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 Presentation of Data class 11 Notes Economics
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CBSE Economics Chapter 4 Presentation of Data class 11 Notes Economics in PDF are available for free download in myCBSEguide mobile app. The best app for CBSE students now provides Presentation of Data class 11 Notes Economics latest chapter wise notes for quick preparation of CBSE exams and school based annual examinations. Class 11 Economics notes on Chapter 4 Presentation of Data class 11 Notes Economics are also available for download in CBSE Guide website.
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CBSE Class 11 Economics Revision Notes Chapter – 4 Presentation of Data class 11 Notes Economics
The presentation of data means exhibition of data in such a clear and attractive manner that these can be easily understood and analysed.
Forms of Presentation of data: 1. Textual/Descriptive Presentation 2. Tabular Presentation 3. Diagrammatic Presentation 4. Graphical Presentation
1. Textual/Descriptive Presentation of Data: In this, data is presented in the form of text. This is suitable when quantity of data is not too large.
2. Tabulation – It is the process of presenting data in the form of a table. Parts or components of Table: 1. Table Number 2. Title 3. Caption Or Column Headings 4. Stubs Or Row Headings 5. Body of the Table 6. Unit of Measurement 7. Source 8. Head Note 9. Foot Note
Features of a good table: (a) Compatible with the objective (b) Helpful in comparison (c) Ideal Size (d) Stubs (e) Headings (f) Percentage and ratio (g) Sources of Data (h) Simplicity
Kinds of Table: 1. According to Purpose 2. According to originality 3. According to construction
Classification of tabular presentation of data 1. Qualitative Classification: When classification is done according to attributes such as social status, nationality, etc. It is called qualitative classification. 2. Quantitative Classification: In this, the data are classified on the basis of characteristics which are quantitative in nature. e.g., age, height, income, etc. 3. Temporal classification: In this, time becomes the becomes the classifying variable and data are categorised according to time. Time may be in hours, weeks, years, etc. 4. Spatial classification: When classification is done on the basis of place, it is called spatial classification. The place may be village, town, state, country, etc.
Diagrammatic Presentation : When data is presented in a simple and attractive manner in the form of diagrams is called diagrammatic presentation of data.
Types of Diagrammatic Presentation : 1. Geometric Form a. Pie Diagram b. Bar Diagram i. Simple ii. Multiple iii. Sub Divided iv. Percentage
2. Frequency Diagram a. Histogram b. Frequency Polygon c. Frequency Curve d. Ogive curve
3. Arithmetic Line Graph or Time series graph 1. Bar diagram: Bar diagrams are those diagrams in which data are presented in the form of bars or rectangles. Simple bar diagram: They are those diagrams which are based on a single set of numerical data. Different items are represented by different bars. Multiple bar diagram: They are those diagrams which show two or more sets of data simultaneously. This type of diagram is, generally, used to make comparison between two sets of series. Sub divided bar diagram: These are those diagrams which present simultaneously, total values and parts there in a set of a data. Percentage bar diagram: They are those diagram which show simultaneously different parts off the values of a sets of data in terms of percentage. Deviation bar diagram: These are used to compare the net deviation of related variables with respect to time and location. Bars which represent positive deviation and which represent negative deviation are drawn above and below the base line respectively. Pie or circular diagram is a circle divided into various segments showing the per cent values of a series. Histogram is graphical presentations of a frequency distribution of a continuous series.It can never be drawn for a discrete series. Frequency polygon is drawn by joining the mid points of the tops of rectangles in a histogram. It is constructed with the help of discrete as well as continuous series. Frequency curve is obtained by joining the points of a frequency polygon through free hand smooth curve not by straight lines. Cumulative frequency curves or ogive curve is the curve which is constructed by plotting cumulative frequency data on the graph paper in the form of a smooth curve. Arithmetic line Graphs or Time Series Graphs: In this graph, time(hour,day, date, week, month, year) is plotted along Xaxis and the corresponding value of variable along Yaxis.
Presentation of Data class 11 Notes
 CBSE Revision notes (PDF Download) Free
 CBSE Revision notes for Class 11 Economics PDF
 CBSE Revision notes Class 11 Economics – CBSE
 CBSE Revisions notes and Key Points Class 11 Economics
 Summary of the NCERT books all chapters in Economics class 11
 Short notes for CBSE class 11th Economics
 Key notes and chapter summary of Economics class 11
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CBSE Class11 Revision Notes and Key Points
Presentation of Data class 11 Notes Economics. CBSE quick revision note for class11 Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology and other subject are very helpful to revise the whole syllabus during exam days. The revision notes covers all important formulas and concepts given in the chapter. Even if you wish to have an overview of a chapter, quick revision notes are here to do if for you. These notes will certainly save your time during stressful exam days.
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To download Presentation of Data class 11 Notes, sample paper for class 11 Chemistry, Physics, Biology, History, Political Science, Economics, Geography, Computer Science, Home Science, Accountancy, Business Studies and Home Science; do check myCBSEguide app or website. myCBSEguide provides sample papers with solution, test papers for chapterwise practice, NCERT solutions, NCERT Exemplar solutions, quick revision notes for ready reference, CBSE guess papers and CBSE important question papers. Sample Paper all are made available through the best app for CBSE students and myCBSEguide website.
 Introduction class 11 Notes Economics
 Collection of Data class 11 Notes Economics
 Organisation of Data class 11 Notes Economics
 Measures of Central Tendency class 11 Notes Economics
 Measures of Dispersion class 11 Notes Economics
 Correlation class 11 Notes Economics
 Introduction to Index Number class 11 Notes Economics
 Indian Economy on the Eve of Independence class 11 Notes Economics
 Indian Economy 19501990 class 11 Notes Economics
 Economic Reform Since 1991 class 11 Notes Economics
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 Human Capital Formation in India class 11 Notes Economics
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 Employment : Growth, Informalisation and Other Issues class 11 Notes Economics
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 Environment and Sustainable Development class 11 Notes Economics
 Inflation Problem and Policies class 11 Notes Economics
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 CBSE Class 11th
Presentation of Data Class 11 Notes: CBSE 11th Economics Chapter 4, Download PDF
Cbse class 11 presentation of data revision notes: find here handwritten revision notes for cbse class 11 economics chapter 4, presentation of data. a pdf download link is also available for the same, at the bottom of the article..
Presentation of Data Class 11 Revision Notes: In this article, students can find complete Revision Notes for CSBE Class 11 Economics Chapter 4, Presentation of data. Entire notes have been prepared according to the updated CBSE Syllabus 20232024.
Presentation of data teaches students about the power of visualization. How data can be represented in a manner such that it becomes understandable, informative, and interesting at the same time. Economists use multiple forms of representation to showcase different types of data. Each of the forms is explained in detail here so that it becomes easier for students to present data in different forms, as per the requirement.
This article also presents links to other important study materials for Class 11 students. Links to the updated CBSE Class 11 Syllabus are also attached below for your reference.
CBSE Class 11 Economics Syllabus 20232024(PDF)
CBSE Class 11 Economics Deleted Syllabus 20232024(PDF)
Revision Notes for CBSE Class 11 Economics Chapter 1 20232024(PDF)
Revision Notes for CBSE Class 11 Economics Chapter 2 20232024(PDF)
Revision Notes for CBSE Class 11 Economics Chapter 3 20232024(PDF)
Revision Notes for Class 11 Economics Chapter 4 are presented below:
Presentation of Data  Since data is complex and voluminous, it has to be presented in a manner such that the data becomes understandable and presentable.
Forms of Presentation :
1.Textual or Descriptive Presentation  In this form of presentation, data are described within the text. It is suitable when the quantity of data is not too large. The benefit of using this form is that it gives room for explanation of all relevant data and a disadvantage is that person has to go through every single line for conclusion.
