1. Types of Variables in Research & Statistics

    Example (salt tolerance experiment) Independent variables (aka treatment variables) Variables you manipulate in order to affect the outcome of an experiment. The amount of salt added to each plant's water. Dependent variables (aka response variables) Variables that represent the outcome of the experiment.

  2. Variables: Definition, Examples, Types of Variables in Research

    Quantitative Variables. Quantitative variables, also called numeric variables, are those variables that are measured in terms of numbers. A simple example of a quantitative variable is a person's age. Age can take on different values because a person can be 20 years old, 35 years old, and so on.

  3. A Practical Guide to Writing Quantitative and Qualitative Research

    This statement is based on background research and current knowledge.8,9 The research hypothesis makes a specific prediction about a new phenomenon10 or a formal statement on the expected relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable.3,11 It provides a tentative answer to the research question to be tested or explored.4

  4. Types of Variables in Research

    Examples. Discrete variables (aka integer variables) Counts of individual items or values. Number of students in a class. Number of different tree species in a forest. Continuous variables (aka ratio variables) Measurements of continuous or non-finite values. Distance.

  5. Variables in Research: Breaking Down the Essentials of Experimental

    The Role of Variables in Research. In scientific research, variables serve several key functions: Define Relationships: Variables allow researchers to investigate the relationships between different factors and characteristics, providing insights into the underlying mechanisms that drive phenomena and outcomes. Establish Comparisons: By manipulating and comparing variables, scientists can ...

  6. Variables in Research

    Categorical Variable. This is a variable that can take on a limited number of values or categories. Categorical variables can be nominal or ordinal. Nominal variables have no inherent order, while ordinal variables have a natural order. Examples of categorical variables include gender, race, and educational level.

  7. Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper

    For example, if you are investigating the relationship between corporate environmental sustainability efforts [the independent variable] and dependent variables associated with measuring employee satisfaction at work using a survey instrument, you would first identify each variable and then provide background information about the variables.

  8. Independent & Dependent Variables (With Examples)

    While the independent variable is the " cause ", the dependent variable is the " effect " - or rather, the affected variable. In other words, the dependent variable is the variable that is assumed to change as a result of a change in the independent variable. Keeping with the previous example, let's look at some dependent variables ...

  9. Types of Variables in Psychology Research

    By systematically changing some variables in an experiment and measuring what happens as a result, researchers are able to learn more about cause-and-effect relationships. The two main types of variables in psychology are the independent variable and the dependent variable. Both variables are important in the process of collecting data about ...

  10. 2.2: Concepts, Constructs, and Variables

    As shown in Figure 2.1, scientific research proceeds along two planes: a theoretical plane and an empirical plane. Constructs are conceptualized at the theoretical (abstract) plane, while variables are operationalized and measured at the empirical (observational) plane. Thinking like a researcher implies the ability to move back and forth ...

  11. Background Information

    Fitterling, Lori. Researching and Writing an Effective Background Section of a Research Paper. Kansas City University of Medicine & Biosciences; Creating a Research Paper: How to Write the Background to a Study.; Background Information: Definition of Background Information. Literary Devices Definition and Examples of Literary Terms.

  12. Background Variable definition

    A background variable is a certain factor in a respondent's background or circumstance which may affect other variables. However, such factors will not necessarily be significantly affected by the other variables. For example, it could be that one background variable of a respondent (i.e., his religion) as it influences his food preference.

  13. Variables in Research

    The definition of a variable in the context of a research study is some feature with the potential to change, typically one that may influence or reflect a relationship or outcome. For example ...

  14. How do different background variables predict learning outcomes?

    This article is a part of a research project aimed to find out how different background variables are related to learning outcomes in school subject Sloyd as found in the national evaluation of the Finnish National Board of Education. Results from this larger research project were previously published in this journal, where pupils' readiness for Self-Regulated Learning were reported. Since ...

  15. Types of Variables, Descriptive Statistics, and Sample Size

    A variable is an essential component of any statistical data. It is a feature of a member of a given sample or population, which is unique, and can differ in quantity or quantity from another member of the same sample or population. Variables either are the primary quantities of interest or act as practical substitutes for the same.

  16. How to Write a Literature Review

    Examples of literature reviews. Step 1 - Search for relevant literature. Step 2 - Evaluate and select sources. Step 3 - Identify themes, debates, and gaps. Step 4 - Outline your literature review's structure. Step 5 - Write your literature review.

  17. Background of The Study

    Here are the steps to write the background of the study in a research paper: Identify the research problem: Start by identifying the research problem that your study aims to address. This can be a particular issue, a gap in the literature, or a need for further investigation. Conduct a literature review: Conduct a thorough literature review to ...

  18. Background variable

    Quick Reference. An explanatory variable that can affect other (dependent) variables but cannot be affected by them. For example, one's schooling may affect one's subsequent career, but the reverse is unlikely to be true. See also regression. From: background variable in A Dictionary of Statistics ». Subjects: Science and technology ...

  19. Background Information and Background Variables

    Background Information and Background Variables. You can choose the best options for your research from the examples below, or formulate your own appropriate background information (qualitative data) or background variables (quantitative data). It is not always necessary to include all the background information listed here, and other ...

  20. What is the Background of a Study and How to Write It (Examples Included)

    The background of a study in a research paper helps to establish the research problem or gap in knowledge that the study aims to address, sets the stage for the research question and objectives, and highlights the significance of the research. The background of a study also includes a review of relevant literature, which helps researchers ...

  21. The Independent Variable vs. Dependent Variable in Research

    The independent variable, often denoted as X, is the variable that is manipulated or controlled by the researcher intentionally. It's the factor that researchers believe may have a causal effect on the dependent variable. In simpler terms, the independent variable is the variable you change or vary in an experiment so you can observe its impact ...

  22. What is the Background of a Study and How Should it be Written?

    The background of a study is the first section of the paper and establishes the context underlying the research. It contains the rationale, the key problem statement, and a brief overview of research questions that are addressed in the rest of the paper. The background forms the crux of the study because it introduces an unaware audience to the ...


    BACKGROUND VARIABLE definition: 1. a factor (= fact or situation) that can affect other values in a scientific study, but cannot be…. Learn more.

  24. Extraneous Variables In Research: Types & Examples

    2. Participant Variable. This refers to the ways in which each participant varies from the other and how this could affect the results, e.g., mood, intelligence, anxiety, nerves, concentration, etc. For example, if a participant that has performed a memory test was tired, dyslexic, or had poor eyesight, this could affect their performance and ...

  25. Investigating low birth weight and preterm birth as potential mediators

    Background Prenatal infections are associated with childhood developmental outcomes such as reduced cognitive abilities, emotional problems and other developmental vulnerabilities. However, there is currently a lack of research examining whether this arises due to potential intermediary variables like low birth weight or preterm birth, or due to some other mechanisms of maternal immune ...

  26. Tasks in Visual Studio Code

    To do so, select Configure Default Build Task from the global Terminal menu. This shows you a picker with the available build tasks. Select tsc: build or tsc: watch and VS Code will generate a tasks.json file. The one shown below makes the tsc: build task the default build task:

  27. U.S. Passport Photos

    This photo tool does not check the quality of your image. This tool is for cropping your photo only when you are applying or renewing using a paper form. Do not use this tool if you are renewing online. After you apply, a U.S. Department of State employee will review your photo and decide if we can accept your photo.

  28. The Old New Thing

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