National University Library

  • Module 1 Resources
  • Module 2 Resources

Module 3 Resources

  • Library Portal

Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed-Methods Approaches to Research 

  • Applied Research Methods in Public and Nonprofit Organizations Mitchell Brown, & Kathleen Hale. (2014). Applied Research Methods in Public and Nonprofit Organizations: Vol. First edition. Jossey-Bass.

Please review Chapter 3. 

  • Research Methodology & Design - Qualitative Research Methods National University Library (2024). Qualitative research methods. This guide features NU Library resources for studying and planning qualitative research methodology and design.
  • Research Methodology & Design - Quantitative Research Methods National University Library (2024). Quantitative research methods. This guide features NU Library resources for studying and planning quantitative research methodology and design.
  • Doing Qualitative Research Creswell, J. (2015). Doing qualitative research [Video]. Sage Research Methods. This video discusses the characteristics of a qualitative researcher and defines qualitative research. (9:55).
  • Top Tips for Conducting Qualitative Research Hein, W. (2020). Top tips for conducting qualitative research [Video]. Sage Research Methods. This video reviews common student research problems, how to identify gaps in your research, figuring out what methods you favor, and challenging research problems. (9:32).
  • An Introduction to Reasoning in Qualitative & Quantitative Research  Rivas, C. (2017). An introduction to reasoning in qualitative & quantitative research [Video]. Sage Research Methods. This video reviews perspective and reasoning styles, deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning, and abductive reasoning. (7:47).
  • What Is Best: Quantitative, Qualitative or Mixed Approaches? O'Leary, Z. (2017). What is best: Quantitative, qualitative or mixed approaches? [Video]. Sage Research Methods. This video discusses quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches. (10:32).
  • An Introduction to Mixed Methods Research Hitchcock, J. (2017). An introduction to mixed methods research [Video]. Sage Research Methods. This video reviews mixed methods research, how it can be used to address complex questions, and more. (16:05).
  • SAGE Research Methods: Qualitative vs Quantitative Research – Video Search Result List Spend some time exploring the videos in the search results list provided. This is a great place to start as you complete your own research for your culminating project proposal.


  • Elementary Statistics: A QuickStudy Digital Reference Guide Rumsey, D. (2020). Elementary Statistics: A QuickStudy Digital Reference Guide. QuickStudy Reference Guides.
  • Introductory Statistics Eusea, J., Okwan, P., Belmasrour, R., Patterson, S., & Andrus, S. (2024). Introductory Statistics. Pressbooks.
  • Basic Statistics Sandals29, & Leon, A. (2022). Basic Statistics. Pressbooks.
  • College Statistics LePine, M. (2022). College Statistics. Pressbooks.
  • Statistics for Research Students Fein, E. C., Gilmour, J., Machin, T., & Hendry, L. (2022). Statistics for Research Students. Pressbooks.
  • Introduction to Probability and Statistics Pardoe, I. (2022). Introduction to Probability and Statistics. Pressbooks.
  • Introduction to Statistics Lumen Learning, & OpenStax (2023). Introduction to Statistics. Pressbooks.
  • From Questions To Answers – Statistics For Everyone Roth, A. (2024). From Questions To Answers – Statistics For Everyone. Pressbooks.

Using Artificial Intelligence in Research

Resources  .

  • Artificial Intelligence: OpenAI, ChatGPT, Large Language Models, and You National University Library (2024). Artificial intelligence: OpenAI, ChatGPT, Large language models, and you. Explore this resource provided by National University to guide the ethical use of AI in your research.
  • Using Generative AI Academic Success Center (2024). Using generative AI. Familiarize yourself with the National University Academic Success Center’s resources for using generative AI. Please note that the misuse of AI in courses constitutes a breach of academic integrity as defined by the Student Code of Conduct.


  • Using AI in Research Projects [Cory Lebson]. (2023, October 10). Using AI in Research Projects [Video]. LinkedIn Learning. This course gives tips and techniques for using generative AI to enhance, extend, and improve research projects of all types. (25m). Please make sure you are signed into OKTA prior to accessing the following LinkedIn Learning resources. Faculty, staff, and students have access to LinkedIn Learning and do not need to create an account.
  • How to Research and Write Using Generative AI Tools [Dave Birss]. (2023, March 15). How to Research and Write Using Generative AI Tools [Video]. LinkedIn Learning. This course teaches strategies for writing effective prompts for generative AI. (1h 15m). Please make sure you are signed into OKTA prior to accessing the following LinkedIn Learning resources. Faculty, staff, and students have access to LinkedIn Learning and do not need to create an account.
  • << Previous: Module 2 Resources
  • Next: Library Portal >>
  • Last Updated: Jul 12, 2024 9:17 AM
  • URL:

National University

© Copyright 2024 National University. All Rights Reserved.

Privacy Policy | Consumer Information

chapter iii methodology (research design & methods)

Writing The Methodology Chapter

5 Time-Saving Tips & Tools

By: David Phair (PhD) and Amy Murdock (PhD) | July 2022

The methodology chapter is a crucial part of your dissertation or thesis – it’s where you provide context and justification for your study’s design. This in turn demonstrates your understanding of research theory, which is what earns you marks .

Over the years, we’ve helped thousands of students navigate this tricky section of the research process. In this post, we’ll share 5 time-saving tips to help you effectively write up your research methodology chapter .