 Qualitative Classification  When classification is done according to attributes, such as social status, physical status, nationality, etc., it is called qualitative classification.
 Quantitative Classification  When classification is done on the basis of characteristics that are quantitative in nature is called quantitative classification.
 Temporal Classification : In this classification, time becomes the classifying variable and data are categorized according to time. Time may be in hours, days, weeks, months, years, etc.
 Spatial Classification : When classification is done on the basis of place, it is called spatial classification. The place may be a village/tow
 Table Number  A table number is assigned to a table for identification purposes. If more than one table is presented, it is the table number that distinguishes one table from another. It is given at the top or at the beginning of the title of the table. Generally, table numbers are whole numbers in ascending order if there are many tables in a book.
 Title  It narrates the contents of the table. It has to be clear, brief, and carefully worded so that the interpretations made from the table are clear and free from ambiguity. It finds a place at the head of the table succeeding the table number or just below it.
 Captions or Column Headings  At the top of each column in a table a column designation is given to explain the figures of the column. This is called a caption or column heading.
 Stubs or Row Headings  Like a caption or column heading, each row of the table has to be given a heading. The designations of the rows are also called stubs or stub items, and the complete left column is known as the stub column.
 Body  The body of a table is the main part and it contains the actual data. The location of any one figure/data in the table is fixed and determined by the row and column of the table.\
 Unit of Measurement  Units of measurement must be stated along with the title. If different units are there for rows or columns of the table, these units must be stated along with ‘stubs’ or ‘captions.
 Source  It is a brief statement or phrase indicating the source of data presented in the table. If more than one source is there, all the sources are to be written in the source. The source is generally written at the bottom of the table.
 Note  Note is the last part of the table. It explains the specific feature of the data content of the table which is not selfexplanatory and has not been explained earlier.
 Geometric diagram  A bar diagram and a pie diagram are the two types of geometric diagrams. The bar diagram comprises a group of equispaced and equiwidth rectangular bars for each class or category of data. Height or length of the bar reads the magnitude of data. Bar diagrams are further categorized into simple bar diagrams, multiple bar diagrams, and component bar diagram. A pie diagram is also a component diagram, but unlike a bar diagram, here it is a circle whose area is proportionally divided among the components.
 Frequency diagram  Data in the form of grouped frequency distributions are generally represented by frequency diagrams like histograms, frequency polygons, frequency curves, and ogive.
 Arithmetic line graph  An arithmetic line graph is also called a time series graph. In this graph, time(hour, day/date, week, month, year, etc.) is plotted along the xaxis and the value of the variable (time series data) is along the yaxis.
This chapter is comparatively short and easier to grasp. These notes shall be enough for your preparation for the annual examinations.
CBSE Class 11 Syllabus 202324 (All Subjects)
CBSE Class 11 Deleted Syllabus 202324 (All Subjects)
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NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Statistics Chapter 4  Presentation Of Data
 NCERT Solutions
 Chapter 4 Presentation Of Data
NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Statistics Chapter 4  Presentation of Data
Commerce students of Class 11 have Statistics as one of the core subjects in their curriculum. When it comes to Statistics, students require an indepth understanding of each concept. Regular practice and revision are equally essential to score well in this subject. Thus, apart from textbooks , students also need proper reference material for the lessons. NCERT Solutions are an excellent resource to refer to for Statistics lessons. The first part of the Class 11 Economics syllabus is dedicated to Statistics. Part A or Statistics for Economics include:
Introduction
Collection, Organisation, and Presentation of Data
Statistical Tools and Interpretation
Class: 

Subject: 

Chapter Name:  Chapter 4  Presentation Of Data 
ContentType:  Text, Videos, Images and PDF Format 
Academic Year:  202425 
Medium:  English and Hindi 
Available Materials:  
Other Materials 
NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Statistics Chapter 4 Presentation of Data
Chapter 4 in this section, is the Presentation of Data. NCERT solutions for class 11 statistics for economics chapter 4 is also available, which covers every topic of the concerned chapter.
Data Can Be Represented In Two Forms. They Are As Follows
Textual Presentation
Tabular Presentation
Diagrammatic Presentation
In a textual presentation of data, data form a part of the text or description pf the subject matter. The tabular presentation of data, on the other hand, shows a systematic presentation of numerical data. The tabular presentation includes various components. They are:
Table number
Body or field
Under diagrammatic presentation, bar diagrams are one of the most popular types of data presentation. Different types of bar diagram are:
Simple Bar Diagram
Multiple Bar Diagram
Percentage Bar Diagram
Sub Divided Bar Diagram
All of the above topics have been serially detailed in NCERT solutions class 11 statistics chapter 4. The 15 questions included in this chapter provide a proper insight into “Presentation of Data’.
Questions Given in the NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Statistics for Economics Chapter 4
Each question in the NCERT solutions is followed by a precise, appropriate, and relevant answer. The answers which are given in the solution also follow the CBSE pattern of the exam. This helps students get a brief idea regarding the types of questions they might face in the final exams. Here’s a gist of all the questions included in the Statistics class 11 NCERT solutions chapter 4:
Question 1: The very first question in this chapter of NCERT solution is regarding bar diagrams. The question asks whether the bar diagram is a onedimensional, twodimensional or nondimensional diagram. Bar diagrams are singledimensional. Although it contains two axes in the form of rectangular bars, the width plays no role in data presentation. Only length plays a part in bar diagrams.
Question 2: The second question NCERT solutions for class 11 statistics for economics chapter 4 is directed towards histograms. It asks students the use of histograms. Histograms are used to represent the value of mode of frequency distribution through graphs with the help of the highest rectangle.
Question 3: The third question is regarding ogives. It asks if ogives can be helpful in graphically locating the mean, mode, or median. The answer to this question would be ‘median’. The point of intersection of more than and less than ogives shows the median of data.
Question 4: The 4 th question is NCERT solutions class 11 statistics chapter 4 asks what data represented through arithmetic line graph depict. The options in this question include ‘longterm trend’, ‘cyclicity in data’, and ‘seasonality in data’. Arithmetic line graph assists in understanding the periodicity and trend observed in longterm continuous data.
Question 5: The 5 th question is based on a true/false statement. The statement given is whether the width of bars in a bar diagram can be unequal. This statement is, however, false. The rectangular bars in a bar diagrams need to be of equal width for any given data.
Question 6: The statement given in this question is ‘Width of rectangles in a histogram should essentially be equal’. It is a false statement. The width of rectangles in a histogram can be uneven.
Question 7: Here, the statement in question is ‘Histogram can only be formed with a continuous classification of data’. This is a true statement. Histograms are always drawn for continuous data. Even if the given data is discrete or discontinuous, it is first changed into continuous form to form a histogram.
Question 8: The statement in this question is Histograms and column diagram are a similar way of presentation of data. However, this is a false statement. The histogram is a twodimensional diagram which is drawn for continuous data. The rectangles do not have any space between them. On the other hand, the column diagram is a onedimensional diagram which has space between each column or bar.
Question 9: The 9 th question has ‘Mode of a frequency distribution can be known graphically with the help of histogram’ as a statement. This statement in NCERT solutions for class 11 statistics for economics chapter 4 is true. The rectangle with the highest measure in a histogram gives the value of mode of a frequency distribution.
Question 10: The statement given in this question is that the median of a frequency distribution cannot be assessed from the ogives. This is false. The point of intersection of less than along with more than ogives shows the median.
