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What Are Analytical Skills?

Definition & examples of analytical skills.

Alison Doyle is one of the nation’s foremost career experts.

ability to analyze and logically solve pattern problems

How Analytical Skills Work

Types of analytical skills, highlighting analytical skills.

Analytical skills refer to the ability to collect and analyze information,  problem-solve , and make decisions. Employees who possess these skills can help solve a company’s problems and improve its overall productivity and success.

Learn more about analytical skills and how they work.

Employers look for employees with the ability to investigate a problem and find the ideal solution in a timely, efficient manner. The skills required to solve problems are known as analytical skills.

You use analytical skills when detecting patterns, brainstorming, observing, interpreting data, integrating new information, theorizing, and making decisions based on the multiple factors and options available. 

Solutions can be reached by clear-cut, methodical approaches, or through more creative techniques. Both ways of solving a problem require analytical skills.

Most types of work require analytical skills. You use them to solve problems that may not have obvious solutions or that have several variables.

Let's say you're the manager of a restaurant and have been going over budget on food for the past two weeks. You review the menus and what customers have ordered along with food costs from your suppliers.

You see that the cost of seafood has increased over the past two weeks. When you talk to the supplier, they explain that there's been a disruption in the supply chain due to weather. They've increased costs to compensate. You decide to reduce your seafood order to lower costs and work with your chef to develop new specials that take advantage of other protein options.

In this example, you used analytical skills to review data from different sources, integrated new information, and made a decision based on your observations.

Catherine Song / The Balance

The best analytical skills to highlight on a resume depend on the position you're applying for. Here are five skills to consider.


Analysis only goes so far if you can't share and implement your findings. You need to be an effective communicator to discuss the patterns you see and your conclusions and recommendations.

Analytical communication skills include:

Analyzing information often requires a creative eye to spot trends in the data that others may not find. Creativity is also important when it comes to problem-solving. The obvious solution is not always the best option. Employees with strong analytical skills will think outside the box to come up with effective solutions to big problems.

Creative skill sets include:

Critical Thinking

Critical thinking refers to evaluating information and then making a decision based on your findings. Critical thinking is what helps an employee make decisions that help solve problems for a company. It may include:

Data Analysis

No matter what your career field, being good at analysis means being able to examine a large volume of data and identify trends in that data. You have to go beyond just reading and understanding information to make sense of it by highlighting patterns for top decision-makers.

There are many different types of data analysis, but some of the most common ones in today's workplace include:

You must learn more about a problem before you can solve it, so an essential analytical skill is being able to collect data and research a topic. This can involve reviewing spreadsheets, researching online, collecting data, and looking at competitor information. 

Analytical research skills include:

Analytical thinking is a soft skill , but field-specific, technical types of analysis are hard skills. Both should be highlighted on your resume and in interviews.

Analytical skills are sought after employers, so it's best to highlight these skills when you're applying and interviewing for jobs. Consider:

Key Takeaways

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Career Sidekick

Interview Answers

26 Good Examples of Problem Solving (Interview Answers)

300+ Interview Questions Answered.

300+ Interview Questions with Expert Answers.

good examples of problem solving for job interviews and cover letters

Employers like to hire people who can solve problems and work well under pressure. A job rarely goes 100% according to plan, so hiring managers will be more likely to hire you if you seem like you can handle unexpected challenges while staying calm and logical in your approach.

But how do they measure this?

They’re going to ask you interview questions about these problem solving skills, and they might also look for examples of problem solving on your resume and cover letter. So coming up, I’m going to share a list of examples of problem solving, whether you’re an experienced job seeker or recent graduate.

Then I’ll share sample interview answers to, “Give an example of a time you used logic to solve a problem?”

Examples of Problem Solving Scenarios in the Workplace

Problem Solving Examples for Recent Grads/Entry Level Job Seekers

You can share all of the examples above when you’re asked questions about problem solving in your interview. As you can see, even if you have no professional work experience, it’s possible to think back to problems and unexpected challenges that you faced in your studies and discuss how you solved them.

Interview Answers to “Give an Example of an Occasion When You Used Logic to Solve a Problem”

Now, let’s look at some sample interview answers to, “Give me an example of a time you used logic to solve a problem,” since you’re likely to hear this interview question in all sorts of industries.

Example Answer 1:

At my current job, I recently solved a problem where a client was upset about our software pricing. They had misunderstood the sales representative who explained pricing originally, and when their package renewed for its second month, they called to complain about the invoice. I apologized for the confusion and then spoke to our billing team to see what type of solution we could come up with. We decided that the best course of action was to offer a long-term pricing package that would provide a discount. This not only solved the problem but got the customer to agree to a longer-term contract, which means we’ll keep their business for at least one year now, and they’re happy with the pricing. I feel I got the best possible outcome and the way I chose to solve the problem was effective.

Example Answer 2:

In my last job, I had to do quite a bit of problem solving related to our shift scheduling. We had four people quit within a week and the department was severely understaffed. I coordinated a ramp-up of our hiring efforts, I got approval from the department head to offer bonuses for overtime work, and then I found eight employees who were willing to do overtime this month. I think the key problem solving skills here were taking initiative, communicating clearly, and reacting quickly to solve this problem before it became an even bigger issue.

Example Answer 3:

In my current marketing role, my manager asked me to come up with a solution to our declining social media engagement. I assessed our current strategy and recent results, analyzed what some of our top competitors were doing, and then came up with an exact blueprint we could follow this year to emulate our best competitors but also stand out and develop a unique voice as a brand. I feel this is a good example of using logic to solve a problem because it was based on analysis and observation of competitors, rather than guessing or quickly reacting to the situation without reliable data. I always use logic and data to solve problems when possible. The project turned out to be a success and we increased our social media engagement by an average of 82% by the end of the year.

Answering Questions About Problem Solving with the STAR Method

When you answer interview questions about problem solving scenarios, or if you decide to demonstrate your problem solving skills in a cover letter (which is a good idea any time the job description mention problem solving as a necessary skill), I recommend using the STAR method to tell your story.

STAR stands for:

It’s a simple way of walking the listener or reader through the story in a way that will make sense to them. So before jumping in and talking about the problem that needed solving, make sure to describe the general situation. What job/company were you working at? When was this? Then, you can describe the task at hand and the problem that needed solving. After this, describe the course of action you chose and why. Ideally, show that you evaluated all the information you could given the time you had, and made a decision based on logic and fact.

Finally, describe a positive result you got.

Whether you’re answering interview questions about problem solving or writing a cover letter, you should only choose examples where you got a positive result and successfully solved the issue.

What Are Good Outcomes of Problem Solving?

Whenever you answer interview questions about problem solving or share examples of problem solving in a cover letter, you want to be sure you’re sharing a positive outcome.

Below are good outcomes of problem solving:

Every employer wants to make more money, save money, and save time. If you can assess your problem solving experience and think about how you’ve helped past employers in those three areas, then that’s a great start. That’s where I recommend you begin looking for stories of times you had to solve problems.

Tips to Improve Your Problem Solving Skills

Throughout your career, you’re going to get hired for better jobs and earn more money if you can show employers that you’re a problem solver. So to improve your problem solving skills, I recommend always analyzing a problem and situation before acting. When discussing problem solving with employers, you never want to sound like you rush or make impulsive decisions. They want to see fact-based or data-based decisions when you solve problems. Next, to get better at solving problems, analyze the outcomes of past solutions you came up with. You can recognize what works and what doesn’t. Think about how you can get better at researching and analyzing a situation, but also how you can get better at communicating, deciding the right people in the organization to talk to and “pull in” to help you if needed, etc. Finally, practice staying calm even in stressful situations. Take a few minutes to walk outside if needed. Step away from your phone and computer to clear your head. A work problem is rarely so urgent that you cannot take five minutes to think (with the possible exception of safety problems), and you’ll get better outcomes if you solve problems by acting logically instead of rushing to react in a panic.

You can use all of the ideas above to describe your problem solving skills when asked interview questions about the topic. If you say that you do the things above, employers will be impressed when they assess your problem solving ability.

If you practice the tips above, you’ll be ready to share detailed, impressive stories and problem solving examples that will make hiring managers want to offer you the job. Every employer appreciates a problem solver, whether solving problems is a requirement listed on the job description or not. And you never know which hiring manager or interviewer will ask you about a time you solved a problem, so you should always be ready to discuss this when applying for a job.

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Biron Clark

Biron Clark

Biron Clark is a former executive recruiter who has worked individually with hundreds of job seekers, reviewed thousands of resumes and LinkedIn profiles, and recruited for top venture-backed startups and Fortune 500 companies. He has been advising job seekers since 2012 to think differently in their job search and land high-paying, competitive positions.

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Problem Solving, Critical Thinking, and Analytical Reasoning Skills Sought by Employers

In this section:

Problem Solving

Analytical Reasoning

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Critical thinking, analytical reasoning, and problem-solving skills are required to perform well on tasks expected by employers. 1 Having good problem-solving and critical thinking skills can make a major difference in a person’s career. 2

Every day, from an entry-level employee to the Chairman of the Board, problems need to be resolved. Whether solving a problem for a client (internal or external), supporting those who are solving problems, or discovering new problems to solve, the challenges faced may be simple/complex or easy/difficult.

A fundamental component of every manager's role is solving problems. So, helping students become a confident problem solver is critical to their success; and confidence comes from possessing an efficient and practiced problem-solving process.

Employers want employees with well-founded skills in these areas, so they ask four questions when assessing a job candidate 3 :

When an employer says they want employees who are good at solving complex problems, they are saying they want employees possessing the following skills:

Two of the major components of problem-solving skills are critical thinking and analytical reasoning.  These two skills are at the top of skills required of applicants by employers.

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Critical Thinking 4

“Mentions of critical thinking in job postings have doubled since 2009, according to an analysis by career-search site Indeed.com.” 5 Making logical and reasoned judgments that are well thought out is at the core of critical thinking. Using critical thinking an individual will not automatically accept information or conclusions drawn from to be factual, valid, true, applicable or correct. “When students are taught how to use critical thinking to tap into their creativity to solve problems, they are more successful than other students when they enter management-training programs in large corporations.” 6

A strong applicant should question and want to make evidence-based decisions. Employers want employees who say things such as: “Is that a fact or just an opinion? Is this conclusion based on data or gut feel?” and “If you had additional data could there be alternative possibilities?” Employers seek employees who possess the skills and abilities to conceptualize, apply, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information to reach an answer or conclusion.