Overview: Writing The Methodology Chapter

  • Develop a (rough) outline before you start writing
  • Draw inspiration from similar studies in your topic area
  • Justify every research design choice that you make
  • Err on the side of too much detail , rather than too little
  • Back up every design choice by referencing literature

Free Webinar: Research Methodology 101

1. Develop an outline before you start writing 

The first thing to keep in mind when writing your methodology chapter (and the rest of your dissertation) is that it’s always a good idea to sketch out a rough outline of what you are going to write about before you start writing . This will ensure that you stay focused and have a clear structural logic – thereby making the writing process simpler and faster.

An easy method of finding a structure for this chapter is to use frameworks that already exist, such as Saunder’s “ research onion ” as an example. Alternatively, there are many free methodology chapter templates for you to use as a starting point, so don’t feel like you have to create a new one from scratch.

Next, you’ll want to consider what your research approach is , and how you can break it down from a top-down angle, i.e., from the philosophical down to the concrete/tactical level. For example, you’ll need to articulate the following:  

  • Are you using a positivist , interpretivist , or pragmatist approach ?
  • Are you using inductive or deductive reasoning?
  • Are you using a qualitative , quantitative, or mixed methods study?

Keep these questions front of mind to ensure that you have a clear, well-aligned line of argument that will maintain your chapter’s internal and external consistency.

Remember, it’s okay if you feel overwhelmed when you first start the methodology chapter. Nobody is born with an innate knowledge of how to do this, so be prepared for the learning curve associated with new research projects. It’s no small task to write up a dissertation or thesis, so be kind to yourself!

Starting the process with a chapter outline will help keep your writing focused and ensure that the chapter has a clear structural logic.

2. Take inspiration from other studies 

Generally, there are plenty of existing journal articles that will share similar methodological approaches to your study. With any luck, there will also be existing dissertations and theses that adopt a similar methodological approach and topic. So, consider taking inspiration from these studies to help curate the contents of your methodology chapter.

Students often find it difficult to choose what content to include in the methodology chapter and what to leave for the appendix. By reviewing other studies with similar approaches, you will get a clearer sense of your discipline’s norms and characteristics . This will help you, especially in terms of deciding on the structure and depth of discussion.  

While you can draw inspiration from other studies, remember that it’s vital to pay close attention to your university’s specific guidelines, so you can anticipate departmental expectations of this section’s layout and content (and make it easier to work with your supervisor). Doing this is also a great way to figure out how in-depth your discussion should be. For example, word-count guidelines can help you decide whether to include or omit certain information.

Need a helping hand?

chapter iii methodology (research design & methods)

3. Justify every design choice you make

The golden rule of the methodology chapter is that you need to justify each and every design choice that you make, no matter how small or inconsequential it may seem. We often see that students merely state what they did instead of why they did what they did – and this costs them marks.

Keep in mind that you need to illustrate the strength of your study’s methodological foundation. By discussing the “what”, “why” and “how” of your choices, you demonstrate your understanding of research design and simultaneously justify the relevancy and efficacy of your methodology – both of which will earn you marks.

It’s never an easy task to conduct research. So, it’s seldom the case that you’ll be able to use the very best possible methodology for your research (e.g. due to time or budgetary constraints ). That’s okay – but make sure that you explain and justify your use of an alternate methodology to help justify your approach.

Ultimately, if you don’t justify and explain the logic behind each of your choices, your marker will have to assume that you simply didn’t know any better . So, make sure that you justify every choice, especially when it is a subpar choice (due to a practical constraint, for example). You can see an example of how this is done here.

The golden rule of the methodology chapter is that you need to justify each and every design choice that you make, no matter how small.

4. Err on the side of too much detail

We often see a tendency in students to mistakenly give more of an overview of their methodology instead of a step-by-step breakdown . Since the methodology chapter needs to be detailed enough for another researcher to replicate your study, your chapter should be particularly granular in terms of detail. 

Whether you’re doing a qualitative or quantitative study, it’s crucial to convey rigor in your research. You can do this by being especially detailed when you discuss your data, so be absolutely clear about your:  

  • Sampling strategy
  • Data collection method(s)
  • Data preparation
  • Analysis technique(s)

As you will likely face an extensive period of editing at your supervisor/reviewer’s direction, you’ll make it much easier for yourself if you have more information than you’d need. Some supervisors expect extensive detail around a certain aspect of your dissertation (like your research philosophy), while others may not expect it at all.

Remember, it’s quicker and easier to remove/ trim down information than it is to add information after the fact, so take the time to show your supervisor that you know what you’re talking about (methodologically) and you’re doing your best to be rigorous in your research.

The methodology chapter needs to be detailed enough information for another researcher to replicate your study, so don't be shy on detail.

5. Provide citations to support each design choice

Related to the issue of poor justification (tip #3), it’s important include high-quality academic citations to support the justification of your design choices. In other words, it’s not enough to simply explain why you chose a specific approach – you need to support each justification with reference to academic material.  

Simply put, you should avoid thinking of your methodology chapter as a citation-less section in your dissertation. As with your literature review, your methods section must include citations for every decision you make, since you are building on prior research.  You must show that you are making decisions based on methods that are proven to be effective, and not just because you “feel” that they are effective.

When considering the source of your citations, you should stick to peer-reviewed academic papers and journals and avoid using websites or blog posts (like us, hehe). Doing this will demonstrate that you are familiar with the literature and that you are factoring in what credible academics have to say about your methodology.

As a final tip, it’s always a good idea to cite as you go . If you leave this for the end, then you’ll end up spending a lot of precious time retracing your steps to find your citations and risk losing track of them entirely. So, be proactive and drop in those citations as you write up . You’ll thank yourself later!