Question 11: The 11 th question in this chapter asks students to provide relevant forms of diagrams to represent different data. There are three subparts to this question. They are:
Monthly annual rainfall
Composition of Delhi’s population by religion
Components of the factory’s expenses
The relevant answers to the above questions are bar diagram, component bar diagram, and a pie chart respectively.
Question 12: This question in NCERT solutions for class 11 statistics for economics chapter 4 would require students to represent data in a tabular form. The question provides data related to the share of nonworkers and lower urbanisation level in India.
Question 13: The 13 th question is how the procedure of drawing histograms differ when class intervals are unequal compared to equal class intervals in a frequency table.
Question 14 and Question 15 also include data, based on which students will have to form a relevant presentation.
Students can find the PDF of the Statistics lessons in the Vedantu App. The App also provides a free download option of NCERT solutions for class 11 statistics for economics chapter 4. Along with that, students also get online classes, oneonone guidance, and revision notes to prepare well for exams.
FAQs on NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Statistics Chapter 4  Presentation Of Data
1. What are the different ways of representing data?
Ans: Data can be presented in the form of text, table or diagrams. It depends on the nature and category of data being represented. Under diagrammatic presentation of data, there can be different types. They are bar diagram, pie or circular diagram, frequency diagram data, histogram, polygon, frequency curve, arithmetic line graph, ogive or cumulative curve, etc.
2. What are the advantages of diagrammatic or graphical presentation of data?
Ans: Many times the diagrammatic presentation of data is considered more convenient over the other forms. So, the advantages of diagrammatic and graphical presentation of data include:
Informative and catchy
Simple to understand
Easy to compare data
Needs less training or specialisation to create graphs
Helps in the study of correlation
3. Which types of questions are provided in the NCERT solutions for class 11 statistics for economics chapter 4?
Ans: Chapter 4 in Class 11 Statistics NCERT solutions includes 15 questions. Some of these questions are conceptual and objective. A few questions in this chapter are based on a ‘true or false’ statement. In some questions, students will have to represent the data given to them.
4. What is Chapter 4 of the Class 11 Statistics textbook about?
Ans: The chapter talks about the presentation of data. Data is the information that is collected and needs to be organized to study a hypothesis or to reach a conclusion. The chapter mentions textual presentation, tabular presentation as well as diagrammatic presentation of data. The data when presented makes it easier to study and analyze and it is also more appealing to the eyes. Data presented in a clear manner makes it easy to understand.
5. Is Chapter 4 of Class 11 Statistics important?
Ans: The chapter of the Statistics textbook of Class 11 is titled as Presentation of data. The chapter enables us to understand how one can present and analyze the data. We all, consciously or unconsciously, deal with data, arrange it and use it for getting better results. Understanding the presentation of data also allows us to smartly plan our studies and preparation as well as allows us to understand how we can utilise minimum resources to achieve maximum results. The knowledge gained from the chapter will come in handy in education and in real life.
6. How can I approach the chapter Presentation of Data of Class 11 Statistics?
Ans: The chapter is a part of your statistics textbook and is also a crucial part of the border economics discipline. Understanding the concepts given in the chapter will also facilitate to an extent your understanding of economics. You can start by reading the chapter and understanding the various methods of presenting the data. Make useful notes in your notebook along with the visual representation of the methods. You should also attempt the questions given at the end of the chapter. Make sure you revise your notes on a regular basis.
7. How useful are Vedantu solutions for the preparation of Chapter 4 Presentation of Data of Class 11 Statistics?
Ans: When you are studying Statistics, it is imperative that you have a strong understanding of the core concepts of the discipline. The solutions which are prepared by the expert faculty at Vedantu helps you to clear any doubts or confusion you might have with regard to the concepts of the chapter. They will also come in handy during revision as they cover the chapter in its entirety. You will also get a basic idea about how one should write and present the answers. These solutions are available at free of cost on Vedantu(vedantu.com) and mobile app.
8. Explain diagrammatic presentation of data.
Ans: The diagrammatic presentation of data is one of the methods through which you can present the data. The data is presented in a comprehensible form that makes the data easy to comprehend and analyze. In this method, numbers or numerical data are represented through diagrams. The diagrammatic presentation can be further categorized into bar graphs, pie charts or circular diagrams, frequency diagrams, and arithmetic line graphs. It is also an attractive way of presenting the data and catches the attention of the reader.
Presentation of Data Class 11: Notes, Mind Map and Extra Q&A
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Welcome to WitKnowLearn, where we offer a comprehensive guide to the 'Presentation of Data' in Class 11, a pivotal topic in the NCERT Class 11 Economics curriculum. Our expertly crafted Presentation of Data Class 11 Notes are designed to provide students with a clear and thorough understanding of this essential subject.
Presentation of data is a vital skill in Class 11 Economics, as it enables students to effectively communicate statistical information. Our notes cover everything from basic presentation methods to advanced diagrammatic techniques. We delve deep into different ways of presenting data, ensuring that you grasp both the theory and application of these methods.
To complement our notes, we've developed a unique Presentation of Data Class 11 Mind Map. This innovative tool simplifies complex concepts and visually connects various ideas related to data presentation. It’s an excellent resource for quick revision and helps solidify your understanding of the topic.
Moreover, we offer a variety of Presentation of Data Class 11 Extra Questions and Answers to challenge and test your knowledge. These questions are specifically designed to prepare you for your exams, covering all the essential aspects of data presentation.
For students looking for an indepth understanding of diagrammatic presentation, our Diagrammatic Presentation of Data Class 11 Notes are just what you need. These notes provide detailed insights into different types of diagrams and how they can be used to represent data effectively.
At WitKnowLearn, we are dedicated to making learning engaging and accessible. Dive into our resources for Presentation of Data in Class 11 and master the art of communicating data with clarity and precision. Get ready to excel in your Class 11 Economics with WitKnowLearn!
Presentation of Data Class 11
In Class 11, the presentation of data is a crucial skill, integral to understanding and communicating statistical information effectively. This topic equips students with the ability to visually represent data, making complex information easily understandable.
The presentation of data includes various methods such as tables, charts, graphs, and diagrams. Students learn to choose the appropriate method based on the type of data and the intended audience. This skill is not just academic; it has practical applications in various fields like economics, business, and social sciences. Mastery of data presentation is essential for students to accurately interpret data, draw meaningful conclusions, and make informed decisions.
Presentation of Data Class 11 Notes
Our comprehensive notes on the presentation of data for Class 11 provide a detailed exploration of various data presentation techniques. These notes cover the fundamentals of organizing data in tables, creating different types of charts and graphs like bar graphs, histograms, pie charts, and line graphs. Each method is explained with its specific usage, advantages, and limitations.
The notes also delve into more complex forms of data presentation, such as frequency polygons and ogives. Through these notes, students gain a thorough understanding of how to present data in the most effective way, enhancing their analytical and interpretive skills.
Presentation of Data Class 11 Mind Map
The Presentation of Data Class 11 Mind Map is an innovative learning tool that visually organizes key concepts and methods related to data presentation. This mind map includes branches for different types of data presentation techniques, highlighting their uses and characteristics. It serves as an excellent revision tool, helping students quickly recall and connect various aspects of data presentation.
The mind map simplifies complex information, making it easier for students to grasp and retain the material for their exams and practical applications.
Presentation of Data Class 11 Extra Questions Answers
To reinforce learning, our Presentation of Data Class 11 Extra Questions and Answers are an invaluable resource. These questions cover a wide range of topics, from basic understanding to applicationbased scenarios. They are designed to test students' knowledge of different data presentation methods and their ability to choose the right technique for various datasets. By practicing these questions, students can assess their understanding, identify areas for improvement, and gain confidence in their ability to apply these skills in realworld situations.
