- PRO Courses Guides New Tech Help Pro Expert Videos About wikiHow Pro Upgrade Sign In
- EDIT Edit this Article
- EXPLORE Tech Help Pro About Us Random Article Quizzes Request a New Article Community Dashboard This Or That Game Popular Categories Arts and Entertainment Artwork Books Movies Computers and Electronics Computers Phone Skills Technology Hacks Health Men's Health Mental Health Women's Health Relationships Dating Love Relationship Issues Hobbies and Crafts Crafts Drawing Games Education & Communication Communication Skills Personal Development Studying Personal Care and Style Fashion Hair Care Personal Hygiene Youth Personal Care School Stuff Dating All Categories Arts and Entertainment Finance and Business Home and Garden Relationship Quizzes Cars & Other Vehicles Food and Entertaining Personal Care and Style Sports and Fitness Computers and Electronics Health Pets and Animals Travel Education & Communication Hobbies and Crafts Philosophy and Religion Work World Family Life Holidays and Traditions Relationships Youth
- Browse Articles
- Learn Something New
- Quizzes Hot
- This Or That Game New
- Train Your Brain
- Explore More
- Support wikiHow
- About wikiHow
- Log in / Sign up
- Education and Communications
- Mathematics

## How to Solve Math Problems

Last Updated: May 16, 2023 Fact Checked

This article was co-authored by Daron Cam . Daron Cam is an Academic Tutor and the Founder of Bay Area Tutors, Inc., a San Francisco Bay Area-based tutoring service that provides tutoring in mathematics, science, and overall academic confidence building. Daron has over eight years of teaching math in classrooms and over nine years of one-on-one tutoring experience. He teaches all levels of math including calculus, pre-algebra, algebra I, geometry, and SAT/ACT math prep. Daron holds a BA from the University of California, Berkeley and a math teaching credential from St. Mary's College. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 584,073 times.

Although math problems may be solved in different ways, there is a general method of visualizing, approaching and solving math problems that may help you to solve even the most difficult problem. Using these strategies can also help you to improve your math skills overall. Keep reading to learn about some of these math problem solving strategies.

## Understanding the Problem

- Draw a Venn diagram. A Venn diagram shows the relationships among the numbers in your problem. Venn diagrams can be especially helpful with word problems.
- Draw a graph or chart.
- Arrange the components of the problem on a line.
- Draw simple shapes to represent more complex features of the problem.

## Developing a Plan

## Solving the Problem

## Expert Q&A

- Seek help from your teacher or a math tutor if you get stuck or if you have tried multiple strategies without success. Your teacher or a math tutor may be able to easily identify what is wrong and help you to understand how to correct it. Thanks Helpful 1 Not Helpful 1
- Keep practicing sums and diagrams. Go through the concept your class notes regularly. Write down your understanding of the methods and utilize it. Thanks Helpful 2 Not Helpful 0

## You Might Also Like

- ↑ Daron Cam. Math Tutor. Expert Interview. 29 May 2020.
- ↑ http://www.interventioncentral.org/academic-interventions/math/math-problem-solving-combining-cognitive-metacognitive-strategies
- ↑ http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/Extras/StudyMath/ProblemSolving.aspx
- ↑ https://math.berkeley.edu/~gmelvin/polya.pdf

## About This Article

To solve a math problem, try rewriting the problem in your own words so it's easier to solve. You can also make a drawing of the problem to help you figure out what it's asking you to do. If you're still completely stuck, try solving a different problem that's similar but easier and then use the same steps to solve the harder problem. Even if you can't figure out how to solve it, try to make an educated guess instead of leaving the question blank. To learn how to come up with a solid plan to use to help you solve a math problem, scroll down! Did this summary help you? Yes No

- Send fan mail to authors

## Reader Success Stories

Thakgalo Mokalapa

Feb 16, 2018

## Did this article help you?

Offor Chukwuemeka

May 17, 2018

Jan 21, 2017

May 3, 2018

## Featured Articles

## Trending Articles

## Watch Articles

- Terms of Use
- Privacy Policy
- Do Not Sell or Share My Info
- Not Selling Info

Don’t miss out! Sign up for

wikiHow’s newsletter

- Prodigy Math
- Prodigy English

From our blog

- Is a Premium Membership Worth It?
- Promote a Growth Mindset
- Help Your Child Who's Struggling with Math
- Parent's Guide to Prodigy
- Assessments
- Math Curriculum Coverage
- English Curriculum Coverage
- Game Portal

## How to Solve Math Problems Faster: 15 Techniques to Show Students

Written by Marcus Guido

- Teaching Strategies

“Test time. No calculators.”

You’ll intimidate many students by saying this, but teaching techniques to solve math problems with ease and speed can make it less daunting.

This can also make math more rewarding . Instead of relying on calculators, students learn strategies that can improve their concentration and estimation skills while building number sense. And, while there are educators who oppose math “tricks” for valid reasons, proponents point to benefits such as increased confidence to handle difficult problems.

Here are 15 techniques to show students, helping them solve math problems faster:

## Addition and Subtraction

1. two-step addition.

Many students struggle when learning to add integers of three digits or higher together, but changing the process’s steps can make it easier.

The first step is to add what’s easy. The second step is to add the rest.

Let’s say students must find the sum of 393 and 89. They should quickly see that adding 7 onto 393 will equal 400 — an easier number to work with. To balance the equation, they can then subtract 7 from 89.

Broken down, the process is:

- (393 + 7) + (89 – 7)

With this fast technique, big numbers won’t look as scary now.

## 2. Two-Step Subtraction

There’s a similar method for subtraction.

Remove what’s easy. Then remove what’s left.

Suppose students must find the difference of 567 and 153. Most will feel that 500 is a simpler number than 567. So, they just have to take away 67 from the minuend — 567 — and the subtrahend — 153 — before solving the equation.

Here’s the process:

- (567 – 67) – (153 – 67)

Instead of two complex numbers, students will only have to tackle one.

## 3. Subtracting from 1,000

You can give students confidence to handle four-digit integers with this fast technique.

To subtract a number from 1,000, subtract that number’s first two digits from 9. Then, subtract the final digit from 10.

Let’s say students must solve 1,000 – 438. Here are the steps:

This also applies to 10,000, 100,000 and other integers that follow this pattern.

## Multiplication and Division

4. doubling and halving.

When students have to multiply two integers, they can speed up the process when one is an even number. They just need to halve the even number and double the other number.

Students can stop the process when they can no longer halve the even integer, or when the equation becomes manageable.

Using 33 x 48 as an example, here’s the process:

The only prerequisite is understanding the 2 times table.

## 5. Multiplying by Powers of 2

This tactic is a speedy variation of doubling and halving.

It simplifies multiplication if a number in the equation is a power of 2, meaning it works for 2, 4, 8, 16 and so on.

Here’s what to do: For each power of 2 that makes up that number, double the other number.

For example, 9 x 16 is the same thing as 9 x (2 x 2 x 2 x 2) or 9 x 24. Students can therefore double 9 four times to reach the answer:

Unlike doubling and halving, this technique demands an understanding of exponents along with a strong command of the 2 times table.

## 6. Multiplying by 9

For most students, multiplying by 9 — or 99, 999 and any number that follows this pattern — is difficult compared with multiplying by a power of 10.

But there’s an easy tactic to solve this issue, and it has two parts.

First, students round up the 9 to 10. Second, after solving the new equation, they subtract the number they just multiplied by 10 from the answer.

For example, 67 x 9 will lead to the same answer as 67 x 10 – 67. Following the order of operations will give a result of 603. Similarly, 67 x 99 is the same as 67 x 100 – 67.

Despite more steps, altering the equation this way is usually faster.

## 7. Multiplying by 11

There’s an easier way for multiplying two-digit integers by 11.

Let’s say students must find the product of 11 x 34.

The idea is to put a space between the digits, making it 3_4. Then, add the two digits together and put the sum in the space.

The answer is 374.

What happens if the sum is two digits? Students would put the second digit in the space and add 1 to the digit to the left of the space. For example:

It’s multiplication without having to multiply.

## 8. Multiplying Even Numbers by 5

This technique only requires basic division skills.

There are two steps, and 5 x 6 serves as an example. First, divide the number being multiplied by 5 — which is 6 — in half. Second, add 0 to the right of number.

The result is 30, which is the correct answer.

It’s an ideal, easy technique for students mastering the 5 times table.

## 9. Multiplying Odd Numbers by 5

This is another time-saving tactic that works well when teaching students the 5 times table.

This one has three steps, which 5 x 7 exemplifies.

First, subtract 1 from the number being multiplied by 5, making it an even number. Second, cut that number in half — from 6 to 3 in this instance. Third, add 5 to the right of the number.

The answer is 35.

Who needs a calculator?

## 10. Squaring a Two-Digit Number that Ends with 1

Squaring a high two-digit number can be tedious, but there’s a shortcut if 1 is the second digit.

There are four steps to this shortcut, which 812 exemplifies:

- Subtract 1 from the integer: 81 – 1 = 80
- Square the integer, which is now an easier number: 80 x 80 = 6,400
- Add the integer with the resulting square twice: 6,400 + 80 + 80 = 6,560
- Add 1: 6,560 + 1 = 6,561

This work-around eliminates the difficulty surrounding the second digit, allowing students to work with multiples of 10.

## 11. Squaring a Two-Digit Numbers that Ends with 5

Squaring numbers ending in 5 is easier, as there are only two parts of the process.

First, students will always make 25 the product’s last digits.

Second, to determine the product’s first digits, students must multiply the number’s first digit — 9, for example — by the integer that’s one higher — 10, in this case.

So, students would solve 952 by designating 25 as the last two digits. They would then multiply 9 x 10 to receive 90. Putting these numbers together, the result is 9,025.

Just like that, a hard problem becomes easy multiplication for many students.

## 12. Calculating Percentages

Cross-multiplication is an important skill to develop, but there’s an easier way to calculate percentages.

For example, if students want to know what 65% of 175 is, they can multiply the numbers together and move the decimal place two digits to the left.

The result is 113.75, which is indeed the correct answer.

This shortcut is a useful timesaver on tests and quizzes.

## 13. Balancing Averages

To determine the average among a set of numbers, students can balance them instead of using a complex formula.

Suppose a student wants to volunteer for an average of 10 hours a week over a period of four weeks. In the first three weeks, the student worked for 10, 12 and 14 hours.

To determine the number of hours required in the fourth week, the student must add how much he or she surpassed or missed the target average in the other weeks:

- 14 hours – 10 hours = 4 hours
- 12 – 10 = 2
- 10 – 10 = 0
- 4 hours + 2 hours + 0 hours = 6 hours

To learn the number of hours for the final week, the student must subtract the sum from the target average:

- 10 hours – 6 hours = 4 hours

With practice, this method may not even require pencil and paper. That’s how easy it is.

## Word Problems

14. identifying buzzwords.

Students who struggle to translate word problems into equations will benefit from learning how to spot buzzwords — phrases that indicate specific actions.

This isn’t a trick. It’s a tactic.

Teach students to look for these buzzwords, and what skill they align with in most contexts:

Be sure to include buzzwords that typically appear in their textbooks (or other classroom math books ), as well as ones you use on tests and assignments.

As a result, they should have an easier time processing word problems .

## 15. Creating Sub-Questions

For complex word problems, show students how to dissect the question by answering three specific sub-questions.

Each student should ask him or herself:

- What am I looking for? — Students should read the question over and over, looking for buzzwords and identifying important details.
- What information do I need? — Students should determine which facts, figures and variables they need to solve the question. For example, if they determine the question is rooted in subtraction, they need the minuend and subtrahend.
- What information do I have? — Students should be able to create the core equation using the information in the word problem, after determining which details are important.

These sub-questions help students avoid overload.

Instead of writing and analyzing each detail of the question, they’ll be able to identify key information. If you identify students who are struggling with these, you can use peer learning as needed.

For more fresh approaches to teaching math in your classroom, consider treating your students to a range of fun math activities .

## Final Thoughts About these Ways to Solve Math Problems Faster

Showing these 15 techniques to students can give them the confidence to tackle tough questions .

They’re also mental math exercises, helping them build skills related to focus, logic and critical thinking.

A rewarding class equals an engaging class . That’s an easy equation to remember.

> Create or log into your teacher account on Prodigy — a free, adaptive math game that adjusts content to accommodate player trouble spots and learning speeds. Aligned to US and Canadian curricula, it’s loved by more than 500,000 teachers and 15 million students.

- 1st Grade Math
- 2nd Grade Math
- 3rd Grade Math
- 4th Grade Math
- 5th Grade Math
- 6th Grade Math
- 7th Grade Math
- 8th Grade Math
- Knowledge Base

## 10 Strategies for Problem Solving in Math

Created: December 25, 2023

Last updated: January 6, 2024

When faced with problem-solving, children often get stuck. Word puzzles and math questions with an unknown variable, like x, usually confuse them. Therefore, this article discusses math strategies and how your students may use them since instructors often have to lead students through this problem-solving maze.

## What Are Problem Solving Strategies in Math?

If you want to fix a problem, you need a solid plan. Math strategies for problem solving are ways of tackling math in a way that guarantees better outcomes. These strategies simplify math for kids so that less time is spent figuring out the problem. Both those new to mathematics and those more knowledgeable about the subject may benefit from these methods.

There are several methods to apply problem-solving procedures in math, and each strategy is different. While none of these methods failsafe, they may help your student become a better problem solver, particularly when paired with practice and examples. The more math problems kids tackle, the more math problem solving skills they acquire, and practice is the key.

## Strategies for Problem-solving in Math

Even if a student is not a math wiz, a suitable solution to mathematical problems in math may help them discover answers. There is no one best method for helping students solve arithmetic problems, but the following ten approaches have shown to be very effective.

## Understand the Problem

Understanding the nature of math problems is a prerequisite to solving them. They need to specify what kind of issue it is ( fraction problem , word problem, quadratic equation, etc.). Searching for keywords in the math problem, revisiting similar questions, or consulting the internet are all great ways to strengthen their grasp of the material. This step keeps the pupil on track.

Math for Kids

## Guess and Check

One of the time-intensive strategies for resolving mathematical problems is the guess and check method. In this approach, students keep guessing until they get the answer right.

After assuming how to solve a math issue, students should reintroduce that assumption to check for correctness. While the approach may appear cumbersome, it is typically successful in revealing patterns in a child’s thought process.

## Work It Out

Encourage pupils to record their thinking process as they go through a math problem. Since this technique requires an initial comprehension of the topic, it serves as a self-monitoring method for mathematics students. If they immediately start solving the problem, they risk making mistakes.

Students may keep track of their ideas and fix their math problems as they go along using this method. A youngster may still need you to explain their methods of solving the arithmetic questions on the extra page. This confirmation stage etches the steps they took to solve the problem in their minds.

## Work Backwards

In mathematics, a fresh perspective is sometimes the key to a successful solution. Young people need to know that the ability to recreate math problems is valuable in many professional fields, including project management and engineering.

Students may better prepare for difficulties in real-world circumstances by using the “Work Backwards” technique. The end product may be used as a start-off point to identify the underlying issue.

In most cases, a visual representation of a math problem may help youngsters understand it better. Some of the most helpful math tactics for kids include having them play out the issue and picture how to solve it.

One way to visualize a workout is to use a blank piece of paper to draw a picture or make tally marks. Students might also use a marker and a whiteboard to draw as they demonstrate the technique before writing it down.

## Find a Pattern

Kids who use pattern recognition techniques can better grasp math concepts and retain formulae. The most remarkable technique for problem solving in mathematics is to help students see patterns in math problems by instructing them how to extract and list relevant details. This method may be used by students when learning shapes and other topics that need repetition.

Students may use this strategy to spot patterns and fill in the blanks. Over time, this strategy will help kids answer math problems quickly.

When faced with a math word problem, it might be helpful to ask, “What are some possible solutions to this issue?” It encourages you to give the problem more thought, develop creative solutions, and prevent you from being stuck in a rut. So, tell the pupils to think about the math problems and not just go with the first solution that comes to mind.

## Draw a Picture or Diagram

Drawing a picture of a math problem can help kids understand how to solve it, just like picturing it can help them see it. Shapes or numbers could be used to show the forms to keep things easy. Kids might learn how to use dots or letters to show the parts of a pattern or graph if you teach them.

Charts and graphs can be useful even when math isn’t involved. Kids can draw pictures of the ideas they read about to help them remember them after they’ve learned them. The plan for how to solve the mathematical problem will help kids understand what the problem is and how to solve it.

## Trial and Error Method

The trial and error method may be one of the most common problem solving strategies for kids to figure out how to solve problems. But how well this strategy is used will determine how well it works. Students have a hard time figuring out math questions if they don’t have clear formulas or instructions.

They have a better chance of getting the correct answer, though, if they first make a list of possible answers based on rules they already know and then try each one. Don’t be too quick to tell kids they shouldn’t learn by making mistakes.

## Review Answers with Peers

It’s fun to work on your math skills with friends by reviewing the answers to math questions together. If different students have different ideas about how to solve the same problem, get them to share their thoughts with the class.

During class time, kids’ ways of working might be compared. Then, students can make their points stronger by fixing these problems.

Check out the Printable Math Worksheets for Your Kids!

There are different ways to solve problems that can affect how fast and well students do on math tests. That’s why they need to learn the best ways to do things. If students follow the steps in this piece, they will have better experiences with solving math questions.

Jessica is a a seasoned math tutor with over a decade of experience in the field. With a BSc and Master’s degree in Mathematics, she enjoys nurturing math geniuses, regardless of their age, grade, and skills. Apart from tutoring, Jessica blogs at Brighterly. She also has experience in child psychology, homeschooling and curriculum consultation for schools and EdTech websites.

## After-School Math Program

- Boost Math Skills After School!
- Join our Math Program, Ideal for Students in Grades 1-8!

Kid’s grade

After-School Math Program Boost Your Child's Math Abilities! Ideal for 1st-8th Graders, Perfectly Synced with School Curriculum!

## Related posts

December 16, 2023

## Teaching Math for 3 and 4 Year Olds

Preschool is also an essential foundation of math in the child’s life. It must involve children in doing kindergarten math tasks suitable for their developmental level to support the preschoolers in acquiring basic math skills ready for schooling. Remember that learning should always be fun; do not let your child cry while doing their math […]

December 29, 2023

## How to Teach Division – A Simple Step by Step Guide

Division is fourth among the first four basic math operations that a child should learn. These math operations include adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing. They form the basis of all math problems. Children do not necessarily need to know the first three operations to understand division, although, as we will see, they are crucial. Teaching […]

## What is a BODMAS Rule and How It Is Applied in Mathematics

Kids and parents often have basic queries about BODMAS, so the first question is, what is BODMAS in math? BODMAS in math, or the BODMAS rule, outlines the sequence of operations to adhere to while performing calculations. Students must grasp the correct order of operations to arrive at accurate answers, especially when working with a […]

We use cookies to help give you the best service possible. If you continue to use the website we will understand that you consent to the Terms and Conditions. These cookies are safe and secure. We will not share your history logs with third parties. Learn More

- Solve equations and inequalities
- Simplify expressions
- Factor polynomials
- Graph equations and inequalities
- Advanced solvers
- All solvers
- Arithmetics
- Determinant
- Percentages
- Scientific Notation
- Inequalities

## What can QuickMath do?

QuickMath will automatically answer the most common problems in algebra, equations and calculus faced by high-school and college students.

- The algebra section allows you to expand, factor or simplify virtually any expression you choose. It also has commands for splitting fractions into partial fractions, combining several fractions into one and cancelling common factors within a fraction.
- The equations section lets you solve an equation or system of equations. You can usually find the exact answer or, if necessary, a numerical answer to almost any accuracy you require.
- The inequalities section lets you solve an inequality or a system of inequalities for a single variable. You can also plot inequalities in two variables.
- The calculus section will carry out differentiation as well as definite and indefinite integration.
- The matrices section contains commands for the arithmetic manipulation of matrices.
- The graphs section contains commands for plotting equations and inequalities.
- The numbers section has a percentages command for explaining the most common types of percentage problems and a section for dealing with scientific notation.

## Math Topics

More solvers.

- Add Fractions
- Simplify Fractions

## Multiple Methods

- Posted April 13, 2015
- By Mary Tamer

Do you remember watching your math teacher solve a problem on the blackboard and then diligently trying to copy her technique to solve the other problems on your worksheet? That’s the way many of us learned math. The problem is, we absorbed some counterproductive messages in the process. As it turns out, there isn’t always one best way to solve a given problem.

In his research, Associate Professor Jon Star is pushing hard to craft some new messages, by showing students how important it is to use multiple strategies when solving math problems.

“Math problems can be approached in many different ways,” says Star, an educational psychologist and former math teacher. “When a teacher insists that there is only one way, or only one best way, to solve a problem, students are missing out. There is great value in allowing them to explore and contrast many different ways to solve problems.”

