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- 1. JUDAISM The root of religion in the West
- 2. THOMAS CAHILL - THE GIFTS OF THE JEWS “The Jews started it all—and by ‘it’ I mean so many of the things we care about, the underlying values that make all of us, Jew and Gentile, believer and atheist, tick. Without the Jews, we would see the world through different eyes, hear with different ears, even feel with different feelings … we would think with a different mind, interpret all our experiences differently, draw different conclusions from the things that befall us. And we would set a different course for our lives.”
- 3. PATRIARCHS OF THREE FAITHS Beliefs common to the West: • Humans = highest creation of God • Linear time lines • God has a personal relationship with humans • Speaks through prophets • God is love How can three religions as diverse (and often hostile) as Judaism, Christianity and Islam, be classified as closely-related religions?
- 4. JUDAISM, CHRISTIANITY, ISLAMTIMELINE
- 5. THEHISTORYOFTHEJEWS Abram (later Abraham) Man from UR Covenant with God (agreement) Follow only 1 God (I AM) and God will provide a land of Milk and Honey –MONOTHESISM Promised Land = Canaan Abraham moved family (& people) from UR to CANAAN 2 sons = Isaac and Ishmael
- 6. THE FATHERS (PATRIARCHS) OF JUDAISM • Abraham, Isaac and Jacob establish the covenant. • God will love humanity and humanity will love God and God alone. • Key Ideas Emerge: • Jews = God’s chosen people • Promised land • Jacob • 12 sons (12 tribes of Israel) • Joseph - moves the tribe to Egypt
- 7. MOSES • Moses • Raised in Pharaoh's palace • Called to free the Israelites and return them to the promised land. • 10 plagues • Passover • The Exodus (Sinai Peninsula) • 10 Commandments
- 8. JUDGES, KINGS, EXILES, PROPHETS • Judges (c. 40 years later when the Israelites reach Canaan) • Kings (c.1000 BCE) • Saul • David • Solomon • Builds the Temple • Levities (Priestly Caste) • Canaan splits into ISRAEL (north) and JUDAH (south) • Assyrians conquer (721 BCE) • Babylonians conquer (586 BCE) • Babylonian Captivity • Temple destroyed • DIASPORA begins. • Synagogue worship/rabbis emerge • Belief in Messiah emerges
- 9. THE TEMPLE
- 10. KEYTERM:DIASPORA • Diaspora: • Term used when referring to the Jewish population living outside of Israel. By the 3rd century BCE, most Jews lived in the Diaspora
- 11. REVOLTS AND FOREIGN CONTROL • Jews return • Prophets condemn non-Jewish ways • Temple is rebuilt • Maccabean Revolt (C.164 BCE) • Self Rule • Chanukah • Roman Domination (c. 64 BCE) • Jewish Revolt (c. 66CE) • Temple destroyed (70 CE) • Survival depends on Pharisees • Rabbinic Judaism emerges
- 12. KEYTERM:PROPHET . • End of the era predicted by PROPHETS: • A prophet is a person who receives a message from God and delivers that message to God’s people. Usually, prophets warn of a coming crisis based on the inability of people to be true to their covenant with God. The prophetic tradition is shared by Christianity, Islam and Judaism
- 13. A HISTORY OF JEWISH PERSECUTION - Required Reading (see Appendix)
- 14. • Zionism • Movement to restore the nation of Israel to the Jews. It began strongly in 1900 and finally succeeded in 1948, with the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Israel
- 15. TANAKH • Tanakh = Old Testament or Hebrew Bible • Written over a period of 1000 yrs (c. 1300 BCE to 300 BCE) • Includes history, fiction, non- fiction, laws, myths, instructional guides etc. • This contains the Torah, the prophets and the writings (basically all of the ‘Old Testament’). • For Jews, the most important section = TORAH (Pentateuch)
- 16. TORAH • Written over 400 years. The word Torah means “revelation,” “teaching,” or “instruction.” For Jews it means a way by which to live. • Torah = first 5 books of the Hebrew Scriptures (also called Pentateuch) • Genesis = myth and story about creation. • Exodus = the story of Moses leading Israelites back to Canaan • Leviticus = rituals and ceremonies performed during TEMPLE worship (done by Priests called Levities) • Numbers = Outlines the Israelites faith growth while wondering for 39 years in the desert before entering the Promised Land • Deuteronomy = Outlines the 613 LAWS that Jews are called to follow (in addition to the 10 Commandments). These include KOSHER, Marriage, Family, Property, Murder, etc.
