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Drunk Driving, Outline Example

Pages: 3

Words: 939

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Specific Purpose: To persuade my audient to prevent drunk driving

Thesis Statement:

Thesis Statement: Drunk driving is an epidemic that continues growing with the pass of the time, if we simply take a few steps against drunk driving we can help decrease this epidemic.

Introduction

Attention Getter

Every day in America, another 28 people die as a result of drunk driving crashes. (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 2011.)

  • We need to consider the question; why do people prefer to drink and drive? Another important question is; how many of you guys at one time of your life driven when you were drunk??
  • I have enough experience with drinking and I quit drinking about five years ago. I am therefore qualified to speak about the topic.

Credibility:

  • Recall story about my friend receiving phone call that his brother, Peter, had been involved in a drunken driving accident.
  • I have also witnessed a number of road accidents and about 28% of them are attributed to drunk driving. I therefore confirm that the topic needs great attention.
  • This topic has also been a focus for research and the findings indicate that there is need to address drunk driving as a growing epidemic in the society.

Preview main points/thesis statement.

  • Drunk driving has already been pointed out as a critical epidemic that continues growing with the pass of the time in our society, it is therefore imperative that we must consider some vital steps against drunk driving so that we decrease this epidemic.

Transition: having identified drunk driving as an epidemic in our society today, lets start with some facts about this controversial topic

  • Drunk driving occurs every day, and many lives are taken because of one-person choice.
  • Specific problem: The problems that are associated with drunk driving include higher risks of accidents, injuries as well as deaths.
  • Unfulfilled needs: appropriate actions are needed to stop this menace that is continuously taking away the lives of innocent people every day.
  • Despite the concerted efforts in this field however, drunk driving has persisted as a grievous national epidemic with tragic effects on many victims throughout the year.
  • Every 52 minutes on average, someone is killed in a drunken driving crash (10,288 people in total in 2013), (Madd.org โ€œAbout drunk Drivingโ€).
  • About 900,000 people are arrested each years and 1/3 of those are repeat offenders. (drinkinganddriving.org โ€œDrunk Driving Statisticsโ€).
  • The annual cost of alcohol- related crashes totals more than $51 billion. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, โ€œ Impaired Driving: Get the Factsโ€).
  • An average drunk driver will drive drunk 87 times before being pulled over. (Word Press, โ€œStatisticsโ€).
  • Three in every five Americans will be involved in an alcohol-related crash at some time in his/her life (NHTSA, 2011).
  • This problem relates to the audience. It is a common practice among people to overlook the dry statistics and fail to relate them to real lives as well as real people who have been involved in these accidents.

Internal summary statement

Each injury or death arising from an accident that is attributed to drunk driving is absolutely preventable.

After you known all those incredible facts, I will now proceed to discuss some important things that can help us to prevent drunk driving.

Satisfaction

We all need to actively help prevent drunk driving. Drunk driving is one of the many social problems that are characterized with resistance to simple solutions by the victims. However, it is important to consider some important actions that have been proven to have significant role in reducing the risks that are associated with drunk driving:

  • Plan ahead. In case the driver must take alcohol, you need to consider some important action plans.
  • Put money aside for a taxi.
  • Have a designated driver.
  • Have a back up designated driver.
  • Never let anyone drive drunk.
  • Offer to drive them home.
  • Offer to get them a taxi.
  • Stop being afraid to speak up.
  • Hosting a party
  • Make sure people are leaving with a sober driver.
  • Offer for them to have a sober driver take them home.
  • Offer for them to stay the night.
  • Take their keys.

Internal summary

Considering and implementing the things mentioned above will increase safety on the road and evade dangerous situations. If you suspect that a driver in another vehicle is impaired due to drinking, report the case to the police by calling 9-1-1 while keeping a safe distance from that vehicle.

If we put in practice all those things that I said before I am pretty sure all those irrational statistics about drunk driving will decrease.

Visualization

  • If we actively start taking the steps planning ahead, and not allowing anyone to drive while drunk, and if hosting a party make sure no one leaves drunk, then we are all helping to prevent more fatalities due to drunk driving.
  • If we donโ€™t start preventing drunk driving actively then, it is going to become a bigger crisis than it already is. More and more people will continue to perish in road accidents that are caused by drunk driving and can otherwise be prevented.

Everyone is always hearing about a drunken driving incident that happens, but are you going to step up and help to prevent this problem that is increasing with the pass of the time Action

It is the responsibility of all people to prevent drunk driving!

  • We all need to make a conscience effect to plan ahead.
  • Stop letting people drive drunk because you think someone else is going to say something.
  • Never let anyone leave your house drunk because you are responsible for that personโ€™s actions when they cant make them.

Works Cited

Drinking and Driving.org. “Drunk Driving Statistics.” Drinking And Driving .Org. Drinking and Driving .org, Web. 23 July 2012. <http://www.drinkinganddriving.org/>.

U.S. Department of Transportation. “About Drunk Driving.”

MADD – About Drunk Driving. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 25 Jan. 2011. Web. 23 July 2012. <http://www.madd.org/drunk-driving/about/>.

Word Press. “Statistics.” Drunk Driving Statistics, Drinking and Driving Stats |. Word Press, Web. 23 July 2012. <http://dontdiedrunk.org/drunk-driving-stats/>.

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111 Drunk Driving Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

Inside This Article

Drunk driving is a serious issue that affects thousands of people each year. Whether itโ€™s a drunk driver causing a fatal accident or someone getting a DUI, the consequences of driving under the influence can be devastating. If you have been tasked with writing an essay on drunk driving, itโ€™s important to choose a compelling topic that will engage your readers.

To help you get started, here are 111 drunk driving essay topic ideas and examples:

  • The impact of drunk driving on society
  • The legal consequences of drunk driving
  • The emotional toll of losing a loved one to a drunk driver
  • The effectiveness of DUI checkpoints
  • The role of alcohol education programs in preventing drunk driving
  • The relationship between alcohol advertising and drunk driving
  • The effects of alcohol on driving abilities
  • The prevalence of drunk driving among college students
  • The dangers of buzzed driving
  • The impact of technology on preventing drunk driving
  • The relationship between alcoholism and drunk driving
  • The cost of drunk driving accidents to society
  • The role of law enforcement in preventing drunk driving
  • The effectiveness of ignition interlock devices in reducing drunk driving
  • The impact of media coverage on public perceptions of drunk driving
  • The role of peer pressure in drunk driving incidents
  • The relationship between alcohol consumption and risky driving behaviors
  • The consequences of a DUI conviction on a personโ€™s life
  • The impact of drunk driving on insurance rates
  • The role of parents in preventing underage drinking and driving
  • The dangers of driving the morning after drinking alcohol
  • The relationship between alcohol availability and drunk driving rates
  • The effectiveness of sobriety checkpoints in deterring drunk driving
  • The impact of stricter drunk driving laws on reducing incidents
  • The role of alcohol addiction treatment in preventing repeat DUI offenses
  • The dangers of driving under the influence of drugs
  • The effectiveness of public awareness campaigns in reducing drunk driving
  • The impact of peer intervention programs on preventing drunk driving
  • The relationship between alcohol abuse and mental health issues
  • The consequences of drunk driving for victims and their families
  • The role of bartenders and servers in preventing drunk driving
  • The effectiveness of designated driver programs in reducing drunk driving incidents
  • The impact of social norms on drunk driving behaviors
  • The relationship between alcohol consumption and risky driving decisions
  • The consequences of drunk driving for professional drivers
  • The role of technology in detecting drunk drivers
  • The effectiveness of mandatory alcohol education programs for DUI offenders
  • The impact of alcohol addiction on a personโ€™s ability to make responsible decisions
  • The relationship between alcohol availability and drunk driving rates in different countries
  • The consequences of drunk driving for underage offenders
  • The role of friends and family in preventing loved ones from driving drunk
  • The effectiveness of community-based prevention programs in reducing drunk driving
  • The impact of alcohol-related injuries on healthcare costs
  • The relationship between alcohol consumption and aggressive driving behaviors
  • The consequences of drunk driving for commercial drivers
  • The role of peer pressure in influencing drunk driving behaviors
  • The effectiveness of alcohol treatment programs for DUI offenders
  • The impact of drunk driving on workplace safety
  • The relationship between alcohol use and impaired decision-making abilities
  • The consequences of drunk driving for first-time offenders
  • The role of alcohol abuse in causing repeat DUI offenses
  • The effectiveness of school-based prevention programs in reducing underage drinking and driving
  • The impact of alcohol availability on drunk driving rates in rural areas
  • The relationship between alcohol consumption and fatal car accidents
  • The consequences of drunk driving for military personnel
  • The role of law enforcement in enforcing drunk driving laws
  • The effectiveness of zero-tolerance policies for underage drinking and driving
  • The impact of alcohol-related incidents on college campuses
  • The relationship between alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors
  • The consequences of drunk driving for professional athletes
  • The role of social media in raising awareness about the dangers of drunk driving
  • The effectiveness of peer education programs in preventing drunk driving
  • The impact of alcohol-related incidents on academic performance
  • The relationship between alcohol consumption and domestic violence
  • The consequences of drunk driving for individuals with prior DUI convictions
  • The role of alcohol abuse in causing impaired driving skills
  • The effectiveness of community service programs for DUI offenders
  • The impact of alcohol-related incidents on family relationships
  • The relationship between alcohol use and criminal behavior
  • The consequences of drunk driving for individuals with substance abuse issues
  • The role of public transportation in reducing drunk driving rates
  • The effectiveness of breathalyzer tests in deterring drunk driving
  • The impact of alcohol abuse on a personโ€™s

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  • Drunk Driving

Essays on Drunk Driving

We all know the dangers of driving while being intoxicated, but your drunk driving essay should cover them in detail. Drinking even a small amount of alcohol leads to disruptions in the work of various systems in the human body. Many drunk driving essays explore the fact that driving while drunk leads to violation of traffic rules, enhances the risk of an accident with serious consequences to human health and life, as well as damage to material property. There is not a single driver who has not heard about the severity of punishment for alcohol intoxication while driving, but some choose to ignore it. However, statistics show that 25% of lethal driving accidents happen because the driver who lost control of the car while being intoxicated. As you write essays on drunk driving look through our essay samples below โ€“ our drunk driving essay samples may help you discover some new points on the subject.

Alcohol and Driving Alcohol shouldn't be consumed before or while operating a motor vehicle. It changes the victim's brain chemistry, which lowers their ability for sound reasoning. Driving requires drivers to read traffic signs correctly, which is impossible to do while intoxicated. Driving while under the influence of any substance on...

The goal of the study was to examine the effects of DUI courts on self-reported drunk driving behavior, future DUI arrests, and other offenses related to alcohol consumption. The assessment is focused on determining whether DUI courts decreased the number of future DUI arrests. The authors made the assumption that...

Words: 2569

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Drunk Driving: A Major Issue Drunk driving is also a major issue all over the world. The main issue with driving while intoxicated is that it endangers not only the driver s life but also the lives of other passengers. According to reports, collisions are the leading source of accidental fatalities...

Words: 1200

Identification of knowledge and purpose for referralStan is a 35-year-old male adult who was recommended for specialized alcohol abuse therapeutic assistance. Stan has been accused of driving under the influence of alcohol several times. Stan nevertheless maintains that he is not an alcohol abuser, despite the facts raised in the...

Words: 2304

Related topic to Drunk Driving

Drunk Driving Essay

How To Write A Drunk Driving Essay? (+20 Bonus Topics!)

The issue of drinking and driving has been in the public limelight for decades now. What is heartbreaking about this topic are the devastating negative impacts. That is why it would seem close to impossible to miss a drunk driving persuasive essay assignment.

Essay About Drunk Driving โ€“ What You Need To Know

It would be best to have a fresh perspective or modify the existing information into exciting content that can attract new readers. Getting the best writing professionals can save you a lot of time and effort.