Star and colleague Bethany Rittle-Johnson of Vanderbilt University have conducted a number of studies over the past decade that demonstrate the benefits of comparing a variety of problem-solving approaches for learning math, especially algebra. And their work has paid off: the US Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences echoed their findings in two recent publications by the What Works Clearinghouse : a new problem-solving guide for grades 4-8 and a new algebra practice guide for middle and high school students.

Building on this work, Star, Rittle-Johnson, and colleague Kristie Newton of Temple University developed a set of curriculum materials designed to be used in middle and high school algebra classrooms. The goal is to expose students to multiple problem-solving strategies and to build deep and flexible mathematical knowledge.

“In math class, you should have opportunities to talk about different approaches, and comparison helps us to think not only about what works in mathematics, but also about how and why things work,” says Star. “Our materials are designed to be used by algebra teachers to supplement their regular curriculum, to provide a stronger focus on the learning of multiple strategies.“ The curriculum materials were developed with middle and high schoolers in mind, but there are some applications for elementary schoolers as well. Educators can access the curriculum online at no cost.

In several recent studies, Star and his colleagues have studied the impact of teachers’ use of these materials on their students’ learning. He calls the results quite promising.

“Our research suggests that using our curriculum materials was not especially difficult for teachers, and that students enjoyed and benefited from the emphasis on multiple strategies,” says Star. “Many teachers already include multiple strategies for certain topics that they teach; our materials are designed to expand this focus across all topics in algebra.”

## Additional Resources

- Read " Developing Flexibility in Math Problem Solving ."
- Visit the Contrasting Cases website .
- Use the Contrasting Cases curriculum .
- Teaching Strategies for Improving Algebra Knowledge in Middle and High School Students

Get Usable Knowledge — Delivered Our free monthly newsletter sends you tips, tools, and ideas from research and practice leaders at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. Sign up now .

## Usable Knowledge

Connecting education research to practice — with timely insights for educators, families, and communities

## Related Articles

## Making Math “Almost Fun”

Alum develops curriculum to entice reluctant math learners

## Developing Flexibility in Math Problem Solving

## Movies, Books, and "The Giver"

## Get step-by-step solutions to your math problems

## Try Math Solver

## Get step-by-step explanations

## Graph your math problems

## Practice, practice, practice

## Get math help in your language

- Our Mission

## 6 Tips for Teaching Math Problem-Solving Skills

Solving word problems is tougher than computing with numbers, but elementary teachers can guide students to do the deep thinking involved.

A growing concern with students is the ability to problem-solve, especially with complex, multistep problems. Data shows that students struggle more when solving word problems than they do with computation , and so problem-solving should be considered separately from computation. Why?

Consider this. When we’re on the way to a new destination and we plug in our location to a map on our phone, it tells us what lane to be in and takes us around any detours or collisions, sometimes even buzzing our watch to remind us to turn. When I experience this as a driver, I don’t have to do the thinking. I can think about what I’m going to cook for dinner, not paying much attention to my surroundings other than to follow those directions. If I were to be asked to go there again, I wouldn’t be able to remember, and I would again seek help.

If we can switch to giving students strategies that require them to think instead of giving them too much support throughout the journey to the answer, we may be able to give them the ability to learn the skills to read a map and have several ways to get there.

Here are six ways we can start letting students do this thinking so that they can go through rigorous problem-solving again and again, paving their own way to the solution.

## 1. Link problem-solving to reading

When we can remind students that they already have many comprehension skills and strategies they can easily use in math problem-solving, it can ease the anxiety surrounding the math problem. For example, providing them with strategies to practice, such as visualizing, acting out the problem with math tools like counters or base 10 blocks, drawing a quick sketch of the problem, retelling the story in their own words, etc., can really help them to utilize the skills they already have to make the task less daunting.

We can break these skills into specific short lessons so students have a bank of strategies to try on their own. Here's an example of an anchor chart that they can use for visualizing . Breaking up comprehension into specific skills can increase student independence and help teachers to be much more targeted in their problem-solving instruction. This allows students to build confidence and break down the barriers between reading and math to see they already have so many strengths that are transferable to all problems.

## 2. Avoid boxing students into choosing a specific operation

It can be so tempting to tell students to look for certain words that might mean a certain operation. This might even be thoroughly successful in kindergarten and first grade, but just like when our map tells us where to go, that limits students from becoming deep thinkers. It also expires once they get into the upper grades, where those words could be in a problem multiple times, creating more confusion when students are trying to follow a rule that may not exist in every problem.

We can encourage a variety of ways to solve problems instead of choosing the operation first. In first grade, a problem might say, “Joceline has 13 stuffed animals and Jordan has 17. How many more does Jordan have?” Some students might choose to subtract, but a lot of students might just count to find the amount in between. If we tell them that “how many more” means to subtract, we’re taking the thinking out of the problem altogether, allowing them to go on autopilot without truly solving the problem or using their comprehension skills to visualize it.

## 3. Revisit ‘representation’

The word “representation” can be misleading. It seems like something to do after the process of solving. When students think they have to go straight to solving, they may not realize that they need a step in between to be able to support their understanding of what’s actually happening in the problem first.

Using an anchor chart like one of these ( lower grade , upper grade ) can help students to choose a representation that most closely matches what they’re visualizing in their mind. Once they sketch it out, it can give them a clearer picture of different ways they could solve the problem.

Think about this problem: “Varush went on a trip with his family to his grandmother’s house. It was 710 miles away. On the way there, three people took turns driving. His mom drove 214 miles. His dad drove 358 miles. His older sister drove the rest. How many miles did his sister drive?”

If we were to show this student the anchor chart, they would probably choose a number line or a strip diagram to help them understand what’s happening.

If we tell students they must always draw base 10 blocks in a place value chart, that doesn’t necessarily match the concept of this problem. When we ask students to match our way of thinking, we rob them of critical thinking practice and sometimes confuse them in the process.

## 4. Give time to process

Sometimes as educators, we can feel rushed to get to everyone and everything that’s required. When solving a complex problem, students need time to just sit with a problem and wrestle with it, maybe even leaving it and coming back to it after a period of time.

This might mean we need to give them fewer problems but go deeper with those problems we give them. We can also speed up processing time when we allow for collaboration and talk time with peers on problem-solving tasks.

## 5. Ask questions that let Students do the thinking

Questions or prompts during problem-solving should be very open-ended to promote thinking. Telling a student to reread the problem or to think about what tools or resources would help them solve it is a way to get them to try something new but not take over their thinking.

These skills are also transferable across content, and students will be reminded, “Good readers and mathematicians reread.”

## 6. Spiral concepts so students frequently use problem-solving skills

When students don’t have to switch gears in between concepts, they’re not truly using deep problem-solving skills. They already kind of know what operation it might be or that it’s something they have at the forefront of their mind from recent learning. Being intentional within their learning stations and assessments about having a variety of rigorous problem-solving skills will refine their critical thinking abilities while building more and more resilience throughout the school year as they retain content learning in the process.

Problem-solving skills are so abstract, and it can be tough to pinpoint exactly what students need. Sometimes we have to go slow to go fast. Slowing down and helping students have tools when they get stuck and enabling them to be critical thinkers will prepare them for life and allow them multiple ways to get to their own destination.

Want to create or adapt books like this? Learn more about how Pressbooks supports open publishing practices.

## 5 Teaching Mathematics Through Problem Solving

Janet Stramel

In his book “How to Solve It,” George Pólya (1945) said, “One of the most important tasks of the teacher is to help his students. This task is not quite easy; it demands time, practice, devotion, and sound principles. The student should acquire as much experience of independent work as possible. But if he is left alone with his problem without any help, he may make no progress at all. If the teacher helps too much, nothing is left to the student. The teacher should help, but not too much and not too little, so that the student shall have a reasonable share of the work.” (page 1)

What is a problem in mathematics? A problem is “any task or activity for which the students have no prescribed or memorized rules or methods, nor is there a perception by students that there is a specific ‘correct’ solution method” (Hiebert, et. al., 1997). Problem solving in mathematics is one of the most important topics to teach; learning to problem solve helps students develop a sense of solving real-life problems and apply mathematics to real world situations. It is also used for a deeper understanding of mathematical concepts. Learning “math facts” is not enough; students must also learn how to use these facts to develop their thinking skills.

According to NCTM (2010), the term “problem solving” refers to mathematical tasks that have the potential to provide intellectual challenges for enhancing students’ mathematical understanding and development. When you first hear “problem solving,” what do you think about? Story problems or word problems? Story problems may be limited to and not “problematic” enough. For example, you may ask students to find the area of a rectangle, given the length and width. This type of problem is an exercise in computation and can be completed mindlessly without understanding the concept of area. Worthwhile problems includes problems that are truly problematic and have the potential to provide contexts for students’ mathematical development.

There are three ways to solve problems: teaching for problem solving, teaching about problem solving, and teaching through problem solving.

Teaching for problem solving begins with learning a skill. For example, students are learning how to multiply a two-digit number by a one-digit number, and the story problems you select are multiplication problems. Be sure when you are teaching for problem solving, you select or develop tasks that can promote the development of mathematical understanding.

Teaching about problem solving begins with suggested strategies to solve a problem. For example, “draw a picture,” “make a table,” etc. You may see posters in teachers’ classrooms of the “Problem Solving Method” such as: 1) Read the problem, 2) Devise a plan, 3) Solve the problem, and 4) Check your work. There is little or no evidence that students’ problem-solving abilities are improved when teaching about problem solving. Students will see a word problem as a separate endeavor and focus on the steps to follow rather than the mathematics. In addition, students will tend to use trial and error instead of focusing on sense making.

Teaching through problem solving focuses students’ attention on ideas and sense making and develops mathematical practices. Teaching through problem solving also develops a student’s confidence and builds on their strengths. It allows for collaboration among students and engages students in their own learning.

Consider the following worthwhile-problem criteria developed by Lappan and Phillips (1998):

- The problem has important, useful mathematics embedded in it.
- The problem requires high-level thinking and problem solving.
- The problem contributes to the conceptual development of students.
- The problem creates an opportunity for the teacher to assess what his or her students are learning and where they are experiencing difficulty.
- The problem can be approached by students in multiple ways using different solution strategies.
- The problem has various solutions or allows different decisions or positions to be taken and defended.
- The problem encourages student engagement and discourse.
- The problem connects to other important mathematical ideas.
- The problem promotes the skillful use of mathematics.
- The problem provides an opportunity to practice important skills.

Of course, not every problem will include all of the above. Sometimes, you will choose a problem because your students need an opportunity to practice a certain skill.

Key features of a good mathematics problem includes:

- It must begin where the students are mathematically.
- The feature of the problem must be the mathematics that students are to learn.
- It must require justifications and explanations for both answers and methods of solving.

Problem solving is not a neat and orderly process. Think about needlework. On the front side, it is neat and perfect and pretty.

But look at the b ack.

It is messy and full of knots and loops. Problem solving in mathematics is also like this and we need to help our students be “messy” with problem solving; they need to go through those knots and loops and learn how to solve problems with the teacher’s guidance.

When you teach through problem solving , your students are focused on ideas and sense-making and they develop confidence in mathematics!

## Mathematics Tasks and Activities that Promote Teaching through Problem Solving

## Choosing the Right Task

Selecting activities and/or tasks is the most significant decision teachers make that will affect students’ learning. Consider the following questions:

- Teachers must do the activity first. What is problematic about the activity? What will you need to do BEFORE the activity and AFTER the activity? Additionally, think how your students would do the activity.
- What mathematical ideas will the activity develop? Are there connections to other related mathematics topics, or other content areas?
- Can the activity accomplish your learning objective/goals?

## Low Floor High Ceiling Tasks

By definition, a “ low floor/high ceiling task ” is a mathematical activity where everyone in the group can begin and then work on at their own level of engagement. Low Floor High Ceiling Tasks are activities that everyone can begin and work on based on their own level, and have many possibilities for students to do more challenging mathematics. One gauge of knowing whether an activity is a Low Floor High Ceiling Task is when the work on the problems becomes more important than the answer itself, and leads to rich mathematical discourse [Hover: ways of representing, thinking, talking, agreeing, and disagreeing; the way ideas are exchanged and what the ideas entail; and as being shaped by the tasks in which students engage as well as by the nature of the learning environment].

The strengths of using Low Floor High Ceiling Tasks:

- Allows students to show what they can do, not what they can’t.
- Provides differentiation to all students.
- Promotes a positive classroom environment.
- Advances a growth mindset in students
- Aligns with the Standards for Mathematical Practice

Examples of some Low Floor High Ceiling Tasks can be found at the following sites:

- YouCubed – under grades choose Low Floor High Ceiling
- NRICH Creating a Low Threshold High Ceiling Classroom
- Inside Mathematics Problems of the Month

## Math in 3-Acts

Math in 3-Acts was developed by Dan Meyer to spark an interest in and engage students in thought-provoking mathematical inquiry. Math in 3-Acts is a whole-group mathematics task consisting of three distinct parts:

Act One is about noticing and wondering. The teacher shares with students an image, video, or other situation that is engaging and perplexing. Students then generate questions about the situation.

In Act Two , the teacher offers some information for the students to use as they find the solutions to the problem.

Act Three is the “reveal.” Students share their thinking as well as their solutions.

“Math in 3 Acts” is a fun way to engage your students, there is a low entry point that gives students confidence, there are multiple paths to a solution, and it encourages students to work in groups to solve the problem. Some examples of Math in 3-Acts can be found at the following websites:

- Dan Meyer’s Three-Act Math Tasks
- Graham Fletcher3-Act Tasks ]
- Math in 3-Acts: Real World Math Problems to Make Math Contextual, Visual and Concrete

## Number Talks

Number talks are brief, 5-15 minute discussions that focus on student solutions for a mental math computation problem. Students share their different mental math processes aloud while the teacher records their thinking visually on a chart or board. In addition, students learn from each other’s strategies as they question, critique, or build on the strategies that are shared.. To use a “number talk,” you would include the following steps:

- The teacher presents a problem for students to solve mentally.
- Provide adequate “ wait time .”
- The teacher calls on a students and asks, “What were you thinking?” and “Explain your thinking.”
- For each student who volunteers to share their strategy, write their thinking on the board. Make sure to accurately record their thinking; do not correct their responses.
- Invite students to question each other about their strategies, compare and contrast the strategies, and ask for clarification about strategies that are confusing.

“Number Talks” can be used as an introduction, a warm up to a lesson, or an extension. Some examples of Number Talks can be found at the following websites:

- Inside Mathematics Number Talks
- Number Talks Build Numerical Reasoning

## Saying “This is Easy”

“This is easy.” Three little words that can have a big impact on students. What may be “easy” for one person, may be more “difficult” for someone else. And saying “this is easy” defeats the purpose of a growth mindset classroom, where students are comfortable making mistakes.

When the teacher says, “this is easy,” students may think,

- “Everyone else understands and I don’t. I can’t do this!”
- Students may just give up and surrender the mathematics to their classmates.
- Students may shut down.

Instead, you and your students could say the following:

- “I think I can do this.”
- “I have an idea I want to try.”
- “I’ve seen this kind of problem before.”

Tracy Zager wrote a short article, “This is easy”: The Little Phrase That Causes Big Problems” that can give you more information. Read Tracy Zager’s article here.

## Using “Worksheets”

Do you want your students to memorize concepts, or do you want them to understand and apply the mathematics for different situations?

What is a “worksheet” in mathematics? It is a paper and pencil assignment when no other materials are used. A worksheet does not allow your students to use hands-on materials/manipulatives [Hover: physical objects that are used as teaching tools to engage students in the hands-on learning of mathematics]; and worksheets are many times “naked number” with no context. And a worksheet should not be used to enhance a hands-on activity.

Students need time to explore and manipulate materials in order to learn the mathematics concept. Worksheets are just a test of rote memory. Students need to develop those higher-order thinking skills, and worksheets will not allow them to do that.

One productive belief from the NCTM publication, Principles to Action (2014), states, “Students at all grade levels can benefit from the use of physical and virtual manipulative materials to provide visual models of a range of mathematical ideas.”

You may need an “activity sheet,” a “graphic organizer,” etc. as you plan your mathematics activities/lessons, but be sure to include hands-on manipulatives. Using manipulatives can

- Provide your students a bridge between the concrete and abstract
- Serve as models that support students’ thinking
- Provide another representation
- Support student engagement
- Give students ownership of their own learning.

Adapted from “ The Top 5 Reasons for Using Manipulatives in the Classroom ”.

any task or activity for which the students have no prescribed or memorized rules or methods, nor is there a perception by students that there is a specific ‘correct’ solution method

should be intriguing and contain a level of challenge that invites speculation and hard work, and directs students to investigate important mathematical ideas and ways of thinking toward the learning

involves teaching a skill so that a student can later solve a story problem

when we teach students how to problem solve

teaching mathematics content through real contexts, problems, situations, and models

a mathematical activity where everyone in the group can begin and then work on at their own level of engagement

20 seconds to 2 minutes for students to make sense of questions

Mathematics Methods for Early Childhood Copyright © 2021 by Janet Stramel is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

## Share This Book

Or search by topic

## Number and algebra

- The Number System and Place Value
- Calculations and Numerical Methods
- Fractions, Decimals, Percentages, Ratio and Proportion
- Properties of Numbers
- Patterns, Sequences and Structure
- Algebraic expressions, equations and formulae
- Coordinates, Functions and Graphs

## Geometry and measure

- Angles, Polygons, and Geometrical Proof
- 3D Geometry, Shape and Space
- Measuring and calculating with units
- Transformations and constructions
- Pythagoras and Trigonometry
- Vectors and Matrices

## Probability and statistics

- Handling, Processing and Representing Data
- Probability

## Working mathematically

- Thinking mathematically
- Mathematical mindsets
- Cross-curricular contexts
- Physical and digital manipulatives

## For younger learners

- Early Years Foundation Stage

## Advanced mathematics

- Decision Mathematics and Combinatorics
- Advanced Probability and Statistics

## Problem Solving, Using and Applying and Functional Mathematics

Problem solving.

The problem-solving process can be described as a journey from meeting a problem for the first time to finding a solution, communicating it and evaluating the route. There are many models of the problem-solving process but they all have a similar structure. One model is given below. Although implying a linear process from comprehension through to evaluation, the model is more of a flow backward and forward, revisiting and revising on the problem-solving journey.

## Comprehension

Representation.

- Can they represent the situation mathematically?
- What is it that they are trying to find?
- What do they think the answer might be (conjecturing and hypothesising)?
- What might they need to find out before they can get started?

## Planning, analysis and synthesis

Having understood what the problem is about and established what needs finding, this stage is about planning a pathway to the solution. It is within this process that you might encourage pupils to think about whether they have seen something similar before and what strategies they adopted then. This will help them to identify appropriate methods and tools. Particular knowledge and skills gaps that need addressing may become evident at this stage.

## Execution and communication

During the execution phase, pupils might identify further related problems they wish to investigate. They will need to consider how they will keep track of what they have done and how they will communicate their findings. This will lead on to interpreting results and drawing conclusions.

Pupils can learn as much from reflecting on and evaluating what they have done as they can from the process of solving the problem itself. During this phase pupils should be expected to reflect on the effectiveness of their approach as well as other people's approaches, justify their conclusions and assess their own learning. Evaluation may also lead to thinking about other questions that could now be investigated.

## Using and Applying Mathematics

Aspects of using and applying reflect skills that can be developed through problem solving. For example:

## In planning and executing a problem, problem solvers may need to:

- select and use appropriate and efficient techniques and strategies to solve problems
- identify what further information may be required in order to pursue a particular line of enquiry and give reasons for following or rejecting particular approaches
- break down a complex calculation problem into simpler steps before attempting a solution and justify their choice of methods
- make mental estimates of the answers to calculations
- present answers to sensible levels of accuracy; understand how errors are compounded in certain calculations.

## During problem solving, solvers need to communicate their mathematics for example by:

- discussing their work and explaining their reasoning using a range of mathematical language and notation
- using a variety of strategies and diagrams for establishing algebraic or graphical representations of a problem and its solution
- moving from one form of representation to another to get different perspectives on the problem
- presenting and interpreting solutions in the context of the original problem
- using notation and symbols correctly and consistently within a given problem
- examining critically, improve, then justifying their choice of mathematical presentation
- presenting a concise, reasoned argument.

## Problem solvers need to reason mathematically including through:

- exploring, identifying, and using pattern and symmetry in algebraic contexts, investigating whether a particular case may be generalised further and understanding the importance of a counter-example; identifying exceptional cases
- understanding the difference between a practical demonstration and a proof
- showing step-by-step deduction in solving a problem; deriving proofs using short chains of deductive reasoning
- recognising the significance of stating constraints and assumptions when deducing results
- recognising the limitations of any assumptions that are made and the effect that varying the assumptions may have on the solution to a problem.