- 17. TORAH AND TANAKH • Why would the BOOK become the most important element once Solomon’s Temple was destroyed and the Jews were sent into Exile???? • What parts of the TANAKH would become less important? More important?
- 18. THE TALMUD • Talmud = commentary on Tanakh written by Rabbis • It is a collection of written Jewish Law and oral traditions pertaining to the Law. Basically, it is an interpretation of the Pentateuch. It developed as a collection of materials used to settle problems concerning the obligations imposed on Jews by the Law. • In addition, the Talmud contains a collection of oral stories dealing with how Yahweh intervened in the lives of the Hebrew people. Such stories were handed down by word of mouth (not written) from generation to generation. • The Talmud is divided into two sections: • The Mishnah – a collection of oral laws handed down from around 200 C.E. • The Gemera – a collection of discussions on the Mishnah (a discussion on the discussion)
- 19. CREED • Shema = MOST important/ fundamental statement of Jewish beliefs taken from the Torah • Statement refers to two fundamental concepts: One is that God is their God and that the Jewish people are the “chosen people”. The second is the belief in Monotheism. • “Hear, O Israel, The Lord is our God, the Lord is One”. • Deuteronomy 6:4-9
- 20. CREED (FIVE FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS) • Philo (20 BCE – 50 CE), a Jewish philosopher • There is a GOD • There is only ONE God • God created the WORLD, but it will not last forever • There is only ONE Universe • God CARES for the world and all of its creatures
- 21. CREED (13 ARTICLES OF FAITH) • Maimonedes (1135-1204 CE), adopted Philo’s 5 Concepts into 13 key statements of belief • The existence of God, the creator: There is only one God • God's unity: There is only one universe • God's incorporeality: God is all-knowing • God's eternity: God is eternal external to time • The obligation to worship God alone • The truth of the words of the prophets • The superiority of the prophecy of Moses (TORAH) • The Torah as God's revelation to Moses • The immutability of the Torah (unchanging) • God's omniscience • Retribution in this world and the next (Punishment OR Reward) • The coming of the Messiah • The resurrection of the dead
- 22. CREED (OTHER BELIEFS) • Chosen People – they were picked by God and set apart from others • Promised Land (Israel) • Messiah will come, bring peace and prosperity for the Jews, resurrect/judge dead and rebuild Temple • 10 Commandments (creed and code)
- 23. MITZVAH (CODE) • Keeping the covenant means following God’s mitzvot (the act of doing a good deed, more specifically a commandment from God that gives people ethical direction). • Bible contains 613 Mitzvoth including: • The 10 Commandments (the heart of the law) • Prayer 3x/day – Morning, Noon, Night • Tzedakah – Charity, 10-15% • Shabbat – Friday SUNDOWN to Saturday SUNDOWN, no work • Following Mitzvot helps Jews live in right relationship with God. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RDaggJpNrT0 (4:05 – 6:00)
- 24. KOSHER (CODE)• Several Jewish laws are devoted to food. These laws are called kosher or kashrut • Jews may eat all fruits and vegetables, split hooved animals, Chicken, Turkey, Duck & fish with fins and scales but cannot eat horses, pigs, birds of prey or shellfish. • Permitted foods must be slaughtered in ritual fashion (all blood is drained) and must be killed with as little pain as possible. • No meat or dairy can be eaten together and all utensils for each type must be kept separate.
