essay like telling a story. Use some of the same techniques that you would for a descriptive essay, but be sure you have a beginning, middle, and end. A narrative essay doesn’t necessarily need to be personal, but they often are. Take inspiration from these narrative and personal essay topics.

  • Describe a performance or sporting event you took part in.
  • Explain the process of cooking and eating your favorite meal.
  • Write about meeting your best friend for the first time and how your relationship developed.
  • Tell about learning to ride a bike or drive a car.
  • Describe a time in your life when you’ve been scared.

Write about a time when you or someone you know displayed courage.

  • Share the most embarrassing thing that ever happened to you.
  • Tell about a time when you overcame a big challenge.
  • Tell the story of how you learned an important life lesson.
  • Describe a time when you or someone you know experienced prejudice or oppression.
  • Explain a family tradition, how it developed, and its importance today.
  • What is your favorite holiday? How does your family celebrate it?
  • Retell a familiar story from the point of view of a different character.
  • Describe a time when you had to make a difficult decision.
  • Tell about your proudest moment.

Persuasive Essay Topics for High School

Persuasive essays are similar to argumentative , but they rely less on facts and more on emotion to sway the reader. It’s important to know your audience, so you can anticipate any counterarguments they might make and try to overcome them. Try these topics to persuade someone to come around to your point of view. ( Discover 60 more intriguing persuasive essay topics here. )

  • Do you think homework should be required, optional, or not given at all?
  • Everyone should be vegetarian or vegan.
  • What animal makes the best pet?
  • Visit an animal shelter, choose an animal that needs a home, and write an essay persuading someone to adopt that animal.
  • Who is the world’s best athlete, present or past?
  • Should little kids be allowed to play competitive sports?
  • Are professional athletes/musicians/actors overpaid?
  • The best music genre is …

What is one book that everyone should be required to read?

  • Is democracy the best form of government?
  • Is capitalism the best form of economy?
  • Students should/should not be able to use their phones during the school day.
  • Should schools have dress codes?
  • If I could change one school rule, it would be …
  • Is year-round school a good idea?

A research essay is a classic high school assignment. These papers require deep research into primary source documents, with lots of supporting facts and evidence that’s properly cited. Research essays can be in any of the styles shown above. Here are some possible topics, across a variety of subjects.

  • Which country’s style of government is best for the people who live there?
  • Choose a country and analyze its development from founding to present day.
  • Describe the causes and effects of a specific war.
  • Formulate an ideal economic plan for our country.
  • What scientific discovery has had the biggest impact on life today?

Tell the story of the development of artificial intelligence so far, and describe its impacts along the way.

  • Analyze the way mental health is viewed and treated in this country.
  • Explore the ways systemic racism impacts people in all walks of life.
  • Defend the importance of teaching music and the arts in public schools.
  • Choose one animal from the endangered species list, and propose a realistic plan to protect it.

What are some of your favorite essay topics for high school? Come share your prompts on the WeAreTeachers HELPLINE group on Facebook .

Plus, check out the ultimate guide to student writing contests .

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Activist Wawa Gatheru on Championing Black Women as Climate Leaders This Earth Day—And Beyond

By Wawa Gatheru

Image may contain Clothing Pants Footwear Shoe Person Teen Jeans Accessories Jewelry Necklace and Standing

Earlier this year, we saw one of the greatest environmental wins of the decade—and Black women were its unsung heroes. President Biden paused all new expansions of dangerous gas export hubs in the U.S., which experts have called carbon bombs . There’s been fanfare and criticism around the decision, but few have acknowledged how Black women made it possible through community organizing and generational grit. The job won’t be done until there is a permanent halt on new expansions of dirty gas. But to get there, we have to turn toward the women who are leading on climate progress around the country.

As a Black girl who grew up in the climate movement, I’ve always been perplexed by the paradox of representation in this space. While people of color are disproportionately impacted by the climate crisis, we are routinely sidelined and boxed as ‘victims’ rather than the leaders we are. This is particularly true for Black women.