## Functional Mathematics

Functional maths requires learners to be able to use mathematics in ways that make them effective and involved as citizens, able to operate confidently in life and to work in a wide range of contexts. The key processes of Functional Skills reflect closely the problem solving model but within three phases:

- Making sense of situations and representing them
- Processing and using the mathematics
- Interpreting and communicating the results of the analysis

## You may also like

A group activity using visualisation of squares and triangles.

## Seven Squares - Group-worthy Task

Choose a couple of the sequences. Try to picture how to make the next, and the next, and the next... Can you describe your reasoning?

- Skip to main content
- Skip to primary sidebar
- Skip to footer

## Additional menu

Khan Academy Blog

## Unlocking the Power of Math Learning: Strategies and Tools for Success

posted on September 20, 2023

Mathematics, the foundation of all sciences and technology, plays a fundamental role in our everyday lives. Yet many students find the subject challenging, causing them to shy away from it altogether. This reluctance is often due to a lack of confidence, a misunderstanding of unclear concepts, a move ahead to more advanced skills before they are ready, and ineffective learning methods. However, with the right approach, math learning can be both rewarding and empowering. This post will explore different approaches to learning math, strategies for success, and cutting-edge tools to help you achieve your goals.

## Math Learning

Math learning can take many forms, including traditional classroom instruction, online courses, and self-directed learning. A multifaceted approach to math learning can improve understanding, engage students, and promote subject mastery. A 2014 study by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics found that the use of multiple representations, such as visual aids, graphs, and real-world examples, supports the development of mathematical connections, reasoning, and problem-solving skills.

Moreover, the importance of math learning goes beyond solving equations and formulas. Advanced math skills are essential for success in many fields, including science, engineering, finance, health care, and technology. In fact, a report by Burning Glass Technologies found that 71% of high-salary, entry-level positions require advanced math skills.

## Benefits of Math Learning

In today’s 21st-century world, having a broad knowledge base and strong reading and math skills is essential. Mathematical literacy plays a crucial role in this success. It empowers individuals to comprehend the world around them and make well-informed decisions based on data-driven understanding. More than just earning good grades in math, mathematical literacy is a vital life skill that can open doors to economic opportunities, improve financial management, and foster critical thinking. We’re not the only ones who say so:

- Math learning enhances problem-solving skills, critical thinking, and logical reasoning abilities. (Source: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics )
- It improves analytical skills that can be applied in various real-life situations, such as budgeting or analyzing data. (Source: Southern New Hampshire University )
- Math learning promotes creativity and innovation by fostering a deep understanding of patterns and relationships. (Source: Purdue University )
- It provides a strong foundation for careers in fields such as engineering, finance, computer science, and more. These careers generally correlate to high wages. (Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics )
- Math skills are transferable and can be applied across different academic disciplines. (Source: Sydney School of Education and Social Work )

## How to Know What Math You Need to Learn

Often students will find gaps in their math knowledge; this can occur at any age or skill level. As math learning is generally iterative, a solid foundation and understanding of the math skills that preceded current learning are key to success. The solution to these gaps is called mastery learning, the philosophy that underpins Khan Academy’s approach to education .

Mastery learning is an educational philosophy that emphasizes the importance of a student fully understanding a concept before moving on to the next one. Rather than rushing students through a curriculum, mastery learning asks educators to ensure that learners have “mastered” a topic or skill, showing a high level of proficiency and understanding, before progressing. This approach is rooted in the belief that all students can learn given the appropriate learning conditions and enough time, making it a markedly student-centered method. It promotes thoroughness over speed and encourages individualized learning paths, thus catering to the unique learning needs of each student.

Students will encounter mastery learning passively as they go through Khan Academy coursework, as our platform identifies gaps and systematically adjusts to support student learning outcomes. More details can be found in our Educators Hub .

## Try Our Free Confidence Boosters

How to learn math.

Learning at School

One of the most common methods of math instruction is classroom learning. In-class instruction provides students with real-time feedback, practical application, and a peer-learning environment. Teachers can personalize instruction by assessing students’ strengths and weaknesses, providing remediation when necessary, and offering advanced instruction to students who need it.

Learning at Home

Supplemental learning at home can complement traditional classroom instruction. For example, using online resources that provide additional practice opportunities, interactive games, and demonstrations, can help students consolidate learning outside of class. E-learning has become increasingly popular, with a wealth of online resources available to learners of all ages. The benefits of online learning include flexibility, customization, and the ability to work at one’s own pace. One excellent online learning platform is Khan Academy, which offers free video tutorials, interactive practice exercises, and a wealth of resources across a range of mathematical topics.

Moreover, parents can encourage and monitor progress, answer questions, and demonstrate practical applications of math in everyday life. For example, when at the grocery store, parents can ask their children to help calculate the price per ounce of two items to discover which one is the better deal. Cooking and baking with your children also provides a lot of opportunities to use math skills, like dividing a recipe in half or doubling the ingredients.

Learning Math with the Help of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

AI-powered tools are changing the way students learn math. Personalized feedback and adaptive practice help target individual needs. Virtual tutors offer real-time help with math concepts while AI algorithms identify areas for improvement. Custom math problems provide tailored practice, and natural language processing allows for instant question-and-answer sessions.

Using Khan Academy’s AI Tutor, Khanmigo

Transform your child’s grasp of mathematics with Khanmigo , the 24/7 AI-powered tutor that specializes in tailored, one-on-one math instruction. Available at any time, Khanmigo provides personalized support that goes beyond mere answers to nurture genuine mathematical understanding and critical thinking. Khanmigo can track progress, identify strengths and weaknesses, and offer real-time feedback to help students stay on the right track. Within a secure and ethical AI framework, your child can tackle everything from basic arithmetic to complex calculus, all while you maintain oversight using robust parental controls.

## Get Math Help with Khanmigo Right Now

You can learn anything .

Math learning is essential for success in the modern world, and with the right approach, it can also be enjoyable and rewarding. Learning math requires curiosity, diligence, and the ability to connect abstract concepts with real-world applications. Strategies for effective math learning include a multifaceted approach, including classroom instruction, online courses, homework, tutoring, and personalized AI support.

So, don’t let math anxiety hold you back; take advantage of available resources and technology to enhance your knowledge base and enjoy the benefits of math learning.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, “Principles to Actions: Ensuring Mathematical Success for All” , April 2014

Project Lead The Way Research Report, “The Power of Transportable Skills: Assessing the Demand and Value of the Skills of the Future” , 2020

Page. M, “Why Develop Quantitative and Qualitative Data Analysis Skills?” , 2016

Mann. EL, Creativity: The Essence of Mathematics, Journal for the Education of the Gifted. Vol. 30, No. 2, 2006, pp. 236–260, http://www.prufrock.com ’

Nakakoji Y, Wilson R.” Interdisciplinary Learning in Mathematics and Science: Transfer of Learning for 21st Century Problem Solving at University ”. J Intell. 2020 Sep 1;8(3):32. doi: 10.3390/jintelligence8030032. PMID: 32882908; PMCID: PMC7555771.

## Get Khanmigo

The best way to learn and teach with AI is here. Ace the school year with our AI-powered guide, Khanmigo.

For learners For teachers For parents

## Study Smarter

17 maths problem solving strategies to boost your learning.

Worded problems getting the best of you? With this list of maths problem-solving strategies , you'll overcome any maths hurdle that comes your way.

Friday, 3rd June 2022

- What are strategies?

## Understand the problem

Devise a plan, carry out the plan, look back and reflect, practise makes progress.

Problem-solving is a critical life skill that everyone needs. Whether you're dealing with everyday issues or complex challenges, being able to solve problems effectively can make a big difference to your quality of life.

While there is no one 'right' way to solve a problem, having a toolkit of different techniques that you can draw upon will give you the best chance of success. In this article, we'll explore 17 different math problem-solving strategies you can start using immediately to deepen your learning and improve your skills.

## What are maths problem-solving strategies?

Before we get into the strategies themselves, let's take a step back and answer the question: what are these strategies? In simple terms, these are methods we use to solve mathematical problems—essential for anyone learning how to study maths . These can be anything from asking open-ended questions to more complex concepts like the use of algebraic equations.

The beauty of these techniques is they go beyond strictly mathematical application. It's more about understanding a given problem, thinking critically about it and using a variety of methods to find a solution.

## Polya's 4-step process for solving problems

We're going to use Polya's 4-step model as the framework for our discussion of problem-solving activities . This was developed by Hungarian mathematician George Polya and outlined in his 1945 book How to Solve It. The steps are as follows:

We'll go into more detail on each of these steps as well as take a look at some specific problem-solving strategies that can be used at each stage.

This may seem like an obvious one, but it's crucial that you take the time to understand what the problem is asking before trying to solve it. Especially with a math word problem , in which the question is often disguised in language, it's easy for children to misinterpret what's being asked.

Here are some questions you can ask to help you understand the problem:

Do I understand all the words used in the problem?

What am I asked to find or show?

Can I restate the problem in my own words?

Can I think of a picture or diagram that might help me understand the problem?

Is there enough information to enable me to find a solution?

Is there anything I need to find out first in order to find the answer?

What information is extra or irrelevant?

Once you've gone through these questions, you should have a good understanding of what the problem is asking. Now let's take a look at some specific strategies that can be used at this stage.

## 1. Read the problem aloud

This is a great strategy for younger students who are still learning to read. By reading the problem aloud, they can help to clarify any confusion and better understand what's being asked. Teaching older students to read aloud slowly is also beneficial as it encourages them to internalise each word carefully.

## 2. Summarise the information

Using dot points or a short sentence, list out all the information given in the problem. You can even underline the keywords to focus on the important information. This will help to organise your thoughts and make it easier to see what's given, what's missing, what's relevant and what isn't.

## 3. Create a picture or diagram

This is a no-brainer for visual learners. By drawing a picture, let's say with division problems, you can better understand what's being asked and identify any information that's missing. It could be a simple sketch or a more detailed picture, depending on the problem.

## 4. Act it out

Visualising a scenario can also be helpful. It can enable students to see the problem in a different way and develop a more intuitive understanding of it. This is especially useful for math word problems that are set in a particular context. For example, if a problem is about two friends sharing candy, kids can act out the problem with real candy to help them understand what's happening.

## 5. Use keyword analysis

What does this word tell me? Which operations do I need to use? Keyword analysis involves asking questions about the words in a problem in order to work out what needs to be done. There are certain key words that can hint at what operation you need to use.

How many more?

How many left?

Equal parts

Once you understand the problem, it's time to start thinking about how you're going to solve it. This is where having a plan is vital. By taking the time to think about your approach, you can save yourself a lot of time and frustration later on.

There are many methods that can be used to figure out a pathway forward, but the key is choosing an appropriate one that will work for the specific problem you're trying to solve. Not all students understand what it means to plan a problem so we've outlined some popular problem-solving techniques during this stage.

## 6. Look for a pattern

Sometimes, the best way to solve a problem is to look for a pattern. This could be a number, a shape pattern or even just a general trend that you can see in the information given. Once you've found it, you can use it to help you solve the problem.

## 7. Guess and check

While not the most efficient method, guess and check can be helpful when you're struggling to think of an answer or when you're dealing with multiple possible solutions. To do this, you simply make a guess at the answer and then check to see if it works. If it doesn't, you make another systematic guess and keep going until you find a solution that works.

## 8. Working backwards

Regressive reasoning, or working backwards, involves starting with a potential answer and working your way back to figure out how you would get there. This is often used when trying to solve problems that have multiple steps. By starting with the end in mind, you can work out what each previous step would need to be in order to arrive at the answer.

## 9. Use a formula

There will be some problems where a specific formula needs to be used in order to solve it. Let's say we're calculating the cost of flooring panels in a rectangular room (6m x 9m) and we know that the panels cost $15 per sq. metre.

There is no mention of the word 'area', and yet that is exactly what we need to calculate. The problem requires us to use the formula for the area of a rectangle (A = l x w) in order to find the total cost of the flooring panels.

## 10. Eliminate the possibilities

When there are a lot of possibilities, one approach could be to start by eliminating the answers that don't work. This can be done by using a process of elimination or by plugging in different values to see what works and what doesn't.

## 11. Use direct reasoning

Direct reasoning, also known as top-down or forward reasoning, involves starting with what you know and then using that information to try and solve the problem . This is often used when there is a lot of information given in the problem.

By breaking the problem down into smaller chunks, you can start to see how the different pieces fit together and eventually work out a solution.

## 12. Solve a simpler problem

One of the most effective methods for solving a difficult problem is to start by solving a simpler version of it. For example, in order to solve a 4-step linear equation with variables on both sides, you could start by solving a 2-step one. Or if you're struggling with the addition of algebraic fractions, go back to solving regular fraction addition first.

Once you've mastered the easier problem, you can then apply the same knowledge to the challenging one and see if it works.

## 13. Solve an equation

Another common problem-solving technique is setting up and solving an equation. For instance, let's say we need to find a number. We know that after it was doubled, subtracted from 32, and then divided by 4, it gave us an answer of 6. One method could be to assign this number a variable, set up an equation, and solve the equation by 'backtracking and balancing the equation'.

Now that you have a plan, it's time to implement it. This is where you'll put your problem-solving skills to the test and see if your solution actually works. There are a few things to keep in mind as you execute your plan:

## 14. Be systematic

When trying different methods or strategies, it's important to be systematic in your approach. This means trying one problem-solving strategy at a time and not moving on until you've exhausted all possibilities with that particular approach.

## 15. Check your work

Once you think you've found a solution, it's important to check your work to make sure that it actually works. This could involve plugging in different values or doing a test run to see if your solution works in all cases.

## 16. Be flexible

If your initial plan isn't working, don't be afraid to change it. There is no one 'right' way to solve a problem, so feel free to try different things, seek help from different resources and continue until you find a more efficient strategy or one that works.

## 17. Don't give up

It's important to persevere when trying to solve a difficult problem. Just because you can't see a solution right away doesn't mean that there isn't one. If you get stuck, take a break and come back to the problem later with fresh eyes. You might be surprised at what you're able to see after taking some time away from it.

Once you've solved the problem, take a step back and reflect on the process that you went through. Most middle school students forget this fundamental step. This will help you to understand what worked well and what could be improved upon next time.

Whether you do this after a math test or after an individual problem, here are some questions to ask yourself:

What was the most challenging part of the problem?

Was one method more effective than another?

Would you do something differently next time?

What have you learned from this experience?

By taking the time to reflect on your process you'll be able to improve upon it in future and become an even better problem solver. Make sure you write down any insights so that you can refer back to them later.

There is never only one way to solve math problems. But the best way to become a better problem solver is to practise, practise, practise! The more you do it, the better you'll become at identifying different strategies, and the more confident you'll feel when faced with a challenging problem.

The list we've covered is by no means exhaustive, but it's a good starting point for you to begin your journey. When you get stuck, remember to keep an open mind. Experiment with different approaches. Different word problems. Be prepared to go back and try something new. And most importantly, don't forget to have fun!

The essence and beauty of mathematics lies in its freedom. So while these strategies provide nice frameworks, the best work is done by those who are comfortable with exploration outside the rules, and of course, failure! So go forth, make mistakes and learn from them. After all, that's how we improve our problem-solving skills and ability.

Lastly, don't be afraid to ask for help. If you're struggling to solve math word problems, there's no shame in seeking assistance from a certified Melbourne maths tutor . In every lesson at Math Minds, our expert teachers encourage students to think creatively, confidently and courageously.

If you're looking for a mentor who can guide you through these methods, introduce you to other problem-solving activities and help you to understand Mathematics in a deeper way - get in touch with our team today. Sign up for your free online maths assessment and discover a world of new possibilities.

## Recommended for you

From our blog.

## How to Get Better at Maths — 9 Tips to Improve your Grades

Maths can be difficult for a lot of people. But the good news is that there are some simple tips that can help you get better.

## 73 Crazy Riddles for Kids [with Answers] — Can you do them all?

Easy. Tricky. Hilarious. We've got something for everyone. Check out these awesome riddles for kids. How many can you do?

## Catch up, keep up and get ahead

In-center or online.

In less than one hour we'll identify your strengths, knowledge gaps and tailor a customised learning plan. Ready to go?

- +613 8822 3030
- [email protected]
- Book A Free Assessment

Centre Locations

- 1147 Burke Rd Kew VIC 3101
- 2-4 Whitehorse Rd Blackburn VIC 3130

Balwyn North

- 290 Doncaster Rd Balwyn North VIC 3104

Glen Waverley

- 236 Blackburn Rd Glen Waverley VIC 3150
- Multiplication Quiz
- Maths Tutor Melbourne
- Melbourne High Schools
- Best Primary Schools in Melbourne

- For a new problem, you will need to begin a new live expert session.
- You can contact support with any questions regarding your current subscription.
- You will be able to enter math problems once our session is over.
- I am only able to help with one math problem per session. Which problem would you like to work on?
- Does that make sense?
- I am currently working on this problem.
- Are you still there?
- It appears we may have a connection issue. I will end the session - please reconnect if you still need assistance.
- Let me take a look...
- Can you please send an image of the problem you are seeing in your book or homework?
- If you click on "Tap to view steps..." you will see the steps are now numbered. Which step # do you have a question on?
- Please make sure you are in the correct subject. To change subjects, please exit out of this live expert session and select the appropriate subject from the menu located in the upper left corner of the Mathway screen.
- What are you trying to do with this input?
- While we cover a very wide range of problems, we are currently unable to assist with this specific problem. I spoke with my team and we will make note of this for future training. Is there a different problem you would like further assistance with?
- Mathway currently does not support this subject. We are more than happy to answer any math specific question you may have about this problem.
- Mathway currently does not support Ask an Expert Live in Chemistry. If this is what you were looking for, please contact support.
- Mathway currently only computes linear regressions.
- We are here to assist you with your math questions. You will need to get assistance from your school if you are having problems entering the answers into your online assignment.
- Have a great day!
- Hope that helps!
- You're welcome!
- Per our terms of use, Mathway's live experts will not knowingly provide solutions to students while they are taking a test or quiz.

Please ensure that your password is at least 8 characters and contains each of the following:

- a special character: @$#!%*?&

Problem Solving in Mathematics Education pp 1–39 Cite as

## Problem Solving in Mathematics Education

- Peter Liljedahl 6 ,
- Manuel Santos-Trigo 7 ,
- Uldarico Malaspina 8 &
- Regina Bruder 9
- Open Access
- First Online: 28 June 2016

88k Accesses

13 Citations

Part of the ICME-13 Topical Surveys book series (ICME13TS)

Problem solving in mathematics education has been a prominent research field that aims at understanding and relating the processes involved in solving problems to students’ development of mathematical knowledge and problem solving competencies. The accumulated knowledge and field developments include conceptual frameworks to characterize learners’ success in problem solving activities, cognitive, metacognitive, social and affective analysis, curriculum proposals, and ways to foster problem solving approaches. In the survey, four interrelated areas are reviewed: (i) the relevance of heuristics in problem solving approaches—why are they important and what research tells us about their use? (ii) the need to characterize and foster creative problem solving approaches—what type of heuristics helps learners think of and practice creative solutions? (iii) the importance for learners to formulate and pursue their own problems; and (iv) the role played by the use of both multiple purpose and ad hoc mathematical action types of technologies in problem solving activities—what ways of reasoning do learners construct when they rely on the use of digital technologies and how technology and technology approaches can be reconciled?

- Mathematical Problem
- Prospective Teacher
- Creative Process
- Digital Technology
- Mathematical Task

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Download chapter PDF

Mathematical problem solving has long been seen as an important aspect of mathematics, the teaching of mathematics, and the learning of mathematics. It has infused mathematics curricula around the world with calls for the teaching of problem solving as well as the teaching of mathematics through problem solving. And as such, it has been of interest to mathematics education researchers for as long as our field has existed. More relevant, mathematical problem solving has played a part in every ICME conference, from 1969 until the forthcoming meeting in Hamburg, wherein mathematical problem solving will reside most centrally within the work of Topic Study 19: Problem Solving in Mathematics Education. This booklet is being published on the occasion of this Topic Study Group.

To this end, we have assembled four summaries looking at four distinct, yet inter-related, dimensions of mathematical problem solving. The first summary, by Regina Bruder, is a nuanced look at heuristics for problem solving. This notion of heuristics is carried into Peter Liljedahl’s summary, which looks specifically at a progression of heuristics leading towards more and more creative aspects of problem solving. This is followed by Luz Manuel Santos Trigo’s summary introducing us to problem solving in and with digital technologies. The last summary, by Uldarico Malaspina Jurado, documents the rise of problem posing within the field of mathematics education in general and the problem solving literature in particular.