Employers require critical thinking in employees because it increases the probability of a positive business outcome. Employers want employees whose thinking is intentional, purposeful, reasoned, and goal directed.

Recruiters say they want applicants with problem-solving and critical thinking skills. They “encourage applicants to prepare stories to illustrate their critical-thinking prowess, detailing, for example, the steps a club president took to improve attendance at weekly meetings.” 7

Employers want students to possess analytical reasoning/thinking skills — meaning they want to hire someone who is good at breaking down problems into smaller parts to find solutions. “The adjective, analytical, and the related verb analyze can both be traced back to the Greek verb, analyein — ‘to break up, to loosen.’ If a student is analytical, you are good at taking a problem or task and breaking it down into smaller elements in order to solve the problem or complete the task.” 9

Analytical reasoning connotes a person's general aptitude to arrive at a logical conclusion or solution to given problems. Just as with critical thinking, analytical thinking critically examines the different parts or details of something to fully understand or explain it. Analytical thinking often requires the person to use “cause and effect, similarities and differences, trends, associations between things, inter-relationships between the parts, the sequence of events, ways to solve complex problems, steps within a process, diagraming what is happening.” 10

Analytical reasoning is the ability to look at information and discern patterns within it. “The pattern could be the structure the author of the information uses to structure an argument, or trends in a large data set. By learning methods of recognizing these patterns, individuals can pull more information out of a text or data set than someone who is not using analytical reasoning to identify deeper patterns.” 11

Employers want employees to have the aptitude to apply analytical reasoning to problems faced by the business. For instance, “a quantitative analyst can break down data into patterns to discern information, such as if a decrease in sales is part of a seasonal pattern of ups and downs or part of a greater downward trend that a business should be worried about. By learning to recognize these patterns in both numbers and written arguments, an individual gains insights into the information that someone who simply takes the information at face value will miss.” 12

Managers with excellent analytical reasoning abilities are considered good at, “evaluating problems, analyzing them from more than one angle and finding a solution that works best in the given circumstances”. 13 Businesses want managers who can apply analytical reasoning skills to meet challenges and keep a business functioning smoothly

A person with good analytical reasoning and pattern recognition skills can see trends in a problem much easier than anyone else.

Analytical Skills

An individual’s ability to identify a problem, investigate to find out relevant facts, and find a logical solution

What are Analytical Skills?

Analytical skills refer to an individual’s ability to identify a problem, investigate to find out relevant facts, and find a logical solution. They are considered important skills in many different fields; however, it is especially important in finance when evaluating financial securities .

Analytical Skills

Analytical skills are the ability to collect information and to thoroughly analyze that information. They refer to problem-solving skills and making a decision based on insights drawn from the collected information.

Analytical skills are used when detecting patterns, brainstorming ideas, observing data, collecting data, interpreting data, integrating new information, synthesizing information, and making decisions based on the situation.

Types of Analytical Skills

The five types of skills that are crucial to success in many different jobs and industries are:

Analytical Skills - Types

1. Communication

An underrated skill is the ability to communicate the analysis that has been conducted. Being able to identify problems and find solutions is useless if the conclusions and findings cannot be effectively communicated to decision-makers.

Findings from the analysis may need to be presented orally through a presentation or a meeting. The analysis may need to be presented in written form, either through a report or email. Therefore, communication skills are a critically important skill when developing overall analytical skills.

2. Creativity

Another important skill is the ability to think creatively. Many problems require “ out-of-the-box ” thinking in order to find the optimal solution. The obvious solution may not always be the most effective, and therefore, it is important to be able to think of creative solutions.

3. Critical Thinking

Critical thinking is exceptionally important to obtaining strong overall analytical skills. It refers to the objective analysis of a complex problem to form a judgment.

Effective critical thinkers are able to think clearly and rationally and understand the logical relations between data points and ideas. To find rational solutions, critical thinking is a very important skill to master.

4. Data Analysis

Data is very important in all disciplines, specifically, the ability to analyze large volumes of data and identify patterns and trends. Therefore, it is increasingly vital to understand the discipline of statistics and quantitative analysis . Data analysis is becoming more prominent within finance, as trends such as technical trading and quant-investing continue to grow in popularity.

Quantitative analysis requires identifying patterns in data but also being able to define the findings to decision-makers, which ties into the communication aspect of analytical skills.

5. Research

Applying analytical skills requires patience and curiosity. If a problem is solved quickly, without considering all relevant information, then it is highly unlikely that it will be the most effective solution. Therefore, coming up with an effective solution requires taking the time to learn more about the problem before attempting to solve it.

Research requires collecting information and relevant data, then compiling it before analyzing it. Collecting data and thoroughly researching a topic is important for being able to apply strong analytical skills.

Importance of Analytical Skills

Analytical skills are important because they allow people to find solutions to various problems and make concrete decisions and action plans to solve those problems. As mentioned earlier, they are important skills in all disciplines, ranging from data science, project management, marketing, law, medicine, scientific research, accounting, etc.

Analytical skills are exceptionally important in finance. Financial analysts must be able to synthesize large volumes of data, analyze the data, and find a solution to various problems. For example, consider an equity research analyst for an investment fund. The problem that needs to be solved is finding the ideal equity investment that fits the portfolio’s philosophy.

In order for the analyst to solve such a problem, they must take financial information from reports of companies, pricing information, information on the current portfolio, and other relevant data points.

Next, the analyst must analyze the information and find an ideal equity investment with an optimal return and risk profile, as well as an investment that aligns with the fund’s investing philosophy. Lastly, the analyst must be able to communicate their findings to the portfolio manager, so that an investment decision can be made in a timely manner.

More Resources

CFI now offers the Business Essentials Bundle with courses on Microsoft Excel, Word, and PowerPoint, business communication, data visualization, and an understanding of corporate strategy. To keep learning, we suggest these resources:

Take the FREE DISC Assessment and take the FREE Personality Testing Using DISC online course through Getting People Right. 

See also our management & strategy resources .

ability to analyze and logically solve pattern problems

Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences

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Michele Marenus is a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Michigan with over seven years of experience in psychology research.

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BSc (Hons) Psychology, MRes, PhD, University of Manchester

Saul Mcleod, Ph.D., is a qualified psychology teacher with over 18 years experience of working in further and higher education.

Howard Gardner

What is Multiple Intelligences Theory?

The theory of multiple intelligences was first proposed by Howard Gardner in his 1983 book “Frames of Mind”, where he broadens the definition of intelligence and outlines several distinct types of intellectual competencies.

Gardner developed a series of eight inclusion criteria while evaluating each “candidate” intelligence that was based on a variety of scientific disciplines.

He writes that we may all have these intelligences, but our profile of these intelligence may differ individually based on genetics or experience.

Gardner defines intelligence as a “biopsychological potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems or create products that are of value in a culture” (Gardner, 2000, p.28).

Linguistic Intelligence (word smart)

Linguistic Intelligence is a part of Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligence theory that deals with sensitivity to the spoken and written language, ability to learn languages, and capacity to use language to accomplish certain goals.

People with linguistic intelligence, such as William Shakespeare and Oprah Winfrey, have an ability to analyze information and create products involving oral and written language such as speeches, books, and memos.

Potential Career Choices

Careers you could dominate with your linguistic intelligence:

Lawyer Speaker / Host Author Journalist Curator

Logical-Mathematical Intelligence (number/reasoning smart)

Logical-mathematical intelligence refers to the capacity to analyze problems logically, carry out mathematical operations, and investigate issues scientifically.

People with logical-mathematical intelligence, such as Albert Einstein and Bill Gates, have an ability to develop equations and proofs, make calculations, and solve abstract problems.

Careers you could dominate with your logical-mathematical intelligence:

Mathematician Accountant Statistician Scientist Computer Analyst

Spatial Intelligence (picture smart)

Spatial intelligence features the potential to recognize and manipulate the patterns of wide space (those used, for instance, by navigators and pilots) as well as the patterns of more confined areas, such as those of importance to sculptors, surgeons, chess players, graphic artists, or architects.

People with spatial intelligence, such as Frank Lloyd Wright and Amelia Earhart, have an ability to recognize and manipulate large-scale and fine-grained spatial images.

Careers you could dominate with your spatial intelligence:

Pilot Surgeon Architect Graphic Artist Interior Decorator

Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence (body smart)

Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence is the potential of using one’s whole body or parts of the body (like the hand or the mouth) to solve problems or to fashion products.

People with bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, such as Michael Jordan and Simone Biles, have an ability to use one’s own body to create products, perform skills, or solve problems through mind–body union.

Careers you could dominate with your bodily-kinesthetic intelligence:

Dancer Athlete Surgeon Mechanic Carpenter Physical Therapist

Musical Intelligence (music smart)

Musical intelligence refers to the skill in the performance, composition, and appreciation of musical patterns.

People with musical intelligence, such as Beethoven and Ed Sheeran, have an ability to recognize and create musical pitch, rhythm, timbre, and tone.

Careers you could dominate with your musical intelligence:

Singer Composer DJ Musician

Interpersonal Intelligence (people smart)

Interpersonal intelligence is the capacity to understand the intentions, motivations, and desires of other people and consequently to work effectively with others.

People with interpersonal intelligence, such as Mahatma Gandhi and Mother Teresa, have an ability to recognize and understand other people’s moods, desires, motivations, and intentions.

Careers you could dominate with your interpersonal intelligence:

Teacher Psychologist Manager Salespeople Public Relations

Intrapersonal Intelligence (self-smart)

Intrapersonal intelligence is the capacity to understand oneself, to have an effective working model of oneself-including own’s desires, fears, and capacities—and to use such information effectively in regulating one’s own life.

People with intrapersonal intelligence, such as Aristotle and Maya Angelou, have an ability to recognize and understand his or her own moods, desires, motivations, and intentions.

This type of intelligence can help a person to understand which life goals are important and how to achieve them.

Careers you could dominate with your intrapersonal intelligence:

Therapist Psychologist Counselor Entrepreneur Clergy

Naturalist intelligence (nature smart)

Naturalistic intelligence involves expertise in the recognition and classification of the numerous species—the flora and fauna—of his or her environment.