NCERT Class 11 Economics Chapter 4
NCERT Class 11 Economics Chapter 4 is dedicated to the presentation of data, a foundational aspect of the economics curriculum. This chapter provides a thorough introduction to the various methods of presenting data, emphasizing their relevance in economic analysis. It discusses the significance of accurately representing data to understand economic trends and patterns.
The chapter is crucial for students to develop a strong base in economics, as it lays the groundwork for more advanced topics in the subject. Understanding this chapter is key for students to excel in their economic studies and develop skills essential for future academic and professional endeavors.
 Presentation of data class 11:
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Presentation of Data Class 11 Notes PDF (Handwritten & Short Notes)
In the Presentation of Data class 11 notes, topics and concepts are explained in a creative manner, accordingly students can also improve their creativity. With this, students can also attempt questions of Presentation of Data in an innovative way as it encourages them to engage in understanding complex topics in an ease.
The Presentation of Data class 11 notes can be useful for both teachers and students as it is arranged in a systematic manner so they can easily evaluate their progress and quickly cover the chapter. The systematic organisation can also help students to overcome unnecessary disturbances while completing the Statistics for Economics chapter Presentation of Data.
Presentation of Data Class 11 Notes PDF
Students can utilise the Presentation of Data class 11 notes PDF while preparing for the chapter from their comfort zone. As they can go through the PDF of class 11 notes from the Selfstudys website so that they can quickly cover Presentation of Data and can understand the chapter in a better way.
Where Can You Find a Presentation of Data Class 11 Notes?
Students can find the Presentation of Data class 11 notes from the Selfstudys website, steps to download are:
 Visit the Selfstudys website.
 Click NCERT Books & Solution from the navigation bar.
 A drop down will appear, select NCERT notes from the given list.
 A new page will appear, select class 11th from the list of classes.
 Select Statistics for Economics from the list of subjects.
 Now select the chapter Presentation of Data from the given list.
Characteristics of Presentation of Data Class 11 Notes
In the Presentation of Data class 11 notes, some of the definitions are explained in a brief way, other characteristics are:
 Formulas are Given: The Presentation of Data notes provides important formulas for student’s understanding, accordingly one can solve all types of questions.
 Flow Charts are Given: A flow chart is a diagram which helps students to understand tough concepts of Presentation of Data.
 Attractive Format: The Presentation of Data class 11 notes PDF are explained in an attractive format so that students can be more attentive towards the chapter.
 Diagrams are Given: Class 11 Statistics Presentation of Data notes provides diagrams: symbolic representation, so that students can simplify complex content into easier ones.
 For All Students: All students studying in CBSE and other state boards can look through the Presentation of Data class 11 Economics notes as it is created according to the latest syllabus.
 Readers Friendly: The notes of Presentation of Data class 11 are user friendly so that students can easily access and learn the concepts.
Why Should You Use a Presentation of Data Class 11 Notes PDF?
Students should use Presentation of Data class 11 notes PDF so that they can provided with major benefits, those benefits are:
 Helps in Organisation: The notes of Presentation of Data class 11 keeps students organised about their preparation of the chapter, accordingly they can increase their productivity.
 Provides an Outline: The notes on Presentation of Data provides an outline for students so that they can get a clarity about concepts of the chapter.
 Helps in Revising: It is important for students to revise concepts to score good marks, they can recall from the class 11 statistics notes Presentation of Data.
 Improves Attention Span: The class 11 Statistics notes Presentation of Data helps students to improve their attention span towards the chapter so that they can learn the concepts in a better way.
 Get an Idea About High Weightage Topics: With the help of Presentation of Data class 11 notes, students can get an idea about the high weightage topics so that they can prepare accordingly. However, these details are not given directly in the notes, but one can refer to the previous year question papers to understand them better.
 Improves Memory: The Presentation of Data class 11 notes PDF helps students to improve their memorisation skills so that they can solve problems within the given time limit.
When is the Right Time to Go Through The Presentation of Data Class 11 Notes?
Generally, students can go through the Presentation of Data class 11 notes after completing the chapter from NCERT book as it is considered to be the right time. Because in the class 11 notes, topics and concepts of Presentation of Data are explained in a better approach so that students can solve all their doubts as well as confusions.
When to Use the Presentation of Data Class 11 Notes While Preparation?
Students can totally depend on the Presentation of Data class 11 notes while preparing for the exam, crucial ways that one can depend on the notes are:
 Class Room Study: Students can go through the Presentation of Data notes during classroom study as it provides a general plan of topics and concepts.
 Weekly Revision: Students can look through the Presentation of Data class 11 notes PDF during weekly revision so that they can clarify doubts on a weekly basis.
 During Board Exam: Before the board exam, students have to revise all topics so that they can also focus on weaker topics. Accordingly, students can improvise their marks in questions related to Presentation of Data.
 During Weekly Test: Some students regularly take weekly tests to evaluate their preparation, and can utilise the notes on Presentation of Data so that they can remember the important formulas on their fingertips.
 Last Minute Preparation: Students generally have the habit of completing the topics during the last minute, so it is better for them to use the Presentation of Data class 11 notes PDF as it can ease their preparation.
Tips to Prepare for Presentation of Data With The Help of Class 11 Statistics for Economics Notes
Students can follow strategy tips to prepare for Presentation of Data with the help of Class 11 Statistics for Economics Notes , those important tips are:
 Go Through the NCERT Book: To start the preparation, students need to first go through the Presentation of Data chapter in NCERT book and can also take the help of class 11 Statistics for Economics notes to cover the lesson.
 Use Mannerism: Students need to create their own tricks: flow charts, diagrams and mannerism to complete Presentation of Data so that they can improve their creativity to complete the notes.
 Practise Questions: Students are advised to practise questions of the chapter, they can take the help of Presentation of Data notes so that they can understand the concepts in a better way.
 Make Important Points: While completing the chapter, students can take the help of Presentation of Data notes to make a note of important points in their notebook.
 Select Study Schedule: Every student has their own comfortable time to complete the notes on Presentation of Data in which their productivity is high.
 Don’t Cram: Students don’t need to cram the topics, it is important for them to understand each and every topic, they can take the help of notes of Presentation of Data class 11.
How to Make the Preparation Effective While Completing Presentation of Data Class 11 Notes?
Effective preparation with the help of Presentation of Data is the key to good score, tips to make the preparation effective are:
 Form a Proper Routine: Students need to form a proper routine to complete Presentation of Data notes so that they can complete quickly and can also increase their efficiency.
 Take Intervals: Students are advised to take frequent intervals: listen to music, short walk, snack time to complete Presentation of Data class 11 notes PDF so that they can promote efficiency.
 Concentration on One Topic: While completing class 11 Economics notes, students need to concentrate on just one topic, this can improve their efficiency to complete Presentation of Data.
 Update Learning Style: Students need to update their learning style: way of learning on a regular basis to complete class 11 statistics Presentation of Data notes so that they can improve their efficiency.
 Utilise the Time: Students need to complete the notes of Presentation of Data class 11 without wasting much time in other things can help increase the efficiency.
 Solve Doubts: It is normal for students to come up with some doubts regarding Presentation of Data as it is important for them to clear their doubts so that they can improve their productivity.
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Presentation of Data Class 11 Statistics Notes And Questions
Please refer to Presentation of Data Class 11 Statistics notes and questions with solutions below. These Class 11 Statistics revision notes and important examination questions have been prepared based on the latest Statistics books for Class 11. You can go through the questions and solutions below which will help you to get better marks in your examinations.