Let’s Recap…

In this post, we covered 5 time-saving tips for writing up the methodology chapter:

  • Look at similar studies in your topic area
  • Justify every design choice that you make
  • Back up every design choice by referencing methodology literature

If you’ve got any questions relating to the methodology chapter, feel free to drop a comment below. Alternatively, if you’re interested in getting 1-on-1 help with your thesis or dissertation, be sure to check out our private coaching service .

chapter iii methodology (research design & methods)

Psst... there’s more!

This post was based on one of our popular Research Bootcamps . If you're working on a research project, you'll definitely want to check this out ...

Bafana Mkhwebane

What data analysis method can work best for my study. I am using a mixed method in the study. I am developing a framework to address the challenges faced by the taxi operators as entrepreneurs. I will need to analyse both using qualitative and quantitative.


How to find standard deviation for non numerical data

Submit a Comment Cancel reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

  • Print Friendly

Methods Section: Chapter Three

The methods section , or chapter three, of the dissertation or thesis is often the most challenging for graduate students.  The methodology section, chapter three should reiterate the research questions and hypotheses, present the research design, discuss the participants, the instruments to be used, the procedure, the data analysis plan , and the sample size justification.

Research Questions and Null Hypotheses

Chapter three should begin with a portion that discusses the research questions and null hypotheses.  In the research questions and null hypotheses portion of the methodology chapter, the research questions should be restated in statistical language.  For example, “Is there a difference in GPA by gender?” is a t-test type of question, whereas “Is there a relationship between GPA and income level?” is a correlation type of question.  The important thing to remember is to use the language that foreshadows the data analysis plan .  The null hypotheses are just the research questions stated in the null; for example, “There is no difference in GPA by gender,” or “There is no relationship between GPA and income level.”

Research Design

The next portion of the methods section, chapter three is focused on developing the research design.  The research design has several possibilities. First, you must decide if you are doing quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods research. In a quantitative study, you are assessing participants’ responses on a measure.  For example, participants can endorse their level of agreement on some scale.  A qualitative design is a typically a semi-structured interview which gets transcribed, and the themes among the participants are derived.  A mixed methods project is a mixture of both a quantitative and qualitative study.


In the research methodology, the participants are typically a sample of the population you want to study.  You are probably not going to study all school children, but you may sample from the population of school children.  You need to include information about the characteristics of the population in your study (Are you sampling all males? teachers with under five years of experience?).  This represents the participants portion of your methods section, chapter three.

Need help with your methods section?

Schedule a time to speak with an expert using the calendar below.


The instruments section is a critical part of the methodology section, chapter three.  The instruments section should include the name of the instruments, the scales or subscales, how the scales are computed, and the reliability and validity of the scales.  The instruments portion should have references to the researchers who created the instruments.

The procedure section of the methods chapter is simply how you are going to administer the instruments that you just described to the participants you are going to select.  You should walk the reader through the procedure in detail so that they can replicate your steps and your study.

Data Analysis Plan

The data analysis plan is just that — how you are going to analyze the data when you get the data from your participants.   It includes the statistical tests you are going to use, the statistical assumptions of these tests, and the justification for the statistical tests.

Sample Size Justification

Another important portion of your methods chapter three, is the sample size justification.  Sample size justification (or power analysis) is selecting how many participants you need to have in your study.  The sample size is based on several criteria:  the power you select (which is typically .80), the alpha level selected (which is typically .05), and the effect size (typically, a large or medium effect size is selected).  Importantly, once these criteria are selected, the sample size is going to be based on the type of statistic: an ANOVA is going to have a different sample size calculation than a multiple regression.


  • Author Services


You are accessing a machine-readable page. In order to be human-readable, please install an RSS reader.

All articles published by MDPI are made immediately available worldwide under an open access license. No special permission is required to reuse all or part of the article published by MDPI, including figures and tables. For articles published under an open access Creative Common CC BY license, any part of the article may be reused without permission provided that the original article is clearly cited. For more information, please refer to .

Feature papers represent the most advanced research with significant potential for high impact in the field. A Feature Paper should be a substantial original Article that involves several techniques or approaches, provides an outlook for future research directions and describes possible research applications.

Feature papers are submitted upon individual invitation or recommendation by the scientific editors and must receive positive feedback from the reviewers.

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to readers, or important in the respective research area. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

Original Submission Date Received: .

  • Active Journals
  • Find a Journal
  • Proceedings Series
  • For Authors
  • For Reviewers
  • For Editors
  • For Librarians
  • For Publishers
  • For Societies
  • For Conference Organizers
  • Open Access Policy
  • Institutional Open Access Program
  • Special Issues Guidelines
  • Editorial Process
  • Research and Publication Ethics
  • Article Processing Charges
  • Testimonials
  • SciProfiles
  • Encyclopedia


Article Menu

chapter iii methodology (research design & methods)

  • Subscribe SciFeed
  • Recommended Articles
  • Author Biographies
  • Google Scholar
  • on Google Scholar
  • Table of Contents

Find support for a specific problem in the support section of our website.

Please let us know what you think of our products and services.

Visit our dedicated information section to learn more about MDPI.

JSmol Viewer

Study of slope stability of the mining wall in an open-pit coal mine by the paste cut-and-backfill method, 1. introduction, 2. case study site, engineering geological conditions, 3. backfilling and mining methods, 3.1. principles of paste cut-and-backfill mining, 3.2. procedure for preparing and transporting materials for backfilling with cement paste, 3.3. the mining and backfilling sequence design, 4. mechanical properties of paste backfill materials made of cement, 4.1. materials and preparation of samples, 4.1.1. materials, 4.1.2. sample preparation, 4.1.3. testing program, 4.2. calculations and analysis of experimental results, the optimum cemented paste fill, 5. basic theory and definition, 5.1. limit equilibrium methods, 5.2. planar failure, 5.3. strength reduction finite element method, 5.4. slope failure definition, 5.5. mohr–coulomb plastic criterion, 6. limit equilibrium model with cemented paste backfill, 6.2. simulation slope with a different cement paste backfilling body, 7. discussion, 8. conclusions, supplementary materials, author contributions, institutional review board statement, informed consent statement, data availability statement, acknowledgments, conflicts of interest.

