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AIOU Solved Assignment Code 1431 Spring & Autumn 2023 PDF

Here, We have provided AIOU Solved Assignment Code 1431 for both Spring and Autumn semesters. According to AIOU policy, The assignment marks are 50% of your total exam marks. So Without submission of your assignments of code 1431 for BA , you will be considered a Fail.

It’s important to submit your all assignments of code 1431 on time to avoid any problems using AIOU Aagahi Portal. For this purpose, we have provided AIOU Solved Assignment Code 1431 for BA in PDF Format.

AIOU Solved Assignment Code 1431 Spring & Autumn (PDF Download)

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Aiou code 1431 basics of ict assignments spring and autumn.

In a period dominated by know-how , proficiency in Info and Communication Expertise (ICT) is an elementary ability for fulfillment in numerous fields. Allama Iqbal Open College (AIOU) acknowledges the significance of ICT schooling and presents Code 1431 – Fundamentals of ICT, a course designed to equip college students with the foundational data required to navigate the digital panorama . On this weblog , we are going to discover the assignments for AIOU Code 1431 in each of the Spring and Autumn semesters, shedding mild on the important things ideas, and sensible functions .

Significance of Fundamentals of ICT:

Prior to delving into the assignments, it is important to know why Fundamentals of ICT is a vital course. ICT encompasses a variety of applied sciences , together with computer systems , software program functions , networks, and the web . Proficiency in these areas is significant for people in nearly every career   because it allows environment-friendly communication, information administration , and problem-solving.

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علامہ اقبال اوپن یونیورسٹی کی ہاتھ سے لکھی ہوِئی حل شدہ مشقیں حاصل کرنے کے لیے رابطہ کریں

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Download aiou past papers last five years old papers, aiou code 1431 curriculum overview:.

Code 1431 covers a broad spectrum of subjects , together with PC fundamentals, working programs , phrase processing, spreadsheets, web utilization , and more . The course is structured to make sure that college students develop a strong understanding of the fundamental ICT instruments and functions which can be broadly utilized in each educational {and professional} setting.

Spring Semester Assignments:

The Spring semester assignments for AIOU Code 1431 typically deal with constructing a foundational understanding of ICT ideas . College students could also be required to reveal their proficiency in utilizing primary PC functions , equivalent to phrase processors and spreadsheets. Assignments may contain exploring the web for analysis functions and understanding the moral implications of ICT use.

Autumn Semester Assignments:

Because the course progresses to the Autumn semester, assignments are inclined to grow to be extra superior , requiring college students to use their data in sensible situations . Matters equivalent to database administration , multimedia functions , and the usage of ICT in particular industries could also be lined . These assignments goal is to problem college students use their ICT abilities in real-world conditions , getting ready them for the calls of the fashionable office .

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1431 AIOU Solved Assignment Autumn & Spring 2023 BA (English)

AIOU solved assignment Autumn & Spring 2023 – Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) course code 1431  subject   ( Basic of ICT- English)   Assignments No 1 & 2 semester Autumn & Spring 2023   BA Level (Bachelor / B.Com)  are available in soft copy (PDF file). All details related to  AIOU Solved Assignments are as under:-

Question Assignments Autumn 2023 Matric to MA Level

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Solved Assignments Spring 2022

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aiou solved assignment 1431 spring 2022

‘Total Disgrace’: Anger, Frustration as Mass Heating Failures Across Russia Leave Thousands in the Cold

P ODOLSK, Moscow region – Residents throughout Russia affected by unprecedented winter heating outages in recent days have expressed their frustration and urged local authorities to restore heating in their homes.

In Podolsk, a town some 30 kilometers south of the capital Moscow, at least 149,000 residents — nearly half of its population — were left without heating when a heating main burst at a nearby private ammunition plant.

“It’s a total disgrace. There is no heating and no hot water. We have to sleep in sleeping bags,” Yuri, a local resident, told The Moscow Times.

“I have no words to describe how bad the situation is," said Yuri, who declined to provide his surname. "We have had no heating for almost six days."

Heating issues have affected residents in the Moscow region, where temperatures have plunged to as low as minus 20 degrees Celsius in the past week, as well as people in the Far East Primorye region , the cities of Moscow and St. Petersburg , Penza , the southern Voronezh and Volgograd regions and more.

In the Tver region, a group of residents filmed an appeal to President Vladimir Putin, saying that they “are freezing from the cold” in the village of Novozavidovsky.

“We're literally being killed by the cold,” a woman in the video said, adding that they have been sending requests to local authorities since September after their houses were connected to a boiler room whose power was reportedly insufficient.