However, before you seek essay writing help, here are the fundamentals of this persuasive paper:

It would help if you used verifiable facts and statistics Be cautious of the diction you use since there may be victims reading your essay Using personal experiences would be a good idea but remember to keep emotions out of your paper Include working solutions, not merely suggestions For effectiveness, watch the latest news headlines touching on the issue

Strive to make it as captivating as possible to attract readers and make your paper stand out. Who knows? Your essay might be used by one of the international bodies as a benchmark during a conference.

Drunk Driving Essay Sample

Driving is one of the privileges citizens of the free world enjoy. The right of driving comes with responsibilities which is why most countries require minimum age before the right to drive can be enjoyed. Drivers are not only responsible for their own interests but also the interests of fellow drivers and pedestrians. We have laws against drunk driving because drunk drivers do not only endanger themselves but also impose huge financial and social costs on the society.

When individuals are drunk, there have slow reaction rates, blurred vision, and reduced judgment capabilities . As a result, they are more likely to be involved in crash . In addition to posing a danger to themselves and fellow occupants, they also pose danger to other drivers as well as pedestrians. The consequences are often quite grave including life-altering disabilities and death.

Driving under the influence is a crime and may result in professional setbacks. DUI convictions may appear in background checks conducted by employers and result in the offender losing on the job he/she might have gotten otherwise. In addition , time and money is also lost in dealing with lawyers and the court system. Other economic and social costs include higher auto insurance rates, deteriorating work relationships with professional co-workers and acquaintances, and deteriorating personal relationships .

Drunk driving imposes huge economic and social costs on both the individual and the society. Actions go but consequences remain, often for lifetime, thus, individuals should take every measure to ensure they do not have to sit behind wheelswhen under the influence of alcohol.

Drunk Driving Essay Structure

How to start an essay on drunk driving depends on your grasp of its outline and structure. If you find yourself getting stuck along the way, then it means you skipped a step in either of the two. Before you begin your essay, think about the following first:

  • Conduct extensive research from reputable sources (books, newspapers, news)
  • Check how the findings match your topic. Do they agree or disagree with it?
  • Draft the main points with brief explanations
  • Start your essay

The writing process will be fun if you have followed the steps above correctly. Let us look at the drunk driving essay structure:

Drunk Driving Essay Intro

Provide a background context of your topic. If you are writing a โ€˜how to prevent drunk driving essayโ€™ – give details on the impacts of drunk driving and why we should prevent it by all means possible.

Include a straightforward thesis statement at the end of the introductory paragraph. It will determine the direction that your essay will take.

The Body of A Drunk Driving Essay

It is where you argue out your points to convince your reader. The arguments should appear hierarchically. Use relevant examples to give your paper a human aspect.

The structure of the body paragraphs is:

  • A topic sentence
  • An explanation
  • Examples to support the argument

You can use styles such as satire to make your body paragraphs thrilling.

Drunk Driving Essay Conclusion

Give a summary of your arguments while restating your thesis statement. An excellent way to end your essay would be to use a call to action at the end. For example, โ€˜let us all join hands in stopping drunk driving!โ€™

Drunk Driving Essay Topics

To give you a head start on what to do, our guru writers have compiled a list of 20+ top-notch topics for your inspiration. You can modify the topics or use them as they are for your next essay assignment.

How To Prevent Drunk Driving Essay Topics

  • Discuss the role of the traffic police department in mitigating drunk driving
  • Is it possible to stop drunk drivers from starting the car engine?
  • Should drunk drivers face lifetime jail terms for such an offense?
  • What legislations can help curb drunk driving?

How Has Drunk Driving Affected Victims Essay Topics

  • Physical and psychological impacts of drunk driving
  • Why most victims of drunk driving do not want to be on the road again
  • Do insurance firms cover affected victims of drunk driving?

Mothers Against Drunk Driving Essay Topics

  • How drunk driving has contributed to the rising number of widows
  • Why mothers are the most concerned about drunk driving
  • How drunk driving has separated mothers from their children

Why Not To Drink And Drive Essay Topics

  • Adverse effects of drinking and driving
  • Why drinking and driving might cost you your life
  • Alternative means of reaching home after drinking

Drinking And Driving Solution Essay Topics

  • Using technology to prevent drinking and driving
  • Is the Alco blow significant?
  • Introducing hefty fines for drunk drivers

Negative Effects of Drunk Driving Essay Topics

  • Loss of lives
  • Medical expenses
  • Road carnage
  • Compensation expenses

Our pro writers are ready to offer you fast and affordable assistance online for your drunk driving essay. Try us today!

183 Racism Essay Topics

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Writing Essays On Drinking And Driving

Academic writing

Essay paper writing

drunk driving essay outline

Students often write papers on problems of public importance. Working on such a task helps them learn to reflect on serious issues, find ways out of difficult situations, and understand the significance of the problems under review. In particular, drinking and driving essays and research papers are a frequent task at schools and universities. If you are writing one, this article is for you. Here, we will tell you how to write an excellent drinking and driving essay or research paper on this issue and offer some great topic ideas.

Drunk driving essay topics

  • Drinking while driving essay
  • Effects of drinking and driving essay
  • How to prevent drunk driving essay
  • Mothers against drunk driving essay
  • Risk factors and ways to prevent drunk driving essay
  • Problems with drinking and driving essay
  • Teenage drunk driving essay
  • Drinking and driving essay: Free rides home for people under influence

Topics for argumentative essay on drunk driving

  • Drinking and driving argumentative essay: Why should it be punished severely?
  • Why not to drink and drive essay
  • Everyone should receive jail time for driving under the influence essay
  • Lowering the BAC will help fight DUI essay
  • What is the best way to prevent deaths from drunk driving?

Drunk driving persuasive essay topics

  • There are no excuses for drinking and driving persuasive essay
  • It is important to report your friends if they are driving under influence
  • Adding more sobriety checkpoints will help to reduce the number of DUI
  • Better education is a key to having less DUI accidents
  • Revoking licenses for first DUI’s

Drunk Driving Essay Writing Guide 1

Useful tips for writing perfect paper about drunk driving

  • Make an outline. It is really important to know how you will structure your paper and what ideas will go into each section before you start writing. Otherwise, it will be easy to lose the track of thoughts in the process and your paper may end up being inconsistent or incomprehensible.
  • Always write drafts. Do not try to create the perfect paper at the first attempt as it will be hard to finish writing if you revise every single word you put down. In the first version, it is enough to pay attention to the content of your paper. Then you can work on the formatting and style of the text to make it sound more professional.
  • Choose only credible and up-to-date sources. If search for facts online, always check the websites you take information from. Use Google Scholar to be on the safe side and find books or journal articles on the topic.
  • Cite information properly. Follow the rules of the chosen formatting style to cite all the factual information in the paper. Otherwise, you may face plagiarism issues.
  • Read a few samples. Find some examples of cause and effect of drinking and driving essays, as they will give you a better understanding of not only how a paper can be structured, but also what kind of arguments may be presented. If you liked certain points that the author has made, be sure to fact-check it and read more about it in general before considering including it in your own work.

Drunk driving essay outline

If you want to create a well-structured paper, make a drinking and driving essay outline before you start writing. Here is what it should include:

  • Drinking and driving essay introduction.

The purpose of the intro is to interest your reader and inform him or her about the issue you are going to consider and why it is so serious. To do it, first, you will need to create a hook sentence, which will catch the attention of your readers. After that, add a few sentences describing the background of the problem using factual data where necessary. The most important part of your introduction is a drunk driving essay thesis. It will be the very last sentence of the paragraph which will go over the points you will discuss in the next parts of your paper.

  • Main part (or body).

This is the biggest section of your work where you have to present the arguments to support the points you made in a thesis. Start each paragraph by introducing the point you are planning to review, show what you have found when researching it, and analyze these findings. Do not forget to make a small conclusion and smoothly transition into the next paragraph.

  • Drinking and driving essay conclusion.

Here, your main task is to restate your thesis statement and go over the arguments you have presented in the body. Apart from that, you will also need to create a clincher phrase, which is a final sentence that calls for further reflections and gives your audience some food for thought.

Drinking and driving research papers topics

  • Drivers ed research paper
  • Research paper on drunk driving laws in the country of choice
  • What is zero tolerance law?
  • Underage drinking laws in the US
  • DUI statistics in the country of choice and how it can be improved
  • The dangers of drunk driving
  • US law & drunk driving research paper
  • What measures have proven to be effective when dealing with DUI?

Drunk Driving Essay Writing Guide 2

Outline for a research paper on drinking and driving

  • Abstract page (if required)
  • Introduction
  • Methodology
  • Literature review
  • Findings & Discussion
  • Limitations/Ethical Considerations
  • List of references
  • Appendices (optional)

Maximum alcohol level in different countries

There are two methods for determining the level of alcohol in the human body: BrAC (breath alcohol content) and BAC (blood alcohol content). Both indicators are measured in milligrams of ethyl per liter of air or blood. The BAC is more common as it is easier to check in the field by using a breathalyzer.

  • Zero level of alcohol, or, as it is also called, “zero tolerance” is valid in many countries of the world. For example, all drivers in Brazil and Egypt should be absolutely sober when they get behind the wheel.
  • In the countries where alcohol level is slightly higher (Germany, Italy, Thailand, Turkey, and Australia), there is still a zero threshold for special categories of drivers: newcomers with less than 2-3 years of driving experience, taxi drivers, as well as professional drivers of trucks and buses.
  • Alcohol level of 0.2 mg/l corresponds to one glass of wine (150 ml). It is officially authorized in China. The driver will not be punished for such a dose.
  • The maximum blood alcohol level of 0.3 mg/l (which is equal to a glass of liqueur (50 ml), a glass of whiskey (50 ml), or a 0.5-liter bottle of beer) is allowed in Russia and Japan.
  • A dose 0.5 mg/l is equal to two bottles of beer or 100 grams of vodka. You can consume such amounts of alcohol and still drive in Germany, France, Italy, Thailand, Turkey, Greece, Spain, and Australia.
  • 0.8 mg/l is the world’s highest level of alcohol in the blood allowed by law. It is used in the USA. Americans can drink a bottle of wine (750 ml) and get behind the wheel.