- 25. KOSHER (CODE) • 5 Reasons: • Hygienic: Judaism forbids eating animals that died without proper slaughter and the draining of the blood (which is a medium for the growth of bacteria). Judaism also forbids eating animals that have abscesses in their lungs or other health problems. • Moral Lessons: Jews are taught to be sensitive to others' feelings -- even to the feelings of animals. • National Reasons: The Jewish people have a mission of Tikkun Olam, repairing the world. A special diet reminds them of their mission and keeps them together as a people to fulfill it. • Mystical: The Torah calls the Jews a "holy people" and prescribes a holy diet. You are what you eat. Kosher is God's diet for spirituality. Jewish mysticism teaches that non-kosher food blocks the spiritual potential of the soul. • Discipline: If a person can be disciplined in what and when he eats, it follows that he can be disciplined in other areas of life.
- 26. READING ASSIGNMENT: Introduction to the Law: This is the law Moses set before the Israelites. These are the stipulations, decrees and laws Moses gave them when they came out of Egypt. Jewish Law in Leviticus and Deuteronomy Deut. 14: 1-21, 20: 1-20, 22: 13-30, 12: 1-14, 16: 1-17, 5: 11-15 Lev. 11: 1- 45, 19: 1-17, 19: 18-37
- 27. COVENANT WITH NOAH (CODE) • Jews believe that non-Jews are also obligated to follow those mitzvot pronounced before Abraham’s time (by Noah), these include: 1. Do not commit adultery. 2. Do not commit blasphemy. 3. Do not commit murder. 4. Do not commit theft. 5. Do not commit sexual immorality. 6. Do not remove and eat the limb of a living animal. 7. Establish a judicial system with courts to enforce the above six.
- 28. SIN (CODE) • Failure to live the covenant is called sin. • Sin includes deliberately going again moral laws and violating ritual or purity laws. • Sin is a break in the relationship with God. • In the days of the temple sacrifices were carried out to heal this break, today Jews celebrate Yom Kippur.
- 29. COMMUNITY OUTREACH (CODE) • Hospitality is a key feature of Judaism (this includes welcoming guests into one’s home and community and meeting the needs of the elderly, sick and poor in the community). • Jews believe in Tikkun Olam (repairing the world); this can range from political action to planting a tree
- 30. WORSHIP (CULT) • Clergy and Laypersons – in the Jewish faith any Jew is considered to be knowledgeable and as such can conduct and lead a worship service. However it is usually the rabbi who will do so. • A rabbi is a trained scholar, teacher and interpreter of Jewish law. They are also the person who will officiate at certain ceremonies such as Bar/Bat Mitzvahs and Marriages • Synagogue is the center of all worship.
- 31. WORSHIP (CULT)• Blessings (Berakhah) are the foundations of Jewish prayer. Through blessings Jews acknowledge, praise, thank and petition God. • There are 3 types of blessings: • Thanks (kiddish) • Mitzvot (recited before performing a mitzvah - acknowledges that commandments are divinely given and thanks God for the chance to fulfill a religious precept) • Praise (recited before each festival)
- 32. SERVICES (CULT) • When Jewish people pray communally, a minyan, or a quorum of ten males over 13 is required (Reform and Reconstructionist Jews count women). • Three worship services are held daily (evening, morning and afternoon). • The Torah reading is the central part of certain worship services during the week, one of the Torah’s 54 sections is read each week; the entire Torah is read each year. • Worship in the home is also central to the Jewish faith – meals specifically are considered sacred for Jews and are used to commemorate most events.
- 33. THE TORAH SCROLL (CULT) • The five books of Moses on parchment • The most sacred object in Jewish life - essential for worship. • Kept in a place of honour and read at specific times during service. • The Holy Ark (symbolizes the Ark of the Covenant) sits on a raised platform and contains the scrolls.
- 34. THE SABBATH (CULT) Sabbath/Shabbat • Friday sunset to sundown on Saturday • This is a time to put aside work, shopping, housework and is instead focused on family, prayer and friends. • Jews may go to the synagogue on Friday evening. When they return home families will share in a meal that begins with Kiddush (prayer over wine). Usually challah (a special egg bread) is blessed and eaten at the meal. On Saturday morning Jews will return to the synagogue for prayer and worship. At sundown on Saturday the Sabbath will conclude with a brief prayer in which people greet each other by saying “Shavua tov” (may it be a good week).