Class 11 Statistics Presentation of Data Notes and Questions
The presentation of data means exhibition of the data in such a dear and attractive manner that these are easily understood and analysed. There are many forms of presentation of data of which the following three are well known: (i) Textual or Descriptive Presentation, (ii) Tabular Presentation, and (iii) Diagrammatic Presentation. The present chapter focuses on Textual and Tabular Presentation of data. Diagrammatic Presentation of data is discussed in the next chapter.
1. TEXTUAL PRESENTATION In textual presentation, data are a part of the text of study or a part of the description of the subject matter of study. Such a presentation is also called descriptive presentation of data. This is the most common form of data presentation when the quantity of data is not very large. Here are some examples:
Example 1 In a strike call given by the trade unions of shoe making industry in the city of Delhi, 50% of the workers reported for the duty, and only 2 out of the 20 industries in the city were totally closed.
Example 2 Surveys conducted by a Nongovernment Organisation reveal that, in the state of Punjab, area under pulses has tended to shrink by 40% while the area under rice and wheat has tended to expand by 20%, between the years 20012011.
Suitability Textual presentation of data is most suitable when the quantum of data is not very large. A small volume of data presented as a part of the subject matter of study becomes a useful supportive evidence to the text. Thus, rather than saying that price of gold is skyrocketing, a statement like price of gold has risen by 50% during the financial year 2017 18 is much more meaningful and precise. One need not support the text with voluminous data in the form of tables or diagram when the textual matter itself is very small and includes only a few observations. Indeed, textual presentation of data is an integral component of a small quantitative description of a phenomenon. It gives an emphasis of statistical truth to the otherwise qualitative observations.
Drawbacks A serious drawback of die textual presentation of data is that one has to go through the entire text before quantitative facts about a phenomenon become evident. A picture or a set of bars showing increase in the price of gold during a specified period is certainly quite informative even on a casual glance of the reader. Textual presentation of data, on the other hand, does not offer anything to the reader at a mere glance of the text matter. The reader must read and comprehend (he entire text. When the subject under study is vast and involves comparison across different areas/countries, textual presentation of data would only add to discomfort of the reader.
2. TABULAR PRESENTATION In the words of Neiswanger, “A statistical table is a systematic organisation of data in columns and rows” Vertical dissections of table () are known as columns and horizontal dissections (=) are known as rows.
Tabulation is the process of presenting data in the form of a table. According to Prof. L.R. Connor, ‘tabulation involves the orderly and systematic presentation of numerical data in a form designed to elucidate the problem under consideration. ”
In the words of Prof. M.M. Blair, “Tabulation in its broadest sense is an orderly arrangement of data in columns and rows.”
Components of a Table Following are the principal components of a table:
(1) Table Number: First of all, a table must be numbered. Different tables must have different numbers, e.g., 1, 2, 3, etc. These numbers must be in the same order as the tables. Numbers facilitate location of the tables.
(2) Title: A table must have a title. Title must be written in bold letters. It should attract the attention of the readers. The title must be simple, clear and short. A good title must reveal: (i) the problem under consideration, (ii) the time period of the study, (iii) the place of study, and (iv) the nature of classification of data. A good title is short but complete in all respects.
(3) Head Note: If the title of the table does not give complete information, it is supplemented with a head note. Head note completes the information in the title of the table. Thus, units of the data are generally expressed in the form of lakhs, tonnes, etc. and preferably in brackets as a headnote.
(4) Stubs: Stubs are titles of the rows of a table. These titles indicate information contained in the rows of the table.
(5) Caption: Caption is the title given to the columns of a table. A caption indicates information contained in the columns of the table. A caption may have subheads when information contained in the columns is divided in more than one class. For example, a caption of ‘Students’ may have boys and girls as subheads.
(6) Body or Field: Body of a table means sum total of the items in the table. Thus, body is the most important part of a table. It indicates values of the various items in the table. Each item in the body is called ‘cell’.
(7) Footnotes: Footnotes are given for clarification of the reader. These are generally given when information in the table need to be supplemented. «
(8) Source: When tables are based on secondary data, source of the data is to be given. Source of the data is specified below the footnote. It should give: name of the publication and publisher, year of publication, reference, page number, etc.
Difference between Table and Tabulation
While tabulation refers to the method or process of presenting data in the form of rows and columns, table refers to the actual presentation of data in the form of rows and columns. Table is the consequence (result) of tabulation.
Check [he following format of a table showing its various components:
Guidelines for the Construction of a Table or Features of a Good Table
Construction of a table depends upon the objective of study. It also depends upon the wisdom of the statistician. There are no hard and fast rules for the construction of a table. However, some important guidelines should be kept in mind. These guidelines are features of a good table. These are as under:
(1) Compatible Title: Title of a table must be compatible with the objective of the study. The title should be placed at the top centre of the table.
(2) Comparison: It should be kept in mind that items (cells) which are to be compared with each other are placed in columns or rows close to each other. This facilitates comparison.
(3) Special Emphasis: Some items in the table may need special emphasis. Such items should be placed in the head rows (top above) or head columns (extreme left). Moreover, such items should be presented in bold figures.
(4) Ideal Size: Table must be of an ideal size. To determine an ideal size of a table, a rough draft or sketch must be drawn. Rough draft will give an idea as to how many rows and columns should be drawn for presentation of the data.
(5) Stubs: If rows are very long, stubs may be given at the right hand side of the table also.
(6) Use of Zero: Zero should be used only to indicate the quantity of a variable. It should not be used to indicate the nonavailability of data. If the data are not available, it should be indicated by ‘n.a.’ or () hyphen sign.
(7) Headings: Headings should generally be written in the singular form. For example, in the columns indicating goods, the word ‘good’ should be used.
(8) Abbreviations: Use of abbreviations should be avoided in the headings or subheadings of the table. Short forms of the words such as Govt., m.p. (monetary policy), etc. should not be used. Also such signs as “(ditto)” should not be used in the body of the table.
(9) Footnote: Footnote should be given only if needed. However, if footnote is to be given, it must bear some asterisk mark (*) corresponding to the concerned item. (10) Units: Units used must be specified above the columns. If figures are very large, units may be noted in the short form as ‘000’ hectare or ‘000’ tonnes.
(11) Total: In the table, subtotals of the items must be given at the end of each row. Grand total of the items must also be noted.
(12) Percentage and Ratio: Percentage figures should be provided in the table, if possible. This makes the data more informative.
(13) Extent of Approximation: If some approximate figures have been used in the table, the extent of approximation must be noted. This may be indicated at the top of the table as a part of head note or at the foot of the table as a footnote.
(14) Source of Data: Source of data must be noted at the foot of the table. It is generally noted next to the footnote.
(15) Size of Columns: Size of the columns must be uniform and symmetrical.
(16) Ruling of Columns: Columns may be divided into different sections according to similarities of the data.
(17) Simple, Economical and Attractive: A table must be simple, attractive and economical in space.
Kinds of Tables There are three basis of classifying tables, viz., (1) purpose of a table, (2) originality of a table, and (3) construction of a table. According to each of these bases, statisticians have classified tables as in the following flow chart:
Let us attempt a brief description of the various kinds of tables:
(1) Tables according to Purpose
According to purpose, there are two kinds of tables:
(i) General Purpose Table: General purpose table is that table which is of general use. It does not serve any specific purpose or specific problem under consideration. Such tables are just ‘data bank’ for the use of researchers for their various studies. These tables are generally attached to some official reports, like Census Reports oflndia. These are also called Reference Tables.
(ii) Special Purpose Table: Special purpose table is that table which is prepared with some specific purpose in mind. Generally, these are small tables limited to the problem under consideration. In these tables data are presented in the form of result of the analysis. That is why these tables are also called summary tables.