Drunk Driving Essay Writing Guide 3

Comparison of penalties for drunk driving essay or research paper

When writing research works or essays on drunk driving, you may want to compare laws and penalties for DUIs in different countries. Here are some of the most interesting ones for your review:

  • Thailand. In this kingdom, drunk drivers are fined 1,000 baht (about $30) for DUI. In addition, they can be sentenced to imprisonment for up to 3 months.
  • France. For driving in a state of intoxication (above 0.5 mg/l), French drivers may get a fine of 135 euro. In addition, they lose 6 points (a point system is used in the country). If the driver loses 12 points within two years, he or she is deprived of their drivers’ license. If the alcohol content in blood is more than 0.8 mg/l, the punishment increases dramatically: a fine of 4,500 euros, revocation of a driver’s license for three years, and up to two years in prison.
  • Egypt. There is a fine of 500-3000 Egyptian pounds ($28-168) for drunk driving in the country. In addition, by court order, citizens can be deprived of driving license or imprisoned.
  • Greece. A fine of 200 euro will be applied if you were intoxicated when driving. Those drivers who exceeded the norm of 0.8 mg/l pay 700 euros and are deprived of driving license for 3 months. If more than 1.1 mg/l is found in the blood, the offender is fined 2,000 euros and deprived of driver’s license for six months with 2 months of imprisonment.
  • China. In this country, drunk drivers are fined 1,000-2,000 yuan ($140-280) and deprived of driver’s licenses for six months. Violators who have over 0.8 mg/l of alcohol in their blood are deprived of driver’s licenses for 5 years and imprisoned for up to 3 years. But the Chinese Themis is especially merciless in relation to drunk drivers who caused the accidents with victims. By court order, they can be sentenced to death.
  • Brazil. The country fights DUIs with fines of 300-1200 Brazilian reais ($80-320) and deprivation of driving license for a year. Although Brazil has zero tolerance to drunk driving, citizens are fined when the alcohol content in the blood is above 0.2 mg/l. The reason is the permissible error of the measuring equipment.
  • Australia. For driving under the influence of alcohol, a fine of $600 or $440 AUD is imposed. Persons who have more than 0.8 mg/l of alcohol in their system are deprived of drivers’ license for six months and must install ignition interlock device for 5 years (to start the engine, one needs to breathe into a tube to prove sobriety). In addition, the court may decide to impound the violator’s car.
  • Turkey. The country punishes drunk drivers with a fine of 700-2000 TL ($140-400) and deprives them of a driver’s license for six months.
  • Germany. The largest automobile country in Europe punishes drivers under the influence with a fine of 500 euros and a deprivation of driver’s license for a year. Persons with any alcohol content other than zero are perceived as potential initiators of an accident. Moreover, in Germany, one cannot drive a bicycle when intoxicated.
  • Spain. A fine of 500 euros is applied to individuals driving under the influence of alcohol. In case of a significant excess of the norm (over 1.2 mg/l), they are deprived of the driver’s license for 12 months and can be imprisoned for up to six months.
  • Italy. This country has one of the highest fines for DUIs, which are around 500 to 2000 euros. Also, an offender will get their license suspended for 3-6 months.
  • Japan. The driver faces a fine of 1 million Japanese yen (about $9000), a suspension of driver’s license for 5 years, and a prison sentence of up to 5 years. In addition, all passengers who were in the car or bus at the time of the violation are also fined.

Drunk Driving Essay Writing Guide 4

US laws on drunk driving

  • If the driver refuses to pass the test for determining the level of alcohol in their system, their license is automatically suspended for 1 year. A fine for the first offense is $500, and $750 for the second one.
  • The first arrest: a fine of $500-1000 and/or up to 1 year in prison; a driver’s license can be suspended for a period of 6 months.
  • The second arrest within 10 years from the first arrest: a fine of $1,000-5,000 and a minimum of 10 days in jail along with 60 days of community service. According to the decision of the judge, the prison time can be extended for any period up to 7 years. Driver’s license is withdrawn for a period of 1 year, and after its restoration, ignition interlock device is installed in the car at the driver’s expense.
  • The third arrest in the state of intoxication: a fine of $2,000-10,000 and a minimum of 10 days in prison (up to 7 years depending on a court order). An ignition interlock device is installed and a driver’s license is suspended for a year.
  • If there was a child under 15 years old in a car with a drunk driver, the offender can receive a sentence of up to 4 years and pay a fine of $5,000.

Drunk Driving Essay Writing Guide 5

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How To Prevent Drunk Driving Essay

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Law , United States , Disaster , Drunk Driving , Driving , Alcohol , Criminal Justice , Alcoholism

Words: 1300

Published: 11/11/2019

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Drinking And Driving Essay Introduction

Drunk driving is the effect of driving a motor vehicle under the influence of alcohol. Drunk driving is one of the leading causes of accidents and deaths across the world. In the United States, Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of deaths among young people below the age of 24 years. Data from the US Department’s National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration (2011) show that more than forty percent of the deaths are as a result of alcohol related accidents. Accidents occurring as a result of consumption of alcohol are so prevalent in the US that at some point in life, an estimated 40% of all people in the US will be involved in some sort of traffic mishap blamed on alcohol. The flipside of these statistics is that most of the accidents occurring as a result of drunk driving can be avoided. Even though there has been a witnessed drop in alcohol related accidents for the last few years, there are still many accidents that occur and can be easily prevented. As much progress is being made to try and reduce these accidents even further, drunk driving continues to be a tragic problem affecting the nation. Drunk driving not only affects those who are under the influence, but also other innocent users of roads who may end up being hurt or killed.

Consumption of alcohol affects a person’s sense of judgment and motor skills

More statistics from NHTSA paints a grim picture on the consequences of drunk driving. Data from the department shows that in 2008 alone, almost 13,000 people lost their lives as a result of drunk driving. It is even disturbing to note that around 1300 of the death were as a result of teenage drunk driving (p. 2). These accidents not only result in deaths, but also lead to immense financial loss running into billions of dollars on the part of the government. These disturbing statistics on drunk driving have necessitated the need for penalties and safety measures to deal with the problem. There are various laws in the United States have been put in place to prevent these accidents. One law has been the increase in the legal age of drinking to twenty one. Also, some States have given full authority to arresting officers to seize licenses of drivers who refuse to co-operate with them or refuse to take the breath analyzer test. Other measures that have been done include holding seminars, especially in schools and colleges to disseminate the negative consequences of drunk driving.

Penalties for drunk driving have been increased, even for the first offenders. Additionally, through the lobbying of some organizations like the Mothers Against Drunk Drivers (MADD) numerous laws have been put in place with the aim of combating drunk driving. Majority of the States in the US have also passed Administrative License Revocation (ALR) laws that gives arresting officers powers to take licenses of drivers who fail or refuse to take breath tests (Buddy, n.p). Moreover, the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit has been lowered by all States from .10 to 0.08 for adults and has also passed Zero Tolerance laws that prohibit drivers below the age of 21 from having any amount of alcohol in their bodies that can be measured.

When it comes to drunk driving, the drunk drivers cannot escape responsibility. They are held accountable to some extent for the accidents they cause. They are held accountable by the justice system for the people they injure or kill. They have to cushion the monetary liabilities for causing such accidents and these might run into millions of shillings. Drunk drivers are liable to pay punitive damages as awarded by the court. In some areas, drivers are obliged to face the victims as part of the Driving under Influence (DUI) school curriculum (NHTSA, 3). The idea of doing this is for the drunk drivers to get an opportunity to listen to the painful stories of the victims and feel their pain. The idea is for the drivers to feel the pain of the victims and make them think twice before repeating the offense again. Therefore, once a person is found liable for causing injury or death as a result of drunk driving, then they will have to pay fines, costs of lawsuits and have their licenses revoked for a period of time. Other State will require that one be place under probation at their cost and ordered to perform some form of community work.

Michigan, just like the other States in the country has put in place laws to curb drunk driving. The State has very strict laws when it comes to driving under influence. Generally, the legal limit for blood alcohol in the State is 0.80 and this is only applicable to people who are above 21 years. The State is also an “Implied Consent” state; meaning that the mere act of operating a vehicle means that you have consented to be administered a breathalyzer test. Refusing to take the test lose their license for one year and a second refusals are not legible to apply for hardship licenses. When it comes to convictions, a first conviction may result to a prison term of up to three months and have the licenses suspended for 6 months with fines ranging from $100 to $500. Offenders are also subject to 360 hours of community work and have a breathalyzer device put on their vehicles. A second conviction results in a prison sentence ranging from 5 days to one year and fined between $200 and $1 000. The license is also suspended for at least a full year with six points being added to the license. Offenders may also be sentenced to community service ranging from 30 to 90 days. The third conviction is counted as a felony and a person can be jailed for not less than one year to 5 years. This will also lead to confiscation of the license and the vehicle immobilized for a 3 to 6 months. The fines range from $200 to $1000.Michigan has experienced a fairly steady decline in the number of accidents occurring as a result of drunk driving. The table below summarizes the number of alcohol related deaths from 2000 to 2008.

From the table it can be seen that the State had the highest number of alcohol related deaths (AlC-Rel) in 2000 at 528 and the lowest in 2008 at 331. The state witnessed a peak in alcohol related fatalities (Tot) in 2000 at 1382 and the lowest was witnessed in 2006.

Drunk driving continues to be an issue of concern in the country and is increasingly causing many deaths and injuries on the roads, many of which are unwarranted. The recent past has witnessed laws and programmes which are meant o curb this vice. Organizations and lobbies have not been left behind and all of these are fighting to make our roads safe for everyone. New and tough rules are being put in place to mitigate the grim trends. However, all said and done, rules alone will not reduce accidents, what is needed is change in people’s attitude through education and awareness creation so that citizens can be in the forefront of promoting highways that are free from alcohol.

References:

Buddy, Tom. Penalties for Driving Drunk: Penalties For the Drunk Driver Are Get Stiffer. 10,

January, 2011. Web. 20 March 2011. http://alcoholism.about.com/cs/drive/a/aa082797.htm Gursten, steven. A safety app to reduce drunk driving and car crashes in Michigan?

September 7th, 2010 Michigan Drunk Driving Statistics. Web. 20 March 21, 2011 http://www.alcoholalert.com/drunk-driving-statistics-michigan.html US Department’s National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration (NHTSA), Alcohol IPT.

18 March 21, 2011. Web 20 March 21, 2011. <http://www.nhtsa.gov/

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Final Essay Outline (Rhetorical Analysis on Drunk Driving)

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Topic: How advertisements use rhetorical strategies to educate the public and dissuade them from drunk driving.

Purpose:ย  To save lives and prevent injuries that are caused within drunk driving accidents.ย  ย  ย  ย  ย 

Thesis Statement:ย  The two advertisements use the rhetorical triangle of ethos, pathos, and logos, whilst also invoking both intrinsic and extrinsic proofs to draw out compassion from the audience to come together and completely eradicate drunk driving.ย  ย  ย  ย  ย 

Introduction:ย 

Attention Strategy: Start off giving statistics and an empathetical introduction line that makes the audience interested and concerned, whilst also making readers feel as though they can make a difference about the tragedy presented (number of deaths and injuries in Amerca caused by drunk driving each year)-NHTSA

Orienting Material:ย ย  Introduce both artifacts and describe them so that the audience may visualize them. Explain blandly where they are from, the message they try to convey, and how they contribute to the topic and purpose.

Preview:ย  Talk about the two artifacts whilst bringing up that they invoke ethos, pathos, and logos, Without explaining thoroughly, allow the audience to piece together some of the essay prior to reading it, whilst also lacking basic information so that they would like to read more. For example, talking about the statistics (logos) of the number of people dead, injured, and victimized (pathos) and how companies such as BMW make advertisements about it, and big social media platforms contain thousands of posts demoting drunk driving (ethos)

(A)Main Idea: The presence of Ethos within the artifacts, creating a credible source of information to be displayed

(A) Support 1- BMW uses Ethos as a big brand name (multi-billion dollar car company) within the first artifact

(A) Specific Support 1a- BMW wouldn’t mislead the audience, because they would lose credibility and sales, so we can trust BMW knowing that their word is with truth or belief of the truth (A) Specific Support 1b- W hen BMW focuses its time and money on an advertisement regarding an issue, we know it is a serious problem that needs attention immediately

(A)Support 2- The second artifact has no name to it, but the credibility is found through proven statistics

(A) Specific Support 2a- we can prove that over 800 people (NHTSA) are handicapped due to drunk driving every day, through math, we can figure out that the artifact is telling the truth (A) Specific Support 2b- The public is not being misled, this artifact is trying to genuinely do good, and by telling the truth, we can listen to what it has to say and know they are in the right set of mind

(B)Main Idea: The presence of Pathos within the artifacts, displaying passion and empathy towards the audience, encouraging them to support the advertisements

(B) Support 1- The first artifact utilizes intrinsic proofs to establish pathos in its advertisement

(B) Specific Support 1a- The image of the organic leg next to the artificial prosthetic (BMW) shows the difference between the two and the oddness between living with a new difficulty in your life, that could’ve been prevented (B) Specific Support 1b- No stats or specifics were detailed, allowing the audience to visualize the terrible actions the victim went through, evoking pain and empathy form whatever story they made up. (For example, and for whatever reason, I imagined a young girl hit at night by a drunk man driving, and now at a young age, will never be able to grow up with the same capabilities as she would have with the two legs she was born with)

(B)Support 2-The second artifact uses extrinsic proofs to establish pathos in its advertisement

(B) Specific Support 2a- Casualties/Fatalities seen as a number is now seen as an effect on people’s lives. (B) Specific Support 2b- As a bland source of statistics, this artifact may even intrigue the viewers to investigate farther, looking at more statistics , using the same tactic I used in the introduction to invoke people’s emotions and learn more about how these “numbers” are ruining lives, and change needs to occur to decrease them

(C)Main Idea: The presence of Logos within the artifacts, displaying logic and reason to believe and support the common cause addressed by the artifacts

(C) Support 1- The first artifact uses rhetorical speech to induce logos into their artifact’s message

(C) Specific Support 1a- BMW is saying that cars can break down and be replaced some odd years with no second thought, but the human body has more value than that, and cannot be switched around, with parts given and taken as easily as the car is without invoking trauma and physical pain. (C) Specific Support 1b- Disabilities are not the worst-case scenario (death is arguably the worst) but preventable disabilities that hinder somebody’s life, more often not a civilian who wasn’t the one DUI, can be prevented, which in turn allow people to live the life they want to live.