- 35. THE SABBATH (CULT) Requirements of Shabbat: • No work is to be done. • No discussion of work or one’s job is allowed. • No money is to be handled. • Nothing is to be carried in public. • No motor vehicle is to be ridden, even if driven by a non-Jew. • No lights are to be switched on or electrical appliances operated. • No food is to be cooked.
- 36. DIVISIONS IN MODERN JUDAISM • After the Holocaust, some Jews lost faith in old traditions or failed to see them as relevant; others began to rely more heavily on traditions. • In some cases traditions became a unifying and strengthening aspect for the community • These reactions serve as the primary distinctions between the modern divisions in Judaism.
- 37. DIVISIONS (CULT)• Orthodox – “Right Way” • Strict Jews who believe that they should preserve the traditions of the Jewish people and conform to the will of God in all areas of life. • The Torah is held to be “the word of God”. • Resistant to change: all services in Hebrew, strict rules about customs, ritual, clothing, gender roles etc. • Conservative – Mix Orthodox w. Reform • “Religious Jews living within the modern world". • Follow old ways (most services still in Hebrew) and traditions. • Needs of community come before the individual. • Allow men and women to sit together, female rabbis are permitted and Bat Mizvahs are performed. • Reform – Very Liberal • Retain the essential elements of Judaism that make the most sense in the modern world. • Leave the rules of Judaism open to individual interpretation. • Believe the Torah was a human creation and that God allows successive generations to interpret the Torah. • Allow female rabbis and men and women are allowed to intermingle.
- 38. DIVISIONS (CULT) • Hasidic –Ultra-Orthodox • Live in exclusive communities; rejecting the modern world. • Founder taught that communion with God happens through prayer, good deeds, humility and joy. • Emphasize singing, dancing and Kabalah ( mystical reading of the Torah) • Very traditional clothing and grooming (black clothes, tassels, complete body covering, beards, etc.). • Strict observance of Jewish law. • Reconstructionist – new, fastest growing, • Off-shoot of Conservative Judaism. • Wish to “reconstruct” Judaism by making it more meaningful to today’s world (different than reforming or changing Judaism). • Believe that Judaism is a “work-in-progress”.
- 39. FESTIVALS (CULT) • Passover/ Pesach • Usually held in March or April (during Nisan – the first month of the Jewish year). • Represents the 10th Plague • Families gather to retell the story of Exodus • Jews do not eat anything chametz (leavened) in order to commemorate the haste in which the Hebrews left Egypt • Eat foods that remind them of slavery, SEDER PLATE • Maror – bitter herb (bitterness of slavery) • Charoset – mix of apples, walnuts, cinnamon & wine (mortar) • Z’roah – roasted bone (sacrifice) • Beitzah – roasted egg (new life) • Karpas – parsley, dipped in H2O (tears of slavery ) • Matzvah – unleavened bread (haste) • Wine – God’s promise
- 40. FESTIVALS (CULT) Rosh Hashanah - Jewish New Year • September or early October • 2 day festival commemorating the creation of the world • Day of judgment when Jews believe that God balances a person’s good deeds over the past year against their bad deeds and decides what the next year will be like for them. God records this judgment in the Book of Life. • Starts 10 days of repentance (days of awe); Jews request forgiveness from God and others for their mistakes and transgressions. • Period ends with the blowing of a SHOFAR (ram’s horn). • Apples are dipped in honey to symbolize a sweet year to come. • Rosh Hashanah ends with…
- 41. FESTIVALS (CULT) Yom Kippur– Day of Atonement • Rosh Hashanah ends with the festival of Yom Kippur. • The most important religious day in the Jewish calendar as it is believed that the book of life and God’s judgments are finally sealed on this day. Jews spend the day seeking reconciliation with God and atoning for sins. • Yom Kippur is marked by a 25 hour fast. No signs of comfort or luxury are allowed on this day. For example, women may choose not to wear make-up, no food or drink, no sex.