  • Das, B.M. Geotechnical Engineering Handbook ; Ross Publishing: Plantation, FL, USA, 2011. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Agarwal, V.K. Geotechnical Investigation of Coal Mine Refuse for Backfilling in Mines Bachelor of Technology in Mining Engineering. Ph.D. Thesis, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India, 2009. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Wang, S.; Hagan, P.C.; Cao, C. Advances in Rock-Support and Geotechnical Engineering ; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2016. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Jiang, J.; Lu, Y.; Wang, D.; Han, X. Slope stability calculation method for highwall mining with open-cut mines. Sci. Rep. 2022 , 12 , 209. [ Google Scholar ] [ CrossRef ] [ PubMed ]
  • Xinguo, Z.; Sittisarn, W. Study on the Slope Stability of Mine Wall in Open Pit Mines for Paste Backfill of Cut-and-Backfill Mining. Rev. Argent. Clínica Psicológica 2020 , XXIX , 1530–1537. [ Google Scholar ] [ CrossRef ]
  • Yang, G.L.; Yang, R.S.; Tong, Q.; Huo, C. Coalmine green mining with gangue backfilling technique. In Procedia Environmental Science ; Elsevier B.V.: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2011; pp. 1205–1209. [ Google Scholar ] [ CrossRef ]
  • Dixon, D.A.; Keto, P. Backfilling Techniques and Materials in Underground Excavations: Potential Alternative Backfill Materials in Use in Posiva’ s Spent Fuel Repository Concept ; Posiva Oy: Eurajoki, Finland, 2009. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Alves, A.E. Coal Mining at Moatize, Tete Province, Northwest of Mozambique: A Socio Environmental Analysis. Available online: (accessed on 26 July 2017).
  • Marove, C.A.; Sotozono, R.; Tangviroon, P.; Tabelin, C.B.; Igarashi, T. Assessment of soil, sediment and water contaminations around open-pit coal mines in Moatize, Tete province, Mozambique. Environ. Adv. 2022 , 8 , 100215. [ Google Scholar ] [ CrossRef ]
  • Gao, R.; Wang, W.; Xiong, X.; Li, J.; Xu, C. Effect of curing temperature on the mechanical properties and pore structure of cemented backfill materials with waste rock-tailings. Constr. Build Mater. 2023 , 409 , 133850. [ Google Scholar ] [ CrossRef ]
  • Wu, J.; Yin, Q.; Jing, H.; Pu, H.; Gao, Y.; Xu, J. Strength prediction based on ultrasonic property of fractal gangue cemented rockfill reinforced by carbon nanotubes. Constr. Build Mater. 2021 , 303 , 124444. [ Google Scholar ] [ CrossRef ]
  • Ding, Q. Overlying Strata Movement Law and Control of Underground Mining in End Slope ; China University of Mining and Technology: Xuzhou, China, 2017. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Li, B.; Zhang, J.; Ghoreishi-Madiseh, S.A.; de Brito, M.A.R.; Deng, X.; Kuyuk, A.F. Energy performance of seasonal thermal energy storage in underground backfilled stopes of coal mines. J. Clean. Prod. 2020 , 275 , 122647. [ Google Scholar ] [ CrossRef ]
  • ERobertson, I.; Robertson GeoConsultants Inc. Main Pit Backfilling Concept Approaches, Rum Jungle. The Preferred Rehabilitation Strategy for Rum Jungle Includes Backfilling Main Pit with Potentially Acid. Available online: (accessed on 9 July 2024).
  • Zheng, J.; Guo, L.; Sun, X.; Li, W.; Jia, Q. Study on the Strength Development of Cemented Backfill Body from Lead-Zinc Mine Tailings with Sulphide. Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2018 , 2018 , 7278014. [ Google Scholar ] [ CrossRef ]
  • Skrzypkowski, K. Compressibility of materials and backfilling mixtures with addition of solid wastes from flue-gas treatment and fly ashes. In E3S Web of Conferences ; EDP Sciences: Les Ulis, France, 2018. [ Google Scholar ] [ CrossRef ]
  • Sun, K.; Zhang, J.; He, M.; Li, M.; Guo, S. Control of surface deformation and overburden movement in coal mine area by an innovative roadway cemented paste backfilling method using mining waste. Sci. Total Environ. 2023 , 891 , 164693. [ Google Scholar ] [ CrossRef ] [ PubMed ]
  • Mbonimpa, M.; Kwizera, P.; Belem, T. Mine backfilling in the permafrost, part II: Effect of declining curing temperature on the short-term unconfined compressive strength of cemented paste backfills. Minerals 2019 , 9 , 172. [ Google Scholar ] [ CrossRef ]
  • Testa, S.M.; Pompy, J.S. Backfilling of open-pit metallic mines. In Proceedings of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation-24th National Meetings of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation 2007: 30 Years of SMCRA and Beyond, Gillette, WY, USA, 2–6 June 2007; pp. 658–672. [ Google Scholar ] [ CrossRef ]
  • Jiang, H.; Cao, Y.; Huang, P.; Fang, K.; Li, B. Characterisation of coal-mine waste in solid backfill mining in China. Trans. Inst. Min. Metall. Sect. A Min. Technol. 2015 , 124 , 56–63. [ Google Scholar ] [ CrossRef ]
  • Damage Properties of Coal and Rock and Instability Mechanism of Rib Pillar-Roof under Cyclic and Impact Loading. Available online: (accessed on 9 July 2024).