(C)Support 2- The second artifact uses extrinsic and intrinsic proofs to provide logistical reasoning and logos in the artifact’s message

(C) Specific Support 2a- The advertisement shows statistics, which can be proven or disproven (I used CDC and NHTSA) to show continuity of the destruction of human lives and welfare brought about by drunk driving (C) Specific Support 2b- Creators of the artifact did not just throw out statistics, the intention was to draw in public concern and relay the message about the awfulness of drunk driving and the accidents they cause

Summary Statement โ€“ By proving the presence of ethos, pathos, and logos within the artifacts, the essay fulfilled the thesis that the advertisements are trying to do good as well as address the whole public with the truth and credibility. It is now up to the people to make the right choice with that information.

Concluding Remark โ€“ The general public now has a decision whether to be informed by these artifacts and to be a part of the movement that saves lives from drunk driving accidents, as these advertisements try to set in motion.

Reference Page(s)

BMW. โ€œBMW Artifact Post (For Essay Works Cited).โ€ Edited by Kevin Murray,ย  Kevin Murray RCL , Penn State Blogs, 7 Oct. 2020, sites.psu. edu / kevinmrcl /2020/10/07/ bmw -artifact-post-for-essay-works-cited/.ย  ย 

Cantor, DM. โ€œ10 Most Effective Anti-Drunk Driving Advertisements.โ€ย  David Cantor DUI Defense Lawyers , 19 Dec. 2019, cantorduilawyers.com/10-effective-anti-drunk-driving-advertisements.ย  ย 

CDC. โ€œImpaired Driving: Get the Facts.โ€ย  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 24 Aug. 2020,ย  www.cdc.gov/motorvehiclesafety/impaired_driving/impaired-drv_factsheet.html .ย  ย 

Nathan Law, Geoffrey G. โ€œNational Drunk Driving Facts &ย  Statistics . โ€ย  Geoffrey G Nathan Law Offices , 2019,ย  www.geoffreygnathanlaw.com/topics/national-drunk-driving-statistics/ .ย  ย 

NHTSA. โ€œTraffic Safety Facts 2018 Data.โ€ย  CrashStats ย  , National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2018, (crashstats.nhtsa.dot.gov/ Api /Public/ ViewPublication /812864 #:~ :text=In%202018%20there%20were%2010%2C511%20people%20killed%20in%20alcohol%2 Dimpaired,the %20United%20States%20in%202018. ) . ย 

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Drunk Driving Essay: Effects, Dangers, and Prevention of Drinking and Driving

Drinking and driving essay: abstract, drunk driving essay: introduction.

  • Effects of Drinking and Driving
  • Dangers of Drinking and Driving

Essay on Drunk Driving: How to Stop the Issue

Drunk driving essay: conclusion.

Driving under the influence of alcohol is a common practice in all countries where alcohol consumption is legal. This behavior has emerged as an important issue affecting road safety over the past few decades. This free drinking and driving essay discusses the issue of drunk driving and its effects. It begins by highlighting how drinking impairs the driver, therefore making him unfit to drive. Further, this โ€œDangers of Drinking and Drivingโ€ essay shows how drink driving leads to road accidents that may result in fatalities. It also has a negative economic impact on the individual and the country as a whole. The drunk driving essay proposes public awareness campaigns and clear laws and penalties for drunk driving as solutions to the problem of driving under the influence.

Driving under the influence of alcohol has emerged as an important issue affecting road safety over the past few decades. Approximately one of our every five driver in the US involved in a fatal accident is found to have some alcohol concentration in his/her blood (Yadav & Miwako, 2015). In spite of the obvious danger that drink-driving poses, people continue to engage in the dangerous habit of drinking while under the influence.

Wolff (2013) notes that drink-drivers continue to drive even when they have very high Blood Alcohol Concentration levels. This behavior exposes more people to the risks associated with a DUI. This paper will discuss the issue of driving under the influence of alcohol with a focus on the effects of alcohol on the driver, the effects of drink-driving and how drink-driving can be stopped.

Effects of Drinking and Driving: Essay Body

Alcohol is an enjoyable substance that serves an important role in the society. People use it for enjoyment purposes and it is often consumed to help in relaxation and in celebrations. However, this substance has many toxic effects on the consumer. It might lead to intoxication and reduce the ability of an individual to reason properly. The WHO (2015) documents that alcohol leads to impairment by either depressing or stimulating the brain. The negative effects of alcohol on a driver increase with the increased consumption of alcohol. Wolff (2013) reports that there is “a clear relationship between increasing alcohol consumption and risk of a road traffic accident” (p.42). This has some significant implications for a driver.

Alcohol consumption can cause the person to make poor judgment on various road related issues such as sticking to the speed limit. Sonja (2006) reveals that most of the individuals charged with drink driving are not even aware that their BAC is above the legally accepted level.

They feel sober and are unaware that the alcohol will have an adverse effect on their driving. Alcohol also increases the reaction time of the driver causing him to take more time to engage in various driving operations such as braking or turning to avoid hitting an object. The visual sharpness of the driver is also decreased and his/her vision is poorer than that of drivers who have not consumed alcohol. Drunk drivers often drive at high speeds due to the poor judgment caused by alcohol and they are likely to run off the road or crash into fixed roadside objects.

Dangers of Drinking and Driving: Essay Body

The most devastating effect of driving under the influence of alcohol is that it increases the risk of being involved in a fatal car crash. A report by the World Health Organization (2015) acknowledges that driving while drunk is an important factor influencing the risk of a road traffic crash in all countries that allow alcohol consumption. People who drive while under the influence of alcohol have a significantly higher risk of being involved in a road accident than sober drivers. Research indicates that in developed countries, including the US, over 20% of drivers who die in car crashes have excess alcohol in their blood (WHO, 2015). Drinking while under the influence has a worse impact on the road safety of low-income and middle-income countries. Yadav and Miwako (2015) document that 33-69% of fatally injured drivers in these countries have some alcohol content in their blood.

The accidents caused by drivers who were on the road while under the influence of alcohol also have an economic impact. The loss of life causes the country to lose valuable taxpayers. In case a person survives the crash, high medical costs might be incurred. The crashes also lead to the damage of property, including the vehicle involved in the accident. The WHO (2015) estimates that drink-driving crashes in the US cost the country $1.1 billion each year. Countries therefore incur significant financial losses due to drunk driving.

Considering the significant negative effect of driving while under the influence of alcohol, it would be important to come up with ways to reduce incidents of driving under the influence. Drunk driving can be reduced by increasing public awareness on the dangers of this habit. In most societies, alcohol consumption is a socially acceptable behavior. Campaign efforts should be engaged in to show the public why drinking under the influence is an anti-social behavior that should be avoided. Public awareness can be raised using mass media campaigns. According to Yadav and Miwako (2015), media campaign that emphasized the consequences of alcohol-induced driving led to a significant decrease in the number of alcohol-related road accident.

The government should come up with laws that clearly define what level of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is illegal and the penalties to be imposed on drivers who are drunk. Most drunk drivers engage in this behavior since the consequences are not severe enough to serve as a deterrent (Kimler & Humphreys, 2013). Law enforcement officers should be vigilant in identifying and arresting individuals engaged in drunk driving.

At the same time, the legal system should be swift to enforce penalties on people charged with DUI. In addition to this, police should maintain high visibility enforcement of drink-driving laws to deter offenders. Research by Sonja (2006) indicated that when drivers perceived the chance of being stopped by the police and charged for DUI as being very small, they were likely to continue driving while under the influence. However, when the drivers are aware that the law enforcement system is strict and dedicated to imposing heavy penalties for drunk driving, they are less likely to engage in this activity.

Implementing these measures will lead to a decrease in the number of people driving under the influence. This will have a positive impact on road safety. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011) declares that the deaths caused by drink driving are preventable. By keeping drunk drivers off the roads, these deaths can be stopped and the safety of millions guaranteed annually.

This paper set out to discuss driving under the influence of alcohol, its effects and how this risky behavior can be stopped. The paper began by noting that alcohol drinking is a socially acceptable habit that has some positive benefits. However, drinking has some effects on the individual. The paper has shown that drinking renders the individual unfit to drive. Drinking under the influence increases the risk of engaging in a road accident and this can lead to fatalities. Road accidents caused by drink drivers have a negative impact on the economy of the country. Safety conscious people should therefore avoid drinking while under the influence and encourage their friends to avoid this risky behavior.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Policy Impact: Alcohol Impaired Driving. Web.

Kimler, B., & Humphreys, K. (2013). Losing Your “License to Drink”: The Radical South Dakota Approach to Heavy Drinkers Who Threaten Public Safety. Brown Journal of World Affairs, 20 (1), 267-279. Web.

Sonja, F. (2006). Motives behind risky driving – driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs .

Wolff, K. (2013). Driving under the influence of drugs. London: Her Majestyโ€™s Stationery Office. Web.

World Health Organization (WHO). (2015). Why is a drinking and driving programme necessary? Web.

Yadav, R., & Miwako, K. (2015). A systematic review: effectiveness of mass media campaigns for reducing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes. BMC Public Health, 15 (1), 1-17. Web.

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On the Issue of Drunk Driving Essay

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Introduction

Drinking and driving, reference list.

Driving while drunk is collectively known as impaired driving where one drives when under alcohol or any other drug influence. In some countries such as Canada, drinking and driving is an offence and one could be jailed for although cancelling of driving licenses and fines are the most used punishments for such offences.

Driving while one is intoxicated or drunk poses great danger to drivers since they are more likely to get vehicle accidents which may involve injuries or even deaths to themselves and their passengers (if there are any). Many countries especially the UK have set different blood alcohol concentration for drivers to help prevent road accidents.

Driving while drunk has been, for many years, under discussions as the number of vehicle accidents are increasing every day in our roads. Drugs affect oneโ€™s ability to react to normal and small things that happen instantly especially when driving.

The concentration of alcohol in a driverโ€™s blood is directly proportional to the driverโ€™s ability to judge distances as well react appropriately to sudden happenings in the road. For instance, the number of deaths of single vehicle drivers registering high blood alcohol content is hundreds times more than those of the same drivers but with a zero blood alcohol content.

What makes the matter worse is the fact that some people drink to the extent of getting blurred vision but still they go on and drive. This situation is worsened more when a blurred driver is driving at night especially in areas where there are no street lights. To many people, drugs that affect oneโ€™s ability to drive safely are only the illegal drugs such as marijuana and bhang.

However, these include many of the prescription drugs and the over the counter drugs as long as the drug changes oneโ€™s mood or ability to see properly. Ignorance such side effects from the prescription drugs have contributed to a certain percentage of road accidents especially drugs that cause drowsiness. It is therefore up to the driver to plan not to drive if after all he is planning on drinking.