- 42. FESTIVALS (CULT) Hanukkah/ Chanukkah • Jewish festival of lights held in December. • Commemorates the miracle of the menorah in the temple (after the Maccabean Revolt). • Jews light a candle for each of the eight days of Hanukkah on a candelabrum (menorah). • Menorah has 9 branches, one for each of the eight nights of Hanukkah and the ninth for the candle known as the shamus (servant candle), which is used to light the others. • Each night families gather to light the candles, say prayers, recite blessings and share gifts.
- 43. MILESTONES (CULT) • Brit Milah or Bris • 8th day after birth the rite of circumcision is performed, combined with naming. • Initiates the infant into the people of the covenant. • A MOHEL performs the ceremony • Bar/Bat Mitzvah • Son or Daughter of Commandment • 1st Sabbath after 13th birthday • Prior - study TORAH • Read, in Hebrew, passage in front of Congregation • Only modern (Reform) Jews do this for girls
- 44. MILESTONES (CULT) • Marriage • Usually same faith because a child can technically only be Jewish IF born of a Jewish mother • Most marriages are in the synagogue and are presided over by a rabbi. • Couple starts under a Chuppah (canopy) – representing their home • Share blessed wine • Marriage contract read and signed by the groom • Exchange rings and vows • Ceremony ends with the groom crushing a glass – representing good & bad times AND destruction of TEMPLE • Divorce allowed but highly discouraged – if all efforts at reconciliation fail a certificate known as a GET is given by the husband to the wife, allowing the couple to remarry again in the faith.
- 45. MILESTONES (CULT) • Death: • When a parent dies, a son (in some cases a daughter) recites the Kaddish (a prayer of sanctification) in the synagogue each morning and evening for 11 months. • Funeral takes place as soon as possible following death (usually within 24 hours). • Simple service – NO cremation because we should not destroy what God has created. • Believe in life after death but do not dwell on it; one should concentrate on being a good person now, in the present. • Sitting Shiva – seven day period of mourning following the funeral. Family mourners are protected from everyday problems and responsibilities. Mourners will not leave the home for the seven day period.
- 46. STUDENT WORKSHEET Jewish Objects and Symbols (See Appendix)
- 47. FILM Schindler’s List, Fiddler on the RoofORLife is Beautiful
- 48. FOR REVIEW: TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE • Define the terms: • Covenant • Kabbalah • Mishnah • Passover • Rabbi • Shema • Talmud • Tanakh • Torah 1. Explain the importance of covenant to Judaism. 2. Why is (or was) the Shema considered a radical statement? 3. What are the three main parts of the Tanakh?
- 49. IMPORTANT TERMS • Synagogue • Patriarch • Covenant • Tanakh, Torah, Mishnah, Pentateuch • Passover • Shema • Moses, Abraham, Joseph • Sabbath • Shiva • Circumcision • 5 Fundamental Concepts o Mezuzah o Idoltry o Driedal, Yarmulke, Menorah, Star of David o Messiah o Diaspora o Holocaust o Israel o Chanukah/Hanukah o Solomon’s Temple o Kashrut/Kosher o Divisions (Conservative, Reform, Hasidic etc.)
- 50. REVIEW QUESTIONS • How have the sacred writings of Judaism influenced its ritualistic practices and moral beliefs? • How have the sacred writings been influenced by the sacred history of the Jewish people? • In what ways have world religions responded to prejudice and discrimination, specifically through the events of the Holocaust? • In what ways has Judaism been altered due to the Holocaust? • How have the Jewish divisions each reacted to modernity with respects to prayer and ritualistic life?
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AP World History
El Segundo High School
- Judaism traces its origins to the beginning of man
- Abraham and the Hebrews around 1300 BCE, who came from a town in Mesopotamia (now known as Iraq).
- Abraham was called by God to migrate to Canaan (what is roughly Israel and Lebanon today).
- The Hebrews, who were semi-nomadic, migrated to Egypt, where they were enslaved by the Pharaoh's command.
- The Prophet Moses
- God called upon Moses to free his people. After they fled Egypt, they once again settled in Canaan.