People with naturalistic intelligence, such as Charles Darwin and Jane Goddall, have an ability to identify and distinguish among different types of plants, animals, and weather formations that are found in the natural world.

Careers you could dominate with your naturalist intelligence:

Botanist Biologist Astronomer Meteorologist Geologist

Critical Evaluation

Most resistance to multiple intelligences theory has come from cognitive psychologists and psychometricians. Cognitive psychologists such as Waterhouse (2006) claimed that there is no empirical evidence to the validity of the theory of multiple intelligences.

Psychometricians, or psychologists involved in testing, argue that intelligence tests support the concept for a single general intelligence, “g”, rather than the eight distinct competencies (Gottfredson, 2004). Other researches argue these Gardner’s intelligences come second or third to the “g” factor (Visser, Ashton, & Vernon, 2006).

Some responses to this criticism include that the Multiple Intelligences theory doesn’t dispute the existence of the “g” factor; it proposes that it is equal along with the other intelligences. Many critics overlook the inclusion criteria set forth by Gardner.

These criteria are strongly supported by empirical evidence in psychology, biology, neuroscience, among others. Gardner admits that traditional psychologists were valid is criticizing the lack of operational definitions for the intelligences, that is, to figure out how to measure and test the various competencies (Davis et al., 2011).

Gardner was surprised to find that Multiple Intelligences theory has been used most widely in educational contexts. He developed this theory to challenge academic psychologists, and therefore did not present many educational suggestions. For this reason, teachers and educators were able to take the theory and apply it as they saw fit.

As it gained popularity in this field, Gardner has maintained that practitioners should determine the theory’s best use in classrooms. He has often declined opportunities to aid in curriculum development that uses multiple intelligences theory, opting to only provide feedback at most (Gardner, 2011).

Most of the criticism has come from those removed from the classroom, such as journalists and academics. Educators are not typically tied to the same standard of evidence and are less concerned with abstract inconsistencies, which has given them the freedom to apply it with their students and let the results speak for itself (Armstrong, 2019).

Implications for Learning

The most important educational implications from the theory of multiple intelligences can be summed up through individuation and pluralization. Individuation posits that because each person differs from other another there is no logical reason to teach and assess students identically.

Individualized education has typically been reserved for the wealthy and others who could afford to hire tutors to address individual students’ needs.

Technology has now made it possible for more people to access a variety of teachings and assessments depending on their needs. Pluralization, the idea that topics and skills should be taught in more than one way, activates individual’s multiple intelligences.

Presenting a variety of activities and approaches to learning helps reach all students and encourages them to be able to think about the subjects from various perspectives, deepening their knowledge of that topic (Gardner, 2011b).

A common misconception about the theory of multiple intelligences is that it is synonymous with learning styles. Gardner states that learning styles refer to the way an individual is most comfortable approaching a range of tasks and materials.

Multiple intelligences theory states that everyone has all eight intelligences at varying degrees of proficiency and an individual’s learning style is unrelated to the areas in which they are the most intelligent.

For example, someone with linguistic intelligence may not necessarily learn best through writing and reading. Classifying students by their learning styles or intelligences alone may limit their potential for learning.

Research shows that students are more engaged and learn best when they are given various ways to demonstrate their knowledge and skills, which also helps teachers more accurately assess student learning (Darling-Hammond, 2010).

Armstrong, T. (2009). Multiple intelligences in the classroom . Ascd.

Darling-Hammond, L. (2010). Performance Counts: Assessment Systems That Support High-Quality Learning . Council of Chief State School Officers .

Edutopia. (2013, March 8). Multiple Intelligences: What Does the Research Say? https://www.edutopia.org/multiple-intelligences-research

Gardner, H. E. (2000). Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century . Hachette UK.

Gardner, H. (2011a). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences . Hachette Uk.

Gardner, H. (2011b). The theory of multiple intelligences: As psychology, as education, as social science. Address delivered at José Cela University on October, 29, 2011.

Gottfredson, L. S. (2004). Schools and the g factor . The Wilson Quarterly (1976-), 28 (3), 35-45.

Visser, B. A., Ashton, M. C., & Vernon, P. A. (2006). Beyond g: Putting multiple intelligences theory to the test . Intelligence, 34 (5), 487-502.

Waterhouse, L. (2006). Inadequate evidence for multiple intelligences, Mozart effect, and emotional intelligence theories . Educational psychologist, 41 (4), 247-255.

Further Information

Multiple Intelligences Criticisms

The Theory of Multiple Intelligences

Multiple Intelligences FAQ

“In a Nutshell,” the first chapter of Multiple Intelligences: New Horizons

Multiple Intelligences After Twenty Years”

Intelligence: Definition, Theories and Testing

Fluid vs Crystallized Intelligence

Problem Solving: Find a Pattern

TeacherVision Staff

Pattern analysis is a critical 21st Century skill

Need more tips and tricks for teaching math? You can find them in our math resources center .

What Is It?

Finding a Pattern is a strategy in which students look for patterns in the data in order to solve the problem. Students look for items or numbers that are repeated, or a series of events that repeat. The following problem can be solved by finding a pattern:

There are 1000 lockers in a high school with 1000 students. The first student opens all 1000 lockers; next, the second student closes lockers 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and so on up to locker 1000; the third student changes the state (opens lockers that are closed, closes lockers that are open) of lockers 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and so on; the fourth student changes the state of lockers 4, 8, 12, 16, and so on. This continues until every student has had a turn. How many lockers will be open at the end?

For the answer, go to: The Locker Problem from the Math Doctors

Why Is It Important?

Patterns are often introduced to students without the context of a word problem as in the following example: "Find a pattern in this sequence, explain how it works, and use that pattern to predict the next four numbers. 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, __, __, __, __."

Younger students often discover and continue using patterns that employ geometric shapes. For example, yellow circle, red square, green triangle, yellow circle, red square, green triangle, and so on.

Discovering patterns can help students learn multiplication facts when they notice that 4 x 7 is the same as 7 x 4, and that all numbers in the 10s column end with a zero.

The Find a Pattern strategy can be used to solve many math problems and can be used in combination with many other strategies, including make a table, make a list, or simplify the problem.

How Can You Make It Happen?

Introduce a problem to students that requires them to find the pattern in order to solve the problem. For example:

If you build a four-sided pyramid using basketballs and don't count the bottom as a side, how many balls will there be in a pyramid that has six layers?

Using cooperative learning groups to find solutions to problems helps students verbalize their thinking, brainstorm ideas, discuss options, and justify their positions. After finding a solution, each group can present it to the class, explaining how they reached their solution and why they think it is correct. Or, students can explain their solutions in writing, and the teacher can display the solutions. Then students can circulate around the room to read each group's solution.

Understand the Problem

Demonstrate that the first step to solving a problem is understanding it. This involves identifying the key pieces of information needed to find the answer. This may require students to read the problem several times or put the problem into their own words.

Sometimes you can solve a problem just by recognizing a pattern, but more often you must extend the pattern to find the solution. Making a number table can help you see patterns more clearly.

In this problem, students understand:

The top layer will have one basketball. I need to find how many balls there will be in each layer of a pyramid, from the first to the sixth. I need to find how many basketballs will be in the entire pyramid.

Choose a Strategy

To use this strategy successfully, you need to be sure the pattern will really continue. Have students give reasons why they think the pattern is predictable and not based on probability. Problems that are solved most easily by finding a pattern include those that ask students to extend a sequence of numbers or to make a prediction based on data. In this problem, students may also choose to make a table or draw a picture to organize and represent their thinking.

Find a Pattern is an appropriate strategy to use to solve the problem. This is a pattern that is predictable and will continue.

Solve the Problem

Start with the top layer, or one basketball. Determine how many balls must be under that ball to make the next layer of a pyramid. Use manipulatives if needed. Students can use manipulatives of any kind, from coins to cubes to golf balls. Students can also draw pictures to help them solve the problem.

You may want to have groups use different manipulatives and then compare their solutions to determine whether the type of manipulative affected the solution. If students are younger, start with three layers and discuss their answers to this simpler problem. Then move on to more layers as students gain understanding of how to solve the problem.

If it helps to visualize the pyramid, use manipulatives to create the third layer. Record the number and look for a pattern. The second layer adds 3 basketballs and the next adds 5 basketballs. Each time you add a new layer, the number of basketballs needed to create that layer increases by 2.

Continue until six layers are recorded. Once a pattern is found, students might not need to use manipulatives.

Then add the basketballs used to make all six layers. The answer is 91 balls.Look at the list to see if there is another pattern. The number of balls used in each level is the square of the layer number. So the 10th layer would have 10 x 10 = 100 balls.

Read the problem again to be sure the question was answered.

Yes, I found the total number of basketballs in the six-layer pyramid.

Check the math to be sure it is correct.

1 + 4 + 9 + 16 + 25 + 36 = 91

Determine if the best strategy was chosen for this problem, or if there was another way to solve the problem.

Finding a pattern was a good way to solve this problem because the pattern was predictable.

Students should explain their answer and the process they went through to find it. It is important for students to talk or write about their thinking. Demonstrate how to write a paragraph describing the steps students took and how they made decisions throughout the process.

First, I started with the first layer. I used blocks to make the pyramid and made a list of the number of blocks that I used. Then I created a table to record the number of balls in each layer. Layer Balls Added Balls in This Layer 1 (top) 1 1 2 3 4 (1 + 3 = 4) 3 5 9 (4 + 5 = 9) 4 7 16 (9 + 7 = 16) 5 9 25 (16 + 9 = 25) 6 11 36 (25 + 11 = 36) I made four layers and then saw a pattern. I saw that for each layer, the number of balls used was the number of the layer multiplied by itself. I finished the pattern without the blocks, by multiplying the number of balls that would be in layers 5 and 6. Then I added up all of the balls in each layer. 1 + 4 + 9 + 16 + 25 + 36 = 91 I got a total of 91 basketballs.

Guided Practice

Have students solve the following problem using the strategy of Find a Pattern.

A woman is trying to cut down the number of cans of soda she drinks each week. She makes a plan so that in several weeks she will be drinking only one can of soda. If she starts with 25 cans the first week, 21 cans the second week, 17 cans the third week, 13 cans the fourth week, and continues this pattern, how many weeks will it take her to reach her goal?

Have students work in pairs, in groups, or individually to solve this problem. They should be able to tell or write about how they found the answer and justify their reasoning.