Each of these summaries references in some critical and central fashion the works of George Pólya or Alan Schoenfeld. To the initiated researchers, this is no surprise. The seminal work of these researchers lie at the roots of mathematical problem solving. What is interesting, though, is the diverse ways in which each of the four aforementioned contributions draw on, and position, these works so as to fit into the larger scheme of their respective summaries. This speaks to not only the depth and breadth of these influential works, but also the diversity with which they can be interpreted and utilized in extending our thinking about problem solving.

Taken together, what follows is a topical survey of ideas representing the diversity of views and tensions inherent in a field of research that is both a means to an end and an end onto itself and is unanimously seen as central to the activities of mathematics.

## 1 Survey on the State-of-the-Art

1.1 role of heuristics for problem solving—regina bruder.

The origin of the word heuristic dates back to the time of Archimedes and is said to have come out of one of the famous stories told about this great mathematician and inventor. The King of Syracuse asked Archimedes to check whether his new wreath was really made of pure gold. Archimedes struggled with this task and it was not until he was at the bathhouse that he came up with the solution. As he entered the tub he noticed that he had displaced a certain amount of water. Brilliant as he was, he transferred this insight to the issue with the wreath and knew he had solved the problem. According to the legend, he jumped out of the tub and ran from the bathhouse naked screaming, “Eureka, eureka!”. Eureka and heuristic have the same root in the ancient Greek language and so it has been claimed that this is how the academic discipline of “heuristics” dealing with effective approaches to problem solving (so-called heurisms) was given its name. Pólya ( 1964 ) describes this discipline as follows:

Heuristics deals with solving tasks. Its specific goals include highlighting in general terms the reasons for selecting those moments in a problem the examination of which could help us find a solution. (p. 5)

This discipline has grown, in part, from examining the approaches to certain problems more in detail and comparing them with each other in order to abstract similarities in approach, or so-called heurisms. Pólya ( 1949 ), but also, inter alia, Engel ( 1998 ), König ( 1984 ) and Sewerin ( 1979 ) have formulated such heurisms for mathematical problem tasks. The problem tasks examined by the authors mentioned are predominantly found in the area of talent programmes, that is, they often go back to mathematics competitions.

In 1983 Zimmermann provided an overview of heuristic approaches and tools in American literature which also offered suggestions for mathematics classes. In the German-speaking countries, an approach has established itself, going back to Sewerin ( 1979 ) and König ( 1984 ), which divides school-relevant heuristic procedures into heuristic tools, strategies and principles, see also Bruder and Collet ( 2011 ).

Below is a review of the conceptual background of heuristics, followed by a description of the effect mechanisms of heurisms in problem-solving processes.

## 1.1.1 Research Review on the Promotion of Problem Solving

In the 20th century, there has been an advancement of research on mathematical problem solving and findings about possibilities to promote problem solving with varying priorities (c.f. Pehkonen 1991 ). Based on a model by Pólya ( 1949 ), in a first phase of research on problem solving, particularly in the 1960s and the 1970s, a series of studies on problem-solving processes placing emphasis on the importance of heuristic strategies (heurisms) in problem solving has been carried out. It was assumed that teaching and learning heuristic strategies, principles and tools would provide students with an orientation in problem situations and that this could thus improve students’ problem-solving abilities (c.f. for instance, Schoenfeld 1979 ). This approach, mostly researched within the scope of talent programmes for problem solving, was rather successful (c.f. for instance, Sewerin 1979 ). In the 1980s, requests for promotional opportunities in everyday teaching were given more and more consideration: “ problem solving must be the focus of school mathematics in the 1980s ” (NCTM 1980 ). For the teaching and learning of problem solving in regular mathematics classes, the current view according to which cognitive, heuristic aspects were paramount, was expanded by certain student-specific aspects, such as attitudes, emotions and self-regulated behaviour (c.f. Kretschmer 1983 ; Schoenfeld 1985 , 1987 , 1992 ). Kilpatrick ( 1985 ) divided the promotional approaches described in the literature into five methods which can also be combined with each other.

Osmosis : action-oriented and implicit imparting of problem-solving techniques in a beneficial learning environment

Memorisation : formation of special techniques for particular types of problem and of the relevant questioning when problem solving

Imitation : acquisition of problem-solving abilities through imitation of an expert

Cooperation : cooperative learning of problem-solving abilities in small groups

Reflection : problem-solving abilities are acquired in an action-oriented manner and through reflection on approaches to problem solving.

Kilpatrick ( 1985 ) views as success when heuristic approaches are explained to students, clarified by means of examples and trained through the presentation of problems. The need of making students aware of heuristic approaches is by now largely accepted in didactic discussions. Differences in varying approaches to promoting problem-solving abilities rather refer to deciding which problem-solving strategies or heuristics are to imparted to students and in which way, and not whether these should be imparted at all or not.

## 1.1.2 Heurisms as an Expression of Mental Agility

The activity theory, particularly in its advancement by Lompscher ( 1975 , 1985 ), offers a well-suited and manageable model to describe learning activities and differences between learners with regard to processes and outcomes in problem solving (c.f. Perels et al. 2005 ). Mental activity starts with a goal and the motive of a person to perform such activity. Lompscher divides actual mental activity into content and process. Whilst the content in mathematical problem-solving consists of certain concepts, connections and procedures, the process describes the psychological processes that occur when solving a problem. This course of action is described in Lompscher by various qualities, such as systematic planning, independence, accuracy, activity and agility. Along with differences in motivation and the availability of expertise, it appears that intuitive problem solvers possess a particularly high mental agility, at least with regard to certain contents areas.

According to Lompscher, “flexibility of thought” expresses itself

… by the capacity to change more or less easily from one aspect of viewing to another one or to embed one circumstance or component into different correlations, to understand the relativity of circumstances and statements. It allows to reverse relations, to more or less easily or quickly attune to new conditions of mental activity or to simultaneously mind several objects or aspects of a given activity (Lompscher 1975 , p. 36).

These typical manifestations of mental agility can be focused on in problem solving by mathematical means and can be related to the heurisms known from the analyses of approaches by Pólya et al. (c.f. also Bruder 2000 ):

Reduction : Successful problem solvers will intuitively reduce a problem to its essentials in a sensible manner. To achieve such abstraction, they often use visualisation and structuring aids, such as informative figures, tables, solution graphs or even terms. These heuristic tools are also very well suited to document in retrospect the approach adopted by the intuitive problem solvers in a way that is comprehensible for all.

Reversibility : Successful problem solvers are able to reverse trains of thought or reproduce these in reverse. They will do this in appropriate situations automatically, for instance, when looking for a key they have mislaid. A corresponding general heuristic strategy is working in reverse.

Minding of aspects : Successful problem solvers will mind several aspects of a given problem at the same time or easily recognise any dependence on things and vary them in a targeted manner. Sometimes, this is also a matter of removing barriers in favour of an idea that appears to be sustainable, that is, by simply “hanging on” to a certain train of thought even against resistance. Corresponding heurisms are, for instance, the principle of invariance, the principle of symmetry (Engel 1998 ), the breaking down or complementing of geometric figures to calculate surface areas, or certain terms used in binomial formulas.

Change of aspects : Successful problem solvers will possibly change their assumptions, criteria or aspects minded in order to find a solution. Various aspects of a given problem will be considered intuitively or the problem be viewed from a different perspective, which will prevent “getting stuck” and allow for new insights and approaches. For instance, many elementary geometric propositions can also be proved in an elegant vectorial manner.

Transferring : Successful problem solvers will be able more easily than others to transfer a well-known procedure to another, sometimes even very different context. They recognise more easily the “framework” or pattern of a given task. Here, this is about own constructions of analogies and continual tracing back from the unknown to the known.

Intuitive, that is, untrained good problem solvers, are, however, often unable to access these flexibility qualities consciously. This is why they are also often unable to explain how they actually solved a given problem.

To be able to solve problems successfully, a certain mental agility is thus required. If this is less well pronounced in a certain area, learning how to solve problems means compensating by acquiring heurisms. In this case, insufficient mental agility is partly “offset” through the application of knowledge acquired by means of heurisms. Mathematical problem-solving competences are thus acquired through the promotion of manifestations of mental agility (reduction, reversibility, minding of aspects and change of aspects). This can be achieved by designing sub-actions of problem solving in connection with a (temporarily) conscious application of suitable heurisms. Empirical evidence for the success of the active principle of heurisms has been provided by Collet ( 2009 ).

Against such background, learning how to solve problems can be established as a long-term teaching and learning process which basically encompasses four phases (Bruder and Collet 2011 ):

Intuitive familiarisation with heuristic methods and techniques.

Making aware of special heurisms by means of prominent examples (explicit strategy acquisition).

Short conscious practice phase to use the newly acquired heurisms with differentiated task difficulties.

Expanding the context of the strategies applied.

In the first phase, students are familiarised with heurisms intuitively by means of targeted aid impulses and questions (what helped us solve this problem?) which in the following phase are substantiated on the basis of model tasks, are given names and are thus made aware of their existence. The third phase serves the purpose of a certain familiarisation with the new heurisms and the experience of competence through individualised practising at different requirement levels, including in the form of homework over longer periods. A fourth and delayed fourth phase aims at more flexibility through the transfer to other contents and contexts and the increasingly intuitive use of the newly acquired heurisms, so that students can enrich their own problem-solving models in a gradual manner. The second and third phases build upon each other in close chronological order, whilst the first phase should be used in class at all times.

All heurisms can basically be described in an action-oriented manner by means of asking the right questions. The way of asking questions can thus also establish a certain kind of personal relation. Even if the teacher presents and suggests the line of basic questions with a prototypical wording each time, students should always be given the opportunity to find “their” wording for the respective heurism and take a note of it for themselves. A possible key question for the use of a heuristic tool would be: How to illustrate and structure the problem or how to present it in a different way?

Unfortunately, for many students, applying heuristic approaches to problem solving will not ensue automatically but will require appropriate early and long-term promoting. The results of current studies, where promotion approaches to problem solving are connected with self-regulation and metacognitive aspects, demonstrate certain positive effects of such combination on students. This field of research includes, for instance, studies by Lester et al. ( 1989 ), Verschaffel et al. ( 1999 ), the studies on teaching method IMPROVE by Mevarech and Kramarski ( 1997 , 2003 ) and also the evaluation of a teaching concept on learning how to solve problems by the gradual conscious acquisition of heurisms by Collet and Bruder ( 2008 ).

## 1.2 Creative Problem Solving—Peter Liljedahl

There is a tension between the aforementioned story of Archimedes and the heuristics presented in the previous section. Archimedes, when submersing himself in the tub and suddenly seeing the solution to his problem, wasn’t relying on osmosis, memorisation, imitation, cooperation, or reflection (Kilpatrick 1985 ). He wasn’t drawing on reduction, reversibility, minding of aspects, change of aspect, or transfer (Bruder 2000 ). Archimedes was stuck and it was only, in fact, through insight and sudden illumination that he managed to solve his problem. In short, Archimedes was faced with a problem that the aforementioned heuristics, and their kind, would not help him to solve.

According to some, such a scenario is the definition of a problem. For example, Resnick and Glaser ( 1976 ) define a problem as being something that you do not have the experience to solve. Mathematicians, in general, agree with this (Liljedahl 2008 ).

Any problem in which you can see how to attack it by deliberate effort, is a routine problem, and cannot be an important discover. You must try and fail by deliberate efforts, and then rely on a sudden inspiration or intuition or if you prefer to call it luck. (Dan Kleitman, participant cited in Liljedahl 2008 , p. 19).

Problems, then, are tasks that cannot be solved by direct effort and will require some creative insight to solve (Liljedahl 2008 ; Mason et al. 1982 ; Pólya 1965 ).

## 1.2.1 A History of Creativity in Mathematics Education

In 1902, the first half of what eventually came to be a 30 question survey was published in the pages of L’Enseignement Mathématique , the journal of the French Mathematical Society. The authors, Édouard Claparède and Théodore Flournoy, were two Swiss psychologists who were deeply interested in the topics of mathematical discovery, creativity and invention. Their hope was that a widespread appeal to mathematicians at large would incite enough responses for them to begin to formulate some theories about this topic. The first half of the survey centered on the reasons for becoming a mathematician (family history, educational influences, social environment, etc.), attitudes about everyday life, and hobbies. This was eventually followed, in 1904, by the publication of the second half of the survey pertaining, in particular, to mental images during periods of creative work. The responses were sorted according to nationality and published in 1908.

During this same period Henri Poincaré (1854–1912), one of the most noteworthy mathematicians of the time, had already laid much of the groundwork for his own pursuit of this same topic and in 1908 gave a presentation to the French Psychological Society in Paris entitled L’Invention mathématique —often mistranslated to Mathematical Creativity Footnote 1 (c.f. Poincaré 1952 ). At the time of the presentation Poincaré stated that he was aware of Claparède and Flournoy’s work, as well as their results, but expressed that they would only confirm his own findings. Poincaré’s presentation, as well as the essay it spawned, stands to this day as one of the most insightful, and thorough treatments of the topic of mathematical discovery, creativity, and invention.

Just at this time, I left Caen, where I was living, to go on a geological excursion under the auspices of the School of Mines. The incident of the travel made me forget my mathematical work. Having reached Coutances, we entered an omnibus to go some place or other. At the moment when I put my foot on the step, the idea came to me, without anything in my former thoughts seeming to have paved the way for it, that the transformations I had used to define the Fuschian functions were identical with those of non-Euclidean geometry. I did not verify the idea; I should not have had the time, as, upon taking my seat in the omnibus, I went on with the conversation already commenced, but I felt a perfect certainty. On my return to Caen, for conscience’ sake, I verified the results at my leisure. (Poincaré 1952 , p. 53)

So powerful was his presentation, and so deep were his insights into his acts of invention and discovery that it could be said that he not so much described the characteristics of mathematical creativity, as defined them. From that point forth mathematical creativity, or even creativity in general, has not been discussed seriously without mention of Poincaré’s name.

Inspired by this presentation, Jacques Hadamard (1865–1963), a contemporary and a friend of Poincaré’s, began his own empirical investigation into this fascinating phenomenon. Hadamard had been critical of Claparède and Flournoy’s work in that they had not adequately treated the topic on two fronts. As exhaustive as the survey appeared to be, Hadamard felt that it failed to ask some key questions—the most important of which was with regard to the reason for failures in the creation of mathematics. This seemingly innocuous oversight, however, led directly to his second and “most important criticism” (Hadamard 1945 ). He felt that only “first-rate men would dare to speak of” (p. 10) such failures. So, inspired by his good friend Poincaré’s treatment of the subject Hadamard retooled the survey and gave it to friends of his for consideration—mathematicians such as Henri Poincaré and Albert Einstein, whose prominence were beyond reproach. Ironically, the new survey did not contain any questions that explicitly dealt with failure. In 1943 Hadamard gave a series of lectures on mathematical invention at the École Libre des Hautes Études in New York City. These talks were subsequently published as The Psychology of Mathematical Invention in the Mathematical Field (Hadameard 1945 ).

Hadamard’s classic work treats the subject of invention at the crossroads of mathematics and psychology. It provides not only an entertaining look at the eccentric nature of mathematicians and their rituals, but also outlines the beliefs of mid twentieth-century mathematicians about the means by which they arrive at new mathematics. It is an extensive exploration and extended argument for the existence of unconscious mental processes. In essence, Hadamard took the ideas that Poincaré had posed and, borrowing a conceptual framework for the characterization of the creative process from the Gestaltists of the time (Wallas 1926 ), turned them into a stage theory. This theory still stands as the most viable and reasonable description of the process of mathematical creativity.

## 1.2.2 Defining Mathematical Creativity

The phenomena of mathematical creativity, although marked by sudden illumination, actually consist of four separate stages stretched out over time, of which illumination is but one stage. These stages are initiation, incubation, illumination, and verification (Hadamard 1945 ). The first of these stages, the initiation phase, consists of deliberate and conscious work. This would constitute a person’s voluntary, and seemingly fruitless, engagement with a problem and be characterized by an attempt to solve the problem by trolling through a repertoire of past experiences. This is an important part of the inventive process because it creates the tension of unresolved effort that sets up the conditions necessary for the ensuing emotional release at the moment of illumination (Hadamard 1945 ; Poincaré 1952 ).

Following the initiation stage the solver, unable to come up with a solution stops working on the problem at a conscious level and begins to work on it at an unconscious level (Hadamard 1945 ; Poincaré 1952 ). This is referred to as the incubation stage of the inventive process and can last anywhere from several minutes to several years. After the period of incubation a rapid coming to mind of a solution, referred to as illumination , may occur. This is accompanied by a feeling of certainty and positive emotions (Poincaré 1952 ). Although the processes of incubation and illumination are shrouded behind the veil of the unconscious there are a number of things that can be deduced about them. First and foremost is the fact that unconscious work does, indeed, occur. Poincaré ( 1952 ), as well as Hadamard ( 1945 ), use the very real experience of illumination, a phenomenon that cannot be denied, as evidence of unconscious work, the fruits of which appear in the flash of illumination. No other theory seems viable in explaining the sudden appearance of solution during a walk, a shower, a conversation, upon waking, or at the instance of turning the conscious mind back to the problem after a period of rest (Poincaré 1952 ). Also deducible is that unconscious work is inextricably linked to the conscious and intentional effort that precedes it.

There is another remark to be made about the conditions of this unconscious work: it is possible, and of a certainty it is only fruitful, if it is on the one hand preceded and on the other hand followed by a period of conscious work. These sudden inspirations never happen except after some days of voluntary effort which has appeared absolutely fruitless and whence nothing good seems to have come … (Poincaré 1952 , p. 56)

Hence, the fruitless efforts of the initiation phase are only seemingly so. They not only set up the aforementioned tension responsible for the emotional release at the time of illumination, but also create the conditions necessary for the process to enter into the incubation phase.

Illumination is the manifestation of a bridging that occurs between the unconscious mind and the conscious mind (Poincaré 1952 ), a coming to (conscious) mind of an idea or solution. What brings the idea forward to consciousness is unclear, however. There are theories of the aesthetic qualities of the idea, effective surprise/shock of recognition, fluency of processing, or breaking functional fixedness. For reasons of brevity I will only expand on the first of these.

Poincaré proposed that ideas that were stimulated during initiation remained stimulated during incubation. However, freed from the constraints of conscious thought and deliberate calculation, these ideas would begin to come together in rapid and random unions so that “their mutual impacts may produce new combinations” (Poincaré 1952 ). These new combinations, or ideas, would then be evaluated for viability using an aesthetic sieve, which allows through to the conscious mind only the “right combinations” (Poincaré 1952 ). It is important to note, however, that good or aesthetic does not necessarily mean correct. Correctness is evaluated during the verification stage.

The purpose of verification is not only to check for correctness. It is also a method by which the solver re-engages with the problem at the level of details. That is, during the unconscious work the problem is engaged with at the level of ideas and concepts. During verification the solver can examine these ideas in closer details. Poincaré succinctly describes both of these purposes.

As for the calculations, themselves, they must be made in the second period of conscious work, that which follows the inspiration, that in which one verifies the results of this inspiration and deduces their consequences. (Poincaré 1952 , p. 62)

Aside from presenting this aforementioned theory on invention, Hadamard also engaged in a far-reaching discussion on a number of interesting, and sometimes quirky, aspects of invention and discovery that he had culled from the results of his empirical study, as well as from pertinent literature. This discussion was nicely summarized by Newman ( 2000 ) in his commentary on the elusiveness of invention.

The celebrated phrenologist Gall said mathematical ability showed itself in a bump on the head, the location of which he specified. The psychologist Souriau, we are told, maintained that invention occurs by “pure chance”, a valuable theory. It is often suggested that creative ideas are conjured up in “mathematical dreams”, but this attractive hypothesis has not been verified. Hadamard reports that mathematicians were asked whether “noises” or “meteorological circumstances” helped or hindered research [..] Claude Bernard, the great physiologist, said that in order to invent “one must think aside”. Hadamard says this is a profound insight; he also considers whether scientific invention may perhaps be improved by standing or sitting or by taking two baths in a row. Helmholtz and Poincaré worked sitting at a table; Hadamard’s practice is to pace the room (“Legs are the wheels of thought”, said Emile Angier); the chemist J. Teeple was the two-bath man. (p. 2039)

## 1.2.3 Discourses on Creativity

Creativity is a term that can be used both loosely and precisely. That is, while there exists a common usage of the term there also exists a tradition of academic discourse on the subject. A common usage of creative refers to a process or a person whose products are original, novel, unusual, or even abnormal (Csíkszentmihályi 1996 ). In such a usage, creativity is assessed on the basis of the external and observable products of the process, the process by which the product comes to be, or on the character traits of the person doing the ‘creating’. Each of these usages—product, process, person—is the roots of the discourses (Liljedahl and Allan 2014 ) that I summarize here, the first of which concerns products.