Women are particularly at risk to climate impacts because enforced gender inequality makes us more susceptible to escalating environmental harms. Black girls, women, and gender-expansive people in particular, bear an even heavier burden because of the historic and continuing impacts of colonialism, racism, and inequality. And that’s why I believe these circumstances uniquely position Black women as indispensable leaders in the climate movement.

A few years ago, I came across a term that encompassed what I have always known to be true. Coined by Dr. Melanie Harris, eco-womanism is a theological approach to environmental justice that focuses on the viewpoints of Black women across the diaspora. An eco-womanist approach to climate solutions is happening in the underbelly of climate injustice in the US, the Gulf South.

I have been honored to learn from and be inspired by the Black women leading on climate in the Gulf South: leaders like Sharon Lavigne of Rise St. James , Dr. Beverly Wright of the Deep South Center for Environmental Justice , Roishetta Ozane of The Vessel Project of Louisiana , and Dr. Joy and Jo Banner of The Descendants Project . I’ve heard firsthand how they launched educational campaigns, organized marches, rallies, and petitions, commissioned research, joined lawsuits, and challenged everyone from local lawmakers to the EPA—all to protect their communities. Step by step, they have fought polluters in an 85-mile stretch from New Orleans to Baton Rouge that’s home to more than 200 fossil fuel and petrochemical operations, earning the name ‘Cancer Alley.’

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The fight in Cancer Alley is for life, community, and legacy. Where there are now toxins poisoning Black families, there were once plantations enslaving their ancestors. It’s not a coincidence that two history-defining tragedies struck the same area of Louisiana—it is the same system of oppression and racial capitalism in different forms. And it’s no coincidence that the resistance to it calls on a legacy passed down for generations: solidarity, creativity, and bold leadership.

The fight is local and personal, but it’s also global and systemic. And failing to recognize Black women as climate leaders isn’t just a moral dilemma. It is a poor strategic decision for all of us to win on climate.

The same industries that poison Louisiana are also fueling the climate crisis. Last year was the hottest in history , and in 2024, we’ve already seen extreme weather events making this planet increasingly difficult to inhabit. Black and Brown communities might be ground zero for climate change, but our response to this destruction impacts everyone.

The women behind the president’s pause have proven that winning on climate is not impossible. Another world is possible and we can collectively build a better world for all. The organization I founded— Black Girl Environmentalist —puts that lesson into practice around the country. As one of the largest Black youth-led climate organizations, we are ushering the next generation of Black women and gender-expansive individuals into environmental work—cultivating their talent and creativity to protect our communities, and win the fight of our lives against the climate crisis.

As a Gen-Zer, I know how tempting it can be to feel immobilized by eco-anxiety or even climate doom. But we can’t.

We can’t afford to, nor do we have the privilege to. Every fraction of a degree matters. Instead, we must look to and join the leaders who, against all odds, continue to fight and win on climate issues across the country. The pause on dangerous gas expansions showed there is power in our collective voice. Black women have lit the way, showing that the power comes from fighting for—and with—our communities. The work isn’t done, but we’ve come too far to turn back.

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NPR suspends senior editor Uri Berliner after essay accusing outlet of liberal bias

Npr suspended senior editor uri berliner a week after he authored an online essay accusing the outlet of allowing liberal bias in its coverage..

essay topics on capitalism

NPR has suspended a senior editor who authored an essay published last week on an online news site in which he argued that the network had "lost America's trust" because of a liberal bias in its coverage, the outlet reported.

Uri Berliner was suspended Friday for five days without pay, NPR reported Tuesday . The revelation came exactly a week after Berliner publicly claimed in an essay for The Free Press, an online news publication, that NPR had allowed a "liberal bent" to influence its coverage, causing the outlet to steadily lose credibility with audiences.