How Can You Stretch This Strategy?

Math problems can be simple, with few criteria needed to solve them, or they can be multidimensional, requiring charts or tables to organize students' thinking and to record patterns. In using patterns, it is important for students to find out if the pattern will continue predictably. Have students determine if there is a reason for the pattern to continue, and be sure students use logic when finding patterns to solve problems.

For example, if it rains on Sunday, snows on Monday, rains on Tuesday, and snows on Wednesday, will it rain on Thursday?

Another example: If Lauren won the first and third game of chess, and Walter won the second and fourth game, who will win the fifth game?

Another example: If a plant grew 13 centimeters in the first week and 10 centimeters in the second week, how many centimeters will it grow in the third week?

Because these are questions of probability or nature, be sure students understand why patterns can't be used to find these answers.

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Fluid Versus Crystallized Intelligence: What’s the Difference?

ability to analyze and logically solve pattern problems

The theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence proposes that there are two distinct kinds of intelligence. Fluid intelligence refers to the ability to reason and solve problems in unique and novel situations, while crystallized intelligence refers to the ability to use knowledge acquired through past learning or experience.

The theory was first proposed by psychologist Raymond B. Cattell and developed further with John Horn.

Fluid vs. Crystallized Intelligence

Origin of the Theory

The theory of fluid intelligence challenges the idea of generalized intelligence factor (known as g ), which contends that intelligence is a single construct. Instead, Cattell contended that there are two independent intelligence factors: “fluid” or g f  intelligence, and "crystallized” or g c intelligence.

As he explained in his 1987 book Intelligence: Its Structure, Growth, and Action , Cattell referred to the ability to reason as fluid intelligence because it “has the ‘fluid' quality of being directable to almost any problem.” He referred to knowledge acquisition as crystalized intelligence because it “is invested in the particular areas of crystallized skills which can be upset individually without affecting the others.”

Fluid Intelligence

Fluid intelligence refers to the ability to reason, analyze, and solve problems. When we use fluid intelligence, we aren’t relying on any pre-existing knowledge. Instead, we are using logic, pattern recognition, and abstract thinking to solve new problems.

We use fluid intelligence when we encounter novel, often nonverbal tasks, such as math problems and puzzles. Fluid intelligence also plays a role in the creative process, as when someone picks up a paintbrush or starts plucking on a piano with no prior training.

Fluid intelligence is rooted in physiological functioning . As a result, these abilities start to decline as people age, sometimes starting as early as their 20s.

Crystallized Intelligence

Crystallized intelligence refers to the knowledge you acquire through experience and education. When you use crystallized intelligence, you reference your pre-existing knowledge: facts, skills, and information you learned in school or from past experience.

You utilize crystallized intelligence when you encounter tasks that require the use of previously acquired knowledge, including verbal tests in subjects like reading comprehension or grammar. Given its reliance on the accumulation of knowledge, crystallized intelligence is typically maintained or even increased  throughout one's lifetime.

How the Intelligence Types Work Together

Although fluid and crystallized intelligence represent two distinct sets of abilities, they can and often do work together. For example, when cooking a meal, you use crystallized intelligence to understand and follow the instructions in a recipe, and use fluid intelligence when modifying spices and other ingredients to suit your tastes or dietary requirements. Similarly, when taking a math test, the formulas and math knowledge (like the meaning of a plus sign) comes from crystallized intelligence. The ability to develop a strategy to complete a complicated problem, on the other hand, is the product of fluid intelligence.

Fluid intelligence is often used when learning new things. When you encounter a new subject, you use your fluid intelligence to understand the material through logical and analysis. Once you understand the material, the information will be incorporated into your long-term memory, where it can develop into crystallized knowledge.

Can Fluid Intelligence Be Improved?

While crystalized intelligence improves or remains stable with age, fluid intelligence is known to decline fairly rapidly after adolescence. Several studies have investigated whether it is possible to improve fluid intelligence.

In 2008, psychologist Susanne M. Jaeggi and her colleagues conducted experiments in which four groups of young, healthy participants performed a highly demanding working memory (short-term memory) task every day. The groups performed the task for 8, 12, 17, or 19 days respectively. The researchers found that participants’ fluid intelligence improved following the training, and that the more training participants underwent, the more their fluid intelligence improved. Their study concluded that fluid intelligence can, in fact, improve through training.

Another study using a similar protocol backed up Jaeggi’s results, but  subsequent studies have not replicated the findings, so the results of Jaeggi’s study are still considered controversial.

ability to analyze and logically solve pattern problems

ability to analyze and logically solve pattern problems

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Logical-Mathematical Learning Style

Ann Logsdon is a school psychologist specializing in helping parents and teachers support students with a range of educational and developmental disabilities.

ability to analyze and logically solve pattern problems

Cara Lustik is a fact-checker and copywriter. She has more than 15 years of experience crafting stories in the branding, licensing, and entertainment industries.

Career Options for Logical-Mathematical Learners

Frequently Asked Questions

The logical-mathematical learning style is one of eight types of learning styles, or intelligences, defined in developmental psychologist Howard Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences . It refers to your child's ability to reason, solve problems, and learn using numbers, abstract visual information, and analysis of cause-and-effect relationships.

Gardner, a developmental psychologist and professor, published a book in the 1980s titled "Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences." In it, he suggested that people are not born with a fixed intelligence. Rather, they are born with nine areas of intelligence and vary in the degree to which they excel at each one. Additionally, proficiency in these areas may change over time.

The multiple intelligences Gardner proposed are:

Why is it useful to think in terms of multiple intelligences as opposed to one type of stagnant intelligence? First, it allows for flexibility, which means your child can develop and grow in various areas of intelligence as they age. Second, it enables educators and parents to cater to a child's strengths, which can help the learning process.

Kids with increased logical-mathematical intelligence are typically methodical and think in logical or linear order. A child with this learning style strength may be adept at solving math problems in their head and drawn to logic puzzles and games.

What Is Logical-Mathematical Intelligence?

Kids and adults who are high in logical-mathematical intelligence are good problem-solvers who can think abstractly about concepts. They enjoy numbers, puzzles, and math. They think in a logical, sequential way.

Some areas of strength may include:

In school, children who excel in logical-mathematical intelligence often enjoy subjects such as math, computer science, technology, drafting, design, chemistry, and other "hard sciences." You may notice that they prefer logical order in instruction and often work best in structured, organized environments.

Natural tinkerers and builders, logical-mathematical learners enjoy bringing mathematical and conceptual ideas into reality via hands-on projects. For example, your child may like to spend time creating computer-assisted designs, building electronic devices, using computer applications, or programming computers.

Logical-mathematical learners would find a statistical study more appealing than reading fictional literature or keeping a journal. Your child may also like to create graphs, charts, and timelines, as well as analyze data. They could be drawn to games like chess or science kits that encourage experimentation.

There are also a few blind spots of which you may want to be aware when it comes to your logical-mathematical learner. For example, they may not be tolerant when others don't follow logical sequences, rules, or procedures.

It's natural to wonder where your child's learning style may take them in life. The mathematically and logically talented student may be drawn to careers such as:

Professions that primarily deal with numbers are likely to appeal to your child, but also consider them in roles that involve drafting, architecture, physics, astronomy, or other areas of science. In the field of medicine, for example, they may want to work with medical technology, pharmaceuticals, or as a physician.

How Logical-Mathematical Kids Learn Best

Children with logical-mathematical learning styles best process information when they're taught using visual materials , computers, statistical and analytical programs, and hands-on projects. You'll find they prefer structured, goal-oriented activities that are based on mathematical reasoning and logic rather than unstructured, creative activities with inexact learning goals. Think building a specific Lego model versus drawing without a prompt.

As part of a group project, the mathematical logical learner may want to contribute by making an agenda or list, setting numerical goals, ranking ideas, putting steps into a sequence, keeping track of progress, or constructing data reports. Additionally, your student may like to troubleshoot problems using logic, analysis, and their adeptness at math.

Support Kids With Logical Learning Styles

There are several ways you can support your logical-mathematical learner. Engage them in strategy games and logic puzzles during family time, provide them with planners for the classroom, and give them clear rules at home. Wherever possible, ask your child to solve math problems. For example, while shopping, have your child try to tally up the bill before you even get to the register. If they're older and know about percentages, have them calculate a discount for one or two items.

Your logical-mathematical child may have difficulty seeing the bigger picture. Encourage them to employ tools like graphs, charts, timelines, or outlines to understand abstract concepts.

Whether you're dealing with education or entertainment, you can spark your child's penchant for critical thinking by asking them to explain the reasoning behind their decision making. It can be fascinating to see your child solve problems with creative solutions that may not have even occurred to you.

Additionally, you may find it helpful to touch base with your child's teacher. Make them aware that their student has a high logical-mathematical intelligence and could benefit from being taught in a way that appeals to them.

How do you test logical-mathematical intelligence?

There are no official ways to test or measure Gardner's multiple intelligences, but there are a number of unofficial online exercises and quizzes that aim to highlight high logical-mathematical intelligence or a propensity for numbers and logical reasoning. The reliability of these resources, however, is debatable and often subject to criticism, much like Gardner's theory itself.

How do you strengthen logical-mathematical intelligence?

If your child shows a proclivity for logical-mathematical intelligence, you can help them strengthen their skills through memory or logic games, math puzzles, hands-on projects, computer programs, pattern recognition, analyzing data, and more.

What classes will be difficult for people with logical-mathematical intelligence?

Logical-mathematical learners may find certain concepts difficult. For example, topics or projects that lack step-by-step instructions or situations that don't have clear rules could be irksome for logical-mathematical learners. Even so, it's important to remember that the multiple intelligences theory allows for growth and change in the types of intelligence your child may excel in at any given time. They may also be prolific in multiple areas of intelligence simultaneously.

Gardner H.  Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences.  Basic Books.

Northern Illinois University Center for Innovative Teaching and Learning. Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences .

Niroo M, Nejhad GHH, Haghani M. The effect of Gardner theory application on mathematical/logical intelligence and student's mathematical functioning relationship . Procedia Soc Behav Sci . 2012;47:2169-2175. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.06.967

Pehlivan A, Durgut M. The effect of logical-mathematical intelligence on financial accounting achievement according to multiple intelligence theory . J Educ Soc Policy . 2017;4(3):132-139.