Consider a mother who states that her daughter is creative because she drew an original picture. The basis of such a statement can lie either in the fact that the picture is unlike any the mother has ever seen or unlike any her daughter has ever drawn before. This mother is assessing creativity on the basis of what her daughter has produced. However, the standards that form the basis of her assessment are neither consistent nor stringent. There does not exist a universal agreement as to what she is comparing the picture to (pictures by other children or other pictures by the same child). Likewise, there is no standard by which the actual quality of the picture is measured. The academic discourse that concerns assessment of products, on the other hand, is both consistent and stringent (Csíkszentmihályi 1996 ). This discourse concerns itself more with a fifth, and as yet unmentioned, stage of the creative process; elaboration . Elaboration is where inspiration becomes perspiration (Csíkszentmihályi 1996 ). It is the act of turning a good idea into a finished product, and the finished product is ultimately what determines the creativity of the process that spawned it—that is, it cannot be a creative process if nothing is created. In particular, this discourse demands that the product be assessed against other products within its field, by the members of that field, to determine if it is original AND useful (Csíkszentmihályi 1996 ; Bailin 1994 ). If it is, then the product is deemed to be creative. Note that such a use of assessment of end product pays very little attention to the actual process that brings this product forth.

The second discourse concerns the creative process. The literature pertaining to this can be separated into two categories—a prescriptive discussion of the creativity process and a descriptive discussion of the creativity process. Although both of these discussions have their roots in the four stages that Wallas ( 1926 ) proposed makes up the creative process, they make use of these stages in very different ways. The prescriptive discussion of the creative process is primarily focused on the first of the four stages, initiation , and is best summarized as a cause - and - effect discussion of creativity, where the thinking processes during the initiation stage are the cause and the creative outcome are the effects (Ghiselin 1952 ). Some of the literature claims that the seeds of creativity lie in being able to think about a problem or situation analogically. Other literature claims that utilizing specific thinking tools such as imagination, empathy, and embodiment will lead to creative products. In all of these cases, the underlying theory is that the eventual presentation of a creative idea will be precipitated by the conscious and deliberate efforts during the initiation stage. On the other hand, the literature pertaining to a descriptive discussion of the creative process is inclusive of all four stages (Kneller 1965 ; Koestler 1964 ). For example, Csíkszentmihályi ( 1996 ), in his work on flow attends to each of the stages, with much attention paid to the fluid area between conscious and unconscious work, or initiation and incubation. His claim is that the creative process is intimately connected to the enjoyment that exists during times of sincere and consuming engagement with a situation, the conditions of which he describes in great detail.

The third, and final, discourse on creativity pertains to the person. This discourse is space dominated by two distinct characteristics, habit and genius. Habit has to do with the personal habits as well as the habits of mind of people that have been deemed to be creative. However, creative people are most easily identified through their reputation for genius. Consequently, this discourse is often dominated by the analyses of the habits of geniuses as is seen in the work of Ghiselin ( 1952 ), Koestler ( 1964 ), and Kneller ( 1965 ) who draw on historical personalities such as Albert Einstein, Henri Poincaré, Vincent Van Gogh, D.H. Lawrence, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Igor Stravinsky, and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to name a few. The result of this sort of treatment is that creative acts are viewed as rare mental feats, which are produced by extraordinary individuals who use extraordinary thought processes.

These different discourses on creativity can be summed up in a tension between absolutist and relativist perspectives on creativity (Liljedahl and Sriraman 2006 ). An absolutist perspective assumes that creative processes are the domain of genius and are present only as precursors to the creation of remarkably useful and universally novel products. The relativist perspective, on the other hand, allows for every individual to have moments of creativity that may, or may not, result in the creation of a product that may, or may not, be either useful or novel.

Between the work of a student who tries to solve a problem in geometry or algebra and a work of invention, one can say there is only a difference of degree. (Hadamard 1945 , p. 104).

Regardless of discourse, however, creativity is not “part of the theories of logical forms” (Dewey 1938 ). That is, creativity is not representative of the lock-step logic and deductive reasoning that mathematical problem solving is often presumed to embody (Bibby 2002 ; Burton 1999 ). Couple this with the aforementioned demanding constraints as to what constitutes a problem, where then does that leave problem solving heuristics? More specifically, are there creative problem solving heuristics that will allow us to resolve problems that require illumination to solve? The short answer to this question is yes—there does exist such problem solving heuristics. To understand these, however, we must first understand the routine problem solving heuristics they are built upon. In what follows, I walk through the work of key authors and researchers whose work offers us insights into progressively more creative problem solving heuristics for solving true problems.

## 1.2.4 Problem Solving by Design

In a general sense, design is defined as the algorithmic and deductive approach to solving a problem (Rusbult 2000 ). This process begins with a clearly defined goal or objective after which there is a great reliance on relevant past experience, referred to as repertoire (Bruner 1964 ; Schön 1987 ), to produce possible options that will lead towards a solution of the problem (Poincaré 1952 ). These options are then examined through a process of conscious evaluations (Dewey 1933 ) to determine their suitability for advancing the problem towards the final goal. In very simple terms, problem solving by design is the process of deducing the solution from that which is already known.

Mayer ( 1982 ), Schoenfeld ( 1982 ), and Silver ( 1982 ) state that prior knowledge is a key element in the problem solving process. Prior knowledge influences the problem solver’s understanding of the problem as well as the choice of strategies that will be called upon in trying to solve the problem. In fact, prior knowledge and prior experiences is all that a solver has to draw on when first attacking a problem. As a result, all problem solving heuristics incorporate this resource of past experiences and prior knowledge into their initial attack on a problem. Some heuristics refine these ideas, and some heuristics extend them (c.f. Kilpatrick 1985 ; Bruder 2000 ). Of the heuristics that refine, none is more influential than the one created by George Pólya (1887–1985).

## 1.2.5 George Pólya: How to Solve It

In his book How to Solve It (1949) Pólya lays out a problem solving heuristic that relies heavily on a repertoire of past experience. He summarizes the four-step process of his heuristic as follows:

Understanding the Problem

First. You have to understand the problem.

What is the unknown? What are the data? What is the condition?

Is it possible to satisfy the condition? Is the condition sufficient to determine the unknown? Or is it insufficient? Or redundant? Or contradictory?

Draw a figure. Introduce suitable notation.

Separate the various parts of the condition. Can you write them down?

Devising a Plan

Second. Find the connection between the data and the unknown. You may be obliged to consider auxiliary problems if an immediate connection cannot be found. You should obtain eventually a plan of the solution.

Have you seen it before? Or have you seen the same problem in a slightly different form?

Do you know a related problem? Do you know a theorem that could be useful?

Look at the unknown! And try to think of a familiar problem having the same or a similar unknown.

Here is a problem related to yours and solved before. Could you use it? Could you use its result? Could you use its method? Should you introduce some auxiliary element in order to make its use possible?

Could you restate the problem? Could you restate it still differently? Go back to definitions.

If you cannot solve the proposed problem try to solve first some related problem. Could you imagine a more accessible related problem? A more general problem? A more special problem? An analogous problem? Could you solve a part of the problem? Keep only a part of the condition, drop the other part; how far is the unknown then determined, how can it vary? Could you derive something useful from the data? Could you think of other data appropriate to determine the unknown? Could you change the unknown or data, or both if necessary, so that the new unknown and the new data are nearer to each other?

Did you use all the data? Did you use the whole condition? Have you taken into account all essential notions involved in the problem?

Carrying Out the Plan

Third. Carry out your plan.

Carrying out your plan of the solution, check each step. Can you see clearly that the step is correct? Can you prove that it is correct?

Looking Back

Fourth. Examine the solution obtained.

Can you check the result? Can you check the argument?

Can you derive the solution differently? Can you see it at a glance?

Can you use the result, or the method, for some other problem?

The emphasis on auxiliary problems, related problems, and analogous problems that are, in themselves, also familiar problems is an explicit manifestation of relying on a repertoire of past experience. This use of familiar problems also requires an ability to deduce from these related problems a recognizable and relevant attribute that will transfer to the problem at hand. The mechanism that allows for this transfer of knowledge between analogous problems is known as analogical reasoning (English 1997 , 1998 ; Novick 1988 , 1990 , 1995 ; Novick and Holyoak 1991 ) and has been shown to be an effective, but not always accessible, thinking strategy.

Step four in Pólya’s heuristic, looking back, is also a manifestation of utilizing prior knowledge to solve problems, albeit an implicit one. Looking back makes connections “in memory to previously acquired knowledge [..] and further establishes knowledge in long-term memory that may be elaborated in later problem-solving encounters” (Silver 1982 , p. 20). That is, looking back is a forward-looking investment into future problem solving encounters, it sets up connections that may later be needed.

Pólya’s heuristic is a refinement on the principles of problem solving by design. It not only makes explicit the focus on past experiences and prior knowledge, but also presents these ideas in a very succinct, digestible, and teachable manner. This heuristic has become a popular, if not the most popular, mechanism by which problem solving is taught and learned.

## 1.2.6 Alan Schoenfeld: Mathematical Problem Solving

The work of Alan Schoenfeld is also a refinement on the principles of problem solving by design. However, unlike Pólya ( 1949 ) who refined these principles at a theoretical level, Schoenfeld has refined them at a practical and empirical level. In addition to studying taught problem solving strategies he has also managed to identify and classify a variety of strategies, mostly ineffectual, that students invoke naturally (Schoenfeld 1985 , 1992 ). In so doing, he has created a better understanding of how students solve problems, as well as a better understanding of how problems should be solved and how problem solving should be taught.

For Schoenfeld, the problem solving process is ultimately a dialogue between the problem solver’s prior knowledge, his attempts, and his thoughts along the way (Schoenfeld 1982 ). As such, the solution path of a problem is an emerging and contextually dependent process. This is a departure from the predefined and contextually independent processes of Pólya’s ( 1949 ) heuristics. This can be seen in Schoenfeld’s ( 1982 ) description of a good problem solver.

To examine what accounts for expertise in problem solving, you would have to give the expert a problem for which he does not have access to a solution schema. His behavior in such circumstances is radically different from what you would see when he works on routine or familiar “non-routine” problems. On the surface his performance is no longer proficient; it may even seem clumsy. Without access to a solution schema, he has no clear indication of how to start. He may not fully understand the problem, and may simply “explore it for a while until he feels comfortable with it. He will probably try to “match” it to familiar problems, in the hope it can be transformed into a (nearly) schema-driven solution. He will bring up a variety of plausible things: related facts, related problems, tentative approaches, etc. All of these will have to be juggled and balanced. He may make an attempt solving it in a particular way, and then back off. He may try two or three things for a couple of minutes and then decide which to pursue. In the midst of pursuing one direction he may go back and say “that’s harder than it should be” and try something else. Or, after the comment, he may continue in the same direction. With luck, after some aborted attempts, he will solve the problem. (p. 32-33)

Aside from demonstrating the emergent nature of the problem solving process, this passage also brings forth two consequences of Schoenfeld’s work. The first of these is the existence of problems for which the solver does not have “access to a solution schema”. Unlike Pólya ( 1949 ), who’s heuristic is a ‘one size fits all (problems)’ heuristic, Schoenfeld acknowledges that problem solving heuristics are, in fact, personal entities that are dependent on the solver’s prior knowledge as well as their understanding of the problem at hand. Hence, the problems that a person can solve through his or her personal heuristic are finite and limited.

The second consequence that emerges from the above passage is that if a person lacks the solution schema to solve a given problem s/he may still solve the problem with the help of luck . This is an acknowledgement, if only indirectly so, of the difference between problem solving in an intentional and mechanical fashion verses problem solving in a more creative fashion, which is neither intentional nor mechanical (Pehkonen 1997 ).

## 1.2.7 David Perkins: Breakthrough Thinking

As mentioned, many consider a problem that can be solved by intentional and mechanical means to not be worthy of the title ‘problem’. As such, a repertoire of past experiences sufficient for dealing with such a ‘problem’ would disqualify it from the ranks of ‘problems’ and relegate it to that of ‘exercises’. For a problem to be classified as a ‘problem’, then, it must be ‘problematic’. Although such an argument is circular it is also effective in expressing the ontology of mathematical ‘problems’.

Perkins ( 2000 ) also requires problems to be problematic. His book Archimedes’ Bathtub: The Art and Logic of Breakthrough Thinking (2000) deals with situations in which the solver has gotten stuck and no amount of intentional or mechanical adherence to the principles of past experience and prior knowledge is going to get them unstuck. That is, he deals with problems that, by definition, cannot be solved through a process of design [or through the heuristics proposed by Pólya ( 1949 ) and Schoenfeld ( 1985 )]. Instead, the solver must rely on the extra-logical process of what Perkins ( 2000 ) calls breakthrough thinking .

Perkins ( 2000 ) begins by distinguishing between reasonable and unreasonable problems. Although both are solvable, only reasonable problems are solvable through reasoning. Unreasonable problems require a breakthrough in order to solve them. The problem, however, is itself inert. It is neither reasonable nor unreasonable. That quality is brought to the problem by the solver. That is, if a student cannot solve a problem by direct effort then that problem is deemed to be unreasonable for that student. Perkins ( 2000 ) also acknowledges that what is an unreasonable problem for one person is a perfectly reasonable problem for another person; reasonableness is dependent on the person.

This is not to say that, once found, the solution cannot be seen as accessible through reason. During the actual process of solving, however, direct and deductive reasoning does not work. Perkins ( 2000 ) uses several classic examples to demonstrate this, the most famous being the problem of connecting nine dots in a 3 × 3 array with four straight lines without removing pencil from paper, the solution to which is presented in Fig. 1 .

Nine dots—four lines problem and solution

To solve this problem, Perkins ( 2000 ) claims that the solver must recognize that the constraint of staying within the square created by the 3 × 3 array is a self-imposed constraint. He further claims that until this is recognized no amount of reasoning is going to solve the problem. That is, at this point in the problem solving process the problem is unreasonable. However, once this self-imposed constraint is recognized the problem, and the solution, are perfectly reasonable. Thus, the solution of an, initially, unreasonable problem is reasonable.

The problem solving heuristic that Perkins ( 2000 ) has constructed to deal with solvable, but unreasonable, problems revolves around the idea of breakthrough thinking and what he calls breakthrough problems . A breakthrough problem is a solvable problem in which the solver has gotten stuck and will require an AHA! to get unstuck and solve the problem. Perkins ( 2000 ) poses that there are only four types of solvable unreasonable problems, which he has named wilderness of possibilities , the clueless plateau , narrow canyon of exploration , and oasis of false promise . The names for the first three of these types of problems are related to the Klondike gold rush in Alaska, a time and place in which gold was found more by luck than by direct and systematic searching.

The wilderness of possibilities is a term given to a problem that has many tempting directions but few actual solutions. This is akin to a prospector searching for gold in the Klondike. There is a great wilderness in which to search, but very little gold to be found. The clueless plateau is given to problems that present the solver with few, if any, clues as to how to solve it. The narrow canyon of exploration is used to describe a problem that has become constrained in such a way that no solution now exists. The nine-dot problem presented above is such a problem. The imposed constraint that the lines must lie within the square created by the array makes a solution impossible. This is identical to the metaphor of a prospector searching for gold within a canyon where no gold exists. The final type of problem gets its name from the desert. An oasis of false promise is a problem that allows the solver to quickly get a solution that is close to the desired outcome; thereby tempting them to remain fixed on the strategy that they used to get this almost-answer. The problem is, that like the canyon, the solution does not exist at the oasis; the solution strategy that produced an almost-answer is incapable of producing a complete answer. Likewise, a desert oasis is a false promise in that it is only a reprieve from the desolation of the dessert and not a final destination.

Believing that there are only four ways to get stuck, Perkins ( 2000 ) has designed a problem solving heuristic that will “up the chances” of getting unstuck. This heuristic is based on what he refers to as “the logic of lucking out” (p. 44) and is built on the idea of introspection. By first recognizing that they are stuck, and then recognizing that the reason they are stuck can only be attributed to one of four reasons, the solver can access four strategies for getting unstuck, one each for the type of problem they are dealing with. If the reason they are stuck is because they are faced with a wilderness of possibilities they are to begin roaming far, wide, and systematically in the hope of reducing the possible solution space to one that is more manageable. If they find themselves on a clueless plateau they are to begin looking for clues, often in the wording of the problem. When stuck in a narrow canyon of possibilities they need to re-examine the problem and see if they have imposed any constraints. Finally, when in an oasis of false promise they need to re-attack the problem in such a way that they stay away from the oasis.

Of course, there are nuances and details associated with each of these types of problems and the strategies for dealing with them. However, nowhere within these details is there mention of the main difficulty inherent in introspection; that it is much easier for the solver to get stuck than it is for them to recognize that they are stuck. Once recognized, however, the details of Perkins’ ( 2000 ) heuristic offer the solver some ways for recognizing why they are stuck.

## 1.2.8 John Mason, Leone Burton, and Kaye Stacey: Thinking Mathematically

The work of Mason et al. in their book Thinking Mathematically ( 1982 ) also recognizes the fact that for each individual there exists problems that will not yield to their intentional and mechanical attack. The heuristic that they present for dealing with this has two main processes with a number of smaller phases, rubrics, and states. The main processes are what they refer to as specializing and generalizing. Specializing is the process of getting to know the problem and how it behaves through the examination of special instances of the problem. This process is synonymous with problem solving by design and involves the repeated oscillation between the entry and attack phases of Mason et al. ( 1982 ) heuristic. The entry phase is comprised of ‘getting started’ and ‘getting involved’ with the problem by using what is immediately known about it. Attacking the problem involves conjecturing and testing a number of hypotheses in an attempt to gain greater understanding of the problem and to move towards a solution.

At some point within this process of oscillating between entry and attack the solver will get stuck, which Mason et al. ( 1982 ) refer to as “an honourable and positive state, from which much can be learned” (p. 55). The authors dedicate an entire chapter to this state in which they acknowledge that getting stuck occurs long before an awareness of being stuck develops. They proposes that the first step to dealing with being stuck is the simple act of writing STUCK!

The act of expressing my feelings helps to distance me from my state of being stuck. It frees me from incapacitating emotions and reminds me of actions that I can take. (p. 56)

The next step is to reengage the problem by examining the details of what is known, what is wanted, what can be introduced into the problem, and what has been introduced into the problem (imposed assumptions). This process is engaged in until an AHA!, which advances the problem towards a solution, is encountered. If, at this point, the problem is not completely solved the oscillation is then resumed.

At some point in this process an attack on the problem will yield a solution and generalizing can begin. Generalizing is the process by which the specifics of a solution are examined and questions as to why it worked are investigated. This process is synonymous with the verification and elaboration stages of invention and creativity. Generalization may also include a phase of review that is similar to Pólya’s ( 1949 ) looking back.

## 1.2.9 Gestalt: The Psychology of Problem Solving

The Gestalt psychology of learning believes that all learning is based on insights (Koestler 1964 ). This psychology emerged as a response to behaviourism, which claimed that all learning was a response to external stimuli. Gestalt psychologists, on the other hand, believed that there was a cognitive process involved in learning as well. With regards to problem solving, the Gestalt school stands firm on the belief that problem solving, like learning, is a product of insight and as such, cannot be taught. In fact, the theory is that not only can problem solving not be taught, but also that attempting to adhere to any sort of heuristic will impede the working out of a correct solution (Krutestkii 1976 ). Thus, there exists no Gestalt problem solving heuristic. Instead, the practice is to focus on the problem and the solution rather than on the process of coming up with a solution. Problems are solved by turning them over and over in the mind until an insight, a viable avenue of attack, presents itself. At the same time, however, there is a great reliance on prior knowledge and past experiences. The Gestalt method of problem solving, then, is at the same time very different and very similar to the process of design.

Gestalt psychology has not fared well during the evolution of cognitive psychology. Although it honours the work of the unconscious mind it does so at the expense of practicality. If learning is, indeed, entirely based on insight then there is little point in continuing to study learning. “When one begins by assuming that the most important cognitive phenomena are inaccessible, there really is not much left to talk about” (Schoenfeld 1985 , p. 273). However, of interest here is the Gestalt psychologists’ claim that focus on problem solving methods creates functional fixedness (Ashcraft 1989 ). Mason et al. ( 1982 ), as well as Perkins ( 2000 ) deal with this in their work on getting unstuck.

## 1.2.10 Final Comments

Mathematics has often been characterized as the most precise of all sciences. Lost in such a misconception is the fact that mathematics often has its roots in the fires of creativity, being born of the extra-logical processes of illumination and intuition. Problem solving heuristics that are based solely on the processes of logical and deductive reasoning distort the true nature of problem solving. Certainly, there are problems in which logical deductive reasoning is sufficient for finding a solution. But these are not true problems. True problems need the extra-logical processes of creativity, insight, and illumination, in order to produce solutions.