“This is some kind of torture and extermination of the population 100 kilometers from Moscow,” she added.

Residents of the Moscow region town of Elektrostal lit a fire in the street to draw the authorities’ attention to the heating problem.

“It’s impossible to stay in our houses. We're freezing!” a group of women in the video said.

Suffering from subzero temperatures, residents are placing the blame on local authorities and utility services for failing to take necessary precautions and not taking action to resolve the situation.

“We are sending complaints everywhere but no one listens to us. We have portable heaters working in every room, but the temperature inside is still 10 degrees Celsius,” Yelena from Podolsk said.

“There is a clinic and a hospital, as well as kindergartens, where there is no heating. And we have no answers, no assistance, no explanation,” Yelena added.

Podolsk authorities opened temporary heating centers and declared a state of emergency.

Local authorities linked the heating problems to the fact that the town is heated by a boiler plant owned by the Klimovsk Specialized Ammunition Plant, a private ammunition factory and one of the largest weapon cartridge production enterprises in the country.

“The facility is under tight security conditions, which limits our ability to oversee winter preparations,” the Moscow region’s Vice Governor Yevgeny Khromushin said last week. “We were unaware of the problem for nearly a day.”

An unidentified Moscow region official and two senior executives at the plant were arrested on suspicion of providing unsafe services, Russia’s Investigative Committee, which probes major crimes, said in a statement Tuesday.

Investigators said that Podolsk’s deputy mayor was accused of misusing authority by issuing a readiness certificate for the boiler house at the plant.

In the neighboring Tver region, the authorities opened a criminal case over the laundering of over 84 million rubles ($938,993) in heating bills paid by residents, the Astra Telegram channel reported this week, citing unidentified sources. According to investigators, the heads of the local water intake and boiler house misappropriated the heating payments for personal use.

Reacting to the heating failures, Putin on Tuesday asked Emergency Situations Minister Alexander Kurenkov to provide heat and electricity to the affected residents.

The outages appear to be the latest effect of several decades of crumbling infrastructure in Russia which have been linked to endemic corruption and mismanagement.

The overall decay of Russia's municipal infrastructure surpassed 70% in 2022, the pro-Kremlin newspaper Izvestia reported .

According to Sergei Pakhomov, head of the State Duma’s Construction, Housing and Utilities Committee, water pipes that were 90 years old or even older were still in use as recently as two years ago in some cases.

Housing, utilities and communal services are a common source of problems for Russians during the winter.

In St. Petersburg, residents regularly complain about extensive ice coverage on city streets and sidewalks, with many people ending up in the hospital over the years due to slipping and falling accidents.

In the Siberian republic of Khakassia, two villages were left without electricity last month due to apparent issues with outdated communication systems.

In the winter of 2020, five people in the Perm region were killed after a pipe burst.

When asked about the latest heating outages, Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov acknowledged the problems and linked them to poor municipal infrastructure, saying that people “had to endure a lot of inconvenience in the cold and without electricity.”

"Despite all the titanic efforts to update all housing and communal services systems, there's still a certain part that remains considerably deteriorated. These programs will continue, but it is impossible to update all pipes and all housing and communal services systems in 10-15 years,” Peskov said.

As for now, residents affected by heating issues appear to lack optimism that the problems will be solved efficiently.

"It's been a week since we've had heating, and the temperature in my apartment is around 11 degrees Celsius,” Podolsk resident Lidiya told The Moscow Times.

“Unfortunately, no one knows when it will be repaired,” she added.

‘Total Disgrace’: Anger, Frustration as Mass Heating Failures Across Russia Leave Thousands in the Cold

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Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, November 24, 2023

aiou solved assignment 1431 spring 2022

Christina Harward, Riley Bailey, Angelica Evans, Nicole Wolkov, Karolina Hird, and Frederick W. Kagan

November 24, 2023, 7:30pm ET  

Click here to see ISW’s interactive map of the Russian invasion of Ukraine. This map is updated daily alongside the static maps present in this report.

Click here to see ISW’s 3D control of terrain topographic map of Ukraine. Use of a computer (not a mobile device) is strongly recommended for using this data-heavy tool.

Click here to access ISW’s archive of interactive time-lapse maps of the Russian invasion of Ukraine. These maps complement the static control-of-terrain map that ISW produces daily by showing a dynamic frontline. ISW will update this time-lapse map archive monthly.

Note: The data cut-off for this product was 2:30pm ET on November 24, and covers both November 23 and November 24 due to the fact that ISW did not publish a Campaign Assessment on November 23 in observance of the Thanksgiving Day holiday. ISW will cover subsequent reports in the November 25 Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment.