MI Oasis. The Components of MI .

By Ann Logsdon Ann Logsdon is a school psychologist specializing in helping parents and teachers support students with a range of educational and developmental disabilities. 

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Logical Reasoning Analysis and Tips

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This guide has been created to help you understand Logical Reasoning tests. Use this analysis to learn how logical reasoning questions work and to find out our advice on tackling these questions.

Page contents:

What is logical reasoning, analysis of a logical reasoning question.

Now it's time to practise

Logical reasoning tests are designed to measure your powers of logical reasoning and problem solving ability. You will be tested on whether you are able to analyse the images being displayed and to logically deduce the correct answer from the available answer options. One example may be to 'complete the picture' and you must determine which missing piece fits into the missing part of the puzzle.

You will be tested on whether you are able to analyse the images being displayed and to logically deduce the correct answer from the available answer options.

By far the most common form of logical reasoning test is one featuring a grid, with each square in the grid occupied by various shapes of different shadings. Logical reasoning test questions seek to measure a person's pattern-identifying ability.

For a clearer understanding of logical reasoning tests, visit our logical reasoning page where we have a two part logical reasoning video tutorial.

Let's go through a logical reasoning question so you can understand the processes involved in tackling such a question.

We are given 9 boxes, each containing an image. They are ordered in rows and columns and form an identifiable patterns. One box, in this case the one in the top right, is unknown. Once we have established a pattern, we can work out the answer and find it as one of the 12 answer options given.

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We can first notice that each image seems to have two components. The arrows, with their various directions and positioning in the box, and the cross of squares in the middle of the box, of which one square is always shaded. Let's start with the cross of squares in the top left box. The noticeable feature of these squares is that one is shaded - in this case, the bottom square. The box below has the same square shaded, and the box below that has its top square shaded. The top middle box - top square shaded, middle box - right square shaded, and bottom middle box - left square shaded. While there may be no immediately obvious pattern with the boxes themselves, upon closer inspection, we can see that the arrows are indicating the placement of the shaded squares with their direction. In other words, which direction the arrow points is where the shaded square will be in that box.

However, there's another element we need to consider here. The arrows are moving between the corners of each box. If we start from the top left box and look down the column, we can see that the arrow moves from: top left, top right to bottom right. In other words, moving clockwise every box going down. If we start from the bottom left box and look across the row, we can see that the arrow moves from: bottom right, top right to top left - moving anti-clockwise every box going right. These patterns should now allow us to discover our answer.

Going from left to right, or bottom to top, our arrow should be placed in the bottom right corner. Given that the direction of the arrows and shaded squares appear to not have a pattern, all we need from them is that they are both going in the same direction. Now let's look at our answer options.

what employers value vs what candidates think employers value

We can see only 4 boxes have the arrow in the bottom right corner, and only one of them adheres to same direction pattern - the box highlighted with a blue border.

Our logical reasoning tips

Now that we've analysed an example question, it's time to learn some of our tips specifically tailored to logical reasoning tests.

You can watch our video below where Ben talks through some logical reasoning tips, and also read through the tips below:

Start with the easiest pattern

In most logical reasoning questions, there will be multiple logical variables going on in order to determine the correct answer. But not all variables are equal in their complexity.

Use your intuition or perhaps just by glancing at the series of images will you be able to determine which pattern is the most straightforward. This might be something like a box changing shade, an arrow changing direction. If you can work out that pattern, you might narrow down the answer options considerably early on, making it much easier to figure out the correct answer.

If fact, if you’re really lucky, there’ll only be one answer fitting your easy pattern and you’ll get the correct answer without having to figure out any of the other patterns – but be careful with that.

Check the Pattern Works Forwards and Backwards

Sometimes the best way to test whether your logic is consistent is to check the pattern works backwards as well as forwards, like in this example. Of course, this will not always be relevant, but most of the time looking at it backwards will just mean the pattern in reverse and if it works in reverse it will help reveal that your pattern works logically.

Be Aware of Time

It’s important that you don't spend a lot of time answering each question, particularly if you feel that time could be better spent on other questions, so it’s imperative you find ways to be faster.

Once you gain more confidence you might find that you won’t need to triple or quadruple check every pattern in every question which will help save you time. So in a way, confidence will help save you time.

Lots of practice

Practice doesn’t just involve taking 10 tests then deciding you’re ready - it involves a learning process. You must look at your test performance - review the questions you answered incorrectly and read the explanations on why your answer wasn't correct and how the true correct answer could have been obtained.

Logical reasoning tips

We firstly recommend you do watch our logical reasoning tutorial, mentioned above, if you haven't already as this will help you understand the question types. But for now, let's move onto the tips.

Familiarity is key

Logical reasoning tests can look very complex at first glance. There's a series of odd looking shapes that are in unfamiliar sequences and you're expected to understand what comes next within several seconds - it's not easy! Becoming familiar with understanding patterns of symbols and shapes will result in less time wasted trying to understand what's going on. This will give you a competitive advantage over those candidates that are not utilising practice tests.

Have a system

It's important to enter a question with a game-plan which you can initiate immediately. Try not to tackle all the different symbols and shapes as a collective but separate them into individual symbols. Notice how certain shapes are changing through the sequence and build up the missing sequence from individual component parts.

Your system should also consider time. Work out how much time you are allowed per question and practise completing questions within those time constraints.

Don't spend your first moments looking at the answers

It's common to look at the answer options after your first look at the question but this can be wasteful. Your time is precious in a test and initial looks at the answer options will not help you to understand the sequence and could distract you. Focus on the question and the sequence then once you have a general idea of what the missing image could be, you could check the answer options to eliminate some of the options.

Practise thinking logically

The more able you are to think logically the easier you will find these test types. As well as practice tests you can try other brain teasers like sudoku, crosswords, and those types of challenges which will train your brain to be more familiar with the required skills.

Practice makes perfect

Practising these tests will help you refine your system and make you confident answering these questions. You will be able to understand any potential weaknesses you have and allow you to work on them.

We have taken a look at a logical reasoning question, and analysed the way that the logical reasoning logic works. Now let's put into practice by taking some free logical reasoning tests, designed to emulate the real thing. Simply sign up to our free starter account below to access the tests, completely free of charge.

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The 6 Best Jobs for Analytical Thinkers

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Analytical thinkers are always thinking. It's a constant battle of internal conversations, with the brain processing lots of information at once. These people spend much of their time focused on exploring concepts and trying to solve problems.

Many analytical thinkers fall under the INTP personality type, as described by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator . INTP stands for introversion , intuition, thinking, and perceiving. People who score as INTP tend to be quiet, critical, and logical. Analytical personality types have also been described as being curious and intellectually sharp, with traits of perfectionism and skepticism.

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Many analytical thinkers fall under the INTP personality type. People who score as INTP tend to be quiet, critical, and logical.

These skilled problem-solvers are highly sought-after job candidates in many fields, such as law, finance, accounting, business management, science, and engineering. Organizations within these industries highly value analytical thinkers because of their exceptional knowledge and decision-making abilities.

If you consider yourself an analytical thinker, you're in good company. Albert Einstein, Abraham Lincoln, Marie Curie, Larry Page, Sigourney Weaver, Dwight D. Eisenhower, and many other business leaders, politicians, and celebrities are said to fall into this personality category.

Whether you're looking to establish a career or planning to go back to college to earn a second degree, you have a number of career options to choose from for which your analytical skills will be extremely useful, not to mention immensely appreciated.

Top 6 Careers for Analytical Thinkers

If you love working with numbers, consider becoming an actuary . Actuaries help companies avoid, identify, and manage financial risks in their organizations. These well-paid financial experts mostly work in the insurance industry where financial risk is high with regard to issuing policies.

An actuary's duties vary by sector but typically include analyzing financial, budgetary, or insurance claim data through statistical analysis, financial forecasting, scenario modeling, risk assessment, regression analysis, and other statistical methods. Their overall goal is to identify key issues, analyze trends, and predict future financial events.

Job Outlook

The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) projects a strong 18% growth rate for actuaries between 2019 and 2029. This demand for actuaries is projected to stem from the growing volume of financial data available to businesses, as well as the continual changes in government regulations in sectors like business, healthcare, and insurance.

Actuaries make a median annual income of $108,350, with the highest 10% earning more than $193,600 per year.

Educational Requirements

A bachelor's degree in mathematics, statistics, actuarial science, economics , finance , or risk management is generally required to land a position as an actuary. Actuaries should have a solid background in calculus, statistics, economics, algebra, probability, finance, and computer programming.

Most employers require applicants to be certified or in the process of certification by either the Society of Actuaries or the Casualty Actuarial Society . Certification candidates must meet experience requirements and pass multiple exams to achieve associate and fellowship certification levels.

Economists have been around for centuries, but it wasn't until the Industrial Revolution and the publication of Scottish economist Adam Smith's "The Wealth of Nations" that people began to think of economics as we do today. In his iconic book, Smith proposed that a nation's wealth should be measured by the total of its production and commerce rather than by its stores of gold and silver.

An economist is a great career choice for analytical thinkers who like to crunch numbers and look at the big picture.

An economist is a great career choice for analytical thinkers who like to crunch numbers and look at the big picture. Economists study and analyze economic processes, including the availability of and access to resources and the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. They collect and analyze data, research and monitor trends, and develop economic forecasts for industries like manufacturing, banking, international trade, insurance, education, and agriculture.

Economists can work in the public sector (where work mostly centers on government policy), the private sector (where work is done on behalf of a company), and academia (where work focuses on research and education). These professionals usually specialize in a particular field, such as finance, agriculture, health, labor, or international trade.

Economists can expect high employment, with 14% job growth projected through 2029. This growth will most likely come from the continued expansion of the global economy. Independent research and consulting firms are expected to drive the bulk of the demand for this occupation.

The median annual wage for economists is $105,020.

A master's degree or Ph.D. in economics is required for most high-paying economist jobs. A bachelor's degree in economics , finance, statistics, or a related field is sufficient for some entry-level positions and for entrance into a master's in economics program.

Software Developer

Software is everywhere: It drives our smartphones, our cars, our computers, our homes, our dating apps, our banking transactions, and even our grocery store purchases. If we didn't have software developers to design and build software, the technical world as we know it wouldn't exist.