Enquiring from doctors about the side effects associated with prescription medications is also a good move in combating the problem. Some of these drugs, when combined with alcohol, have more drastic effects than either of them could by themselves (Hanson, 2009, p. 1).

Similar to many other social problems in the society today, drinking and driving has not been able to be stopped by the simple rules such as road signs.

As a result, other measures have been taken to effectively reduce the vice. Many countries have now implemented the automatic annulment of oneโ€™s license which has proved to be one of the most effective measures towards solving the problem because naturally, no one would want for his license to be cancelled. This has caused many drivers to be cautious on the same matter.

Mandatory jail sentence is also another effective way of getting drivers to avoid driving while they are drunk. Cessation of number plates may be as well an effective method of solving this problem. Laws should be put into place to prevent movement of certain vehicles whose drivers violate the โ€˜donโ€™t drink and drive ruleโ€™.

The use of an alcohol blow gadget that detects the content of oneโ€™s alcohol has been helpful in determining drunk drivers in many countries. This makes it possible to identify and therefore punish the defective drivers. Setting up social programs that address the problems and risks associated with drunk driving may as well enlighten the drivers and give them a reason to take the matter seriously.

Restrictions to prevent night time driving especially among the youth who are always going to late night drinking parties could also prevent vehicle accidents. This may also involve getting a designated driver or one may choose to walk home instead of driving.

However, if you have to drink and drive, it is advisable for one to stay sober by either limiting the number of drinks (this differs with many people). Another way of staying sober is by eating protein rich foods such as especially meat while drinking to help lower the bodyโ€™s rate of alcohol absorption (Hanson, 2009, p. 1).

It is disturbing how drinking and driving habits has caused many deaths on our roads. Many road accidents have been associated with careless driving resulting from drunk drivers. This is because many drugs lower the driverโ€™s ability to coordinate his thoughts and respond to sudden happenings on the roads.

Due to the increase in road accidents, many countries have gone beyond the normal road signs rules to putting other strict measures into place in an effort to prevent these occurrences. Among the most effective measures that have worked in many nations are: jail sentencing or fining and annulment of oneโ€™s driving license.

By now it should be clear to every driver that careful driving (either sober or drunk), is all for oneโ€™s benefit as well as the other people around him. Drivers should therefore be responsible enough to ensure safety on the roads without being pushed by the law.

Hanson, D.J. (2009). Drinking & Driving. Web.

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IvyPanda. (2018, May 27). On the Issue of Drunk Driving. https://ivypanda.com/essays/drinking-and-driving/

"On the Issue of Drunk Driving." IvyPanda , 27 May 2018, ivypanda.com/essays/drinking-and-driving/.

IvyPanda . (2018) 'On the Issue of Drunk Driving'. 27 May.

IvyPanda . 2018. "On the Issue of Drunk Driving." May 27, 2018. https://ivypanda.com/essays/drinking-and-driving/.

1. IvyPanda . "On the Issue of Drunk Driving." May 27, 2018. https://ivypanda.com/essays/drinking-and-driving/.

Bibliography

IvyPanda . "On the Issue of Drunk Driving." May 27, 2018. https://ivypanda.com/essays/drinking-and-driving/.

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Drunk Driving Outline โ€“ Essay Sample

  • Introduction paragraph
  • Introduction
  • Thesis: Prove that people should not drive after consuming alcohol
  • Drunk driving accidents can be observed even in the media
  • Celebrities caught drunk driving
  • Drunk driving is supposed to be cool
  • Drinking and drunk driving are two separate definitions
  • Accidents are the direct outcome of driving under alcohol influence
  • The person who is driving after drinking is not the only one who is affected
  • Drinking has a great impact on family
  • We should not drink and drive
  • Be aware of your alcohol consumption limit
  • Sharing information on drunk driving is vital

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How to Write an Introduction Paragraph: Examples and Guide

There are times when an introduction predicts what your entire essay will sayโ€”itโ€™s essentially a reflection. If done successfully, it grabs the readerโ€™s attention and entices them to read further into the essay. As a writer, I know the importance of a strong and engaging introduction, and with practice, I have excelled in the art of writing a good intro. Hereโ€™s how you can write a compelling introduction with examples.

The Purpose of the Introduction Paragraph

A good introduction serves as a roadmap for your essay, setting the stage for what is to come. Its primary purpose is to grab the readerโ€™s attention, provide necessary background information, and clearly state the main argument or thesis of the essay. By doing so, it helps the reader transition from their own world into the context of your analysis, making them interested in reading further. A well-written introduction also outlines the structure of the essay, ensuring that the reader knows what to expect in the body paragraphs. This initial section is crucial for making a strong first impression, establishing the tone, and demonstrating the quality and direction of your work. A good introduction paragraph should be able to:

Engage the Reader: Capture interest with an intriguing opening sentence or a compelling story.

Provide Context: Offer background information needed to understand the topic.

State the Thesis: Clearly present your main argument or thesis statement.

Outline the Structure: Briefly mention the main points or sections covered in the essay.

Establish Relevance: Explain why the topic is important and worth discussing.

Set the Tone: Establish the style and tone of your writing.

Write an Introduction Paragraph

An introduction paragraph sets the tone for your entire essay, shaping your reader's expectations and mood. It's like the gateway to your ideas - a good one hooks the reader, compelling them to continue, while a weak introduction might make them lose interest before they've even begun. That's why learning how to start an introduction paragraph for an essay is crucial for students and writers alike.

With tools like WPS Office at your fingertips, you're not just getting a word processor, but an AI assistant to guide you through the entire journey of crafting that perfect opening. In fact, I'll be using WPS Office for this tutorial to demonstrate its features. So, let's dive in and explore how to write an essay introduction step by step:

The hook is the opening sentence or a few sentences of an essay designed to grab the reader's attention and entice them to keep reading. It serves to engage the reader by presenting something intriguing, surprising, or relevant to the essay's topic.

The main purpose of the hook is to spark the reader's interest and make them want to read more. It's the first impression the reader gets, so it needs to be compelling and relevant to the essay's subject.

1.Start with a Surprising Fact or Statistic: Begin with an interesting or shocking fact that relates to your topic. This immediately grabs the reader's attention.

Bad Example: "Drunk driving is a serious issue."

Good Example: "Every year, over 1.25 million people die in car accidents, many of which are caused by drunk driving."

2.Use a Quote: Introduce your essay with a relevant quote that encapsulates your main point.

Bad Example: "Drunk driving is defined as driving while impaired by alcohol."

Good Example: โ€œAt eighteen, Michelle had a lifetime of promise in front of her. Attending college on a track scholarship, she was earning good grades and making lots of friends. Then one night her life was forever alteredโ€ฆโ€

3.Pose a Rhetorical Question: Ask a question that provokes thought and engages the reader.

Bad Example: "Have you ever driven a car?"

Good Example: "What if every time you got behind the wheel, you risked not only your life but the lives of others?"

4.Tell an Anecdote or Story: Share a brief, compelling story that relates to your topic.

Bad Example: "I once heard a story about a drunk driver."

Good Example: "At eighteen, Michelle had a lifetime of promise in front of her. Attending college on a track scholarship, she was earning good grades and making lots of friends. Then one night her life was forever altered..."

If you need ideas to help you improve on the hook for your introduction, consider providing WPS AI with a prompt such as:

"Write an introduction on the topic 'Risks of Driving Intoxicated' and provide four individual hooks: one with a surprising fact, one using a quote, one with rhetorical questions, and one through telling an anecdote."

WPS AI will produce a catchy hook statement that you can use for your introduction, such as:

Background Information

Background information provides the reader with the necessary context to understand the essay's topic. This may include historical, geographical, or social context, definitions of key terms, or an outline of the debate surrounding the topic.

The background helps to bridge the gap between the hook and the thesis statement. It gives the reader the context they need to understand the main argument of the essay and why it's important.

1.Provide Context: Explain the broader context of your topic to show its significance.

Bad Example: "Drunk driving is bad."

Good Example: "Michelle's story is not isolated. Each year, over 1.25 million people die in car accidents, many of which are caused by drunk driving."

2.Introduce Key Terms and Concepts: Define any terms or concepts that are crucial to understanding your thesis.

Bad Example: "Drunk driving is when you drink alcohol and drive."

Good Example: "Drunk driving, legally defined as operating a vehicle with a blood alcohol content (BAC) of 0.08% or higher, is a preventable cause of many fatalities."

3.Set Up the Problem: Briefly discuss the scope of the issue or debate you will be addressing.

Bad Example: "People drive drunk sometimes."

Good Example: "Despite strict laws, drunk driving continues to be a significant problem worldwide, leading to devastating consequences for victims and their families."

To give an effective and detailed background information in your introduction consider proving WPS AI with a prompt like this:

โ€œThis serves as the background to my introduction: 'People frequently choose to drive under the influence of alcohol.' Please enhance it to address the problem and discuss its scope."

WPS AI will produce a detailed background passage for your introduction, give as:

Thesis Statement

The thesis statement is a concise summary of the main point or claim of the essay. It usually appears at the end of the introduction and states the essay's central argument or position.

The thesis statement guides the direction of the essay by informing the reader what the essay will argue or discuss. It sets the tone and focus of the entire paper.

1.Be Clear and Specific: Clearly state your main point and how you will support it.

Bad Example: "This essay will talk about drunk driving."

Good Example: "Drunk driving laws need to include stricter penalties for those convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol to reduce accidents and save lives."

2.Make an Argument: Present a claim that requires evidence and can be debated.

Bad Example: "Drunk driving is bad and should be stopped."

Good Example: "Implementing harsher penalties for drunk driving will deter offenders and significantly decrease the number of alcohol-related accidents."

3.Outline Your Main Points: Indicate the main points you will cover in your essay to support your thesis.

Bad Example: "I will discuss the problems with drunk driving."

Good Example: "Stricter penalties are necessary because they act as a deterrent, they can prevent repeat offenses, and they provide justice for victims."

You can take help from WPS AI to extract the thesis statement of your essay using the WPS AI chat box.

Step 1: Click on the WPS AI widget at the top corner of the WPS Writer interface.

Step 2: The WPS AI pane will open on the right side of the screen. Type in your prompt to extract the thesis statement of your essay and then paste the essay.

Here is a prompt example that you can use:

"Extract the thesis statement from the following essay:"

Step 3: WPS AI will provide the thesis statement. To refine it further, engage with the WPS AI chatbot by asking more questions or queries.

The summary or road map briefly outlines how the essay will be structured. It provides a preview of the main points that will be covered, giving the reader a sense of the direction of the argument.

1.Summarize Main Points: Briefly mention the key arguments or points you will discuss in your essay.

Bad Example: "I will talk about drunk driving laws, penalties, and justice."

Good Example: "This essay will first examine the current state of drunk driving laws, then explore the impact of stricter penalties on reducing incidents, and finally discuss how these penalties can bring justice to victims."

2.Be Concise: Keep it short and to the point, providing a clear outline without going into too much detail.

Bad Example: "I will write about drunk driving and why it is bad."

Good Example: "By examining the effectiveness of current laws, the potential benefits of stricter penalties, and the importance of justice for victims, this essay argues that harsher punishments for drunk driving are essential."

โ€œWrite a concise summary for the introduction of an essay on the topic "Risks of Driving Intoxicated." The summary should briefly mention the key points that will be covered in the essay, without going into too much detail."

The summary should briefly outline the main points covered in the essay, emphasizing the societal impact, legal ramifications, and personal consequences of driving under the influence. Ensure clarity and coherence, setting the stage for a comprehensive exploration of the topic in the subsequent sections.