Fortunately, as elusive as such processes are, there does exist problem solving heuristics that incorporate them into their strategies. Heuristics such as those by Perkins ( 2000 ) and Mason et al. ( 1982 ) have found a way of combining the intentional and mechanical processes of problem solving by design with the extra-logical processes of creativity, illumination, and the AHA!. Furthermore, they have managed to do so without having to fully comprehend the inner workings of this mysterious process.

## 1.3 Digital Technologies and Mathematical Problem Solving—Luz Manuel Santos-Trigo

Mathematical problem solving is a field of research that focuses on analysing the extent to which problem solving activities play a crucial role in learners’ understanding and use of mathematical knowledge. Mathematical problems are central in mathematical practice to develop the discipline and to foster students learning (Pólya 1945 ; Halmos 1994 ). Mason and Johnston-Wilder ( 2006 ) pointed out that “The purpose of a task is to initiate mathematically fruitful activity that leads to a transformation in what learners are sensitized to notice and competent to carry out” (p. 25). Tasks are essential for learners to elicit their ideas and to engage them in mathematical thinking. In a problem solving approach, what matters is the learners’ goals and ways to interact with the tasks. That is, even routine tasks can be a departure point for learners to extend initial conditions and transform them into some challenging activities.

Thus, analysing and characterizing ways in which mathematical problems are formulated (Singer et al. 2015 ) and the process involved in pursuing and solving those problems generate important information to frame and structure learning environments to guide and foster learners’ construction of mathematical concepts and problem solving competences (Santos-Trigo 2014 ). Furthermore, mathematicians or discipline practitioners have often been interested in unveiling and sharing their own experience while developing the discipline. As a results, they have provided valuable information to characterize mathematical practices and their relations to what learning processes of the discipline entails. It is recognized that the work of Pólya ( 1945 ) offered not only bases to launch several research programs in problem solving (Schoenfeld 1992 ; Mason et al. 1982 ); but also it became an essential resource for teachers to orient and structure their mathematical lessons (Krulik and Reys 1980 ).

## 1.3.1 Research Agenda

A salient feature of a problem solving approach to learn mathematics is that teachers and students develop and apply an enquiry or inquisitive method to delve into mathematical concepts and tasks. How are mathematical problems or concepts formulated? What types of problems are important for teachers/learners to discuss and engage in mathematical reasoning? What mathematical processes and ways of reasoning are involved in understanding mathematical concepts and solving problems? What are the features that distinguish an instructional environment that fosters problem-solving activities? How can learners’ problem solving competencies be assessed? How can learners’ problem solving competencies be characterized and explained? How can learners use digital technologies to understand mathematics and to develop problem-solving competencies? What ways of reasoning do learners construct when they use digital technologies in problem solving approaches? These types of questions have been important in the problem solving research agenda and delving into them has led researchers to generate information and results to support and frame curriculum proposals and learning scenarios. The purpose of this section is to present and discuss important themes that emerged in problem solving approaches that rely on the systematic use of several digital technologies.

In the last 40 years, the accumulated knowledge in the problem solving field has shed lights on both a characterization of what mathematical thinking involves and how learners can construct a robust knowledge in problem solving environments (Schoenfeld 1992 ). In this process, the field has contributed to identify what types of transformations traditional learning scenarios might consider when teachers and students incorporate the use of digital technologies in mathematical classrooms. In this context, it is important to briefly review what main themes and developments the field has addressed and achieved during the last 40 years.

## 1.3.2 Problem Solving Developments

There are traces of mathematical problems and solutions throughout the history of civilization that explain the humankind interest for identifying and exploring mathematical relations (Kline 1972 ). Pólya ( 1945 ) reflects on his own practice as a mathematician to characterize the process of solving mathematical problems through four main phases: Understanding the problem, devising a plan, carrying out the plan, and looking back. Likewise, Pólya ( 1945 ) presents and discusses the role played by heuristic methods throughout all problem solving phases. Schoenfeld ( 1985 ) presents a problem solving research program based on Pólya’s ( 1945 ) ideas to investigate the extent to which problem solving heuristics help university students to solve mathematical problems and to develop a way of thinking that shows consistently features of mathematical practices. As a result, he explains the learners’ success or failure in problem solving activities can be characterized in terms their mathematical resources and ways to access them, cognitive and metacognitive strategies used to represent and explore mathematical tasks, and systems of beliefs about mathematics and solving problems. In addition, Schoenfeld ( 1992 ) documented that heuristics methods as illustrated in Pólya’s ( 1945 ) book are ample and general and do not include clear information and directions about how learners could assimilate, learn, and use them in their problem solving experiences. He suggested that students need to discuss what it means, for example, to think of and examining special cases (one important heuristic) in finding a closed formula for series or sequences, analysing relationships of roots of polynomials, or focusing on regular polygons or equilateral/right triangles to find general relations about these figures. That is, learners need to work on examples that lead them to recognize that the use of a particular heuristic often involves thinking of different type of cases depending on the domain or content involved. Lester and Kehle ( 2003 ) summarize themes and methodological shifts in problem solving research up to 1995. Themes include what makes a problem difficult for students and what it means to be successful problem solvers; studying and contrasting experts and novices’ problem solving approaches; learners’ metacognitive, beliefs systems and the influence of affective behaviours; and the role of context; and social interactions in problem solving environments. Research methods in problem solving studies have gone from emphasizing quantitative or statistical design to the use of cases studies and ethnographic methods (Krutestkii ( 1976 ). Teaching strategies also evolved from being centred on teachers to the active students’ engagement and collaboration approaches (NCTM 2000 ). Lesh and Zawojewski ( 2007 ) propose to extend problem solving approaches beyond class setting and they introduce the construct “model eliciting activities” to delve into the learners’ ideas and thinking as a way to engage them in the development of problem solving experiences. To this end, learners develop and constantly refine problem-solving competencies as a part of a learning community that promotes and values modelling construction activities. Recently, English and Gainsburg ( 2016 ) have discussed the importance of modeling eliciting activities to prepare and develop students’ problem solving experiences for 21st Century challenges and demands.

Törner et al. ( 2007 ) invited mathematics educators worldwide to elaborate on the influence and developments of problem solving in their countries. Their contributions show a close relationship between countries mathematical education traditions and ways to frame and implement problem solving approaches. In Chinese classrooms, for example, three instructional strategies are used to structure problem solving lessons: one problem multiple solutions , multiple problems one solution , and one problem multiple changes . In the Netherlands, the realistic mathematical approach permeates the students’ development of problem solving competencies; while in France, problem solving activities are structured in terms of two influential frameworks: The theory of didactical situations and anthropological theory of didactics.

In general, problem solving frameworks and instructional approaches came from analysing students’ problem solving experiences that involve or rely mainly on the use of paper and pencil work. Thus, there is a need to re-examined principles and frameworks to explain what learners develop in learning environments that incorporate systematically the coordinated use of digital technologies (Hoyles and Lagrange 2010 ). In this perspective, it becomes important to briefly describe and identify what both multiple purpose and ad hoc technologies can offer to the students in terms of extending learning environments and representing and exploring mathematical tasks. Specifically, a task is used to identify features of mathematical reasoning that emerge through the use digital technologies that include both mathematical action and multiple purpose types of technologies.

## 1.3.3 Background

Digital technologies are omnipresent and their use permeates and shapes several social and academic events. Mobile devices such as tablets or smart phones are transforming the way people communicate, interact and carry out daily activities. Churchill et al. ( 2016 ) pointed out that mobile technologies provide a set of tools and affordances to structure and support learning environments in which learners continuously interact to construct knowledge and solve problems. The tools include resources or online materials, efficient connectivity to collaborate and discuss problems, ways to represent, explore and store information, and analytical and administration tools to management learning activities. Schmidt and Cohen ( 2013 ) stated that nowadays it is difficult to imagine a life without mobile devices, and communication technologies are playing a crucial role in generating both cultural and technical breakthroughs. In education, the use of mobile artefacts and computers offers learners the possibility of continuing and extending peers and groups’ mathematical discussions beyond formal settings. In this process, learners can also consult online materials and interact with experts, peers or more experienced students while working on mathematical tasks. In addition, dynamic geometry systems (GeoGebra) provide learners a set of affordances to represent and explore dynamically mathematical problems. Leung and Bolite-Frant ( 2015 ) pointed out that tools help activate an interactive environment in which teachers and students’ mathematical experiences get enriched. Thus, the digital age brings new challenges to the mathematics education community related to the changes that technologies produce to curriculum, learning scenarios, and ways to represent, explore mathematical situations. In particular, it is important to characterize the type of reasoning that learners can develop as a result of using digital technologies in their process of learning concepts and solving mathematical problems.

## 1.3.4 A Focus on Mathematical Tasks

Mathematical tasks are essential elements for engaging learners in mathematical reasoning which involves representing objects, identifying and exploring their properties in order to detect invariants or relationships and ways to support them. Watson and Ohtani ( 2015 ) stated that task design involves discussions about mathematical content and students’ learning (cognitive perspective), about the students’ experiences to understand the nature of mathematical activities; and about the role that tasks played in teaching practices. In this context, tasks are the vehicle to present and discuss theoretical frameworks for supporting the use of digital technology, to analyse the importance of using digital technologies in extending learners’ mathematical discussions beyond formal settings, and to design ways to foster and assess the use of technologies in learners’ problem solving environments. In addition, it is important to discuss contents, concepts, representations and strategies involved in the process of using digital technologies in approaching the tasks. Similarly, it becomes essential to discuss what types of activities students will do to learn and solve the problems in an environment where the use of technologies fosters and values the participation and collaboration of all students. What digital technologies are important to incorporate in problem solving approaches? Dynamic Geometry Systems can be considered as a milestone in the development of digital technologies. Objects or mathematical situations can be represented dynamically through the use of a Dynamic Geometry System and learners or problem solvers can identify and examine mathematical relations that emerge from moving objects within the dynamic model (Moreno-Armella and Santos-Trigo 2016 ).

Leung and Bolite-Frant ( 2015 ) stated that “dynamic geometry software can be used in task design to cover a large epistemic spectrum from drawing precise robust geometrical figures to exploration of new geometric theorems and development of argumentation discourse” (p. 195). As a result, learners not only need to develop skills and strategies to construct dynamic configuration of problems; but also ways of relying on the tool’s affordances (quantifying parameters or objects attributes, generating loci, graphing objects behaviours, using sliders, or dragging particular elements within the configuration) in order to identify and support mathematical relations. What does it mean to represent and explore an object or mathematical situation dynamically?

A simple task that involves a rhombus and its inscribed circle is used to illustrate how a dynamic representation of these objects and embedded elements can lead learners to identify and examine mathematical properties of those objects in the construction of the configuration. To this end, learners are encouraged to pose and pursue questions to explain the behaviours of parameters or attributes of the family of objects that is generated as a result of moving a particular element within the configuration.

## 1.3.5 A Task: A Dynamic Rhombus

Figure 2 represents a rhombus APDB and its inscribed circle (O is intersection of diagonals AD and BP and the radius of the inscribed circle is the perpendicular segment from any side of the rhombus to point O), vertex P lies on a circle c centred at point A. Circle c is only a heuristic to generate a family of rhombuses. Thus, point P can be moved along circle c to generate a family of rhombuses. Indeed, based on the symmetry of the circle it is sufficient to move P on the semicircle B’CA to draw such a family of rhombuses.

A dynamic construction of a rhombus

## 1.3.6 Posing Questions

A goal in constructing a dynamic model or configuration of problems is always to identify and explore mathematical properties and relations that might result from moving objects within the model. How do the areas of both the rhombus and the inscribed circle behave when point P is moved along the arc B’CB? At what position of point P does the area of the rhombus or inscribed circle reach the maximum value? The coordinates of points S and Q (Fig. 3 ) are the x -value of point P and as y -value the corresponding area values of rhombus ABDP and the inscribed circle respectively. Figure 2 shows the loci of points S and Q when point P is moved along arc B’CB. Here, finding the locus via the use of GeoGebra is another heuristic to graph the area behaviour without making explicit the algebraic model of the area.

Graphic representation of the area variation of the family of rhombuses and inscribed circles generated when P is moved through arc B’CB

The area graphs provide information to visualize that in that family of generated rhombuses the maximum area value of the inscribed circle and rhombus is reached when the rhombus becomes a square (Fig. 4 ). That is, the controlled movement of particular objects is an important strategy to analyse the area variation of the family of rhombuses and their inscribed circles.

Visualizing the rhombus and the inscribed circle with maximum area

It is important to observe the identification of points P and Q in terms of the position of point P and the corresponding areas and the movement of point P was sufficient to generate both area loci. That is, the graph representation of the areas is achieved without having an explicit algebraic expression of the area variation. Clearly, the graphic representations provide information regarding the increasing or decreasing interval of both areas; it is also important to explore what properties both graphic representations hold. The goal is to argue that the area variation of the rhombus represents an ellipse and the area of the inscribed circle represents a parabola. An initial argument might involve selecting five points on each locus and using the tool to draw the corresponding conic section (Fig. 5 ). In this case, the tool affordances play an important role in generating the graphic representation of the areas’ behaviours and in identifying properties of those representations. In this context, the use of the tool can offer learners the opportunity to problematize (Santos-Trigo 2007 ) a simple mathematical object (rhombus) as a means to search for mathematical relations and ways to support them.

Drawing the conic section that passes through five points

## 1.3.7 Looking for Different Solutions Methods

Another line of exploration might involve asking for ways to construct a rhombus and its inscribed circle: Suppose that the side of the rhombus and the circle are given, how can you construct the rhombus that has that circle inscribed? Figure 6 shows the given data, segment A 1 B 1 and circle centred at O and radius OD. The initial goal is to draw the circle tangent to the given segment. To this end, segment AB is congruent to segment A 1 B 1 and on this segment a point P is chosen and a perpendicular to segment AB that passes through point P is drawn. Point C is on this perpendicular and the centre of a circle with radius OD and h is the perpendicular to line PC that passes through point C. Angle ACB changes when point P is moved along segment AB and point E and F are the intersection of line h and the circle with centre M the midpoint of AB and radius MA (Fig. 6 ).

Drawing segment AB tangent to the given circle

Figure 7 a shows the right triangle AFB as the base to construct the rhombus and the inscribed circle and Fig. 7 b shows the second solution based on triangle AEB.

a Drawing the rhombus and the inscribed circle. b Drawing the second solution

Another approach might involve drawing the given circle centred at the origin and the segment as EF with point E on the y-axis. Line OC is perpendicular to segment EF and the locus of point C when point E moves along the y-axis intersects the given circle (Fig. 8 a, b). Both figures show two solutions to draw the rhombus that circumscribe the given circle.

a and b Another solution that involves finding a locus of point C

In this example, the GeoGebra affordances not only are important to construct a dynamic model of the task; but also offer learners and opportunity to explore relations that emerge from moving objects within the model. As a result, learners can rely on different concepts and strategies to solve the tasks. The idea in presenting this rhombus task is to illustrate that the use of a Dynamic Geometry System provides affordances for learners to construct dynamic representation of mathematical objects or problems, to move elements within the representation to pose questions or conjectures to explain invariants or patterns among involved parameters; to search for arguments to support emerging conjectures, and to develop a proper language to communicate results.

## 1.3.8 Looking Back

Conceptual frameworks used to explain learners’ construction of mathematical knowledge need to capture or take into account the different ways of reasoning that students might develop as a result of using a set of tools during the learning experiences. Figure 9 show some digital technologies that learners can use for specific purpose at the different stages of problem solving activities.

The coordinated use of digital tools to engage learners in problem solving experiences

The use of a dynamic system (GeoGebra) provides a set of affordances for learners to conceptualize and represent mathematical objects and tasks dynamically. In this process, affordances such as moving objects orderly (dragging), finding loci of objects, quantifying objects attributes (lengths, areas, angles, etc.), using sliders to vary parameters, and examining family of objects became important to look for invariance or objects relationships. Likewise, analysing the parameters or objects behaviours within the configuration might lead learners to identify properties to support emerging mathematical relations. Thus, with the use of the tool, learners might conceptualize mathematical tasks as an opportunity for them to engage in mathematical activities that include constructing dynamic models of tasks, formulating conjectures, and always looking for different arguments to support them. Similarly, learners can use an online platform to share their ideas, problem solutions or questions in a digital wall and others students can also share ideas or solution methods and engaged in mathematical discussions that extend mathematical classroom activities.

## 1.4 Problem Posing: An Overview for Further Progress—Uldarico Malaspina Jurado

Problem posing and problem solving are two essential aspects of the mathematical activity; however, researchers in mathematics education have not emphasized their attention on problem posing as much as problem solving. In that sense, due to its importance in the development of mathematical thinking in students since the first grades, we agree with Ellerton’s statement ( 2013 ): “for too long, successful problem solving has been lauded as the goal; the time has come for problem posing to be given a prominent but natural place in mathematics curricula and classrooms” (pp. 100–101); and due to its importance in teacher training, with Abu-Elwan’s statement ( 1999 ):

While teacher educators generally recognize that prospective teachers require guidance in mastering the ability to confront and solve problems, what is often overlooked is the critical fact that, as teachers, they must be able to go beyond the role as problem solvers. That is, in order to promote a classroom situation where creative problem solving is the central focus, the practitioner must become skillful in discovering and correctly posing problems that need solutions. (p. 1)

Scientists like Einstein and Infeld ( 1938 ), recognized not only for their notable contributions in the fields they worked, but also for their reflections on the scientific activity, pointed out the importance of problem posing; thus it is worthwhile to highlight their statement once again:

The formulation of a problem is often more essential than its solution, which may be merely a matter of mathematical or experimental skills. To raise new questions, new possibilities, to regard old questions from a new angle, requires creative imagination and marks real advance in science. (p. 92)

Certainly, it is also relevant to remember mathematician Halmos’s statement ( 1980 ): “I do believe that problems are the heart of mathematics, and I hope that as teachers (…) we will train our students to be better problem posers and problem solvers than we are” (p. 524).

An important number of researchers in mathematics education has focused on the importance of problem posing, and we currently have numerous, very important publications that deal with different aspects of problem posing related to the mathematics education of students in all educational levels and to teacher training.

## 1.4.1 A Retrospective Look

Kilpatrick ( 1987 ) marked a historical milestone in research related to problem posing and points out that “problem formulating should be viewed not only as a goal of instruction but also as a means of instruction” (Kilpatrick 1987 , p. 123); and he also emphasizes that, as part of students’ education, all of them should be given opportunities to live the experience of discovering and posing their own problems. Drawing attention to the few systematic studies on problem posing performed until then, Kilpatrick contributes defining some aspects that required studying and investigating as steps prior to a theoretical building, though he warns, “attempts to teach problem-formulating skills, of course, need not await a theory” (p. 124).

Kilpatrick refers to the “Source of problems” and points out how virtually all problems students solve have been posed by another person; however, in real life “many problems, if not most, must be created or discovered by the solver, who gives the problem an initial formulation” (p. 124). He also points out that problems are reformulated as they are being solved, and he relates this to investigation, reminding us what Davis ( 1985 ) states that, “what typically happens in a prolonged investigation is that problem formulation and problem solution go hand in hand, each eliciting the other as the investigation progresses” (p. 23). He also relates it to the experiences of software designers, who formulate an appropriate sequence of sub-problems to solve a problem. He poses that a subject to be examined by teachers and researchers “is whether, by drawing students’ attention to the reformulating process and given them practice in it, we can improve their problem solving performance” (p. 130). He also points out that problems may be a mathematical formulation as a result of exploring a situation and, in that sense, “school exercises in constructing mathematical models of a situation presented by the teacher are intended to provide students with experiences in formulating problems.” (p. 131).

Another important section of Kilpatrick’s work ( 1987 ) is Processes of Problem Formulating , in which he considers association, analogy, generalization and contradiction. He believes the use of concept maps to represent concept organization, as cognitive scientists Novak and Gowin suggest, might help to comprehend such concepts, stimulate creative thinking about them, and complement the ideas Brown and Walter ( 1983 ) give for problem posing by association. Further, in the section “Understanding and developing problem formulating abilities”, he poses several questions, which have not been completely answered yet, like “Perhaps the central issue from the point of view of cognitive science is what happens when someone formulates the problem? (…) What is the relation between problem formulating, problem solving and structured knowledge base? How rich a knowledge base is needed for problem formulating? (…) How does experience in problem formulating add to knowledge base? (…) What metacognitive processes are needed for problem formulating?”

It is interesting to realize that some of these questions are among the unanswered questions proposed and analyzed by Cai et al. ( 2015 ) in Chap. 1 of the book Mathematical Problem Posing (Singer et al. 2015 ). It is worth stressing the emphasis on the need to know the cognitive processes in problem posing, an aspect that Kilpatrick had already posed in 1987, as we just saw.