Skilled software developers are in high demand and will continue to be in demand due to the industry's emphasis on innovation. These coding wizards are the creators of operating systems, programs, applications, and other types of computer software that run our economy and make our lives both easier and more entertaining.

Software developers are the creators of operating systems, programs, applications, and other types of computer software.

Software developers collaborate with programmers, software testers, and technical writers to analyze user needs, map out designs, build diagrams and models, and create flowcharts. They're also called upon to improve existing software with patches, upgrades, and updates, and to make sure everything is functioning as designed.

The software development space can be confusing, especially when it comes to specializations. Although the industry is constantly evolving — with new positions and specialty areas being introduced every few years — most developers concentrate on front-end development, back-end development, full-stack development, smartphones, gaming, or applications development.

According to the BLS, jobs for software developers are projected to grow 22% between 2019 and 2029. There are currently about 1.5 million software developer jobs in the U.S. Society's increasing reliance on technology, especially within the mobile applications and electronics development spaces, is expected to contribute to this occupation's demand.

Software developers earn a median annual pay of $107,510, with 1 in 10 making over $164,590 per year.

Most software developer positions require a bachelor's degree in computer science or software engineering . Some companies and organizations may accept entry-level candidates with just an associate degree.

Another top career choice for analytical minds is accounting . Accountants are highly regarded, well-paid financial professionals, utilized by nearly every business and taxpayer throughout the country. The two main types of accountants are public accountants and private accountants.

The two main types of accountants are public accountants and private accountants.

Public accountants work for a wide range of companies and individuals who need help with the planning and preparation of taxes and other financial documents. These accountants typically work independently or at an accounting firm, where they can eventually become a senior or managing partner. Public accountants are usually busiest around tax season.

By contrast, private, or corporate, accountants are employed by a single company where they analyze and prepare financial reports specifically for that business. These individuals can work their way up the corporate ladder to the position of chief financial officer.

Private accountants may specialize in a particular industry, such as e-commerce, sports, education, personal finance, international trade, or automotive. These accountants are busiest at the end of each fiscal quarter.

The employment outlook for accountants is solid, with job growth projected at 4% through 2029, in line with the average for all jobs. Today, there are over 1.4 million accountants in the U.S.

Demand for accountants will remain steady as long as the U.S. Tax Code remains hazy. The growth of the global economy, along with the confusing individualized state and county sales tax laws for online retailers, will likely contribute to this job's growth. While automation has replaced certain jobs, it's opened up more roles for advisory services, including accounting.

Accountants earn a median annual income of $71,550.

Accountants must have a strong attention to detail, solid math and analytical skills, computer literacy, and business acumen. Employers normally require job candidates to have a bachelor's degree in accounting or finance. A master's degree in accounting or business administration with a concentration in accounting may be preferred.

Career advancement will likely depend on your education and professional certification status. To become a certified public accountant, you must pass an exam and meet state licensing requirements.

Chemical Engineer

Chemical engineering is an exciting field that deals with the production and manufacturing of products. In other words, these professionals help transform raw materials into useful products through chemical processing.

Chemical engineers help transform raw materials into useful products.

Chemical engineers work in a variety of industries — such as oil and gas, biotechnology , pharmaceuticals, aerospace, automotive, military, and electronics — to develop industrial and manufacturing processes, create new products, improve materials, and design new technologies.

Work is often conducted in laboratories or in the field. Chemical engineers' duties include designing processes and equipment, researching chemical properties, conducting experiments, establishing safety procedures, troubleshooting problems, ensuring compliance with safety regulations, running tests, and analyzing data.

The BLS projects that jobs for chemical engineers will grow 4% -- about as fast as average -- through 2029. There are currently an estimated 32,600 chemical engineer jobs. Alternative fuel sourcing and advancements in biotechnology will contribute to this job's increased demand.

The median wage for chemical engineers is $108,770 per year.

A bachelor's degree in chemical engineering, materials science, chemistry , or a related STEM field is typically required by employers. Chemical engineers must have a solid understanding of math, chemistry, physics, and biology.

Technical Writer

Technical writers are responsible for writing and editing instructional or technical documents, such as programming manuals, user manuals, service manuals, operational specifications, and other materials that provide product details and instructions.

Technical writers must be experts on the product(s) they write about.

It's imperative that technical writers become experts on the product(s) they write about. This includes understanding the technical specifications, product functionality, and user interfaces. They must also be able to convey a significant amount of technical information in a way that's easy for all users to understand.

Technical writers typically write for a variety of audiences and work in cooperation with multiple departments, like engineering, product development, and product management. Oftentimes, the work of a technical writer can be done remotely.

In addition to being a skilled writer, technical writers should know the basics of graphic design , as the use of graphics is an essential part of creating technical documentation. They should also have superior communication, problem-solving, research, and time-management skills.

Technical writers can look forward to 7% employment growth between 2019 and 2029, according to the BLS. Increased demand for technical writers is expected to come from technological advancements. As the products we make become more sophisticated, society will start to develop a greater reliance on technical manuals and the people who write them.

Technical writers make a median salary of $72,850, with 10% of these professionals bringing in more than $117,250 annually.

Employers usually prefer or require technical writing candidates to have a bachelor's degree in technical communication , journalism , English , or engineering. Job-seekers with a communication-related degree and a deep knowledge of a technical field often receive first consideration for entry-level positions. The degree type and level of education required for a technical writing position varies by industry.

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The Most Important Logical Thinking Skills (With Examples)

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Logical Thinking Skills That You Need to Have

Examples of logical thinking in the workplace, what is deductive reasoning, demonstrating logical thinking at a job interview, logical thinking skills faq, final thoughts.

Summary. Important logical thinking skills for the workplace include critical-thinking, research, and creative thinking skills. Logical thinking skills allow you to present your justification for the actions you take, the strategies you use, and the decisions you make. While there is a time and place for emotions, you cannot afford to base your work-related decisions on emotions. Your gut instinct will also come in handy during certain times. But subjective reasoning and decision-making can cause issues for everyone. That’s because it’s based on assumptions and influenced by your own biases. Most employers want people that take into account the facts and data they receive before deciding on a course of action. That is because this kind of decision-making provides a more accurate and appropriate solution to a problem. It is more objective. Such solutions will ensure the organization’s processes can continue to operate more efficiently. The likelihood of dealing with costly mistakes is much lower. Thus, it will save the organization money in the long term. Therefore, logical thinking skills are important. You need to develop these skills if you want to be an asset to your employer. Key Takeaways: Logical thinking is problem solving based on reasoning that follows a strictly structured progression of analysis. Critical thinking, research, creativity, mathematics, reading, active listening, and organization are all important logical thinking skills in the workplace. Logical thinking provides objectivity for decision making that multiple people can accept. Deduction follows valid premises to reach a logical conclusion. It can be very helpful to demonstrate logical thinking skills at a job interview. What Is Logical Thinking?

Logical thinking is the ability to reason out an issue after observing and analyzing it from all angles . You can then form a conclusion that makes the most sense. It also includes the ability to take note of reactions and feedback to aid in the formation of the conclusion.

Logical thinking skills enable you to present your justification for the actions you take, the strategies you use, and the decisions you make. You can easily stand in front of your clients, peers, and supervisors and defend your product, service, and course of action if the necessity arises.

Logical thinking is an excellent way of solving complex problems. You can break the problem into smaller parts; solve them individually in a sequence, then present the complete solution. However, it is not infallible.

So, when a problem in the workplace feels overwhelming, you may want to think about it logically first.

Logical thinking skills are a skill set that enables you to reason logically when solving problems. They enable you to provide well-reasoned answers to any issues that arise. They also empower you to make decisions that most people will consider rational.

Critical-thinking skills. If you are a critical thinker, then you can analyze and evaluate a problem before making judgments. You need to improve your critical thinking process to become a logical thinker.

Your critical thinking skills will improve your ability to solve problems. You will be the go-to employee concerning crises. People can rely on you to be reasonable whenever an issue arises instead of letting biases rule you.

Research skills. If you are a good researcher , then you can search and locate data that can be useful when presenting information on your preferred subject.

The more relevant information you have about a particular subject, the more accurate your conclusions are likely to be. The sources you use must be reputable and relevant.

For this reason, your ability to ferret out information will affect how well you can reason logically.

Creative thinking skills. If you are a creative thinker , then you can find innovative solutions to problems.

You are the kind of person that can think outside the box when brainstorming ideas and potential solutions. Your thinking is not rigid. Instead, you tend to look at issues in ways other people have not thought of before.

While logical thinking is based on data and facts, that doesn’t mean it is rigid. You can creatively find ways of sourcing that data or experimenting so that you can form logical conclusions. Your strategic thinking skills will also help enable you to analyze reactions or collect feedback .

Mathematical skills. If you are skilled in mathematics , then you can work well with numbers and represent mathematical ideas using visual symbols. Your brain must be able to compute information.

Business is a numbers game. That means you must have some knowledge of mathematics. You must be able to perform basic mathematical tasks involving addition, subtractions, divisions, multiplications, etc.

So, to become a logical thinker, you must be comfortable working with numbers. You will encounter them in many business-related complex problems. And your ability to understand them will determine whether you can reach an accurate logical conclusion that helps your organization.

Reading skills. If you are a good reader , then you can make sense of the letters and symbols that you see. Your ability to read will determine your competency concerning your logical thinking and reasoning skills.

And that skill set will come in handy when you are presented with different sets of work-related statements from which you are meant to conclude. Such statements may be part of your company policy, technical manual, etc.

Active listening skills. Active listening is an important communication skill to have. If you are an active listener, then you can hear, understand what is being said, remember it, and respond to it if necessary.

Not all instructions are written. You may need to listen to someone to get the information you need to solve problems before you write it down. In that case, your active listening skills will determine how well you can remember the information so that you can use it to reason things out logically.

Information ordering skills. If you have information ordering skills, then you can arrange things based on a specified order following the set rules or conditions. These things may include mathematical operations, words, pictures, etc.

Different organizations have different business processes. The workflow in one organization will be not similar to that of another organization even if both belong to the same industry.

Your ability to order information will depend on an organization’s culture . And it will have a major impact on how you can think and reason concerning solutions to your company problems.

If you follow the wrong order, then no matter how good your problem-solving techniques are your conclusions may be wrong for your organization.