Examples of Different Essays

Essays come in various forms, each serving a unique purpose and following specific structures. Understanding these different types can help you write an essay introduction more effectively. Let's explore three common types of essays: Argumentative, Expository, and Literary. Each example below demonstrates the key elements of its respective essay type, including the hook, background information, and thesis statement.

Argumentary

An argumentative essay aims to present a position on a topic and support it with evidence.

An expository essay explains a topic in a clear and concise manner without arguing a specific position.

A literary essay analyzes and interprets a work of literature, focusing on elements such as theme, character, or style.

More Examples of Different Topics

Let's take a look at some sample introductions of essays in different disciplines. This will further help you in writing an effective essay introduction.

Example #1 Medicine

Example #2 literature, example #3 social sciences, example #4 engineering, example #5 business & marketing, using wps ai to perfect your introduction.

With WPS Office, you have access to a comprehensive suite of tools designed to support your academic writing needs. Its AI-powered features enhance your writing process, from initial drafting to final proofreading. Specifically, WPS Office AI will help perfect your introduction, ensuring it captures attention and sets the stage for your paper. Plus, WPS Office is available for free, making it an accessible and indispensable resource for students and academics alike.

1.Check the Grammar and Syntax

Your introduction sets the tone for your entire essay, so it's crucial that it's grammatically correct and free from syntax errors. WPS AI careful checks for any grammatical mistakes and syntax issues, ensuring that your introduction is polished and professional. It provides suggestions for corrections, helping you present a clear and error-free first impression.

2.Rewrite Your Statement for Clarity

WPS AI can improve the clarity and coherence of your introduction by rewriting complex or awkwardly phrased sentences. It identifies areas where your writing may be ambiguous or convoluted and offers alternative phrasing that enhances readability. This feature ensures that your introduction is clear, concise, and compelling.

3.Automatically Expand Content

When you need to elaborate on a point or expand your introduction, WPS AI can automatically generate additional content. This feature helps you add relevant information that aligns with your essay's theme and tone. Itโ€™s particularly useful for developing a strong hook, providing context, or setting up your thesis statement.

4.Give an Outline for Your Paper

Writing a strong introduction often involves giving your readers a brief outline of what to expect in your essay. WPS AI can assist in structuring your introduction to include a concise overview of your main points, providing a roadmap for your readers. This feature ensures that your introduction effectively sets the stage for the rest of your essay. Here is an example of an outline generated using WPS AI Writer for an essay:

If you find this outline suitable for your essay, simply scroll down and click on "Insert" to use the outline for your essay.

1. What is the structure of an essay?

An essay is divided into three main parts:

Introduction: This section introduces the topic and presents the main idea (thesis). It provides some background information and outlines what the essay will discuss.

Body: The body forms the essay's core, where you develop arguments to support your thesis. It is organized into several paragraphs, each presenting a distinct point backed by evidence.

Conclusion: The conclusion summarizes the main points covered in the essay and strengthens the thesis statement. It wraps up the discussion and may offer final insights or suggestions.

2. Why do I need a thesis statement?

A thesis statement plays a crucial role in academic essays and research papers by presenting the central argument or idea to be explored and developed. Here are several key reasons why a thesis statement is essential:

It provides clear direction and focus for your writing.

It summarizes your main argument for the reader.

It maintains clarity and coherence throughout the essay.

It serves as the foundational basis for structuring the entire essay.

3. How long should the introduction paragraph be?

The introduction paragraph for a research paper typically spans one to two paragraphs. As a general rule, the entire introduction sectionโ€”which includes the opening paragraph, literature review, and research questionsโ€”should constitute approximately 10% to 15% of the paper's total length. This structure allows for a comprehensive yet concise setup of your research topic, providing readers with the necessary context before delving into the main body of your work.

Beyond the Hook: Building a Strong Introduction Paragraph

Writing an introduction is perhaps the most thought-provoking and critical task in crafting any assignment. With the myriad features offered by WPS Office, you can effortlessly create a phenomenal essay introduction. WPS AI enhances this process with tools that ensure clarity, coherence, and creativity. Whether it's organizing your thoughts or refining your language, WPS Office empowers you to craft introductions that captivate readers from the start. Download WPS Office today and experience firsthand how it transforms your writing process into a seamless and impactful journey.

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Polidriving: a public-access driving dataset for road traffic safety analysis.

drunk driving essay outline

1. Introduction

2. related work, 3. materials and methods, 3.1. acquisition module, 3.2. drivers and vehicles.

  • One woman and four men between 25 and 43 years old of different body constitutions, with or without medical conditions, traffic violations, and driving experience.
  • Cross-Over Utility Vehicle (CUV), PICKUP, SEDAN-type vehicles of different brands, models, and different years of fabrication.

3.3. Devices and Services

3.4. data sources and attributes, 3.5. routes and timetables.

  • Route 1 is 59 km long that begins on the General Rumiรฑahui highway, crosses Velasco Ibarra, Ladrรณn de Guevara, Patria, 6 de Diciembre, and Galo Plaza Lasso avenues, returns by Galo Plaza Lasso, Amazonas, Patria, and Velasco Ibarra avenues, and finishes on the General Rumiรฑahui highway.
  • Route 2 is 96 km long that begins on the General Rumiรฑahui highway, continues with the Simรณn Bolรญvar avenue in the south-north direction, returns by the Simรณn Bolรญvar in the north-south direction, and finishes on the General Rumiรฑahui.

3.6. Control Points

5. discussion, 6. conclusions, author contributions, institutional review board statement, informed consent statement, data availability statement, acknowledgments, conflicts of interest, abbreviations.