## 1.4.2 Researches and Didactic Experiences

Currently, there are a great number of publications related to problem posing, many of which are research and didactic experiences that gather the questions posed by Kilpatrick, which we just commented. Others came up naturally as reflections raised in the framework of problem solving, facing the natural requirement of having appropriate problems to use results and suggestions of researches on problem solving, or as a response to a thoughtful attitude not to resign to solving and asking students to solve problems that are always created by others. Why not learn and teach mathematics posing one’s own problems?

## 1.4.3 New Directions of Research

Singer et al. ( 2013 ) provides a broad view about problem posing that links problem posing experiences to general mathematics education; to the development of abilities, attitudes and creativity; and also to its interrelation with problem solving, and studies on when and how problem-solving sessions should take place. Likewise, it provides information about research done regarding ways to pose new problems and about the need for teachers to develop abilities to handle complex situations in problem posing contexts.

Singer et al. ( 2013 ) identify new directions in problem posing research that go from problem-posing task design to the development of problem-posing frameworks to structure and guide teachers and students’ problem posing experiences. In a chapter of this book, Leikin refers to three different types of problem posing activities, associated with school mathematics research: (a) problem posing through proving; (b) problem posing for investigation; and (c) problem posing through investigation. This classification becomes evident in the problems posed in a course for prospective secondary school mathematics teachers by using a dynamic geometry environment. Prospective teachers posed over 25 new problems, several of which are discussed in the article. The author considers that, by developing this type of problem posing activities, prospective mathematics teachers may pose different problems related to a geometric object, prepare more interesting lessons for their students, and thus gradually develop their mathematical competence and their creativity.

## 1.4.4 Final Comments

This overview, though incomplete, allows us to see a part of what problem posing experiences involve and the importance of this area in students mathematical learning. An important task is to continue reflecting on the questions posed by Kilpatrick ( 1987 ), as well as on the ones that come up in the different researches aforementioned. To continue progressing in research on problem posing and contribute to a greater consolidation of this research line, it will be really important that all mathematics educators pay more attention to problem posing, seek to integrate approaches and results, and promote joint and interdisciplinary works. As Singer et al. ( 2013 ) say, going back to Kilpatrick’s proposal ( 1987 ),

Problem posing is an old issue. What is new is the awareness that problem posing needs to pervade the education systems around the world, both as a means of instruction (…) and as an object of instruction (…) with important targets in real-life situations. (p. 5)

Although it can be argued that there is a difference between creativity, discovery, and invention (see Liljedahl and Allan 2014 ) for the purposes of this book these will be assumed to be interchangeable.

Abu-Elwan, R. (1999). The development of mathematical problem posing skills for prospective middle school teachers. In A. Rogerson (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Mathematical Education into the 21st century: Social Challenges, Issues and Approaches , (Vol. 2, pp. 1–8), Cairo, Egypt.

Google Scholar

Ashcraft, M. (1989). Human memory and cognition . Glenview, Illinois: Scott, Foresman and Company.

Bailin, S. (1994). Achieving extraordinary ends: An essay on creativity . Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

Bibby, T. (2002). Creativity and logic in primary-school mathematics: A view from the classroom. For the Learning of Mathematics, 22 (3), 10–13.

Brown, S., & Walter, M. (1983). The art of problem posing . Philadelphia: Franklin Institute Press.

Bruder, R. (2000). Akzentuierte Aufgaben und heuristische Erfahrungen. In W. Herget & L. Flade (Eds.), Mathematik lehren und lernen nach TIMSS. Anregungen für die Sekundarstufen (pp. 69–78). Berlin: Volk und Wissen.

Bruder, R. (2005). Ein aufgabenbasiertes anwendungsorientiertes Konzept für einen nachhaltigen Mathematikunterricht—am Beispiel des Themas “Mittelwerte”. In G. Kaiser & H. W. Henn (Eds.), Mathematikunterricht im Spannungsfeld von Evolution und Evaluation (pp. 241–250). Hildesheim, Berlin: Franzbecker.

Bruder, R., & Collet, C. (2011). Problemlösen lernen im Mathematikunterricht . Berlin: CornelsenVerlag Scriptor.

Bruner, J. (1964). Bruner on knowing . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Burton, L. (1999). Why is intuition so important to mathematicians but missing from mathematics education? For the Learning of Mathematics, 19 (3), 27–32.

Cai, J., Hwang, S., Jiang, C., & Silber, S. (2015). Problem posing research in mathematics: Some answered and unanswered questions. In F.M. Singer, N. Ellerton, & J. Cai (Eds.), Mathematical problem posing: From research to effective practice (pp.3–34). Springer.

Churchill, D., Fox, B., & King, M. (2016). Framework for designing mobile learning environments. In D. Churchill, J. Lu, T. K. F. Chiu, & B. Fox (Eds.), Mobile learning design (pp. 20–36)., lecture notes in educational technology NY: Springer.

Chapter Google Scholar

Collet, C. (2009). Problemlösekompetenzen in Verbindung mit Selbstregulation fördern. Wirkungsanalysen von Lehrerfortbildungen. In G. Krummheuer, & A. Heinze (Eds.), Empirische Studien zur Didaktik der Mathematik , Band 2, Münster: Waxmann.

Collet, C., & Bruder, R. (2008). Longterm-study of an intervention in the learning of problem-solving in connection with self-regulation. In O. Figueras, J. L. Cortina, S. Alatorre, T. Rojano, & A. Sepúlveda (Eds.), Proceedings of the Joint Meeting of PME 32 and PME-NA XXX, (Vol. 2, pp. 353–360).

Csíkszentmihályi, M. (1996). Creativity: Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention . New York: Harper Perennial.

Davis, P. J. (1985). What do I know? A study of mathematical self-awareness. College Mathematics Journal, 16 (1), 22–41.

Article Google Scholar

Dewey, J. (1933). How we think . Boston, MA: D.C. Heath and Company.

Dewey, J. (1938). Logic: The theory of inquiry . New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company.

Einstein, A., & Infeld, L. (1938). The evolution of physics . New York: Simon and Schuster.

Ellerton, N. (2013). Engaging pre-service middle-school teacher-education students in mathematical problem posing: Development of an active learning framework. Educational Studies in Math, 83 (1), 87–101.

Engel, A. (1998). Problem-solving strategies . New York, Berlin und Heidelberg: Springer.

English, L. (1997). Children’s reasoning processes in classifying and solving comparison word problems. In L. D. English (Ed.), Mathematical reasoning: Analogies, metaphors, and images (pp. 191–220). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.

English, L. (1998). Reasoning by analogy in solving comparison problems. Mathematical Cognition, 4 (2), 125–146.

English, L. D. & Gainsburg, J. (2016). Problem solving in a 21st- Century mathematics education. In L. D. English & D. Kirshner (Eds.), Handbook of international research in mathematics education (pp. 313–335). NY: Routledge.

Ghiselin, B. (1952). The creative process: Reflections on invention in the arts and sciences . Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Hadamard, J. (1945). The psychology of invention in the mathematical field . New York, NY: Dover Publications.

Halmos, P. (1980). The heart of mathematics. American Mathematical Monthly, 87 , 519–524.

Halmos, P. R. (1994). What is teaching? The American Mathematical Monthly, 101 (9), 848–854.

Hoyles, C., & Lagrange, J.-B. (Eds.). (2010). Mathematics education and technology–Rethinking the terrain. The 17th ICMI Study . NY: Springer.

Kilpatrick, J. (1985). A retrospective account of the past 25 years of research on teaching mathematical problem solving. In E. Silver (Ed.), Teaching and learning mathematical problem solving: Multiple research perspectives (pp. 1–15). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Kilpatrick, J. (1987). Problem formulating: Where do good problem come from? In A. H. Schoenfeld (Ed.), Cognitive science and mathematics education (pp. 123–147). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Kline, M. (1972). Mathematical thought from ancient to modern times . NY: Oxford University Press.

Kneller, G. (1965). The art and science of creativity . New York, NY: Holt, Reinhart, and Winstone Inc.

Koestler, A. (1964). The act of creation . New York, NY: The Macmillan Company.

König, H. (1984). Heuristik beim Lösen problemhafter Aufgaben aus dem außerunterrichtlichen Bereich . Technische Hochschule Chemnitz, Sektion Mathematik.

Kretschmer, I. F. (1983). Problemlösendes Denken im Unterricht. Lehrmethoden und Lernerfolge . Dissertation. Frankfurt a. M.: Peter Lang.

Krulik, S. A., & Reys, R. E. (Eds.). (1980). Problem solving in school mathematics. Yearbook of the national council of teachers of mathematics . Reston VA: NCTM.

Krutestkii, V. A. (1976). The psychology of mathematical abilities in school children . University of Chicago Press.

Lesh, R., & Zawojewski, J. S. (2007). Problem solving and modeling. In F. K. Lester, Jr. (Ed.), The second handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning (pp. 763–804). National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

Lester, F., & Kehle, P. E. (2003). From problem solving to modeling: The evolution of thinking about research on complex mathematical activity. In R. Lesh & H. Doerr (Eds.), Beyond constructivism: Models and modeling perspectives on mathematics problem solving, learning and teaching (pp. 501–518). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Lester, F. K., Garofalo, J., & Kroll, D. (1989). The role of metacognition in mathematical problem solving: A study of two grade seven classes. Final report to the National Science Foundation, NSF Project No. MDR 85-50346. Bloomington: Indiana University, Mathematics Education Development Center.

Leung, A., & Bolite-Frant, J. (2015). Designing mathematical tasks: The role of tools. In A. Watson & M. Ohtani (Eds.), Task design in mathematics education (pp. 191–225). New York: Springer.

Liljedahl, P. (2008). The AHA! experience: Mathematical contexts, pedagogical implications . Saarbrücken, Germany: VDM Verlag.

Liljedahl, P., & Allan, D. (2014). Mathematical discovery. In E. Carayannis (Ed.), Encyclopedia of creativity, invention, innovation, and entrepreneurship . New York, NY: Springer.

Liljedahl, P., & Sriraman, B. (2006). Musings on mathematical creativity. For the Learning of Mathematics, 26 (1), 20–23.

Lompscher, J. (1975). Theoretische und experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Entwicklung geistiger Fähigkeiten . Berlin: Volk und Wissen. 2. Auflage.

Lompscher, J. (1985). Die Lerntätigkeit als dominierende Tätigkeit des jüngeren Schulkindes. In L. Irrlitz, W. Jantos, E. Köster, H. Kühn, J. Lompscher, G. Matthes, & G. Witzlack (Eds.), Persönlichkeitsentwicklung in der Lerntätigkeit . Berlin: Volk und Wissen.

Mason, J., & Johnston-Wilder, S. (2006). Designing and using mathematical tasks . St. Albans: Tarquin Publications.

Mason, J., Burton, L., & Stacey, K. (1982). Thinking mathematically . Harlow: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Mayer, R. (1982). The psychology of mathematical problem solving. In F. K. Lester & J. Garofalo (Eds.), Mathematical problem solving: Issues in research (pp. 1–13). Philadelphia, PA: Franklin Institute Press.

Mevarech, Z. R., & Kramarski, B. (1997). IMPROVE: A multidimensional method for teaching mathematics in heterogeneous classrooms. American Educational Research Journal, 34 (2), 365–394.

Mevarech, Z. R., & Kramarski, B. (2003). The effects of metacognitive training versus worked-out examples on students’ mathematical reasoning. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 73 , 449–471.

Moreno-Armella, L., & Santos-Trigo, M. (2016). The use of digital technologies in mathematical practices: Reconciling traditional and emerging approaches. In L. English & D. Kirshner (Eds.), Handbook of international research in mathematics education (3rd ed., pp. 595–616). New York: Taylor and Francis.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). (1980). An agenda for action . Reston, VA: NCTM.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). (2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics . Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Newman, J. (2000). The world of mathematics (Vol. 4). New York, NY: Dover Publishing.

Novick, L. (1988). Analogical transfer, problem similarity, and expertise. Journal of Educational Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 14 (3), 510–520.

Novick, L. (1990). Representational transfer in problem solving. Psychological Science, 1 (2), 128–132.

Novick, L. (1995). Some determinants of successful analogical transfer in the solution of algebra word problems. Thinking & Reasoning, 1 (1), 5–30.

Novick, L., & Holyoak, K. (1991). Mathematical problem solving by analogy. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 17 (3), 398–415.

Pehkonen, E. K. (1991). Developments in the understanding of problem solving. ZDM—The International Journal on Mathematics Education, 23 (2), 46–50.

Pehkonen, E. (1997). The state-of-art in mathematical creativity. Analysis, 97 (3), 63–67.

Perels, F., Schmitz, B., & Bruder, R. (2005). Lernstrategien zur Förderung von mathematischer Problemlösekompetenz. In C. Artelt & B. Moschner (Eds.), Lernstrategien und Metakognition. Implikationen für Forschung und Praxis (pp. 153–174). Waxmann education.

Perkins, D. (2000). Archimedes’ bathtub: The art of breakthrough thinking . New York, NY: W.W. Norton and Company.

Poincaré, H. (1952). Science and method . New York, NY: Dover Publications Inc.

Pólya, G. (1945). How to solve It . Princeton NJ: Princeton University.

Pólya, G. (1949). How to solve It . Princeton NJ: Princeton University.

Pólya, G. (1954). Mathematics and plausible reasoning . Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Pólya, G. (1964). Die Heuristik. Versuch einer vernünftigen Zielsetzung. Der Mathematikunterricht , X (1), 5–15.

Pólya, G. (1965). Mathematical discovery: On understanding, learning and teaching problem solving (Vol. 2). New York, NY: Wiley.

Resnick, L., & Glaser, R. (1976). Problem solving and intelligence. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp. 230–295). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Rusbult, C. (2000). An introduction to design . http://www.asa3.org/ASA/education/think/intro.htm#process . Accessed January 10, 2016.

Santos-Trigo, M. (2007). Mathematical problem solving: An evolving research and practice domain. ZDM—The International Journal on Mathematics Education , 39 (5, 6): 523–536.

Santos-Trigo, M. (2014). Problem solving in mathematics education. In S. Lerman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of mathematics education (pp. 496–501). New York: Springer.

Schmidt, E., & Cohen, J. (2013). The new digital age. Reshaping the future of people nations and business . NY: Alfred A. Knopf.

Schoenfeld, A. H. (1979). Explicit heuristic training as a variable in problem-solving performance. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 10 , 173–187.

Schoenfeld, A. H. (1982). Some thoughts on problem-solving research and mathematics education. In F. K. Lester & J. Garofalo (Eds.), Mathematical problem solving: Issues in research (pp. 27–37). Philadelphia: Franklin Institute Press.

Schoenfeld, A. H. (1985). Mathematical problem solving . Orlando, Florida: Academic Press Inc.

Schoenfeld, A. H. (1987). What’s all the fuss about metacognition? In A. H. Schoenfeld (Ed.), Cognitive science and mathematics education (pp. 189–215). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Schoenfeld, A. H. (1992). Learning to think mathematically: Problem solving, metacognition, and sense making in mathematics. In D. A. Grouws (Ed.), Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning (pp. 334–370). New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.

Schön, D. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner . San Fransisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Sewerin, H. (1979): Mathematische Schülerwettbewerbe: Beschreibungen, Analysen, Aufgaben, Trainingsmethoden mit Ergebnissen . Umfrage zum Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik. München: Manz.

Silver, E. (1982). Knowledge organization and mathematical problem solving. In F. K. Lester & J. Garofalo (Eds.), Mathematical problem solving: Issues in research (pp. 15–25). Philadelphia: Franklin Institute Press.

Singer, F., Ellerton, N., & Cai, J. (2013). Problem posing research in mathematics education: New questions and directions. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 83 (1), 9–26.

Singer, F. M., Ellerton, N. F., & Cai, J. (Eds.). (2015). Mathematical problem posing. From research to practice . NY: Springer.

Törner, G., Schoenfeld, A. H., & Reiss, K. M. (2007). Problem solving around the world: Summing up the state of the art. ZDM—The International Journal on Mathematics Education, 39 (1), 5–6.

Verschaffel, L., de Corte, E., Lasure, S., van Vaerenbergh, G., Bogaerts, H., & Ratinckx, E. (1999). Learning to solve mathematical application problems: A design experiment with fifth graders. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 1 (3), 195–229.

Wallas, G. (1926). The art of thought . New York: Harcourt Brace.

Watson, A., & Ohtani, M. (2015). Themes and issues in mathematics education concerning task design: Editorial introduction. In A. Watson & M. Ohtani (Eds.), Task design in mathematics education, an ICMI Study 22 (pp. 3–15). NY: Springer.

Zimmermann, B. (1983). Problemlösen als eine Leitidee für den Mathematikunterricht. Ein Bericht über neuere amerikanische Beiträge. Der Mathematikunterricht, 3 (1), 5–45.

## Further Reading

Boaler, J. (1997). Experiencing school mathematics: Teaching styles, sex, and setting . Buckingham, PA: Open University Press.

Borwein, P., Liljedahl, P., & Zhai, H. (2014). Mathematicians on creativity. Mathematical Association of America.

Burton, L. (1984). Thinking things through . London, UK: Simon & Schuster Education.

Feynman, R. (1999). The pleasure of finding things out . Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing.

Gardner, M. (1978). Aha! insight . New York, NY: W. H. Freeman and Company.

Gardner, M. (1982). Aha! gotcha: Paradoxes to puzzle and delight . New York, NY: W. H. Freeman and Company.

Gardner, H. (1993). Creating minds: An anatomy of creativity seen through the lives of Freud, Einstein, Picasso, Stravinsky, Eliot, Graham, and Ghandi . New York, NY: Basic Books.

Glas, E. (2002). Klein’s model of mathematical creativity. Science & Education, 11 (1), 95–104.

Hersh, D. (1997). What is mathematics, really? . New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Root-Bernstein, R., & Root-Bernstein, M. (1999). Sparks of genius: The thirteen thinking tools of the world’s most creative people . Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Zeitz, P. (2006). The art and craft of problem solving . New York, NY: Willey.

Download references

## Author information

Authors and affiliations.

Faculty of Education, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada

Peter Liljedahl

Mathematics Education Department, Cinvestav-IPN, Centre for Research and Advanced Studies, Mexico City, Mexico

Manuel Santos-Trigo

Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima, Peru

Uldarico Malaspina

Technical University Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany

Regina Bruder

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar

## Corresponding author

Correspondence to Peter Liljedahl .

## Rights and permissions

This chapter is published under an open access license. Please check the 'Copyright Information' section either on this page or in the PDF for details of this license and what re-use is permitted. If your intended use exceeds what is permitted by the license or if you are unable to locate the licence and re-use information, please contact the Rights and Permissions team .

## Copyright information

© 2016 The Author(s)

## About this chapter

Cite this chapter.

Liljedahl, P., Santos-Trigo, M., Malaspina, U., Bruder, R. (2016). Problem Solving in Mathematics Education. In: Problem Solving in Mathematics Education. ICME-13 Topical Surveys. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-40730-2_1

## Download citation

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-40730-2_1

Published : 28 June 2016

Publisher Name : Springer, Cham

Print ISBN : 978-3-319-40729-6

Online ISBN : 978-3-319-40730-2

eBook Packages : Education Education (R0)

## Solver Title

## Generating PDF...

- Pre Algebra Order of Operations Factors & Primes Fractions Long Arithmetic Decimals Exponents & Radicals Ratios & Proportions Percent Modulo Number Line Mean, Median & Mode
- Algebra Equations Inequalities System of Equations System of Inequalities Basic Operations Algebraic Properties Partial Fractions Polynomials Rational Expressions Sequences Power Sums Interval Notation Pi (Product) Notation Induction Logical Sets Word Problems
- Pre Calculus Equations Inequalities Scientific Calculator Scientific Notation Arithmetics Complex Numbers Polar/Cartesian Simultaneous Equations System of Inequalities Polynomials Rationales Functions Arithmetic & Comp. Coordinate Geometry Plane Geometry Solid Geometry Conic Sections Trigonometry
- Calculus Derivatives Derivative Applications Limits Integrals Integral Applications Integral Approximation Series ODE Multivariable Calculus Laplace Transform Taylor/Maclaurin Series Fourier Series Fourier Transform
- Functions Line Equations Functions Arithmetic & Comp. Conic Sections Transformation
- Linear Algebra Matrices Vectors
- Trigonometry Identities Proving Identities Trig Equations Trig Inequalities Evaluate Functions Simplify
- Statistics Mean Geometric Mean Quadratic Mean Average Median Mode Order Minimum Maximum Probability Mid-Range Range Standard Deviation Variance Lower Quartile Upper Quartile Interquartile Range Midhinge Standard Normal Distribution
- Physics Mechanics
- Chemistry Chemical Reactions Chemical Properties
- Finance Simple Interest Compound Interest Present Value Future Value
- Economics Point of Diminishing Return
- Conversions Roman Numerals Radical to Exponent Exponent to Radical To Fraction To Decimal To Mixed Number To Improper Fraction Radians to Degrees Degrees to Radians Hexadecimal Scientific Notation Distance Weight Time
- Pre Algebra
- Pre Calculus
- Linear Algebra
- Trigonometry
- Conversions

## Most Used Actions

Number line.