  • Cui, B.; Feng, G.; Bai, J.; Wang, K.; Shi, X.; Wu, H. Acoustic emission characteristics and damage evolution process of backfilling body–coal pillar–backfilling body composite structure. Bull. Eng. Geol. Environ. 2022 , 81 , 300. [ Google Scholar ] [ CrossRef ]
  • Vardar, O.; Zhang, C.; Canbulat, I.; Hebblewhite, B. Numerical modelling of strength and energy release characteristics of pillar-scale coal mass. J. Rock Mech. Geotech. Eng. 2019 , 11 , 935–943. [ Google Scholar ] [ CrossRef ]
  • Programação e Qualidade Moatize. 2023. Available online: (accessed on 9 July 2024).
  • Dyson, A.P.; Tolooiyan, A.; Griffiths, D.V. Numerical Modelling Techniques for Stability Analysis of Slopes Reinforced with Shallow Roots. Geotechnics 2023 , 3 , 278–300. [ Google Scholar ] [ CrossRef ]
  • Chen, T.; Shu, J.; Han, L.; Tovele, G.S.V.; Li, B. Landslide mechanism and stability of an open-pit slope: The Manglai open-pit coal mine. Front. Earth Sci. 2023 , 10 , 1038499. [ Google Scholar ] [ CrossRef ]
  • Bui, H.H.; Sako, K.; Fukagawa, R. Slope stability analysis and slope failure simulation by SPH. In Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering: The Academia and Practice of Geotechnical Engineering, Alexandria, Egypt, 5–9 October 2009; pp. 1578–1581. [ Google Scholar ] [ CrossRef ]
  • Kliche, C.A. Rock Slope Stability ; SME: Tokyo, Japan, 1999. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Slope Stability Engineer Manual. 2003. Available online: (accessed on 9 July 2024).
  • Wyllie, C.D.; WMah, C. Rock Slope Engineering: Civil and Mining , 4th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2004. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Adhikary, D.P.; Shen, B.; Fama, M.E.D. A study of highwall mining panel stability. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 2002 , 39 , 643–659. [ Google Scholar ] [ CrossRef ]
  • Chen, H.; Guo, Q.; Wang, L.; Meng, X. Evaluation of Slope Stability within the Influence of Mining Based on Combined Weighting and Finite Cloud Model. Energy Explor. Exploit. 2023 , 41 , 636–655. [ Google Scholar ] [ CrossRef ]
  • Blodgett, S.; Kuipers, J.R. Underground Hard-Rock Mining: Subsidence and Hydrologic Environmental Impacts. 2002. Available online: (accessed on 9 July 2024).
  • Zhang, Q.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, X.; Liu, Z.; Huang, Y. Industrial Tests of Waste Rock Direct Backfilling Underground in Fully Mechanized Coal Mining Face. 2014. Available online: (accessed on 9 July 2024).
  • Meng, F.; Pu, H.; Sasaoka, T.; Shimada, H.; Liu, S.; Dintwe, T.K.; Sha, Z. Time effect and prediction of broken rock bulking coefficient on the base of particle discrete element method. Int. J. Min. Sci. Technol. 2021 , 31 , 643–651. [ Google Scholar ] [ CrossRef ]
  • Han, B.; Zhang, S.; Sun, W. Impact of Temperature on the Strength Development of the Tailing-Waste Rock Backfill of a Gold Mine. Adv. Civ. Eng. 2019 , 2019 , 4379606. [ Google Scholar ] [ CrossRef ]
  • Miao, X. Review of Research on Mechanical Behaviors of Mining Rock Mass and Its Related Engineering Technological Innovation Progress. Chin. J. Rock Mech. Eng. 2010 , 29 , 1988. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Harries, N.; Noon, D.; Rowley, K. The South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy International Symposium on Stability of Rock Slopes Neal Harries Case Studies of Slope Stability Radar Used in Open Cut Mines. Stab. Rock Slopes Open Pit Min. Civ. Eng. Situat. 2006 , 335–342. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Carroll, K.C. Waste Rock Backfill of Open Pits: Design, Optimisation, and Modelling Considerations Characterization of the Vadose Zone View Project Facilitated Transport Enabled In Situ Chemical Oxidation of 1,4-Dioxane-Contaminated Groundwater View Project. 2007. Available online: (accessed on 9 July 2024).
  • Yacoub, T. Using Shear Strength Reduction Method for 2D and 3D Slope Stability Analysis. Available online: (accessed on 9 July 2024).
  • Duncan, J.M.; Wright, S.G. Soil Strength and Slope Stability ; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2005. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Yan, J.; Zhang, X.; Wang, K.; Song, X.; Yue, S.; Hou, J. Experimental Study on Creep Characteristics and Long–Term Strength of Anthracite. Processes 2023 , 11 , 947. [ Google Scholar ] [ CrossRef ]
  • Wang, H.; Poulsen, B.A.; Shen, B.; Xue, S.; Jiang, Y. The influence of roadway backfill on the coal pillar strength by numericalinvestigation. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 2011 , 48 , 443–450. [ Google Scholar ] [ CrossRef ]
  • Qi, C.; Guo, L.; Wu, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Chen, Q. Stability Evaluation of Layered Backfill Considering Filling Interval, Backfill Strength and Creep Behavior. Minerals 2022 , 12 , 271. [ Google Scholar ] [ CrossRef ]
  • Pradhan, S. Stability Analysis of Open Pit Slope Using Flac a Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for The Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Mining Engineering. Bachelor’s Thesis, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India, 2013. [ Google Scholar ]