LiDARLight Detection and Ranging
GNSSGlobal Navigation Satellite System
OBDOn-Board Diagnostic
IMUInertial Measurement Unit
CANController Area Network
LPLabel Propagation
LSLabel Spreading
SVMSupport Vector Machine
MLPMultilayer Perceptron
RFRandom Forest
GBMGradient Boosting Machine
SMOTESynthetic Minority Over-Sampling Technique
#AttributeItemIDValue RangePenalty
1rpmlow [0โ€“1500]1
2normal [1501โ€“3000]0
3high [3001โ€“5000]2
4very high [5001โ€“8000]3
5engine temperaturelow [0โ€“82]1
6normal [83โ€“94]0
7high [95โ€“104]1
8overheating [105โ€“200]2
9heart ratebradicardia [0โ€“59]2
10sinus zona a [60โ€“80]1
11sinus zona b [81โ€“100]2
12tachycardia slight [101โ€“120]3
13tachycardia severe [121โ€“180]4
14weather typessunny1 1
15mostly sunny2 1
16partly sunny3 1
17hazy sunshine5 1
18mostly cloudy6 2
19cloudy7 2
20clouds and sun9 2
21partly cloudy35 3
22fog11 3
23rain18 4
24visibilitybad [0.0โ€“0.0]4
25poor [0.1โ€“2.4]3
26moderate [2.5โ€“10.0]2
27good [10.1โ€“50.0]1
28excellent [50.1โ€“100.0]0
29precipitationnone [0.0โ€“0.0]0
30light [0.1โ€“2.4]1
31moderate [2.5โ€“10.0]2
32heavy [10.1โ€“50.0]3
33violent [50.1โ€“100.0]4
34accidents on sitenone [0โ€“0]0
35low [1โ€“8]1
36moderate [9โ€“30]2
37high [31โ€“132]3
38very high [133โ€“300]4
39design speednormal [0โ€“0]0
40slight [1โ€“10]1
41moderate [11โ€“20]2
42serious [21โ€“40]3
43very serious [41โ€“100]4
44accidents timenone [0โ€“0]0
45low [1โ€“2]1
46moderate [3โ€“9]2
47high [10โ€“100]3
Road IDSegmentStarting PointEnd Point
ID Latitude Longitude ID Latitude Longitude
AGRS01P001โˆ’0.29755โˆ’78.46091P008โˆ’0.29065โˆ’78.46514
AGRS03P016โˆ’0.28166โˆ’78.47105P018โˆ’0.27999โˆ’78.47296
AGRS05P022โˆ’0.27837โˆ’78.48127P024โˆ’0.27687โˆ’78.48597
AGRS07P028โˆ’0.27093โˆ’78.48937P030โˆ’0.26995โˆ’78.48797
AGRS09P034โˆ’0.26585โˆ’78.48679P035โˆ’0.26472โˆ’78.4874
AGRS11P039โˆ’0.25961โˆ’78.48721P041โˆ’0.2572โˆ’78.48505
AGRS13P045โˆ’0.25224โˆ’78.48292P047โˆ’0.24996โˆ’78.48282
AGRS15P050โˆ’0.24518โˆ’78.48492P052โˆ’0.24281โˆ’78.48542
AGRS17P055โˆ’0.23902โˆ’78.48485P057โˆ’0.23649โˆ’78.48426
AGRS19P061โˆ’0.23038โˆ’78.48455P062โˆ’0.22925โˆ’78.485
AGRS21P066โˆ’0.2267โˆ’78.48815P069โˆ’0.2271โˆ’78.49302
AGRS23P073โˆ’0.22974โˆ’78.4974P076โˆ’0.23261โˆ’78.5013
AVIS25P079โˆ’0.23224โˆ’78.50294P085โˆ’0.22943โˆ’78.50077
AVIS27P096โˆ’0.22479โˆ’78.49702P104โˆ’0.22108โˆ’78.4952
AVIS29P112โˆ’0.21797โˆ’78.49151P121โˆ’0.21309โˆ’78.48891
DMQS31P125โˆ’0.21252โˆ’78.48894P136โˆ’0.21047โˆ’78.49363
DMQS33P142โˆ’0.20853โˆ’78.4953P155โˆ’0.20255โˆ’78.48677
DMQS35P167โˆ’0.19188โˆ’78.48108P184โˆ’0.17915โˆ’78.47825
DMQS37P203โˆ’0.16393โˆ’78.47518P212โˆ’0.15587โˆ’78.47696
DMQS39P231โˆ’0.13687โˆ’78.47347P246โˆ’0.12179โˆ’78.47898
DMQS41P252โˆ’0.10668โˆ’78.47647P256โˆ’0.10049โˆ’78.47192
DMQS43P278โˆ’0.12921โˆ’78.48137P287โˆ’0.13844โˆ’78.48264
DMQS45P304โˆ’0.15324โˆ’78.48467P309โˆ’0.15792โˆ’78.48439
DMQS47P335โˆ’0.16911โˆ’78.48446P343โˆ’0.17452โˆ’78.48541
DMQS49P356โˆ’0.18705โˆ’78.4876P363โˆ’0.19128โˆ’78.48837
DMQS51P370โˆ’0.19677โˆ’78.4896P375โˆ’0.19962โˆ’78.49078
DMQS53P385โˆ’0.20248โˆ’78.49399P392โˆ’0.20498โˆ’78.49547
DMQS55P400โˆ’0.20767โˆ’78.49708P403โˆ’0.20847โˆ’78.49612
DMQS57P408โˆ’0.20969โˆ’78.49451P413โˆ’0.21136โˆ’78.49354
DMQS59P419โˆ’0.21286โˆ’78.49219P426โˆ’0.21485โˆ’78.49106
AVIS61P431โˆ’0.21767โˆ’78.49135P434โˆ’0.21874โˆ’78.49304
AVIS63P441โˆ’0.22278โˆ’78.4959P447โˆ’0.22604โˆ’78.49801
AVIS65P452โˆ’0.22743โˆ’78.50016P456โˆ’0.22973โˆ’78.50097
AGRS67P461โˆ’0.23214โˆ’78.50301P465โˆ’0.23355โˆ’78.50293
AGRS69P470โˆ’0.22983โˆ’78.49735P473โˆ’0.22788โˆ’78.49466
AGRS71P478โˆ’0.22679โˆ’78.48822P480โˆ’0.22803โˆ’78.48646
AGRS73P484โˆ’0.23039โˆ’78.48466P487โˆ’0.23437โˆ’78.48442
AGRS75P491โˆ’0.23897โˆ’78.48499P493โˆ’0.24082โˆ’78.48563
AGRS77P498โˆ’0.24522โˆ’78.48505P501โˆ’0.24799โˆ’78.48381
AGRS79P506โˆ’0.25222โˆ’78.48304P509โˆ’0.25514โˆ’78.4842
AGRS81P514โˆ’0.25952โˆ’78.4873P517โˆ’0.26273โˆ’78.48834
AGRS83P521โˆ’0.26591โˆ’78.48694P524โˆ’0.26888โˆ’78.48705
AGRS85P528โˆ’0.27084โˆ’78.48943P531โˆ’0.27565โˆ’78.48944
AGRS87P536โˆ’0.27851โˆ’78.48131P539โˆ’0.27954โˆ’78.47542
AGRS89P544โˆ’0.28173โˆ’78.47117P550โˆ’0.28893โˆ’78.46642
Road IDSegmentStarting PointEnd Point
ID Latitude Longitude ID Latitude Longitude
AGRS001P001โˆ’0.29755โˆ’78.46091P008โˆ’0.29065โˆ’78.46514
AGRS003P016โˆ’0.28166โˆ’78.47105P018โˆ’0.27999โˆ’78.47296
AGRS005P022โˆ’0.27837โˆ’78.48127P024โˆ’0.27687โˆ’78.48597
AGRS007P028โˆ’0.27093โˆ’78.48937P030โˆ’0.26995โˆ’78.48797
AGRS009P034โˆ’0.26585โˆ’78.48679P035โˆ’0.26472โˆ’78.4874
AGRS011P039โˆ’0.25961โˆ’78.48721P041โˆ’0.2572โˆ’78.48505
AGRS013P045โˆ’0.25224โˆ’78.48292P047โˆ’0.24996โˆ’78.48282
AGRS015P050โˆ’0.24518โˆ’78.48492P052โˆ’0.24281โˆ’78.48542
ASBS017P055โˆ’0.23945โˆ’78.48496P059โˆ’0.24315โˆ’78.48256
ASBS019P063โˆ’0.24625โˆ’78.47657P065โˆ’0.24202โˆ’78.47433
ASBS021P069โˆ’0.23615โˆ’78.47298P071โˆ’0.2347โˆ’78.47095
ASBS023P074โˆ’0.23041โˆ’78.46985P075โˆ’0.22942โˆ’78.46914
ASBS025P081โˆ’0.21675โˆ’78.46567P082โˆ’0.21539โˆ’78.46449
ASBS027P085โˆ’0.21146โˆ’78.46253P087โˆ’0.20665โˆ’78.46084
ASBS029P090โˆ’0.20322โˆ’78.45855P092โˆ’0.20021โˆ’78.45669
ASBS031P095โˆ’0.19828โˆ’78.46070P096โˆ’0.19839โˆ’78.46164
ASBS033P099โˆ’0.19860โˆ’78.46491P100โˆ’0.19808โˆ’78.46644
ASBS035P104โˆ’0.19546โˆ’78.46405P106โˆ’0.19399โˆ’78.46052
ASBS037P109โˆ’0.19199โˆ’78.45866P110โˆ’0.19187โˆ’78.45795
ASBS039P116โˆ’0.18772โˆ’78.45412P118โˆ’0.18511โˆ’78.45273
ASBS041P121โˆ’0.18184โˆ’78.45117P122โˆ’0.18123โˆ’78.45135
ASBS043P126โˆ’0.18105โˆ’78.45391P127โˆ’0.18037โˆ’78.45582
ASBS045P132โˆ’0.17279โˆ’78.45193P134โˆ’0.16996โˆ’78.44987
ASBS047P137โˆ’0.16384โˆ’78.44792P139โˆ’0.16106โˆ’78.44722
ASBS049P143โˆ’0.15681โˆ’78.44634P145โˆ’0.15338โˆ’78.44721
ASBS051P148โˆ’0.15191โˆ’78.45150P149โˆ’0.15133โˆ’78.45193
ASBS053P152โˆ’0.14980โˆ’78.45068P153โˆ’0.14874โˆ’78.44897
ASBS055P156โˆ’0.14762โˆ’78.44748P158โˆ’0.14553โˆ’78.44521
ASBS057P162โˆ’0.14044โˆ’78.44466P165โˆ’0.13719โˆ’78.44722
ASBS059P169โˆ’0.12963โˆ’78.44828P170โˆ’0.12791โˆ’78.44828
ASBS061P173โˆ’0.11840โˆ’78.45088P176โˆ’0.11325โˆ’78.45675
ASBS063P179โˆ’0.11025โˆ’78.45799P181โˆ’0.10953โˆ’78.45877
ASBS065P184โˆ’0.11193โˆ’78.45749P185โˆ’0.11529โˆ’78.45485
ASBS067P188โˆ’0.11850โˆ’78.45096P189โˆ’0.1214โˆ’78.44807
ASBS069P192โˆ’0.12649โˆ’78.44817P194โˆ’0.12866โˆ’78.44853
ASBS071P197โˆ’0.13510โˆ’78.44764P199โˆ’0.13834โˆ’78.44709
ASBS073P202โˆ’0.14055โˆ’78.44478P204โˆ’0.14354โˆ’78.44382
ASBS075P209โˆ’0.14750โˆ’78.44751P210โˆ’0.14772โˆ’78.44819
ASBS077P215โˆ’0.15078โˆ’78.45246P216โˆ’0.15157โˆ’78.45197
ASBS079P219โˆ’0.15268โˆ’78.44880P220โˆ’0.15434โˆ’78.44667
ASBS081P223โˆ’0.16034โˆ’78.44692P226โˆ’0.16671โˆ’78.44792
ASBS083P232โˆ’0.17604โˆ’78.45459P233โˆ’0.17624โˆ’78.45568
ASBS085P236โˆ’0.17890โˆ’78.45535P238โˆ’0.18152โˆ’78.45518
ASBS087P241โˆ’0.18048โˆ’78.45218P243โˆ’0.18321โˆ’78.45104
ASBS089P246โˆ’0.18528โˆ’78.45344P247โˆ’0.18683โˆ’78.45409
ASBS091P252โˆ’0.19196โˆ’78.45678P256โˆ’0.19365โˆ’78.46142
ASBS093P262โˆ’0.19875โˆ’78.46491P268โˆ’0.20245โˆ’78.45792
ASBS095P274โˆ’0.20831โˆ’78.46164P276โˆ’0.2107โˆ’78.46236
ASBS097P279โˆ’0.21265โˆ’78.46373P280โˆ’0.21386โˆ’78.46407
ASBS099P283โˆ’0.21886โˆ’78.46671P285โˆ’0.22464โˆ’78.4689
ASBS101P288โˆ’0.23032โˆ’78.46996P289โˆ’0.23107โˆ’78.47046
ASBS103P294โˆ’0.23612โˆ’78.47313P301โˆ’0.24518โˆ’78.47624
ASBS105P306โˆ’0.24405โˆ’78.48218P307โˆ’0.2426โˆ’78.48259
ASBS107P315โˆ’0.23294โˆ’78.48880P316โˆ’0.2324โˆ’78.48933
ASBS109P319โˆ’0.23372โˆ’78.49296P320โˆ’0.23427โˆ’78.49205
ASBS111P325โˆ’0.23918โˆ’78.49250P326โˆ’0.23962โˆ’78.49314
ASBS113P329โˆ’0.24229โˆ’78.49592P331โˆ’0.24285โˆ’78.49992
ASBS115P334โˆ’0.24686โˆ’78.50143P336โˆ’0.24954โˆ’78.50271
ASBS117P340โˆ’0.25545โˆ’78.50350P341โˆ’0.25677โˆ’78.50286
ASBS119P344โˆ’0.26252โˆ’78.50514P345โˆ’0.26535โˆ’78.50739
ASBS121P348โˆ’0.26910โˆ’78.50768P350โˆ’0.2717โˆ’78.50844
ASBS123P353โˆ’0.27629โˆ’78.51247P357โˆ’0.28423โˆ’78.51812
ASBS125P360โˆ’0.28624โˆ’78.51907P362โˆ’0.28904โˆ’78.51979
ASBS127P369โˆ’0.30256โˆ’78.52161P377โˆ’0.31294โˆ’78.52237
ASBS129P383โˆ’0.32332โˆ’78.52019P384โˆ’0.3278โˆ’78.5191
ASBS131P388โˆ’0.33475โˆ’78.52013P390โˆ’0.33721โˆ’78.52059
ASBS133P393โˆ’0.34284โˆ’78.52297P396โˆ’0.34739โˆ’78.52354
ASBS135P399โˆ’0.34887โˆ’78.52331P403โˆ’0.35486โˆ’78.5252
ASBS137P409โˆ’0.35741โˆ’78.53344P410โˆ’0.35913โˆ’78.53468
ASBS139P414โˆ’0.36507โˆ’78.52912P415โˆ’0.36585โˆ’78.52861
ASBS141P428โˆ’0.38228โˆ’78.53171P432โˆ’0.38417โˆ’78.5321
ASBS143P437โˆ’0.37681โˆ’78.53043P444โˆ’0.36893โˆ’78.52879
ASBS145P449โˆ’0.36497โˆ’78.52902P452โˆ’0.36132โˆ’78.53296
ASBS147P456โˆ’0.35756โˆ’78.53338P457โˆ’0.35719โˆ’78.53073
ASBS148P458โˆ’0.35664โˆ’78.52849P459โˆ’0.35615โˆ’78.52749
ASBS149P460โˆ’0.35530โˆ’78.52579P463โˆ’0.35066โˆ’78.52291
ASBS151P466โˆ’0.34804โˆ’78.52329P468โˆ’0.3455โˆ’78.52364
ASBS153P473โˆ’0.33478โˆ’78.51997P475โˆ’0.33226โˆ’78.51952
ASBS155P480โˆ’0.32329โˆ’78.52007P483โˆ’0.31841โˆ’78.52146
ASBS157P491โˆ’0.30257โˆ’78.52146P496โˆ’0.29606โˆ’78.52032
ASBS159P499โˆ’0.29047โˆ’78.51954P501โˆ’0.28754โˆ’78.51955
ASBS161P504โˆ’0.28501โˆ’78.51836P509โˆ’0.27542โˆ’78.51148
ASBS163P512โˆ’0.26912โˆ’78.50753P513โˆ’0.26859โˆ’78.50741
ASBS165P516โˆ’0.26259โˆ’78.50504P518โˆ’0.25822โˆ’78.50242
ASBS167P521โˆ’0.25015โˆ’78.50296P522โˆ’0.24903โˆ’78.50217
ASBS169P525โˆ’0.24465โˆ’78.50078P528โˆ’0.24266โˆ’78.4972
ASBS171P531โˆ’0.24073โˆ’78.49421P532โˆ’0.23996โˆ’78.4934
ASBS173P538โˆ’0.23428โˆ’78.49155P539โˆ’0.23394โˆ’78.49249
ASBS175P542โˆ’0.23151โˆ’78.49158P543โˆ’0.2319โˆ’78.49016
AGRS177P552โˆ’0.24168โˆ’78.4858P555โˆ’0.24447โˆ’78.48527
AGRS179P560โˆ’0.24873โˆ’78.48341P563โˆ’0.25167โˆ’78.4829
AGRS181P568โˆ’0.25581โˆ’78.48447P571โˆ’0.25897โˆ’78.48675
AGRS183P576โˆ’0.26355โˆ’78.48809P578โˆ’0.26529โˆ’78.48724
AGRS185P583โˆ’0.26953โˆ’78.4876P585โˆ’0.27054โˆ’78.48902
AGRS187P590โˆ’0.27625โˆ’78.48834P593โˆ’0.27811โˆ’78.48255
AGRS189P598โˆ’0.27964โˆ’78.47458P601โˆ’0.28115โˆ’78.4716
AGRS191P609โˆ’0.29028โˆ’78.46552P615โˆ’0.29759โˆ’78.46097
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Click here to enlarge figure