Ukrainian officials reported that Russian forces began a renewed offensive effort towards Avdiivka on November 22, although likely with weaker mechanized capabilities than in the previous offensive waves that occurred in October.  Ukrainian Tavriisk Group of Forces Commander Brigadier General Oleksandr Tarnavskyi reported on November 23 that Russian forces launched a “third wave” of assaults as part of the Russia offensive operation in the Avdiivka direction, and Tavriisk Group of Forces Spokesperson Colonel Oleksandr Shtupun stated that this “third wave” began on November 22.[1] Shtupun reported a 25 to 30 percent increase in Russian ground attacks near Avdiivka on November 22 and stated that Ukrainian forces repelled several Russian columns of roughly a dozen armored vehicles in total during assaults.[2] The Ukrainian General Staff reported that Ukrainian forces repelled at least 50 Russian assaults in the Avdiivka direction on November 23 and 24.[3] Russian sources claimed that Russian forces continued offensive operations on Avdiivka’s northern and southern flanks but did not characterize any Russian assaults as heavily mechanized.[4] Russian sources claimed that Russian forces continued to advance north of Avdiivka and made further gains in the industrial zone southeast of Avdiivka but did not make any territorial claims consistent with a successful renewed large-scale Russian offensive push.[5]

Shtupun stated that Ukrainian forces destroyed three Russian tanks and seven armored fighting vehicles on November 22, suggesting that Russian forces are currently conducting a smaller set of mechanized assaults than in October.[6] Ukrainian officials reported that Russian forces lost 50 tanks and 100 armored vehicles in renewed assaults on Avdiivka on October 19 and 15 tanks and 33 armored vehicles during the initial large, mechanized assaults on October 10.[7] Russian forces have lost a confirmed 197 damaged and destroyed vehicles in offensive operations near Avdiivka since October 9, and the Russian military appeared to spend the end of October and all of November preparing for a wave of highly attritional infantry-led ground assaults to compensate for these heavy-equipment losses.[8] Large infantry-led ground assaults will likely pose a significant threat to Ukrainian forces defending in the Avdiivka direction but will not lead to a rapid Russian advance in the area.

High-ranking Russian officials may be engaged in a wider scheme of forcibly adopting deported Ukrainian children.  BBC Panorama  and Russian opposition outlet  Vazhnye Istorii  published investigations on November 23 detailing how Just Russia Party leader Sergei Mironov adopted a 10-month-old Ukrainian girl whom Russian authorities forcibly deported from a Kherson City orphanage in autumn of 2022 alongside over 40 other children.[9] The investigations found that Mironov's new wife, Inna Varlamova, traveled to occupied Kherson Oblast, where occupation authorities issued her a power of attorney to deport two children—a 10-month-old girl and a two-year-old boy.[10] Both  BBC  and  Vazhnye Istorii  noted that Varlamova falsely introduced herself to the leadership of the children's home as the "head of children's affairs from Moscow," a position which she does not hold and that still would not legitimize the deportations of the children under international law.[11] Russian court documents show that Mironov and Varlamova then adopted the girl in November 2022, changed her name from her Ukrainian birth name to a new Russian name and the surname Mironova, and officially changed her place of birth from Kherson City to Podolsk, Russia.[12] Neither investigation could confirm the whereabouts of the two-year-old boy. Mironov notably responded to the investigation and called it a "fake from Ukrainian special services and their Western curators" meant to discredit him.[13]

Mironov and his wife, who reportedly holds a low-level unspecified position in the Russian Duma, follow in the footsteps of Russian Commissioner on Children's Rights Maria Lvova-Belova, who has also adopted at least one Ukrainian child from occupied Mariupol.[14] While ISW can only confirm that these two Russian officials have forcibly adopted deported Ukrainian children at this time, the adoptions may be indicative of a wider pattern in which Russian officials adopt deported children in order to legitimize the practice in the eyes of the Russian public. Russian politicians may be adopting deported Ukrainian children to set administrative and cultural precedents for wider adoptions of Ukrainian children to further escalate Russia's campaign to deport Ukrainians to Russia. ISW continues to assess that the forced deportation and adoption of Ukrainian children likely amounts to a violation of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.[15]