(2) Tables according to Originality On the basis of originality, tables are of two kinds: (i) Original Table: An original table is that in which data are presented in the same form and manner in which they are collected. (ii) Derived Table: A derived table is that in which data are not presented in the form or manner in which these are collected. Instead the data are first converted into ratios or percentage and then presented.
(3) Tables according to Construction
According to construction, tables are of two kinds:
(i) Simple or Oneway Table: A simple table is that which shows only one characteristic of the data. Table 2 below is an example of a simple table. It shows number of students in a college:
(ii) Complex Table: A complex table is one which shows more than one characteristic of the data. On the basis of the characteristics shown, these tables may be further classified as:
(a) Double or Twoway Table: A twoway table is that which shows two characteristics of the data. For example, Table 3, showing the number of students in different classes according to their sex, is a twoway table: Number of Students in a College (According to Sex and Class)
(b) Treble Table: A treble table is that which shows three characteristics of the data. For example, Table 4 shows number of students in a college according to class, sex and habitation. Number of Students in a College (According to Class, Sex and Habitation)
(c) Manifold Table: A manifold table is the one which shows more than three characteristics of the data. Table 5, for example, shows number of students in a college according to their sex, class, habitation and marital status. Number of Students in a College (According to their Sex, Class, Habitation and Marital Status)
Classification of Data and Tabular Presentation Tabular presentation is based on fourfold classification of data, viz., qualitative, quantitative, temporal, and spatial. Following are the details with suitable illustrations.
(1) Qualitative Classification of Data and Tabular Presentation: Qualitative classification occurs when data are classified on the basis of qualitative attributes or qualitative characteristics of a phenomenon. Example: Data of unemployment may relate to ruralurban areas, skilled and unskilled workers, or male and female jobseekers. Table 6 below is an example of tabular presentation of data when data are classified on the basis of qualitative attributes or qualitative characteristics.
(This is an imaginary table. In this table, male and female are such characteristics/attributes which are qualitative and cannot be quantified.)
(2) Quantitative Classification of Data and Tabular Presentation: Quantitative classification occurs when data are classified on the basis of quantitative characteristics of a phenomenon.
Example: Data on marks in Mathematics by the students of Class XII in CBSE examination. Table 7 shows tabular presentation of data when data are classified on the basis of quantitative characteristics.
Marks Obtained by Students of Class XII of XYZ School
Source: Result Sheets Here, marks are a quantifiable variable and data are classified in terms of different class intervals of marks.
(3) Temporal Classification of Data and Tabular Presentation:
In temporal classification, data are classified according to time, and time becomes the classifying variable.
Example: Sale of Cell phones in different years during the period 20142018 in the city of Delhi. Table 8 shows tabular presentation of data on the basis of temporal classification.
Annual Sale of Cell Phones in the City of Delhi (20142018)
(4) Spatial Classification : In spatial classification, place/location becomes the classifying variable. It may be a village, a town, a district, a state or a country as a whole. Example: Number of Indian students studying in different countries of the world during a particular year. Table 9 is an example of tabular presentation based on spatial classification of data.
Indian Students in different Countries of the World (2018)
Merits of Tabular Presentation Following are the principal merits of tabular presentation of data:
(1) Simple and Brief Presentation: Tabular presentation is perhaps the most simplest form of data presentation. Data, therefore, are easily understood. Also, a large volume of statistical data is presented in a very brief form.
(2) Facilitates Comparison: The tabulation facilitates comparison of data by presenting the data in different classes.
(3) Easy Analysis: It is very easy to analyse the data from tables. It is by organising the data in the form of table that one finds out their central tendency, dispersion and correlation.
(4) Highlights Characteristics of Data: Tabulation highlights characteristics of data. Accordingly, it becomes easy to remember the statistical facts.
(5) Economical: Tabular presentation is a very economical mode of data presentation. It saves time as well as space.
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Statistics for economics: part 1, chapter 1: introduction, chapter 2: collection of data, chapter 3: organisation of data, chapter 4: presentation of data, chapter 5.1: measures of central tendency (mean), chapter 5.2: measures of central tendency (median), chapter 5.3: measures of central tendency (mode), chapter 6.1: measures of dispersion (range), chapter 6.2: measures of dispersion (mean deviation), chapter 6.3: measures of dispersion (standard deviation and variation), chapter 7: correlation, chapter 8: index numbers, micro economics: part 2, chapter 1: introduction to economics, chapter 2: consumer equilibrium, chapter 3: demand, chapter 4: elasticity of demand, chapter 5: production, chapter 6: cost, chapter 7: supply, chapter 8: revenue, chapter 9: producer's equilibrium, chapter 10: main market forms: perfect competition, chapter 11: main market forms: noncompetitive markets, chapter 12: price determination, all subjects textbooks and refreshers available, to purchase click on image/title.
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NCERT Solutions for Class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12
Statistics for Economics Class 11 NCERT Solutions Chapter 4 Presentation of Data
July 5, 2019 by Sastry CBSE
Answer: the following questions, 1 to 10, choosing the correct answer. Question 1. Bar diagram is a (a) onedimensional diagram (b) twodimensional diagram (c) diagram with no dimension (d) None of these Answer: (a) Bar diagrams are onedimensional diagrams. Though these are represented on a plane of two axis in form of rectangular bars, the width is of no consequence and only the length depicts the frequency.
Question 2. Data represented through a histogram can help in finding graphically the (a) mean (b) mode (c) median (d) All of these Answer: (b) Histogram gives value of mode of the frequency distribution graphically through the highest rectangle.
Question 3. Ogives can be helpful in locating graphically the (a) mode (b) mean (c) median (d) None of these Answer: (c) Intersection point of the less than and more than ogives gives the median.
Question 4. Data represented through arithmetic line graph help in understanding (a) long term trend (b) cyclicity in data (c) seasonality in data (d) All of the above Answer: (a) Arithmetic line graph helps in understanding the trend, periodicity, etc in a long term time series data.
Question 5. Width of bars in a bar diagram need not be equal. (True/False) Answer: False Bar diagram comprises a group of equispaced and equiwidth rectangular bars for each class or category of data.
Question 6. Width of rectangles in a histogram should essentially be equal. (True/False) Answer: False If the class intervals are of equal width, the area of the rectangles are proportional to their respective frequencies and width of rectangles will be equal. However, sometimes it is convenient or necessary to use varying width of class intervals and hence unequal width of rectangles.
Question 7. Histogram can only be formed with continuous classification of data. (True/False) Answer: True A histogram is never drawn for a discrete variable/data. If the classes are not continuous they are first converted into continuous classes.
Question 8. Histogram and column diagram are the same method of presentation of data. (True/False) Answer: False Histogram is a two dimensional diagram drawn for continuous data and the rectangles do not have spaces in between while column diagram is one dimensional with space in between every column (bar).
Question 9. Mode of a frequency distribution can be known graphically with the help of histogram. (True/False) Answer: True Histogram gives value of mode of the frequency distribution graphically through the highest rectangle.
Question 10. Median of a frequency distribution cannot be known from the ogives. (True/False) Answer: False Intersectionpoint of the less than and more than ogives gives the median.
Question 11. What kind of diagrams are more effective in representing the following? (a) Monthly rainfall in a year (b) Composition of the population of Delhi by religion (c) Components of cost in a factory Answer: (a) The monthly rainfall in a year can be best represented by a bar diagram as only one variable i.e., monthly rainfall is to be presented diagrammatically. The rainfall is plotted on Yaxis in the corresponding month that is plotted on the Xaxis. (b) Composition of the population of Delhi by religion can be represented by a component bar diagram. A component bar diagram shows the bar and its subdivisions into two or more components. Thus, the total population can be sub divided in terms of religion and presented through a component bar diagram. (c) Different components of cost in a factory can most effectively be depicted through a pie chart. The circle represents the total cost and various components of costs are shown by different portions of the circle drawn according to percentage of total cost each component covers.