Click here to enlarge figure

NumberLithologyThickness (m)Density (kg·m )Cohesion (MPa)Internal Friction Angle (°)
1Siltstone Sandstone50.7124602.4540
19Thin Variable Siltstone0.9724702.4540
NumberNameType Specification
1Strength testing facilityWAW-1000D (Jinan Hensgrand Instrument Co., Ltd., Jinan, China)
2Digital curing chamberSHBY-40B (Trading Company, Nanjing, China)
3Cement mixerNJ160 (Shaoxing Kare Instrument Equipment CO., Ltd., Shaoxing, China)
4Mold70.7 mm × 70.7 mm × 70.7 mm
5Laser Particle Size AnalyzerWINNER3009
6Laboratory Small Jaw CrusherJXSC Machine (JXSC Mine Machinery, Ganzhou, China)
7Vibro-stand and soil sieve
%) %) %)Curing Time (d)
NumberCuring Time (d)
Type of Paste Fill SpecimenDensity (kg·m )Peak Load (kN)UCS (MPa)StrainShear Stress (MPa)
6% Cement D1 = S134,571.43.02230.620.0230.31
6% Cement D3 = S834,333.34.73350.970.0180.485
6% Cement D7 = S1134,523.812.31632.510.0141.255
6% Cement D28 = S1433,428.625.36665.180.0282.59
8% Cement D1 = S234,095.25.68811.160.0320.58
8% Cement D3 = S533,142.99.46081.930.0360.965
8% Cement D7 = S1233,571.427.45385.600.0302.8
8% Cement D28 = 1533,714.31.509912.220.0226.11
10% Cement D1 = S334,095.213.77132.810.0151.405
10% Cement D3 = S631,619.019.34743.950.0281.975
10% Cement D7 = S933,571.436.45047.390.0343.695
10% Cement D28 = S1630,552.446.84469.560.0254.78
12% Cement D1 = S433,619.023.96624.890.0192.445
12% Cement D3 = S732,
12% Cement D7 = S1030,904.836.45047.440.0193.72
12% Cement D28 = S1331,333.366.05513.480.0176.74
NumberLithologyThickness (m)Density (kg·m )Cohesion (MPa)Internal Friction Angle (°)
1Siltstone Sandstone50.7124602.4540
2Coal Siltstone1.2420502.4540
3Thin Variable Siltstone0.9724702.4540
5Backfilling BodyVariableVariableVariableVariable
Type of Paste Fill SpecimenDensity
(kg·m )
UCS (MPa)StrainShear Strength
Internal Friction Angle (°)
6% Cement D1 = S134,571.40.620.0230.1940.07311.040
6% Cement D3 = S834,333.30.970.0180.3110.07113.910
6% Cement D7 = S1134,523.82.510.0141.1250.01223.920
6% Cement D28 = S1433,428.65.180.0282.9090.07028.730
8% Cement D1 = S234,
8% Cement D3 = S533,142.91.930.0360.8680.01223.920
8% Cement D7 = S1233,571.45.600.0303.1400.07028.730
8% Cement D28 = 1533,714.312.220.0227.3620.25330.190
10% Cement D1 = S334,095.22.810.0151.2580.01223.920
10% Cement D3 = S631,619.03.950.0282.4920.11531.040
10% Cement D7 = S933,571.47.390.0344.6230.08731.540
10% Cement D28 = S1630,552.49.560.0256.4870.10233.740
12% Cement D1 = S433,619.04.890.0193.0580.11531.040
12% Cement D3 = S732,095.27.360.0164.9820.32432.330
12% Cement D7 = S1030,904.87.440.0195.0710.10233.740
12% Cement D28 = S1331,333.313.480.0179.8600.33735.240
Type of Paste Fill SpecimenDensity
(kg·m )
UCS (MPa)StrainShear Strength
Internal Friction Angle (°)FOS
6% Cement D1 = S134,571.40.620.0230.1940.07311.0401.1
6% Cement D3 = S834,333.30.970.0180.3110.07113.9101.23
6% Cement D7 = S1134,523.82.510.0141.1250.01223.9200.97
6% Cement D28 = S1433,428.65.180.0282.9090.07028.7301.99
8% Cement D1 = S234,
8% Cement D3 = S533,142.91.930.0360.8680.01223.9200.98
8% Cement D7 = S1233,571.45.600.0303.1400.07028.7301.99
8% Cement D28 = 1533,714.312.220.0227.3620.25330.1903.57
10% Cement D1 = S334,095.22.810.0151.2580.01223.9200.97
10% Cement D3 = S631,619.03.950.0282.4920.11531.0402.59
10% Cement D7 = S933,571.47.390.0344.6230.08731.5402.31
10% Cement D28 = S1630,552.49.560.0256.4870.10233.7402.67
12% Cement D1 = S433,619.04.890.0193.0580.11531.0402.53
12% Cement D3 = S732,095.27.360.0164.9820.32432.3304.36
12% Cement D7 = S1030,904.87.440.0195.0710.10233.7402.66
12% Cement D28 = S1331,333.313.480.0179.8600.33735.2404.74
The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content.

Share and Cite

Francisco, C.S.; Li, M.; Li, B.; Deon, M.G. Study of Slope Stability of the Mining Wall in an Open-Pit Coal Mine by the Paste Cut-and-Backfill Method. Appl. Sci. 2024 , 14 , 6141.