Ukraine’s Western allies declared their commitment to further develop Ukrainian air defense capabilities during the 17th Ramstein Group virtual meeting on November 22.  Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky announced that Germany and France will lead a coalition of 20 countries to further develop Ukraine’s air defenses, and Ukrainian Defense Minister Rustem Umerov added that the coalition will help Ukraine further develop its ground-based air defense systems.[16] Zelensky noted on November 23 that improved Ukrainian air defenses will save lives and resources, allow Ukrainian citizens to return from abroad, and deprive Russia of the ability to terrorize Ukraine.[17] Ramstein Group members also agreed on issues such as additional equipment and weapons for Ukraine during the winter of 2023–24, mine trawling and other security measures in the Black Sea, Ukraine’s NATO Interoperability Roadmap, and additional security assistance packages from the US, Germany, Lithuania, Bulgaria, Finland, the Netherlands, and Estonia.[18]

Russian President Vladimir Putin attended the Collective Security Treaty Organization’s (CSTO) Collective Security Council session in Minsk, Belarus on November 23 against the background of Armenia’s continued absence from recent CSTO events and exercises.  Putin attended the session alongside Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko, Kazakh President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev, Kyrgyz President Sadyr Japarov, Tajik President Emomali Rahmon, and the CSTO’s Secretary General Imangali Tasmagambetov.[19] The summit marked the end of Belarus’ chairmanship of the CSTO, and Lukashenko stated that Kazakhstan will hold the chairmanship beginning December 31, 2023. Putin thanked the session’s attendees for contributing to the regional defense structure and highlighted expanding military-technical cooperation between CSTO member states. Putin stated during his bilateral meeting with Rahmon that Russia will deliver two air defense battalions equipped with S-300 air defense systems to Tajikistan as part of the CSTO’s unified air defense system.[20] [Correction Note: The previous sentence incorrectly referenced two air defense divisions equipped with S-300s. It has been corrected to read two air defense "battalions."]

Russian sources widely noted Armenia’s absence from the CSTO summit on November 23.[21] Armenian Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan also did not attend the CSTO’s summit in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan on October 13 after Armenian forces refrained from participating in the CSTO “Indestructible Brotherhood-2023" exercises in early October.[22] Kremlin Spokesperson Dmitri Peskov stated on November 23 that the Kremlin regretted Armenia’s absence in Minsk but stated that Armenia remains “an ally and strategic partner” to Russia.[23] The Kremlin has previously attempted to dispel concerns about the deterioration of Russian-Armenian relations.[24] Kremlin newswire  TASS  reported that Armenian Deputy Foreign Minister Mnatsakan Safaryan reiterated that Armenia is not considering leaving the CSTO or asking Russia to withdraw its forces from Russia’s 102nd Military Base in Gyumri, Armenia.[25]

Chinese businesses, including a prominent state-owned Chinese construction firm, are reportedly working with Russian businessmen to plan the construction of an underwater tunnel that would connect Russia with occupied Crimea.  The  Washington Post  reported on November 24 that it corroborated information in emails provided by Ukrainian intelligence services that detail the formation of a Russian-Chinese business consortium that aims to build an underwater tunnel along the Kerch Strait connecting Russia to occupied Crimea.[26] Vladimir Kalyuzhny, identified by the emails as the general director of the consortium, reportedly messaged the Crimean occupation representative to the Russian President, Georgy Muradov, and stated that he has a letter from Chinese business partners attesting to the Chinese Railway Construction Corporation’s (CRCC) readiness to participate as a general contractor for the tunnel project.[27] The CRCC is under the supervision of China’s state-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission and is one of China’s largest construction firms.[28] The emails reportedly indicate that the CRCC stipulated that its involvement would occur through an unaffiliated legal entity and that an unnamed Chinese bank was willing to convert dollar funds into rubles to fund the consortium's projects.[29] Kalyuzhny, Crimean occupation head Sergei Aksyonov, and Kremlin Spokesperson Dmitri Peskov denied the  Washington Post ’s reporting.[30] The reported Russian interest in the tunnel project, which would likely take years to complete, is an additional indicator of deep Russian concern about the vulnerability of ground lines of communication (GLOCs) between Russia and occupied Crimea along the Kerch Strait Bridge.

European states are responding to Russia's continued orchestration of an artificially created migrant crisis on its northwestern borders.  The Finnish government announced on November 22 that Finland will close three more checkpoints on the Finnish-Russian border from November 23 to December 23, leaving only the northernmost checkpoint open.[31] Norwegian Prime Minister Johan Gahr Store stated on November 22 that Norway would also close its border to Russia “if necessary.“[32] Estonian Defense Minister Hanno Pevkur stated on November 23 that an increased number of migrants have also arrived at the Estonian-Russian border and that Russia is organizing the arrivals as part of an effort to “weaponize illegal immigration.”[33]  Reuters  reported on November 23 that the Estonian Interior Ministry stated   that Estonia has undertaken preparations to close its border crossings with Russia if “the migration pressure from Russia escalates.”[34] Latvian Prime Minister Evika Silina stated on November 24 that Latvia has experienced a similar influx of migrants on its border with Russia, and Silina and Finnish Prime Minister Petteri Orpo stated that these are Russian and Belarusian “hybrid attacks.”[35] Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs Spokesperson Maria Zakharova accused Finland on November 22 of “stirring up Russophobic sentiments” and interrupting border services that were an integral part of Russian–Finnish cooperation.[36] ISW previously assessed that Russia is employing a known hybrid warfare tactic similar to Russia’s and Belarus’s creation of a migrant crisis on the Polish border in 2021 that is likely similarly aimed at destabilizing NATO.[37]