Question 12. Suppose you want to emphasise the increase in the share of urban nonworkers and lower level of urbanisation in India as shown in Example 4.2. How would you do it in the tabular form? Answer: Share of urban workers and non workers in India
Male  50  70  120 
Femal  25  50  75 
Total  75  120  195 
Question 13. How does the procedure of drawing a histogram differ when class intervals are unequal in comparison to equal class intervals in a frequency table? Answer: A histogram is a set of rectangles with bases as the intervals between class boundaries (along Xaxis) and with areas proportional to the class frequency. If the class intervals are of equal width, the area of the rectangles are proportional to their respective frequencies.
However, sometimes it is convenient or at times necessary, to use varying width of class intervals. For graphical representation of such data, height for area of a rectangle is the quotient of height i.e., frequency and base i.e., width of the class interval. When intervals are equal, all rectangles have the same base and area can conveniently be represented by the frequency of the interval.
But, when bases vary in their width, the heights of rectangles are to be adjusted to yield comparable measurements by dividing class frequency by width of the class interval instead of absolute frequency. This gives us the frequency density for the purpose of comparison. Thus \(\frac{\text { Frequency density }}{(\text { Height of rectangle })}=\frac{\text { Class Frequency }}{\text { Width of the class interval }}\)
Question 14. The Indian Sugar Mills Association reported that, ‘sugar production during the first fortnight of December, 2001 was about 3,87,000 tonnes, as against 3,78,000 tonnes during the same fortnight last year (2000). The offtake of sugar from factories during the first fortnight of December, 2001 was 2,83,000 tonnes for internal consumption and 41,000 tonnes for exports as against 1,54,000 tonnes for internal consumption and nil for exports during the same fortnight last season.’ (i) Present the data in tabular form. (ii) Suppose you were to present these data in diagrammatic form which of the diagrams would you use and why? (iii) Present these data diagrammatically. Answer: (i) Data in tabular form. Sugar Production in India
December 2000  378000  154000  — 
December 2001  387000  283000  41000 
Statistics for Economics Class 11 NCERT Solutions
Ncert solutions for class 11 economics, free resources.
NCERT Solutions
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 Commerce Important Questions
 Class 11 Statistics
 Chapter 4 Presentation of Data
Important Questions for Presentation of Data
Important questions with answers for presentation of data which is drafted by expert Commerce teachers from the latest version of CBSE (NCERT) books.
Important Questions – Presentation of Data
Define presentation of data.
The presentation of data is a representation of data in an attractive and transparent manner that everybody understands and can analyse.
What is tabulation?
Tabulation means presenting data in a tabular form.
Define table.
Table refers to the systematic representation of data with rows and columns.
Define a simple table.
A simple table only displays one characteristic of the data.
What is a complex table?
It is a table that shows more than one characteristic of the data.
Define a derived table.
In a derived table the information is not displayed according to the way it is collected. It is first converted into ratios or percentages and then presented.
What are the two principal parts of a table?
The two principal parts of a table are: (i) Table number (ii) Title
How can tables be classified ?
Tables can be classified into three parts: (i) Purpose (ii) Originality (iii) Construction
What are the two types of a complex table?
The two types of a complex table are: (i) Double or twoway table (ii) Manifold table
Question 10
What are the different forms of presentation of data?
The different forms of presentation of data are: (i) Textual and descriptive presentation (ii) Tabular presentation (iii) Diagrammatic presentation
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Presentation of data class 11
Presentation of data class 11 notes are presented in this post for easy access to the students. By taking these notes, you can stay active and engaged throughout your reading, revision, and lectures. They also help with clear thinking and understanding. Choose the most important ideas to focus on. These notes provide a useful record of important information and its sources. You’ll be able to recall better what you heard with these notes.
 Presentation of data
 Textual Presentation
 Objective of Tabulation
Parts of a table
 Types of table
 Diagrammatic and Graphical Presentation
 Steps to construct pie diagram
 Bar Diagram
Limitations of diagrammatic presentation
 Advantages of graphical presentation
 Functions of a graph
Frequency Diagram
Arithmetic line graph, presentation of data class 11 .
The presentation of data in such a clear and appealing manner that it is simple to comprehend and analyse is referred to as “data presentation.”
Methods of presentation of data
 Textual or descriptive presentation
 Tabular presentation
 Diagrammatic presentation
 Graphic presentation
Textual Presentation under Presentation of data class 11
Data are presented in the form of text or textual or descriptive presentation. This works well when the amount of data isn’t too big.
For example; The number of boys in class 10th A was 320, out of which 200 were from the humanities section.
 The only limitation it has is that one needs to go through the entire text for comprehension.
Tabular Presentation
In a tabular presentation, data becomes a part of any study, description, or text or becomes a matter of study. When numerical data is presented in a systematic way in rows and columns it is called tabulation.
Objectives of Tabulation under Presentation of data class 11
 Tables aim to present the classified data in an orderly way. The idea behind this is to simplify the complex data.
 Tabulation is very important to save space by providing the data in a meaningful manner.
 Tabulation facilitates quick comparisons among total observations.
 Tabulation is a phase between a classification of data and its presentation. Therefore statistical analysis becomes easier when it comes to Tabulation.
 Numbers and data can be easily identified in providing references.
 Title; The title of the table should be attractive and informative.
 Size; The size of the table should be manageable.
 Attractive presentation; A table should be appealing to the eye.
 Suitable purpose; A table should stick to its statistical information.
 Simple; It should be easy to comprehend.
 Comparison of data; The data that needs to be compared should be placed in columns and rows.
 Columns and rows; The columns and rows should be numbered for reference.
 Clarity; A table should be complete and selfexplanatory.
 Units; The units of the variables should be specified, such as Price In ₹, weight in kg.
Classification of Data and Tabular Presentation
 Qualitative Classification of Data and Tabular Presentation; This occurs when data is classified on the basis of qualitative attributes.
 Quantitative Classification of Data; This occurs when data are classified based on the quantitative characteristics of a phenomenon.
 Temporal Classification: Data are categorised using a temporal classification system, with time serving as the classifying variable.
 Spatial Classification; Location takes on the role of the classifying variable in spatial classification. It could be a district, a town, a village, etc.
Types of Tables under Presentation of data class 11
 Classification by Objective or Purpose These tables are divided into two categories:
 Table for All Purposes: A General Purpose Table covers a wide range of information on the same topic and provides a detailed representation of the raw data. The data are presented without any particular analytical purpose. These tables typically have a large size and are typically included for reference in the appendix. There are numerous applications for these tables. They are used a lot in the government departments’ reports. Other names for it include “Reference Table” and “Repository Table.”
 Table for Special Purposes: These tables give data intended for a specific enquiry. Take, for instance, a company’s annual production figures. The results of data analysis are presented in these typically brief tables. Other names for it include “Text Table,” “Summary Table,” and “Analytical Table.”
2. Classification Based on the Nature of the Data Based on the nature of the data’s originality, there may be two types of tables:
 The initial table: The statistical data are presented in their original form in the Original Table, i. There is no rounding of the numbers in this kind of table. It contains information that was initially gathered from the primary source. Other names for it include “Primary Table” and “Classification Table.”
 Table Derivative: a table that displays averages, percentages, ratios, and other derived results from the original data, is referred to as a Derived Table. It conveys the data gleaned from the primary or original tables. A “Derivative Table” is another name for it.