Francisco CS, Li M, Li B, Deon MG. Study of Slope Stability of the Mining Wall in an Open-Pit Coal Mine by the Paste Cut-and-Backfill Method. Applied Sciences . 2024; 14(14):6141.

Francisco, Chano Simao, Meng Li, Baiyi Li, and Makavelo Germain Deon. 2024. "Study of Slope Stability of the Mining Wall in an Open-Pit Coal Mine by the Paste Cut-and-Backfill Method" Applied Sciences 14, no. 14: 6141.

Article Metrics

Article access statistics, supplementary material.

ZIP-Document (ZIP, 12454 KiB)

Further Information

Mdpi initiatives, follow mdpi.


Subscribe to receive issue release notifications and newsletters from MDPI journals


Supported by

What Is Project 2025, and Why Is Trump Disavowing It?

The Biden campaign has attacked Donald J. Trump’s ties to the conservative policy plan that would amass power in the executive branch, though it is not his official platform.

  • Share full article

Kevin Roberts, wearing a dark suit and blue tie and speaking into a microphone at a lectern. The lectern says, “National Religious Broadcasters,”

By Simon J. Levien

Donald J. Trump has gone to great lengths to distance himself from Project 2025, a set of conservative policy proposals for a future Republican administration that has outraged Democrats. He has claimed he knows nothing about it or the people involved in creating it.

Mr. Trump himself was not behind the project. But some of his allies were.

The document, its origins and the interplay between it and the Trump campaign have made for one of the most hotly debated questions of the 2024 race.

Here is what to know about Project 2025, and who is behind it.

What is Project 2025?

Project 2025 was spearheaded by the Heritage Foundation and like-minded conservative groups before Mr. Trump officially entered the 2024 race. The Heritage Foundation is a think tank that has shaped the personnel and policies of Republican administrations since the Reagan presidency.

The project was intended as a buffet of options for the Trump administration or any other Republican presidency. It’s the latest installment in the Heritage Foundation’s Mandate for Leadership series, which has compiled conservative policy proposals every few years since 1981. But no previous study has been as sweeping in its recommendations — or as widely discussed.

Kevin Roberts, the head of the Heritage Foundation, which began putting together the latest document in 2022, said he thought the American government would embrace a more conservative era, one that he hoped Republicans would usher in.

“We are in the process of the second American Revolution,” Mr. Roberts said on Real America’s Voice, a right-wing cable channel, in early July, adding pointedly that the revolt “will remain bloodless if the left allows it to be.”

We are having trouble retrieving the article content.

Please enable JavaScript in your browser settings.

Thank you for your patience while we verify access. If you are in Reader mode please exit and  log into  your Times account, or  subscribe  for all of The Times.

Thank you for your patience while we verify access.

Already a subscriber?  Log in .

Want all of The Times?  Subscribe .



    chapter iii methodology (research design & methods)

  2. (PDF) CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Design

    chapter iii methodology (research design & methods)

  3. Chapter 3 research methodology

    chapter iii methodology (research design & methods)

  4. (PDF) Chapter 3 Research design and methodology

    chapter iii methodology (research design & methods)

  5. chapter 3 research methodology sample quantitative pdf

    chapter iii methodology (research design & methods)

  6. Methodology part

    chapter iii methodology (research design & methods)



  2. WRITING THE CHAPTER 3|| Research Methodology (Research Design and Method)

  3. Research Methodology Sinhala / Research philosophy/ ontology and epistemology /Episode 6/ chapter 3

  4. Chapter III Methodology in Research/Thesis

  5. Research Design/Importance/ contents/ Characteristics/ Types/Research Methodology/ Malayalam

  6. Types of Research Design


  1. (PDF) Chapter 3 Research Design and Methodology

    Research Design and Methodology. Chapter 3 consists of three parts: (1) Purpose of the. study and research design, (2) Methods, and (3) Statistical. Data analysis procedure. Part one, Purpose of ...

  2. PDF Research Design and Research Methods

    Research Design and Research Methods CHAPTER 3 This chapter uses an emphasis on research design to discuss qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods research as three major approaches to research in the social sciences. The first major section considers the role of research methods in each of these approaches. This discussion then


    CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY The methods used in this research consist of a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches: a "mixed methods" approach, which is described in more detail in this chapter. The first section explains the rationale for using a mixed methods approach and ethical and practical issues.

  4. PDF CHAPTER 3 Research design and methodology Conceptual phase. In the conceptual phase the research question namely what is the perception of nurses of pain in the elderly suffering from Alzheimer's disease and objectives were formulated for the purpose of the study (see chapter 1, sections 1.5.1 and 1.6). The research question evolved due to the researcher's involvement in ...


    The methods used to process the results, together with the methods used to analyse and interpret results, are discussed in this chapter. Initially the research design is described. This is followed by stating the population, the sample and sampling procedures. The chapter also outlines the methods of data collection and the plan for data analysis.

  6. PDF Presenting Methodology and Research Approach

    Presenting Methodology and Research Approach 67 Table 3.1 Roadmap for Developing Methodology Chapter: Necessary Elements 1: Introduction and Overview Begin by stating purpose and research questions. Go on to explain how the chapter is organized. Then provide a rationale for using a qualitative research approach, as well as a rationale for the

  7. PDF CHAPTER 3 Research design and methodology

    1998:745). This chapter describes the research design and methodology, including sampling and data collection and analysis. 3.2 DEFINITION OF METHODOLOGY Mouton (1996:35) describes methodology as the means or methods of doing something. Polit and Hungler (1999:648) refer to it as the process of following the steps, procedures and strategies for ...