The Russian Strelkov (Igor Girkin) Movement (RDS) called prior Russian regional elections and the upcoming Russian presidential election illegitimate, likely in an effort to establish Girkin’s inevitable presidential election loss as a long-standing grievance. [38] The RDS Congress issued a resolution on November 24 in which it claimed that unspecified actors are doing everything possible to preserve the existing system of power in Russia regardless of the political situation or Russian citizens’ will.[39] The RDS Congressional resolution issued a list of demands for Russian election reform and claimed that the RDS would not recognize any future elections as legitimate if the Russian government does not meet these demands.[40]

Russian law enforcement reportedly detained about 700 migrants at a warehouse in Moscow Oblast and issued some military summonses, likely as part of an ongoing effort to coerce migrants into Russian military service. [41] Russian sources reported on November 24 that Russian police and Rosgvardia raided a Wildberries (Russia’s largest online retailer) warehouse in Elektrostal, Moscow Oblast looking for migrants who had recently acquired Russian citizenship.[42] Russian law enforcement reportedly took about 135 detained migrants with Russian citizenship and transferred them to military registration and enlistment offices.[43] An unspecified Russian law enforcement official told Russian news outlet  Interfax  that Russian law enforcement conducted the raid as part of “Operation Migrant,” which aims to ensure that all naturalized citizens are registered for military service and issue them military summonses.[44] A Russian source claimed that Russian law enforcement also conducted a raid near the Wildberries warehouse on November 23, fined 16 migrants for violating migration protocols, and deported three.[45] The Wildberries press service stated this mass detention of migrants interrupted company’s shipments and put billions of dollars at risk.[46]

The Kremlin is reportedly renewing attempts to control all video surveillance systems in Russia, likely as part of ongoing efforts to intensify its tools of digital authoritarianism to increase domestic repressions.  The Russian Ministry of Digital Development proposed an initiative to create a unified platform for storing and processing footage from all video surveillance systems in Russia, which would reportedly cost 12 billion rubles (about $134 million).[47]  Kommersant  reported that there are about 1.2 million surveillance cameras in Russia, about half of which are currently accessible to the Russian government.[48] The Russian Ministry of Digital Development reportedly plans to increase the number of surveillance cameras across Russia to five million by 2030 and integrate all of them with facial and image recognition software.[49]  Kommersant  also noted that the Russian Ministry of Emergency Situations attempted a similar initiative in 2020 to 2022 as part of the Hardware and Software Complex “Safe City” project aimed at standardizing and installing surveillance systems with artificial intelligence software in Russian regions but faced criticism from the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs and Russian Ministry of Economy.[50]

Key Takeaways:

  • Ukrainian officials reported that Russian forces began a renewed offensive effort towards Avdiivka on November 22, although likely with weaker mechanized capabilities than in the previous offensive waves that occurred in October.
  • High-ranking Russian officials may be engaged in a wider scheme of forcibly adopting deported Ukrainian children.
  • Ukraine’s Western allies declared their commitment to further develop Ukrainian air defense capabilities during the 17th Ramstein Group virtual meeting on November 22.
  • Russian President Vladimir Putin attended the Collective Security Treaty Organization’s (CSTO) Collective Security Council session in Minsk, Belarus on November 23 against the background of Armenia’s continued absence from recent CSTO events and exercises.
  • Chinese businesses, including a prominent state-owned Chinese construction firm, are reportedly working with Russian businessmen to plan the construction of an underwater tunnel that would connect Russia with occupied Crimea.
  • European states are responding to Russia's continued orchestration of an artificially created migrant crisis on its northwestern borders.
  • The Russian Strelkov (Igor Girkin) Movement (RDS) called prior Russian regional elections and the upcoming Russian presidential election illegitimate, likely in an effort to establish Girkin’s inevitable presidential election loss as a long-standing grievance.
  • Russian law enforcement reportedly detained about 700 migrants at a warehouse in Moscow Oblast and issued some military summonses, likely as part of an ongoing effort to coerce migrants into Russian military service.
  • The Kremlin is reportedly renewing attempts to control all video surveillance systems in Russia, likely as part of ongoing efforts to intensify its tools of digital authoritarianism to increase domestic repressions.
  • Russian forces conducted ground attacks along the Svatove-Kreminna line, near Bakhmut, near Avdiivka, west and southwest of Donetsk City, in the Donetsk-Zaporizhia Oblast border area, and in western Zaporizhia Oblast and marginally advanced in some areas.
  • The Russian aviation industry is likely under significant constraints due to international sanctions and demands from the Russian defense industrial base (DIB).
  • The Russian occupation authorities continue efforts to indoctrinate Ukrainian children in occupied Ukraine into Russian national and cultural identities.