To improve your logic skills, it would be wise to practice how to solve problems based on facts and data. Below are examples of logical thinking in the workplace that will help you understand this kind of reasoning so that you can improve your thinking:

The human resource department in your organization has determined that leadership skills are important for anyone looking to go into a senior management position. So, it decides that it needs proof of leadership before hiring anyone internally. To find the right person for the senior management position , every candidate must undertake a project that involves a team of five. Whoever leads the winning team will get the senior managerial position.

This example shows a logical conclusion that is reached by your organization’s human resource department. In this case, your HR department has utilized logical thinking to determine the best internal candidate for the senior manager position.

It could be summarized as follows:

Statement 1: People with excellent leadership skills that produce winning teams make great senior managers. Statement 2: Candidate A is an excellent leader that has produced a winning team. Conclusion: Candidate A will make an excellent senior manager .
A marketing company researches working women on behalf of one of their clients – a robotics company. They find out that these women feel overwhelmed with responsibilities at home and in the workplace. As a result, they do not have enough time to clean, take care of their children, and stay productive in the workplace. A robotics company uses this research to create a robot cleaner that can be operated remotely . Then they advertise this cleaner specifically to working women with the tag line, “Working women can do it all with a little bit of help.” As a result of this marketing campaign, their revenues double within a year.

This example shows a logical conclusion reached by a robotics company after receiving the results of marketing research on working women. In this case, logical thinking has enabled the company to come up with a new marketing strategy for their cleaning product.

Statement 1: Working women struggle to keep their homes clean. Statement 2: Robot cleaners can take over cleaning duties for women who struggle to keep their homes clean. Conclusion: Robot cleaner can help working women keep their homes clean.
CalcX. Inc. has created a customer survey concerning its new finance software. The goal of the survey is to determine what customers like best about the software. After reading through over 100 customer reviews and ratings, it emerges that 60% of customers love the new user interface because it’s easy to navigate. CalcX. Inc. then decides to improve its marketing strategy. It decides to train every salesperson to talk about the easy navigation feature and how superior it is to the competition. So, every time a client objects to the price, the sales rep could admit that it is expensive, but the excellent user interface makes up for the price. At the end of the year, it emerges that this strategy has improved sales revenues by 10%.

The above example shows how logical thinking has helped CalcX. Sell more software and improve its bottom line.

Statement 1: If the majority of customers like a particular software feature, then sales reps should use it to overcome objections and increase revenues. Statement 2: 60% of the surveyed customers like the user interface of the new software, and; they think it makes navigation easier. Conclusion: The sales reps should market the new software’s user interface and the fact that it is easy to navigate to improve the company’s bottom line.
A political candidate hires a focus group to discuss hot-button issues they feel strongly about. It emerges that the group is torn on sexual reproductive health issues, but most support the issue of internal security . However, nearly everyone is opposed to the lower wages being paid due to the current economic crisis. Based on the results of this research, the candidate decides to focus on improving the economy and security mechanisms in the country. He also decides to let go of the sexual productive health issues because it would potentially cause him to lose some support.

In this case, the political candidate has made logical conclusions on what topics he should use to campaign for his seat with minimal controversies so that he doesn’t lose many votes.

This situation could be summarized as follows:

Statement 1: Most people find sexual reproductive health issues controversial and cannot agree. Statement 2: Most people feel that the internal security of the country is in jeopardy and something should be done about it. Statement 3: Most people want higher wages and an improved economy. Statement 4: Political candidates who want to win must avoid controversy and speak up on things that matter to people. Conclusion: To win, political candidates must focus on higher wages, an improved economy, and the internal security of the country while avoiding sexual reproductive health matters.

Deductive reasoning is an aspect of logical reasoning. It is a top-down reasoning approach that enables you to form a specific logical conclusion based on generalities. Therefore, you can use one or more statements, usually referred to as premises, to conclude something.

For example:

Statement 1: All mothers are women Statement 2: Daisy is a mother. Conclusion: Daisy is a woman.

Based on the above examples, all mothers are classified as women, and since Daisy is a mother, then it’s logical to deduce that she is a woman too.

It’s worth noting though, that deductive reasoning does not always produce an accurate conclusion based on reality.

Statement 1: All caregivers in this room are nurses. Statement 2: This dog, Tom, is a caregiver. Conclusion: This dog, Tom, is a nurse .

From the above example, we have deduced that Tom, the dog, is a nurse simply because the first statement stated that all caregivers are nurses. And yet, in reality, we know that dogs cannot be nurses. They do not have the mental capacity to become engaged in the profession.

For this reason, you must bear in mind that an argument can be validly based on the conditions but it can also be unsound if some statements are based on a fallacy.

Since logical thinking is so important in the workplace, most job interviewers will want to see you demonstrate this skill at the job interview. It is very important to keep in mind your logical thinking skills when you talk about yourself at the interview.

There are many ways in which an interviewer may ask you to demonstrate your logical thinking skills. For example:

You may have to solve an example problem. If the interviewer provides you a problem similar to one you might find at your job, make sure to critically analyze the problem to deduce a solution.

You may be asked about a previous problem or conflict you had to solve. This classic question provides you the opportunity to show your skills in action, so make sure to highlight the objectivity and logic of your problem solving.

Show your logic when talking about yourself. When given the opportunity to talk about yourself, highlight how logic comes into play in your decision making. This could be in how you picked the job position, why you choose your career or education, or what it is about yourself that makes you a great candidate.

Why is it important to think logically?

It’s important to think logically because it allows you to analyze a situation and come up with a logical solution. It allows for you to reason through the important decisions and solve problems with a better understanding of what needs to be done. This is necessary for developing a strong career.

Why is logic important?

Logic is important because it helps develop critical thinking skills. Critical thinking skills are important because they help you analyze and evaluate a problem before you make a decision. It also helps you improve your problem-solving skills to allow you to make better decisions.

How do you improve your logical thinking skills?

When improving your logical thinking skills make sure you spend time on a creative hobby and practice questioning. Creative hobbies can help reduce stress levels, and lower stress leads to having an easier time focusing on tasks and making logical thinking. Creative hobbies can include things like drawing, painting, and writing.

Another way to improve your logical thinking is to start asking questions about things. Asking questions allows for you to discover new things and learn about new topics you may not have thought about before.

Logical thinking skills are valuable skills to have. You need to develop them so that you can become an asset to any organization that hires you. Be sure to include them in your resume and cover letter .

And if you make it to the interview, also ensure that you highlight these skills. You can do all this by highlighting the career accomplishments that required you to use logical thinking in the workplace.

It’s Your Yale – Consider Critical Thinking Skills to Articulate Your Work Quality

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Roger Raber has been a content writer at Zippia for over a year and has authored several hundred articles. Having retired after 28 years of teaching writing and research at both the high school and college levels, Roger enjoys providing career details that help inform people who are curious about a new job or career. Roger holds a BA in English from Cleveland State University and a MA from Marygrove college.

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Logical Reasoning - Competitive Exam Level Reasoning Ability

Logical Reasoning is a part of almost all major Government exams conducted in the country and is one of the most scoring sections as well. Candidates who are preparing for the upcoming competitive exams can find all topics, tips and some sample questions related to Logical reasoning in this article.

Aptitude exams are an inseparable part of all the entrance exams of the public sector in India. The aptitude exams in India has mainly two sections:

For most competitive exams, the Reasoning Ability section comprises two types of questions. These two types include logical reasoning and analytical reasoning. In this article, we shall discuss at length about the topics included in logical reasoning along with tips to solve it and a few sample questions for your reference.

Other Preparation Related Links:

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What is Logical Reasoning?

Logical reasoning consists of aptitude questions that require a logical level of analysis to arrive at the correct solution. Most of the questions are constructed based on concepts and the rest are out of the box thinking ones.

Logical reasoning is classified into two types:

The logical reasoning section is one such, which is included in almost all major Government exams. A large part of reasoning syllabus can be divided into the two above-mentioned types.

Steps To Solve Logical Reasoning Based Questions

Listed below are some of the steps to solve Logical Reasoning questions and answers:

The topics included in the logical reasoning section comprise of the following type of questions:

For more information on the different topics, you can check the linked pages below.

List of Topics under the Logical Reasoning Section

Aspirants need to study all the below topics under the Logical Reasoning section:

Candidates can go through the video explanation of the Non-Verbal reasoning to gain conceptual clarity for different types of logical reasoning questions –

ability to analyze and logically solve pattern problems

To check the syllabus for various other Government exams, candidates can visit the below-mentioned articles:

List of Exams with Logical Reasoning as one of the Topics

Sample Questions – Logical Reasoning

The key to revise a topic well and understand the concept even better is by solving questions based on them. More number of questions a candidate solves, more familiar he/she gets with the concept.

To prepare yourselves even well for all the topics included in the reasoning ability section, candidates can visit the logical reasoning questions page and get topic-wise questions and solutions to ace the reasoning section.

Also, for the reference of candidates, we have combined a few examples from the different logical reasoning topics and given their solutions so that candidates can solve them and analyses the type of questions which may be asked in this section.

Given below are a few sample questions related to the various topics under Logical Reasoning. Candidadidates can refer to these questions and prepare themselves accordingly.

Directions (Q1-Q2): Based on the alphanumeric series given below, answer the following questions:

Alphanumeric Series: W % ^ K V P 1 I 7 E 0 & 2 9 A F Z N 4 * @ U ? M

Q 1. How many numbers in the series are preceded by a vowel?

Answer: (3) Two ; 7 is preceded by I and 0 is preceded by E.

Q 2. What is the second element from the right of 7th element from left?

Answer: (4) 7 ; the Seventh element from left is 1 and 2nd element to the right of 1 is 7

Q 3.  From a certain point, Smriti walks 70 m towards the south. Then, she turns to her right & starts walking straight for another 70 m. Then, again turning to her left he walks for 60 m. She then turns to her left & walks for 70 m. How far is she from the starting point?

Answer: (4) 130 m ; 70+60 = 130 m

Logical Reasoning - Direction Test

Q 4.   In a row of persons, the position of Sakshi from the left side of the row is 26th and position of Sakshi from the right side of the row is 35th. Find the total number of students in the row?

Answer: (4) 60 ; {26+35-1 = 61-1 = 60}

Q 5.   In a certain code language, ‘ANIMALS’ is written as ‘SLAMINA’. How is ‘ONLINE’ written in that code?