    CHAPTER IIIRESEARCH METHODOLOGYChapter three presents the method. logy in conducting the research. This chapter provides four main parts of the investigation: research design, data collection technique, research procedu. technique.3. 1 Research DesignThe research employed quantitative method in the form of quasi experimental des.

  9. PDF Chapter 3 Research design and methodology

    3.1 INTRODUCTION. This chapter covers an overview of methodology used in the study. The discussion in the chapter is structured around the research design, population sampling, data collection and data analysis. Ethical considerations and measures to provide trustworthiness are also discussed.

  10. Module 3 Resources

    Please review Chapter 3. Resources. ... Qualitative research methods. This guide features NU Library resources for studying and planning qualitative research methodology and design. Research Methodology & Design - Quantitative Research Methods . ... This video reviews mixed methods research, how it can be used to address complex questions, and ...


    Dissertation Chapter 3 Sample. be be 1. Describe. quantitative, CHAPTER III: METHOD introduce the qualitative, the method of the chapter and mixed-methods). used (i.e. The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the research methodology for this. methodology the specific connects to it question(s). research.


    CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the methodology of the research which is mentioned in the first chapter. It consists of research design and methodologies, research sites and participants, data collection, and data analysis. 3.1 Research Design and Methodologies In the research, the method used is descriptive qualitative ...

  13. PDF Writing Chapter 3 Chapter 3: Methodology

    Instruments. This section should include the instruments you plan on using to measure the variables in the research questions. (a) the source or developers of the instrument. (b) validity and reliability information. •. (c) information on how it was normed. •. (d) other salient information (e.g., number of. items in each scale, subscales ...


    3.1. Research Design. The goals of the research are to find out what speaking assessment. techniques that the teachers used in assessing children, the reasons for applying. niques, and what kinds of feedback that. the teachers gave inusing Projec. - Based Learning approach. Thus, th.

  15. PDF CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD 3.1. Research Design

    3.1. Research Design. it consists of the blueprint for t. e collection,measurement, and analysis of da. enon of the students' processing in perc. ivingfeedback by implementing blended. learning. This study uses. qualitative researchmethod in research design. mportance of the central idea and to explore theproblem and develop an unde.


    There are four key decisions involved in choosing an appropriate mixed methods design to use in a study. The decisions are (1) the level of interac-tion between the strands, (2) the relative priority of the strands, (3) the tim-ing of the strands, and (4) the procedures for mixing the strands. We examine each of these decisions along with the ...

  17. (PDF) Chapter 3: Research Design and Methodology

    Chapter 3: Research Design and Methodology. Introduction. The purpose of the study is to examine the impact social support (e.g., psych services, peers, family, bullying support groups) has on ...


    This chapter presents the design of the study (case study) including the rationale for the approach taken (mixed methods) and the methods of online repositories and data ... Methodology Figure 3.2: Research methods and underlying paradigms (Source: Cooke-Davies, T.J, 2000:109)

  19. (PDF) Chapter 3 Research Design and Methodology

    Chapter 3. Research Design and Methodology. This chapter presents the following: (1) Purpose of the. Study and Research Design, (2) Method, and (3) Statistical. Data Analysis Procedure. Part One ...

  20. PDF CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD 3.1. Research design

    This chapter presents methods that the researcher uses, including research. ants, types of data, sources of data, and informconsent), data collecting techniques, d. ana. ysis and trustwor. hiness of the research. 3.1. Research design This. esearch used qualitative. estions to be answered, and there is some set ofconclusions (answer.


    the methodology of the research. It consists of: research site and participants, research design, subject of study, data collection methods from tests, questionnaire, 1 Research Site and ParticipantsThe study was conducted in one of the junior high schools in Cir. bon Regency, West Java province. There were some r.

  22. Research Methodology Chapter: 5 Tips & Tricks

    Overview: Writing The Methodology Chapter. Develop a (rough) outline before you start writing. Draw inspiration from similar studies in your topic area. Justify every research design choice that you make. Err on the side of too much detail, rather than too little. Back up every design choice by referencing literature. 1.

  23. Methods Section: Chapter Three

    The methods section, or chapter three, of the dissertation or thesis is often the most challenging for graduate students.The methodology section, chapter three should reiterate the research questions and hypotheses, present the research design, discuss the participants, the instruments to be used, the procedure, the data analysis plan, and the sample size justification.

  24. (PDF) Mixed Methods Research Guide With Examples

    This article contributes to the field of mixed methods research by applying three dimensions of integration—rationale, study purpose, and research design—to the study of micro-policymaking in ...

  25. Performance Optimization and Simulation Test of No-Tillage Corn ...

    In order to test the influence of the structural design of a no-tillage corn precision planter on vibration stability performance, a vibration model was constructed with the help of MATLAB/Simulink, and it was concluded that the vibration response curve of the no-tillage corn precision planter was relatively smooth. Based on the theory of the discrete element method (DEM), taking the planting ...

  26. Applied Sciences

    According to this study's findings, slope stability problems in open-pit coal mines can be avoided, and mine wall collapse can be effectively mitigated by the use of cut-and-backfill mining techniques. The main research results are as follows: (1) The stope and waste rock's geotechnical, physical, and mechanical characteristics were gathered and examined; the geotechnical and mechanical ...

  27. What Is Project 2025, and Who Is Behind It?

    The Biden campaign has attacked Donald J. Trump's ties to the conservative policy plan that would amass power in the executive branch, though it is not his official platform. By Simon J. Levien ...


    CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD This chapter explains how the research is conducted from the beginning to the end. ... research methods in terms of the surface features and polypragmatic models of hedging. 3.2 Research Design To explore the above research problem, the present study employs qualitative research method. Qualitative research is the ...