aiou solved assignment 1431 spring 2022

We do not report in detail on Russian war crimes because these activities are well-covered in Western media and do not directly affect the military operations we are assessing and forecasting. We will continue to evaluate and report on the effects of these criminal activities on the Ukrainian military and the Ukrainian population and specifically on combat in Ukrainian urban areas. We utterly condemn Russian violations of the laws of armed conflict and the Geneva Conventions and crimes against humanity even though we do not describe them in these reports.

  • Russian Main Effort – Eastern Ukraine (comprised of two subordinate main efforts)
  • Russian Subordinate Main Effort #1 – Capture the remainder of Luhansk Oblast and push westward into eastern Kharkiv Oblast and encircle northern Donetsk Oblast
  • Russian Subordinate Main Effort #2 – Capture the entirety of Donetsk Oblast
  • Russian Supporting Effort – Southern Axis
  • Russian Mobilization and Force Generation Efforts
  • Russian Technological Adaptations
  • Activities in Russian-occupied areas

Russian Information Operations and Narratives

Russian Main Effort – Eastern Ukraine

Russian Subordinate Main Effort #1 – Luhansk Oblast  (Russian objective: Capture the remainder of Luhansk Oblast and push westward into eastern Kharkiv Oblast and northern Donetsk Oblast)

Russian forces continued offensive operations along the Kupyansk-Svatove-Kreminna line on November 23 and 24 but did not make any confirmed advances. The Ukrainian General Staff reported that Russian forces unsuccessfully attacked in the Kupyansk direction northeast of Petropavlivka (7km east of Kupyansk) and near Synkivka (8km northeast of Kupyansk), Ivanivka (20km southeast of Kupyansk), and Stelmakhivka (25km northwest of Svatove) but did not conduct any offensive operations in the Lyman direction.[51] A Russian milblogger claimed on November 23 that Russian forces marginally advanced east of Petropavlivka.[52] A prominent Russian milblogger claimed that Russian forces conducted unsuccessful offensive operations from Orlyanka (22km east of Kupyansk) and near Petropavlivka.[53] Another Russian milblogger claimed on November 24 that Russian forces are having widespread issues with electronic warfare (EW) systems along the Kupyansk-Svatove-Kreminna line, causing unnecessary casualties due to otherwise preventable drone strikes.[54] Ukrainian military observer Kostyantyn Mashovets stated on November 23 that Russian forces transferred an unspecified battalion of the Russian 380th Motorized Rifle Regiment (47th Tank Division, 1st Guards Tank Army, Western Military District) from Kursk Oblast to positions near Raihorodka (12km west of Svatove).[55] Chechen Republic Head Ramzan Kadyrov claimed that the “Amura” detachment of Chechen “Akhmat” Spetsnaz are operating in the Serebryanske forest area (10km southwest of Kreminna).[56]

Ukrainian forces continued offensive operations along the Kupyansk-Svatove-Kreminna line on November 23 and 24 and reportedly advanced on an unspecified date. The Ukrainian State Border Guards published footage on November 24 showing Ukrainian forces advancing and capturing Russian positions in an unspecified area of the Svatove direction on an unspecified date.[57] The Russian Ministry of Defense (MoD) claimed on November 23 and 24 that Russian forces repelled Ukrainian attacks near Vilshana (15km northeast of Kupyansk) and Hryhorivka (10km south of Kreminna).[58] Russian milbloggers claimed that Ukrainian forces counterattacked along the Kupyansk-Svatove-Kreminna line and that fighting continues near Torske (15km west of Kreminna) and the Serebryanske forest area.[59]

aiou solved assignment 1431 spring 2022

Russian Subordinate Main Effort #2 – Donetsk Oblast  (Russian objective: Capture the entirety of Donetsk Oblast, the claimed territory of Russia’s proxies in Donbas)