- It is recorded in the Hebrew Bible that God made the Jews his chosen people and promised Abraham that his descendants would become a great nation.
- Judaism - foundation for Christianity and Islam.
- Jews have their own ethnicity and culture.
- History is the most important aspect of Judaism and is centered on historical narrative.
- Holidays are meant to connect Jews with their historical ancestors and traditions.
- The Western Wall (also known as the Wailing Wall)
- Judaism’s most sacred place on earth.
- Remnants of The Temple of Jerusalem, where the Ark of the Covenant was stored (the Ark contained the commandments and many other laws sent by God).
- Orthodox: Designated as the most traditional form of the religion
- Orthodox Jews believe in the Torah, which was revealed at Sinai
- Households are very strict regarding food and utensils
- Meat and dairy
- Segregation of women and men in synagogues is still continued.
- Hasidic: Are considered to be ultra-Orthodox. This branch of the religion
- originated in Poland
- stressed the study of Jewish literature.
- distinct appearance; men dressed completely in black with wide-brimmed hats, long coats, beards, and extended rope-like sideburns.
Major Sects, cont.
- Conservative: The Torah and Talmud are taught to be constant authorities
- The Jewish Theological Seminary in New York City, is the leading institution for conservatives.
- Zionism (modern political movement that supports the creation of a Jewish state).
- The central principle is that they have the right to decide which beliefs and practices to follow.
- Conversion to Judaism is also much simpler.
- Ethics are the foundation of Judaism.
- The backbone of Judaism is the Five Books of Moses (Torah), which contain 613 commandments and should be read each Sabbath (shabbat).
- God is all powerful. The sacred name of God is YHWH (sometimes pronounced as “Yahweh”).
- The 13 Articles of Faith were created by a 12th century rabbi, Maimonides, and are accepted as a general summary of religious Judaism.
The 13 Articles of Faith
- 1. God exists.
- 2. God is one and unique.
- 3. God is incorporeal.
- 4. God is eternal.
- 5. Prayer is to God only.
- 6. The prophets spoke truth.
- 7. Moses was the greatest of the prophets.
- 8. The Written and Oral Torah were given to Moses.
- 9. There will be no other Torah.
- 10. God knows the thoughts and deeds of men.
- 11. God will reward the good and punish the wicked.
- 12. The Messiah will come.
- 13. The dead will be resurrected.
Rituals & Practices
- mezuzah (parchment inscribed with religious texts attached in a case) on every door post in their home, that reminds them to keep God’s laws.
- Circumcision (brit milah) takes place on the 8th day after a boy’s birth.
- Bar/Bat Mitzvah: Coming of age
- A ritual is not needed in order to signify their new status.
- It consists of narratives and laws that have been recorded, in historical order, the beginning of the world all the way through to the death of Moses.
- The five books are: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.
- Talmud (means study or learning): A reference to the interpretations of the Torah
- used mostly by rabbis.
- Tanakh (acronym for Torah, Nevi’im, and Ketuvim):
- Torah, Nevi'im (law) and Ketuvim (writings).
- House of Prayer (where services are held on the Sabbath and festival days)
- House of Study (where the Torah and Talmud are studied)
- House of Assembly (people can meet for any purpose)
- Synagogues were developed after the destruction of The Temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE, when the Jews dispersed all over the Roman Empire.
- In traditional Judaism, Jews recite prayers three times a day. Although private praying is accepted, it is ideal if praying takes place in a synagogue with a minyan (quorum of 10 adult males).
- The Menorah (candelabrum): One of the oldest symbols of the Jewish faith.
- represent the eternal lamp that was left burning in front of the Ark of the Covenant.
- The Jewish Star (magen david)
- This six-pointed star
- part of the flag of Israel.
- Chai: Consists of two Hebrew letters chet (life) and yud (living)
- represents the value life.
"Intelligent people know of what they speak; fools speak of what they know.”
-Minchas Shabbos Pirkei Avos 3:18 / -Ethics of The Fathers (Talmud)
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An Introduction to Judaism
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