AuthorsNameDurationFrequency of ย AcquisitionDriversVehiclesSensors/DevicesApplications
[h] [Hz] Auton. Driving Driving Behavior
Santana et al. [ ]comma.ai7.25pictures at 20 and measures at 100311 frontal camera, 1 LiDAR sensor, and 1 POS deviceโœ”โœ”
Shafer et al. [ ]comma2k1933pictures at 20 and measures at 10122 frontal cameras, 1 internal camera, 1 OBD-II scanner, 1 GNSS receiver, and 1 9-axis IMU deviceโœ”โœ”
Izquierdo et al. [ ]PREVENTION6laser at 10, radars at 33, and location receiver at 20311 frontal camera, 1 rear-facing camera, 1 LiDAR sensor, 3 long-range radars, 1 GNSS receiver, and 1 CAN bus scannerโœ”โœ”
Weber et al. [ ]AUTOMOTIVE OBD-II6measures at 101101 OBD-II scanner-โœ”
Geyer et al. [ ]A2D2-not mentioned116 cameras, 6 LiDAR sensors, 1 GPS, 1 IMU, and 1 bus scannerโœ”โœ”
Marcillo et al.POLIDriving18measures at 1541 OBD-II scanner, 1 GPS receiver, and 1 health monitor-โœ”
Name Datasources No.
Attributes
Data
Labeling
No.
Classes
Driverโ€™s
Data
Vehicle
Data
Weather
Conditions
Traffic
Accidents
Geometric
Charact.
Road
Conditions
comma.ai-โœ”---โœ” 40--
comma2k19-โœ”---โœ” โ‰ˆ45--
PREVENTION-โœ”---โœ” 31โœ”-
AUTOMOTIVE OBD-II-โœ”----11--
A2D2-โœ”---โœ” 22--
POLIDrivingโœ”โœ”โœ”โœ”โœ”-32โœ” 4
IDNameGenderAge
[Years]
Weight
[kg]
Height
[cm]
Medical
Conditions
Driverโ€™s License Points
[/30]
Driving Experience
[Years]
1PabloMale4059165None3013
2AndresMale2569163None307
3RichardMale3774170None3019
4AlonsoMale4377170None3020
5YolandaFemale4362155None3023
IDBrandModelTypeYear
Manufacture
Kilometers Travelled
[ร—1000]
Last Maintenance
[Year]
Number
Airbags
1KiaSportageCUV20183120232
2KiaSolutoSedan20227520222
3ChevroletDMAXPickup201335020232
4ChevroletCavalierSedan201816020212
#AttributeClassUnitsData SourceSensor/Device
1timeTimestamp Vehicle dataGPS receiver
2speedNumerickm/hOBD-II scanner
3revolutions per minuteNumericrpmOBD-II scanner
4accelerationNumericm/s OBD-II scanner
5throttle positionNumeric%OBD-II scanner
6engine temperatureNumericยฐCOBD-II scanner
7system voltageNumericvoltsOBD-II scanner
8distance traveledNumerickmOBD-II scanner
9engine load value Numeric%OBD-II scanner
10latitudeNumeric GPS receiver
11longitudeNumeric GPS receiver
12altitudeNumericmGPS receiver
13id vehicleNumeric Database
14heart rateNumericbpmDriverโ€™s dataHealth monitor
15body temperatureNumericยฐCHealth monitor
16id driverNumeric Database
17current weatherCategorical Weather dataWeb service
18has precipitationBoolean Web service
19is day timeBoolean Web service
20temperatureNumericยฐCWeb service
21wind speedNumerickm/hWeb service
22wind directionNumeric Web service
23relative humidityNumeric%Web service
24visibilityNumerickmWeb service
25uv index Numeric Web service
26cloud coverNumeric Web service
27ceiling NumericmWeb service
28pressureNumericmbWeb service
29precipitationNumericmmWeb service
30accidents on siteNumericnumberTraffic accidentsDatabase
31design speedNumerickm/hRoad geometrics characteristicsDatabase
32accidents timeNumericnumberTraffic accidentsDatabase
RouteRoad IDSegmentStarting PointEnd Point
ID Latitude Longitude ID Latitude Longitude
1AGRS01P001โˆ’0.29755โˆ’78.46091P008โˆ’0.29065โˆ’78.46514
AGRS21P066โˆ’0.2267โˆ’78.48815P069โˆ’0.2271โˆ’78.49302
DMQS41P252โˆ’0.10668โˆ’78.47647P256โˆ’0.10049โˆ’78.47192
AVIS61P431โˆ’0.21767โˆ’78.49135P434โˆ’0.21874โˆ’78.49304
AGRS89P544โˆ’0.28173โˆ’78.47117P550โˆ’0.28893โˆ’78.46642
2AGRS001P001โˆ’0.29755โˆ’78.46091P008โˆ’0.29065โˆ’78.46514
ASBS041P121โˆ’0.18184โˆ’78.45117P122โˆ’0.18123โˆ’78.45135
ASBS081P223โˆ’0.16034โˆ’78.44692P226โˆ’0.16671โˆ’78.44792
ASBS121P348โˆ’0.26910โˆ’78.50768P350โˆ’0.2717โˆ’78.50844
ASBS173P538โˆ’0.23428โˆ’78.49155P539โˆ’0.23394โˆ’78.49249
TimeSpeedrpmAccelerationThrottle PositionEngine TemperatureSystem VoltageDistance TravelledEngine Load Value
15:33:15652306โˆ’0.727926.27459712.618.420417.6470
15:33:16622246โˆ’0.748832.94119712.618.434647.0588
15:33:17612217โˆ’0.228136.47059712.618.445249.4117
15:33:186122010.040.09612.618.467365.0980
15:33:196122250.072.54909612.618.478876.8627
15:33:206222580.081.96079612.718.499280.7843

15:33:152586.614โˆ’0.195041โˆ’78.46311546429Clouds and sun
15:33:162587.174โˆ’0.194989โˆ’78.46296346429Clouds and sun
15:33:172587.404โˆ’0.19493โˆ’78.46281646429Clouds and sun
15:33:182588.944โˆ’0.194862โˆ’78.46268446429Clouds and sun
15:33:192589.784โˆ’0.194783โˆ’78.4625646429Clouds and sun
15:33:202590.044โˆ’0.194683โˆ’78.46244146429Clouds and sun
15:33:15FALSETRUE19.514.506282
15:33:16FALSETRUE19.514.506282
15:33:17FALSETRUE19.514.506282
15:33:18FALSETRUE19.514.506282
15:33:19FALSETRUE19.514.506282
15:33:20FALSETRUE19.514.506282
15:33:157431391019.62.48503
15:33:167431391019.62.47703
15:33:177431391019.62.48703
15:33:187431391019.62.48703
15:33:197431391019.62.48703
15:33:207431391019.62.49703
#AttributeItemIDValue RangePenalty
1rpmvery high-[5001โ€“8000]3
2engine temperatureoverheating-[105โ€“200]2
3heart ratetachycardia severe-[121โ€“180]4
4weather typesrain18-4
5visibilitybad-[0.0โ€“0.0]4
6precipitationviolent-[50.1โ€“100.0]4
7accidents on sitevery high-[133โ€“300]4
8design speedvery serious-[41โ€“100]4
9accidents timehigh-[10โ€“100]3
#MethodHyperparametersAccuracy
1Label propagation (LP)alpha = 0.2, gamma = 0.1, kernel = knn, number_neighbors = 10, and maximum_iterations = 50000.71
2Label spreading (LS)gamma = 0.1, kernel = knn, number_neighbors = 15, and maximum_iterations = 50000.75
3Self training (SVM)kernel = rbf, probability = True, and gamma = 0.10.62
4Self training (MLP)activation_function = relu, hidden_layers = 3, neurons_per_layer = 30, learning_rate = constant, maximum_iterations = 5000, and solver = adam0.84
5Self training (RF)number_estimators = 50, maximum_depth = None, minimum_samples_leaf = 1, maximum_features = sqrt, and minimum_samples_split = 20.83
6Self training (GBM)learning_rate = 0.8, maximum_depth = 30, number_estimators = 100, minimum_samples_leaf = 1, maximum_features = None, and minimum_samples_split = 20.82
7Ensembleestimators = [LP, LS, MLP, RF, GBM] and voting = hard0.82
#AlgorithmHyperparameters
1Gradient Boosting Machine (GBM)learning_rate = 0.8, loss_function = log_loss, maximum_depth = 30, maximum_features = sqrt, minimum_samples_split = 0.5, and number_estimators = 100
2Multilayer Perceptron (MLP)activation_function = tanh, hidden_layers = 3, neurons_per_layer = 100, learning_rate = adaptive, maximum_iterations = 1000, and solver = lbfgs
#AlgorithmFoldsResultsAvg. Accuracy
1GBM10[0.95713157, 0.95673647, 0.9589014, 0.95238095, 0.95751828, 0.9608773, 0.95573997, 0.95593756, 0.95692551, 0.95732069]0.956
2MLP10[0.98656657, 0.98636902, 0.98794705, 0.9832049, 0.98656392, 0.98755187, 0.9869591, 0.98676151, 0.9869591, 0.98794705]0.986
HourSpeedrpmAccel.Throttle Pos.Eng. Temp.Eng. Load ValueHeart RateCurr. WeatherVisib.Precip.Acdnt. on SiteDesign SpeedAcdnt. That TimeRisk Level
151143251โˆ’0.6417.69423.5100rain3.2810901very high
152639341.4874.19622.7102rain3.28105906very high
152635401.876.19794.5102rain3.28105906very high
15 *8129500.22609458118rain3.2812803very high
164420990.4116.19222101cloudy8242488015very high
1612936940.1431.89187.596cloudy884800high
191023895049949184cloudy6.44.828701high
15782873โˆ’0.2734.19485.9118rain3.2810803high
16612223โˆ’0.1330.69491.8106cloudy82437601high
157621840.120.49457.394rain3.202549010high
1612635730.2965.19486.794cloudy887900medium
195844130.46409181.284cloudy6.4082903medium
158424020.2616.59121.6113cloudy805600medium
16782820076.99490.2104cloudy82411700medium
168424100.2543.19526.367mostly cloudy16.11.32539014medium
2012234660.4928.6927189cloudy8038901low
205441770.4740.49391.485cloudy802700low
159838320.5678.89263.9104cloudy8015901low
166623160.3418.89134.598cloudy8245900low
167426800.5482958074hazy sunshine16.102469016low
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Share and Cite

Marcillo, P.; Arciniegas-Ayala, C.; Valdivieso Caraguay, ร.L.; Sanchez-Gordon, S.; Hernรกndez-รlvarez, M. POLIDriving: A Public-Access Driving Dataset for Road Traffic Safety Analysis. Appl. Sci. 2024 , 14 , 6300. https://doi.org/10.3390/app14146300

Marcillo P, Arciniegas-Ayala C, Valdivieso Caraguay รL, Sanchez-Gordon S, Hernรกndez-รlvarez M. POLIDriving: A Public-Access Driving Dataset for Road Traffic Safety Analysis. Applied Sciences . 2024; 14(14):6300. https://doi.org/10.3390/app14146300

Marcillo, Pablo, Cristian Arciniegas-Ayala, รngel Leonardo Valdivieso Caraguay, Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, and Myriam Hernรกndez-รlvarez. 2024. "POLIDriving: A Public-Access Driving Dataset for Road Traffic Safety Analysis" Applied Sciences 14, no. 14: 6300. https://doi.org/10.3390/app14146300

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A Personal View on Drunk Driving

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