The Russian Ministry of Defense (MoD) claimed that Ukrainian forces unsuccessfully attacked in the Bakhmut area near Klishchiivka (7km southwest of Bakhmut) on November 23.[60]

Russian forces conducted offensive operations near Bakhmut on November 23 and 24 and made confirmed advances. Geolocated footage published on November 22 and 23 indicates that Russian forces advanced north of Klishchiivka.[61] Russian sources claimed that Russian forces advanced near Bohdanivka (6km northwest of Bakhmut), the Berkhivka reservoir (about 2km northwest of Bakhmut), Klishchiivka, and the railway near Andriivka (10km southwest of Bakhmut).[62] The Ukrainian General Staff reported that Russian forces unsuccessfully attacked near Bohdanivka, Ivanivske (6km west of Bakhmut), Klishchiivka, and Andriivka.[63] Russian milbloggers claimed that fighting continued near the railway north of Klishchiivka and the heights west of the settlement, which a Russian source claimed that Ukrainian forces continued to control as of November 23.[64] One Russian source claimed on November 23 that Klishchiivka is a contested “gray zone.”[65] Ukrainian military sources stated on November 23 and 24 that Russian forces in the Bakhmut direction are focusing on small tactical gains, probing the frontline, and conducting drone strikes at night.[66] A Ukrainian sergeant operating in the Bakhmut direction characterized fighting in his sector of the front on November 24 as "static, trench warfare."[67] The Russian MoD reported that elements of the Russian 106th Airborne (VDV) Division are operating in the Bakhmut direction.[68] Russian sources claimed that elements of the 58th Separate Spetsnaz Battalion (1st Donetsk People’s Republic [DNR] Corps) are also operating in the Bakhmut direction.[69]

Russian sources claimed that Ukrainian forces conducted offensive operations northwest of Horlivka (20km south of Bakhmut) but did not make any claimed or confirmed advances on November 23 or 24. A Russian milblogger claimed on November 23 that Ukrainian forces unsuccessfully attacked near Mayorske (6km northwest of Horlivka).[70] Another Russian milblogger claimed on November 24 that there are meeting engagements near the waste heap northwest of Horlivka.[71]

aiou solved assignment 1431 spring 2022

A Russian milblogger claimed on November 23 that Ukrainian forces unsuccessfully counterattacked near Avdiivka southwest and west of Krasnohorivka (5km northeast of Avdiivka).[72]

Russian forces conducted offensive operations near Avdiivka but did not make any confirmed gains on November 23 and 24. Russian sources claimed that Russian forces advanced south of the Avdiivka Coke Plant northwest of Avdiivka; near the railways north and northwest of Krasnohorivka; in and near the industrial zone southeast of Avdiivka; near Novobakhmutivka (12km northwest of Avdiivka), Novokalynove (13km northeast of Avdiivka), Stepove (3km northwest of Avdiivka), Sieverne (6km west of Avdiivka), and Tonenke (5km west of Avdiivka); and in the direction of Keramik (14km northwest of Avdiivka), Berdychi (5km northwest of Avdiivka), and the “Tsarska Okhota” restaurant south of Avdiivka.[73] Russian sources also claimed that Russian forces attacked northwest of Avdiivka near Novobakhmutivka, Novokalynove, Stepove, Krasnohorivka, and the coke plant; south and southwest of Avdiivka near Pervomaiske (10km southwest of Avdiivka), Vodyane (7km southwest of Avdiivka), and Optyne (4km south of Avdiivka); and southeast of Avdiivka near the industrial zone.[74] Russian milbloggers claimed on November 23 that Russian forces conducted reconnaissance-in-force near Stepove, Vodyane, and Sieverne.[75] A Russian milblogger claimed on November 23 that Russian forces advanced 150-200 meters in the direction of Novokalynove and Ocheretyne (15km northwest of Avdiivka), but ISW has not observed visual evidence of this claim.[76] A Russian source claimed on November 22 that Russian forces control 80 percent of the industrial zone southeast of Avdiivka, and later claimed on November 24 that Russian forces control 95 percent of the area.[77] Another Russian source claimed on November 24 that Russian forces control the entire industrial zone but acknowledged that this claim is based on unconfirmed preliminary information.[78] A Russian milblogger claimed on November 23 that Russian forces are pushing Ukrainian forces out of Stepove but that Ukrainian forces still control a part of the settlement.[79] The Ukrainian General Staff reported on November 23 and 24 that Russian forces unsuccessfully attacked east of Novokalynove and Novobakhmutivka; north of Lastochkyne (5km west of Avdiivka); and near Stepove, Pervomaiske, Sieverne, Avdiivka.[80] A Russian milblogger claimed on November 24 that Russian helicopters have to fly at very low altitudes to avoid Ukrainian air defense systems near Avdiivka.[81] Ukrainian Avdiivka Military Administration Head Vitaliy Barabash stated that Russian forces are struggling to use a large amount of military equipment due to weather conditions.[82]

aiou solved assignment 1431 spring 2022

Ukrainian forces did not conduct any claimed or confirmed offensive operations west and southwest of Donetsk City on November 23 and 24.