The essay reignited the criticism that many prominent conservatives have long leveled against NPR and prompted newsroom leadership to implement monthly internal reviews of the network's coverage, NPR reported. Berliner's essay also angered many of his colleagues and exposed NPR's new chief executive Katherine Maher to a string of attacks from conservatives over her past social media posts.

In a statement Monday to NPR, Maher refuted Berliner's claims by underscoring NPR's commitment to objective coverage of national issues.

"In America everyone is entitled to free speech as a private citizen," Maher said. "What matters is NPR's work and my commitment as its CEO: public service, editorial independence, and the mission to serve all of the American public. NPR is independent, beholden to no party, and without commercial interests."

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Berliner rails against NPR's coverage of COVID-19, diversity efforts

Berliner, a senior business editor who has worked at NPR for 25 years, argued in the Free Press essay that “people at every level of NPR have comfortably coalesced around the progressive worldview.”

While he claimed that NPR has always had a "liberal bent" ever since he was hired at the outlet, he wrote that it has since lost its "open-minded spirit," and, hence, "an audience that reflects America."

The Peabody Award-winning journalist highlighted what he viewed as examples of the network's partisan coverage of several major news events, including the origins of COVID-19 and the war in Gaza . Berliner also lambasted NPR's diversity, equity and inclusion (DEI) policies – as reflected both within its newsroom and in its coverage – as making race and identity "paramount in nearly every aspect of the workplace.”

"All this reflected a broader movement in the culture of people clustering together based on ideology or a characteristic of birth," he wrote.

Uri Berliner's essay fuels conservative attacks on NPR

In response to the essay, many prominent conservatives and Republicans, including former President Donald Trump, launched renewed attacks at NPR for what they perceive as partisan coverage.

Conservative activist Christopher Rufo in particular targeted Maher for messages she posted to social media years before joining the network – her  first at a news organization . Among the posts singled out were  a 2020 tweet that called Trump racist .

Trump reiterated on his social media platform, Truth Social, his longstanding argument that NPR’s government funding should be rescinded.

NPR issues formal rebuke to Berliner

Berliner provided an NPR reporter with a copy of the formal rebuke for review in which the organization told the editor he had not been approved to write for other news outlets, as is required of NPR journalists.

NPR also said he publicly released confidential proprietary information about audience demographics, the outlet reported.

Leadership said the letter was a "final warning" for Berliner, who would be fired for future violations of NPR's policies, according to NPR's reporting. Berliner, who is a dues-paying member of NPR's newsroom union, told the NPR reporter that he is not appealing the punishment.

A spokeswoman for NPR said the outlet declined to comment on Berliner's essay or the news of his suspension when reached Tuesday by USA TODAY.

"NPR does not comment on individual personnel matters, including discipline," according to the statement. "We expect all of our employees to comply with NPR policies and procedures, which for our editorial staff includes the NPR Ethics Handbook ."

NPR staffer express dismay; leadership puts coverage reviews in place

According to the NPR article, Berliner's essay also invoked the ire of many of his colleagues and the reporters whose stories he would be responsible for editing.

"Newsrooms run on trust," NPR political correspondent Danielle Kurtzleben said in a post last week on social media site X, though he didn't mention Berliner by name. "If you violate everyone's trust by going to another outlet and [expletive] on your colleagues (while doing a bad job journalistically, for that matter), I don't know how you do your job now."

Amid the fallout, NPR reported that NPR's chief news executive Edith Chapin announced to the newsroom late Monday afternoon that Executive Editor Eva Rodriguez would lead monthly meetings to review coverage.

Berliner expressed no regrets about publishing the essay in an interview with NPR, adding that he tried repeatedly to make his concerns over NPR's coverage known to news leaders.

"I love NPR and feel it's a national trust," Berliner says. "We have great journalists here. If they shed their opinions and did the great journalism they're capable of, this would be a much more interesting and fulfilling organization for our listeners."

Eric Lagatta covers breaking and trending news for USA TODAY. Reach him at [email protected]


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