3. Classification Based on Extent of Coverage Tables can be of two types depending on the extent of coverage (or construction):
 Plain Table: The simplest form of a table, this one presents data in accordance with a single characteristic. Since only one variable is being investigated, the univariate frequency distribution is presented in a oneway table. Other names for it include “Oneway Table” and “First Order Table.”
 The Double or TwoWay Table: It details two aspects of a particular phenomenon that are interconnected. The table, for instance, would transform into a twoway table if the numbers of Class XI students in various sections were further divided according to gender.
 Treble Table, or threeway table: Three data characteristics are categorized in a threeway table. It details three characteristics of a particular phenomenon that are connected to each other. A threeway table would be required in the case of the twoway table if the students were further divided into dayscholars and hostellers.
 Table of Manifolds: Manifold Table is the name of the table that describes more than three data characteristics. Numerous interrelated issues or characteristics of a given phenomenon are described in these tables. A table in this form is the most complicated.
Diagrammatic and Graphical Presentation under Presentation of data class 11
Diagrammatic presentation of data refers to the process of presenting data straightforwardly and appealingly.
 These transform the extremely abstract concepts contained in numbers into a form that is more tangible and simpler to comprehend.
Merits of Diagrammatic presentation
Diagrams give a bird’s eyeview of the whole mass of statistical data and are extremely usefu and significant. The following are some of the benefits or applications of diagrammatic presentation:
 Diagrams are eyecatching and powerful: Even a layperson can be drawn to data that is presented in the form of diagrams because of their usefulness and advantages. As a result, diagrams attract more attention than figures do. In everyday life, while reading newspapers, magazines, and other publications, We mostly look at the diagrams, but we skip over the figures. As a result, diagrams are frequently used in public events like board meetings, conferences, exhibitions, seminars, and others.
 Attractive and impressive, easy to remember, simplifies data, cuts down on time spent making comparisons, and provides additional information 2. Simple to Recall: Diagrams help people remember a lot. Compared to figures presented in tabular form, the mental image created by diagrams lasts significantly longer.
 Data is simplified by diagrams: Diagrams are used to simplify and make easytounderstand representations of huge amounts of complex data.
 Diagrams are timesaving: The complicated mass of data is simplified by diagrams. Therefore, data that is presented in the form of diagrams is easy to comprehend. However, it takes a lot of time to analyze the significance and trend of large amounts of data.
 When making comparisons, diagrams are helpful: Using diagrams to display two sets of data makes it simpler to compare them. Through the use of diagrams, for instance, it is simple to compare the population growth rates of various nations.
 Universality of Application: This method can be used anywhere, at any time, and in any place. The majority of subjects and other fields employ this method.
 Diagrams provide additional data: Diagrams not only show the characteristics of the data, but they also reveal other omitted facts and relationships that cannot be determined by tabulating or categorizing the data.
Different kinds of diagrammatic presentations under Presentation of data class 11
Pie diagram.
 Arithmetic line graph
A pie diagram, also known as a circular diagram, is a circle with various segments that represent the percentage values of a series. These diagrams do not show the exact value of the variables.
Steps to construct a pie diagram
 Using a compass, draw a circle of the right size, taking into account the size of the paper and the data to be represented.
 Make percentages of the total from the values of the various components.
 In the circle, the percentage values are converted into the appropriate degrees. Since each item’s percentage value is equal to 100 and a circle contains 360 degrees, one percentage value is represented by 100 360 degrees, or 3.6 degrees. To determine the number of angles, multiply each percentage value by 3.6.
 To draw the angles that are represented by the first component, use a radius, preferably horizontally, as the base line. The new line will serve as the foundation for the angular representation of the second component. This procedure should be repeated until each component is represented.
 For proper identification, depict various components in various shades, designs, or colours .
Bar Diagram under Presentation of data class 11
Bar diagrams are diagrams in which data are shown as bars or rectangles.
There are four types of Bar Diagrams;
Nowadays, diagrams enjoy a lot of popularity. However, despite their utility, they are constrained in some ways. The following are the restrictions:
 Experts will not benefit: Diagrams only provide a hazy understanding of the issue, which may be useful for the average person but not for an expert who wants a precise understanding.
 Limited Details: The information provided by diagrams is limited and approximate. We must refer to the original statistical tables for comprehensive and precise data.
 They can only be used in comparison studies: Only when comparisons are desired are diagrams useful. A single diagram is not very important. It can only be interpreted in conjunction with another diagram that can be used as a comparison.
 Easy to Misuse: Diagrams are susceptible to easy misuse. If the wrong kind of diagram is used, it will draw false conclusions. As a result, one should always take precautions against them.
 Lack of Additional Research: Diagrams cannot be investigated further.
 Impossible Presentation with a Minute Difference: Diagrams fail to reveal minute variations in large figures (observations). Diagrams only show values with a very low level of precision. For instance, if two significant figures, such as 8,560 and 8,500, are depicted in a diagram, the difference will not be very obvious.
Graphic presentation under Presentation of data class 11
Advantages of graphic presentation.
The following are the main advantages of using graphics to present data:
 Impressive and appealing: Compared to tables of figures, graphs are always more attractive and impressive. Graphs can explain a fact that is hard for the average person to comprehend. As a result, the expression “a picture is worth a thousand words” applies.
 Data presented in a way that is easy to comprehend: Graphs assist in simplifying and comprehending complex data. Both the observer and the statistician benefit from the time and effort saved.
 Using as a comparison: Graphs make it simple to compare two or more phenomena.
 Where the positional averages are: Positional averages like the median, mode, and quartiles can be found using graphs.
 No need to be proficient in mathematics: Because they are so straightforward and straightforward, comprehending the graphs does not necessitate a great deal of technical knowledge. It’s easy for even a layperson with no mathematical background to understand.
 Contributing to Predictions: Trends that could occur in the near future can be better predicted using graphs.
 Benefit for all: Graphs can now be used in a variety of fields, including trade, economics, government agencies, advertising, and more.
Functions of Graph under Presentation of data class 11
 To make complex data simple.
 To make comparisons easy.
 To check on accuracy.
 To make more penetrating analysis.
Types of Graphs under Presentation of data class 11
Frequency diagrams like the histogram, frequency polygon, frequency curve, and ogive are typically used to represent data that is composed of grouped frequency distributions.
Two types of Histogram frequency distribution are;
 Histograms of equal class intervals
 Histograms of unequal class intervals.
 The less than method, adds the frequencies corresponding to each upper limit of the series starting with the upper limit of the first values.
 More than Method: We take the cumulative total of the frequencies starting with the lower limit of the first class interval in this method.
Line Frequency Graph; They are used to depict discrete series.
An arithmetic Line graph is also known as Time series; This graph plots time (hour, day, date, week, month, and year) along the Xaxis and the variable’s value along the Yaxis.
There are two types of arithmetic line graphs.
Limitations of graphic presentation under Presentation of data class 11
The following are the drawbacks of graphic presentation:
 Application Limitations: They are primarily intended to inform the general public about quantitative facts. Graphic presentation is of little use to experts.
 It’s possible to misuse them: A significant variation in the graph’s shape may result from a minor challenge or measurement error. As a result, it may result in false positives. Even biased individuals can use it to present a false narrative.
 Subjective: In nature, graphs are subjective. Each person’s interpretation is different.
 Lack of Precision: The precision of the data is not shown by graphs. They only display data fluctuations. As a result, they are not suitable for testing the data’s accuracy.
Presentation of data class 11 notes give a wholesome definition of presentation and various related concepts. You can stay active and engaged throughout your reading, revision, and lectures by taking these notes. Additionally, they aid in clear thinking and comprehension. Selectively identify important ideas. A useful record of important information and its sources can be found in these notes. These notes will help you remember what you heard better.
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