- x^{2}-x-6=0
- -x+3\gt 2x+1
- line\:(1,\:2),\:(3,\:1)
- prove\:\tan^2(x)-\sin^2(x)=\tan^2(x)\sin^2(x)
- \frac{d}{dx}(\frac{3x+9}{2-x})
- (\sin^2(\theta))'
- \lim _{x\to 0}(x\ln (x))
- \int e^x\cos (x)dx
- \int_{0}^{\pi}\sin(x)dx
- \sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{3}{2^n}
- Is there a step by step calculator for math?
- Symbolab is the best step by step calculator for a wide range of math problems, from basic arithmetic to advanced calculus and linear algebra. It shows you the solution, graph, detailed steps and explanations for each problem.
- Is there a step by step calculator for physics?
- Symbolab is the best step by step calculator for a wide range of physics problems, including mechanics, electricity and magnetism, and thermodynamics. It shows you the steps and explanations for each problem, so you can learn as you go.
- How to solve math problems step-by-step?
- To solve math problems step-by-step start by reading the problem carefully and understand what you are being asked to find. Next, identify the relevant information, define the variables, and plan a strategy for solving the problem.
- Practice, practice, practice Math can be an intimidating subject. Each new topic we learn has symbols and problems we have never seen. The unknowing... Read More

Please add a message.

Message received. Thanks for the feedback.

Teaching support from the UK’s largest provider of in-school maths tuition

resources downloaded

one to one lessons

schools supported

Built by teachers for teachers

In-school online one to one maths tuition developed by maths teachers and pedagogy experts

Hundreds of FREE online maths resources!

Daily activities, ready-to-go lesson slides, SATs revision packs, video CPD and more!

## Maths Problem Solving At KS2: Strategies and Resources For Primary School Teachers

John dabell.

Maths problem solving KS2 is crucial to succeeding in national assessments. If your Key Stage 2 pupils are still struggling with reasoning and problem solving in Maths, here are some problem solving strategies to try with your classes; all aligned to Ofsted’s suggested primary school teaching strategies.

Reasoning and problem solving are widely understood to be one of the most important activities in school mathematics. As far back as 1982, The Cockcroft Report , stated:

‘The ability to solve problems is at the heart of mathematics. Mathematics is only “useful” to the extent to which it can be applied to a particular situation and it is the ability to apply mathematics to a variety of situations to which we give the name “problem solving”. […] At each stage […] the teacher needs to help pupils to understand how to apply the concepts and skills which are being learned and how to make use of them to solve problems. These problems should relate both to the application of mathematics to everyday situations within the pupils’ experience, and also to situations which are unfamiliar.’

Thirty plus years later and problem solving is still the beating heart of the Maths curriculum and – along with fluency and reasoning – completes the triad of aims in the 2014 New National Curriculum.

## Ofsted’s view on problem solving in the Maths curriculum

Despite its centrality, Ofsted report that ‘ problem solving is not emphasised enough in the Maths curriculum ’. Not surprisingly, problem solving isn’t taught that well either because teachers can lack confidence, or they tend to rely on a smaller range of tried and tested strategies they feel comfortable with but which may not always ‘hit home’. If you’re looking to provide further support to those learners who haven’t yet mastered problem solving, you probably need a range of different strategies, depending on both the problem being attempted and the aptitude of the pupil.

We’ve therefore created a free KS2 resource aimed at Maths Coordinators and KS2 teachers that teaches you when and how to use 9 key problem solving techniques: The Ultimate Guide to Problem Solving Techniques

## The context around KS2 problem solving

According to Jane Jones, former HMI and National Lead for Mathematics, in her presentation at the Jurassic Maths Hub:

- Problems do not have to be set in real-life contexts, beware pseudo contexts.
- Providing a range of puzzles and other problems helps pupils to reason strategically to approach problems, sequence unfolding solutions, and use recording to help their mathematical thinking for next steps.
- It is particularly important that teachers and TAs stress reasoning, rather than just checking whether the final answer is correct.
- Pupils of all ability need to learn how to solve problems – not just the high attainers or fastest workers.

## The Ultimate Guide to Problem Solving Techniques

9 ready-to-go problem solving techniques with accompanying tasks to get KS2 reasoning independently

## How to approach KS2 maths problems

So what do we do? Well Ofsted advice is pretty clear on what to do when teaching problem solving. Jane Jones says we should:

- Set problems as part of learning in all topics for all pupils.
- Vary the ways in which you pose problems.
- Try to resist prompting pupils too soon and focusing on getting ‘the answer’ – pupils need to build their confidence, skills and resilience in solving problems, so that they can apply them naturally in other situations.
- Make sure you discuss alternative approaches with pupils to help develop their reasoning.
- Ensure that problems for high attainers involve demanding reasoning and problem-solving skills, not just harder numbers.

Perhaps more than most topics in Maths, teaching pupils how to approach problem solving questions effectively requires a systematic approach. Pupils can face any number of multi-step word problems throughout their SATs and they will face them without our help. To truly give pupils the tools they need to approach problem solving in Maths we must ingrain techniques for approaching problems.

With this in mind, below are some methods and techniques for you to consider when teaching problem solving in your KS2 Maths lessons. For greater detail and details on how to teach this methods, download the Ultimate Guide to Problem Solving Techniques

## Models for approaching KS2 problem solving

Becoming self-assured and capable as a problem solver is an intricate business that requires a range of skills and experience. Children need something to follow. They can’t just pluck a plan of attack out of thin air which is why models of problem solving are important especially when made memorable. They help establish a pattern within pupils so that, when they see a problem, they feel confident in taking the steps towards solving it.

Find out how we encourage children to approach problem solving independently in our blog: 20 Maths Strategies KS2 That Guarantee Progress for All Pupils.

The most commonly used model is that of George Polya (1973), who proposed 4 stages in problem solving, namely:

- Understand the problem
- Devise a strategy for solving it
- Carry out the strategy
- Check the result

Many models have followed the Polya model and use acronyms to make the stages stick. Which model you use can depend on the age of the children you are teaching and sometimes the types of word problems they are trying to solve. Below are several examples of Polya model acronyms:

C – Circle the question words U – Underline key words B – Box any key numbers E – Evaluate (what steps do I take?) S – Solve and check (does my answer make sense and how can I double check?)

R – Read the problem correctly. I – Identify the relevant information. D – Determine the operation and unit for expressing the answer. E – Enter the correct numbers and calculate

I – Identify the problem D – Define the problem E – Examine the options A – Act on a plan L – Look at the consequences

R – Read and record the problem I – Illustrate your thinking with pictures, models, number lines etc C – Compute, calculate and check E – Explain your thinking

R – Read the question and underline the important bits U – Understand: think about what to do and write the number sentences you will need C – Choose how you will work it out S – Solve the problem A – Answer C – Check

Q – Question – read it carefully U – Understand – underline or circle key elements A – Approximate – think about the size of your answer C – Calculate K – Know if the answer is sensible or not

T – Think about the problem and ponder E – Explore and get to the root of the problem A – Act by selecting a strategy R – Reassess and scrutinise and evaluate the efficiency of the method

The idea behind these problem solving models is the same: to give children a structure and to build an internal monitor so they have a business-like way of working through a problem. You can choose which is most appropriate for the age group and ability of the children you are teaching.

The model you choose is less important than knowing that pupils can draw upon a model to follow, ensuring they approach problems in a systematic and meaningful way. A far simpler model – that we use in the Ultimate Guide to KS2 Problem Solving Techniques – is UCR: Understand the problem, Communicate and Reflect.

You then need to give pupils lots of opportunities to practice this! You can find lots of FREE White Rose Maths aligned maths resources, problem solving activities and printable worksheets for KS1 and KS2 pupils in the Third Space Learning Maths Hub .

## You might also be interested in:

- 25 Fun Maths Problems For KS2 And KS3 (From Easy To Very Hard!)
- 30 Problem Solving Maths Questions And Answers For GCSE
- Why SSDD Problems Are Such An Effective Tool To Teach Problem Solving At KS3 & KS4

## What’s included in the guide?

After reading the Ultimate Guide to KS2 Problem Solving Techniques , we guarantee you will have a new problem solving technique to test out in class tomorrow. It provides question prompts and activities to try out, and shows you step by step how to teach these 9 techniques

- Open ended problem solving
- Using logical reasoning

Working backwards

Drawing a diagram

Drawing a table

Creating an organised list

Looking for a pattern

Acting it out

Guessing and checking

## Cognitive Activation: getting KS2 pupils in the lightbulb zone

If you need more persuasion, pupils who use strategies that inspire them to think more deeply about maths problems are linked with higher Maths achievement. In 2015 The National Education Research Foundation (NFER) published ‘ PISA in Practice: Cognitive Activation in Maths ’. This shrewd report has largely slipped under the Maths radar but it offers considerable food for thought regarding what we can do as teachers to help mathematical literacy and boost higher mathematical achievement.

Cognitive Activation isn’t anything mysterious; just teaching problem solving strategies that pupils can think about and call upon when confronted by a Maths problem they are trying to solve. Cognitive It encourages us as teachers to develop problems that can be solved in more than one way and ‘may require different solutions in different contexts’. For this to work, exposing children to challenging content and encouraging a culture of exploratory talk is key. As is:

- Giving pupils maths problem solving questions that require them to think for an extended time.
- Asking pupils to use their own procedures for solving complex problems.
- Creating a learning community where pupils are able to make mistakes.
- Asking pupils to explain how they solved a problem and why they choose that method.
- Presenting pupils with problems in different contexts and ask them to apply what they have learned to new contexts.
- Giving pupils problems with no immediately obvious method of solution or multiple solutions.
- Encouraging pupils to reflect on problems.

Sparking cognitive activation is the same as sparking a fire – once it is lit it can burn on its own. It does, however, require time, structure, and the use of several techniques for approaching problem solving. Techniques, such as open-ended problem solving, are usually learned by example so we advise you create several models to go through with pupils, as well as challenge questions for independent work. Many examples exist and we encourage you to explore more (e.g. analysing and investigating, creating a tree diagram, and using simpler numbers).

Read these:

- How to develop maths reasoning skills in KS2 pupils
- FREE CPD PowerPoint: Reasoning Problem Solving & Planning for Depth
- KS3 Maths Problem Solving

That time, effort, and planning will – however – be well spent. Equipping pupils with the tools to solve problems they have never seen before is more akin to teaching for life than teaching for Maths. The skills they gain from being taught problem solving successfully will be skills they use and hone for the rest of their life – not just for their SATs.

For a range of problem solving techniques, complete with explanations, contextual uses, example problems and challenge questions – don’t forget to download our free Ultimate Guide to KS2 problem solving and reasoning techniques resource here.

## KS2 problem Solving FAQs

Here are some techniques to teach problem solving to primary school pupils: Open ended problem solving Using logical reasoning Working backwards Drawing a diagram Drawing a table Creating an organised list Looking for a pattern Acting it out Guessing and checking

Ofsted say that teachers can encourage problem-solving by: Setting problems as part of learning in all topics for all pupils. Varying the ways in which you pose problems. Trying to resist prompting pupils too soon and focusing on getting ‘the answer’ – pupils need to build their confidence, skills and resilience in solving problems, so that they can apply them naturally in other situations. Making sure you discuss alternative approaches with pupils to help develop their reasoning. Ensuring that problems for high attainers involve demanding reasoning and problem-solving skills, not just harder numbers.

Do you have pupils who need extra support in maths? Every week Third Space Learning’s maths specialist tutors support thousands of pupils across hundreds of schools with weekly online 1-to-1 lessons and maths interventions designed to address learning gaps and boost progress. Since 2013 we’ve helped over 150,000 primary and secondary school pupils become more confident, able mathematicians. Learn more or request a personalised quote for your school to speak to us about your school’s needs and how we can help.

Subsidised one to one maths tutoring from the UK’s most affordable DfE-approved one to one tutoring provider.

Related Articles

## FREE Guide to Maths Mastery

All you need to know to successfully implement a mastery approach to mathematics in your primary school, at whatever stage of your journey.

Ideal for running staff meetings on mastery or sense checking your own approach to mastery.

## Privacy Overview

- school Campus Bookshelves
- menu_book Bookshelves
- perm_media Learning Objects
- login Login
- how_to_reg Request Instructor Account
- hub Instructor Commons
- Download Page (PDF)
- Download Full Book (PDF)
- Periodic Table
- Physics Constants
- Scientific Calculator
- Reference & Cite
- Tools expand_more
- Readability

selected template will load here

This action is not available.

## 12.4: The 5-Step Method of Solving Applied Problems

- Last updated
- Save as PDF
- Page ID 49420

- Denny Burzynski & Wade Ellis, Jr.
- College of Southern Nevada via OpenStax CNX
- Let \(x\) (or some other letter) represent the unknown quantity.
- Translate the English to mathematics and form an equation.
- Solve this equation.
- Check this result by substituting it into the original statement of the problem.
- Write a conclusion.

Help | Advanced Search

## Mathematics > Optimization and Control

Title: an accelerated distributed stochastic gradient method with momentum.

Abstract: In this paper, we introduce an accelerated distributed stochastic gradient method with momentum for solving the distributed optimization problem, where a group of $n$ agents collaboratively minimize the average of the local objective functions over a connected network. The method, termed ``Distributed Stochastic Momentum Tracking (DSMT)'', is a single-loop algorithm that utilizes the momentum tracking technique as well as the Loopless Chebyshev Acceleration (LCA) method. We show that DSMT can asymptotically achieve comparable convergence rates as centralized stochastic gradient descent (SGD) method under a general variance condition regarding the stochastic gradients. Moreover, the number of iterations (transient times) required for DSMT to achieve such rates behaves as $\mathcal{O}(n^{5/3}/(1-\lambda))$ for minimizing general smooth objective functions, and $\mathcal{O}(\sqrt{n/(1-\lambda)})$ under the Polyak-Łojasiewicz (PL) condition. Here, the term $1-\lambda$ denotes the spectral gap of the mixing matrix related to the underlying network topology. Notably, the obtained results do not rely on multiple inter-node communications or stochastic gradient accumulation per iteration, and the transient times are the shortest under the setting to the best of our knowledge.

## Submission history

Access paper:.

- Download PDF
- Other Formats

## References & Citations

- Google Scholar
- Semantic Scholar

## BibTeX formatted citation

## Bibliographic and Citation Tools

Code, data and media associated with this article, recommenders and search tools.

- Institution

## arXivLabs: experimental projects with community collaborators

arXivLabs is a framework that allows collaborators to develop and share new arXiv features directly on our website.

Both individuals and organizations that work with arXivLabs have embraced and accepted our values of openness, community, excellence, and user data privacy. arXiv is committed to these values and only works with partners that adhere to them.

Have an idea for a project that will add value for arXiv's community? Learn more about arXivLabs .

## IMAGES

## VIDEO

## COMMENTS

Part 1 Understanding the Problem Download Article 1 Identify the type of problem. Is it a word problem? Fraction? Quadratic equation? Determine what categorization best fits your math problem before you move forward. Taking the time to identify your problem type is essential to finding the best way to solve the problem. 2

Chapter 1: Problem Solving Strategies

Here are 15 techniques to show students, helping them solve math problems faster: Addition and Subtraction 1. Two-Step Addition Many students struggle when learning to add integers of three digits or higher together, but changing the process's steps can make it easier. The first step is to add what's easy. The second step is to add the rest.

Applied Mathematics Mathematics for Elementary Teachers (Manes) 1: Problem Solving

January 6, 2024 When faced with problem-solving, children often get stuck. Word puzzles and math questions with an unknown variable, like x, usually confuse them. Therefore, this article discusses math strategies and how your students may use them since instructors often have to lead students through this problem-solving maze.

Solve an equation, inequality or a system. Example: 2x-1=y,2y+3=x What can QuickMath do? QuickMath will automatically answer the most common problems in algebra, equations and calculus faced by high-school and college students. The algebra section allows you to expand, factor or simplify virtually any expression you choose.

Usable Knowledge Multiple Methods When it comes to solving math problems, it pays to compare Posted April 13, 2015 By Mary Tamer Do you remember watching your math teacher solve a problem on the blackboard and then diligently trying to copy her technique to solve the other problems on your worksheet? That's the way many of us learned math.

Get math help in your language. Works in Spanish, Hindi, German, and more. Online math solver with free step by step solutions to algebra, calculus, and other math problems. Get help on the web or with our math app.

A Guide to Problem Solving A Guide to Problem Solving Age 16 to 18 When confronted with a problem, in which the solution is not clear, you need to be a skilled problem-solver to know how to proceed.

Mathematically proficient students start by explaining to themselves the meaning of a problem and looking for entry points to its solution. They analyze givens, constraints, relationships, and goals. They make conjectures about the form and meaning of the solution and plan a solution pathway rather than simply jumping into a solution attempt.

1. Link problem-solving to reading. When we can remind students that they already have many comprehension skills and strategies they can easily use in math problem-solving, it can ease the anxiety surrounding the math problem. For example, providing them with strategies to practice, such as visualizing, acting out the problem with math tools ...

Find out different problem solving techniques to help you in maths and numeracy. ... When faced with a problem in maths, there are four key steps to think about: What I know ...

nd a solution? Polya's Second Principle: Devise a plan Polya mentions that there are many reasonable ways to solve problems. The skill at choosing an appropriate strategy is best learned by solving many problems. You will nd choosing a strategy increasingly easy. A partial list of strategies is included:

You may see posters in teachers' classrooms of the "Problem Solving Method" such as: 1) Read the problem, 2) Devise a plan, 3) Solve the problem, and 4) Check your work. There is little or no evidence that students' problem-solving abilities are improved when teaching about problem solving.

Age 5 to 18 Challenge Level Problem Solving The problem-solving process can be described as a journey from meeting a problem for the first time to finding a solution, communicating it and evaluating the route. There are many models of the problem-solving process but they all have a similar structure. One model is given below.

A 2014 study by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics found that the use of multiple representations, such as visual aids, graphs, and real-world examples, supports the development of mathematical connections, reasoning, and problem-solving skills. Moreover, the importance of math learning goes beyond solving equations and formulas.

Friday, 3rd June 2022 Problem-solving is a critical life skill that everyone needs. Whether you're dealing with everyday issues or complex challenges, being able to solve problems effectively can make a big difference to your quality of life.

Problem solving in mathematics: realising the vision through better assessment June 2016 Introduction Problem solving is an important component of mathematics across all phases of education. In the modern world, young people need to be able to engage with and interpret data and information.

Free math problem solver answers your algebra homework questions with step-by-step explanations. Mathway. Visit Mathway on the web. Start 7-day free trial on the app. Start 7-day free trial on the app. Download free on Amazon. Download free in Windows Store. get Go. Algebra. Basic Math. Pre-Algebra. Algebra. Trigonometry. Precalculus.

Problem solving in mathematics education has been a prominent research field that aims at understanding and relating the processes involved in solving problems to students' development of mathematical knowledge and problem solving competencies. ... there is a great reliance on prior knowledge and past experiences. The Gestalt method of ...

To solve math problems step-by-step start by reading the problem carefully and understand what you are being asked to find. Next, identify the relevant information, define the variables, and plan a strategy for solving the problem. Show more; en. Related Symbolab blog posts. My Notebook, the Symbolab way. Math notebooks have been around for ...

Find out how we encourage children to approach problem solving independently in our blog: 20 Maths Strategies KS2 That Guarantee Progress for All Pupils. The most commonly used model is that of George Polya (1973), who proposed 4 stages in problem solving, namely: Understand the problem. Devise a strategy for solving it.

Introduction. Over the past three decades, researchers have increasingly advocated for pedagogical practices that privilege exploration, collaboration, problem-solving, and hands-on projects in K-12 Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (S.T.E.M.) (Struyf et al., Citation 2019; Xu et al., Citation 2023; Zhang et al., Citation 2022).These researchers suggest that students learn best ...

12.4: The 5-Step Method of Solving Applied Problems. Let x x (or some other letter) represent the unknown quantity. Translate the English to mathematics and form an equation. Solve this equation. Check this result by substituting it into the original statement of the problem. Write a conclusion.

International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering is an engineering mathematics journal for numerical & computational approaches to engineering problems. Abstract Engineering structures may undergo large deformations, but simulating is still challenging for existing numerical methods, for example, the element-based methods struggle ...

The method, termed ``Distributed Stochastic Momentum Tracking (DSMT)'', is a single-loop algorithm that utilizes the momentum tracking technique as well as the Loopless Chebyshev Acceleration (LCA) method.