Answer: (1)  ENILNO; The first alphabet is replaced with the last alphabet, the second with second last and so on

Q 6.    A family consists of six members Priya, Qureshi, Raj, Xavi, Yusuf and Zain. Qureshi is the son of Raj but Raj is not mother of Qureshi. Priya and Raj are a married couple. Yusuf is the brother of Raj. Xavi is the daughter of Priya. Zain is the brother of Priya. How many children does Priya have?

Answer: (2) Two; Qureshi and Xavi are children of Priya

Directions (Q 7-Q8).   Read the information given below carefully and answer the following questions:

Five friends A, B, C, D and E travelled from Tamil Nadu to five different states Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Karnataka and Punjab by 5 different modes of transport: Cycle, Bus, Train, Truck, and Bike. The one who travelled to Rajasthan did not travel by Bike. C went to Karnataka by Truck and B went to Maharashtra by Train. D travelled by Bike and E travelled by Bus. Tamil Nadu is not connected by Cycle to Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan.

Q 7. What means of Transport did C use?

Answer: (4) Truck

Q 8. Which state did E travel to?

Answer: (1) Rajasthan

Directions (Q9-Q10):  Read the information given below and answer the following questions:

Pankaj, Qasif, Rajat, Supriya, Tina, Uttkarsh, Vartika, Waseem and Zoya are sitting around a circle facing at the centre. Rajat is third to the right of Zoya who is second to the right of Pankaj. Supriya is not an immediate neighbour of Zoya and Rajat. Tina is third to the left of Supriya. Qasif is third to the right of Waseem who is not an immediate neighbour of Supriya. Vartika is not a neighbour of Zoya.

Q 9.  How many people are sitting between Waseem and Supriya (counted clockwise from Supriya)?

Answer: (5) Three

Q 10.  Who is sitting 3rd to the right of Vartika?

Answer: (5) Zoya

Candidates can refer to the set of questions given above and start their preparation for the upcoming Government exams 2023.

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With sectional cut off applicable in a few competitive exams, it is important to ace every section as it will not only reflect in their section-wise marks but also be helpful in the overall scores attained by a candidate.

For any further information regarding these exams, study material or list of books to prepare for the competitive exams, candidates can turn to BYJU’S.

Government Exam 2023

Frequently Asked Questions on Logical Reasoning

Q 1. what are logical reasoning questions, q 2. what are the topics asked in the logical reasoning section, q 3. how to solve logical reasoning questions.

Ans. Follow the steps below to solve the logical reasoning questions:

Q 4. How to prepare logical reasoning for upcoming competitive exams?

Ans. To prepare logical reasoning for upcoming competitive exams, candidates can refer to the following tips:


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21 January 2021

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Any competitive exam in India involves a session of logical reasoning aptitude tests among all age groups.

Competitive examinations include two major reasoning aptitude categories of questions: logical reasoning and analytical reasoning.

This article discusses logical reasoning, giving small insights into some sample questions and its solutions.

It is compiled to help the students to prepare for such examinations with great confidence. 

Logical Reasoning: Topics, Examples, Syllabus, Questions

Logical reasoning (verbal reasoning) refers to the ability of a candidate to understand and logically work through concepts and problems expressed in words. What are logical reasoning tests? Logical reasoning tests are a broad group of aptitude tests that test a candidate's problem-solving ability. Logical Reasoning: Topics, Examples, Syllabus, Questions is mentioned below in the Downloadable PDF. 

What is Logical Reasoning?

Logical Reasoning tests are curated to measure one's ability to think logically and test problem-solving ability. The logical reasoning syllabus ensures the holistic development of a person's analytical skills and cognitive ability. There are different types of questions under the same umbrella term, logical reasoning. 

This is evaluated by looking at whether you can analyze a given pattern or sequence provided with the assistance of visual graphics/ images/ graphs and involve in a logical interpretation of the same and finding the answer. Questions like finishing a specific sequence by finding the missing piece and adding to it are the most common type of logical reasoning questions seen. 

There are two different types of logical reasoning questions:

Verbal Reasoning: 

As the title mentions, verbal reasoning measures the ability to solve the problem expressed in words and letters. These questions vary in range from completing sequences to comprehensive paragraphs. Verbal reasoning tries to test a person's power to curate answers from information provided in a sentence.

Non- Verbal Reasoning: 

Non-verbal reasoning helps measure the ability to analyze and solve problems expressed in non-verbal sequences like numbers, letters, figures, etc. This method involves understanding the induction and deduction of logic in a given problem and extracting relevant information. 

Is mathematical reasoning important to study?

Tips to Solve Logical Reasoning

Logical reasoning could be a tricky topic for some. Therefore, to solve them, students need to have deep thinking, precision, and utmost focus. The logical reasoning questions can be difficult to crack as they generally contain diagrams and other graphical representations of symbols and shapes.

You will be asked to analyze the current pattern given, and likewise, you will be asked to complete or find the missing piece. With the timely application of correct and systematic methods, you can solve logical reasoning questions. Here are some useful tips for solving logical reasoning questions:

Practice consistently 

There are several types of logical reasoning questions which can be solved by a particular method or pattern. These types of questions test our logical reasoning capacity, and it can be hard to come up with a certain formula for each question type. These methods of analysis can only be understood with thorough practice.

Patterns, shapes, and charts are arranged in a particular order to solve them; you will be asked to complete the pattern within a short time. This can only be achieved by practicing a similar type of question and thus familiarising yourself with the methods of answering. 

Device a method 

Finding a method or a system to tackle the question effectively. Concentrate on the sequence occurring in the question and figure out a connection between each item. Treat them as individual patterns and later establish a connection between them, while noticing the changes occurring to each piece throughout the sequence. 

A clear understanding of the question can help in finding a system to solve any question. Time is another important factor that one should focus on. Try finding a method for the logical reasoning question and answer within the given time. 

Manage time

Understand the question clearly before looking out for the given options. Time management is an inevitable skill for a student to crack logical reasoning questions. Managing your time efficiently is essential while attending a question.

Firstly understand the question and try figuring out a formula for finding the answer by looking at the change in the given sequence. Try not to distract yourself with the options. Time constraints are common in such examinations; it is up to the student to manage it effectively.

Develop thinking habits 

The logical reasoning question involves analytical thinking. A student who can think more logically can crack logical reasoning questions with greater ease. You can also practice developing logical thinking by engaging in other activities like crosswords, puzzles, Sudoku, etc. 

It is also helpful while answering the questions. Think twice before you choose your options. Evaluate your choices before answering. 

A thorough reading of the question with utmost attention is necessary to understand the concept and device a method. Think logically while you approach similar questions. Choose and compare the options provided and later, with a systematic approach and proper analysis, come to the correct option. Deep focus and attention are necessary for such tests.

The next section includes some samples of logical reasoning questions to help you practice. There are examples of both verbal reasoning and non- verbal reasoning questions in the following. Practice can only help you in mastering these topics. 

Sample Questions of Logical Reasoning

1. 'Bank' is related to 'Money' in the same way as 'Transport' is related to       A) Goods           C) Road       B) Movement     D) Traffic

2. Water: Ocean:: Sand:?        A) Engine     C) Waves        B) River        D) Desert


3.  Statements 1.     All bats are mammals. 2.     No birds are bats. Conclusions a)     No birds are mammals. b)     Some birds are not mammals. c)     No bats are birds. d)     All mammals are bats. A. a and b only B. c only C. c and d only. D. a only

4. Consider the following Inferences. 1.     Tom is a rational animal. 2.     All men are rational animals. 3.     Tom is such a man. 4.     Because Tom is a man. 5.     Therefore, Tom is a rational animal.       The correct sequence of the statements are: A.     1 4 2 3 5     C. 4 1 2 5 3 B.     2 4 3 5 1     D. 1 3 4 5 2


5. Assertion: (A) A saltwater fish drinks seawater whereas a freshwater fish never drinks water. Reason: (R) A saltwater fish is hypertonic to its environment while a freshwater fish is not hypertonic to its environment. a)     If both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A). b)     If both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A). c)     If (A) is true, but (R) is false. d)     If (A) is false, but (R) is true.

6. Statement: Keeping in consideration the longevity life in India, should the age limit for Retirement in government jobs be increased? Arguments: 1.     Yes, other countries have decided so long before. 2.     Yes, it is the actual demand of lakh of employees.   A.     If only argument 1 is strong. B.     If only argument 2 is strong. C.     If either 1 or 2 is strong. D.     If neither 1 nor 2 is strong. E.     If both arguments 1 and 2 are strong.


7. 100: 121 : : 144: ?         A. 160     B. 93     C.169     D. 426

8. In the following questions, choose that set of numbers from the alternatives, which is similar to the given set.       (3, 5, 7) A.     (2, 3, 7) B.     (37, 41, 43) C.     (4, 7, 9) D.     (11, 15, 16)

9. Pointing to a woman in the photograph, Rajesh said, "The only daughter of her grandfather is my Wife". How is Rajesh related to that woman? A.     Uncle B.     Father C.     Maternal uncle D.     Brother

10.  Statement: Almost 90% of the flights of one private airline company were canceled for the 4th Consecutive day as the pilots refused to join their duties in protest against sacking two of their colleagues by the airline management.

Courses of action I. The management of the airline company should be ordered by the Government to reinstate the sacked pilots to end the crisis immediately. II. The Government should immediately take steps to end the impasse between the management and the pilots to help the helpless passengers. A.     If only I follows. B.     If only II follows. C.     If either I or II follows. D.     If neither I nor II follows. E.     If both I and II follow.

Logical reasoning has now become an integral part of any competitive examination. Also, it helps in improving our cognitive and analytical skills. Logical reasoning can inculcate the ability of logical thinking in any person.

There are several instructive worksheets for practicing logical reasoning. Grab one of them from a nearby bookstore or seek the help of the internet. Practice as many possible questions as you can. 

We hope this article helped you in understanding the basic concept of logical reasoning. 

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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Why is logical reasoning important.

Logical thinking skills are important because they can help you reason through important decisions, solve problems, generate creative ideas and set goals—all of which are necessary for developing your career. 

What is a logical reasoning test?

A logical reasoning test measures your ability or aptitude to reason logically. Generally, logical reasoning tests measure non-verbal abilities. You must, through logical and abstract reasoning, extract rules, analogies and structures which you subsequently use to find a correct answer among a set of possible options.  


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