Russian forces conducted offensive operations west and southwest of Donetsk City but did not make any claimed or confirmed advances on November 23 and 24. The Ukrainian General Staff reported that Russian forces unsuccessfully attacked near Marinka (on the western outskirts of Donetsk City) and Novomykhailivka (10km southwest of Donetsk City).[83] A Russian milblogger claimed on November 23 that Russian forces conducted offensive operations in Marinka but did not specify an outcome.[84]

aiou solved assignment 1431 spring 2022

Russian Supporting Effort – Southern Axis  (Russian objective: Maintain frontline positions and secure rear areas against Ukrainian strikes)

Russian sources continued offensive operations in the Donetsk-Zaporizhia Oblast border area on November 23 and 24 but did not make any claimed or confirmed advances. The Ukrainian General Staff reported unsuccessful Russian assaults near and southwest of Staromayorske (10km south of Velyka Novosilka) on November 23 and 24.[85] The Russian Vostok Battalion, which is operating in the Donetsk-Zaporizhia Oblast border area, claimed on November 24 that Russian forces currently have an advantage in terms of fire power in this direction.[86] Russian sources additionally claimed that Russian forces attacked near Staromayorske and Urozhaine (10km south of Velyka Novosilka) on the evening of November 22 and throughout November 23, and northwest of Staromayorske on November 24.[87] Geolocated footage posted on November 23 shows elements of the 336th Naval Infantry Brigade (Baltic Fleet) operating a Lancet drone against Ukrainian positions near Vesele (33km southwest of Velyka Novosilka).[88]

Russian sources claimed that Ukrainian forces conducted limited and unsuccessful counterattacks in the Donetsk-Zaporizhia Oblast border area on November 23 and 24. The Russian Ministry of Defense (MoD) reported on November 23 and 24 that Ukrainian forces unsuccessfully attacked near Pryyutne (15km southwest of Velyka Novosilka) and elsewhere in the overall southern Donetsk Oblast direction.[89] A Russian milblogger claimed on November 23 that Ukrainian forces are trying to activate north of Pryytune and north of Novomayorske (18km southeast of Velyka Novosilka) but emphasized that Ukrainian forces are largely on the defensive on this sector of the front.[90]

aiou solved assignment 1431 spring 2022

Russian forces continued offensive operations in western Zaporizhia Oblast on November 23 and 24 and made confirmed advances. Geolocated footage published on November 24 shows that Russian forces have marginally advanced southwest of Novopokrovka, about 9km northeast of Robotyne.[91] A Russian airborne (VDV) affiliated milblogger claimed on November 24 that elements of the 7th VDV Division, including the 108th Air Assault Regiment, recaptured positions north of Verbove (10km east of Robotyne and 5km south of Novopokrovka), which generally coincides with confirmation of Russian advances in the area southwest of Novopokrovka.[92] The Ukrainian General Staff reported that Russian forces unsuccessfully attempted to improve their positions near Robotyne on November 23 and conducted unsuccessful assaults near Robotyne, Novopokrovka, and west of Verbove on November 24.[93]

Ukrainian forces continued counteroffensive operations in western Zaporizhia Oblast on November 23 and 24 and made confirmed advances. Geolocated footage published on November 22 shows that Ukrainian forces have recaptured the westernmost trench in a series of three trenches that lie about 1km southwest of Robotyne, and other geolocated footage published on November 23 shows that Ukrainian forces have also made advances further west of the westernmost trench.[94] Additional geolocated footage posted on November 22 and 23 indicates that Ukrainian forces have marginally advanced near the T0408 Orikhiv-Tokmak highway north of Novoprokopivka (just south of Robotyne), between the outskirts of the aforementioned trench system and the northern outskirts of Novoprokopivka.[95] Russian milbloggers widely claimed on November 23 and 24 that Ukrainian forces launched a renewed attack on Russian positions along the Robotyne-Verbove line with up to 100 personnel, five armored vehicles, and one Western-provided tank.[96] The Russian MoD claimed that Russian forces repelled Ukrainian attacks near Robotyne and Verbove on November 24, and the Ukrainian General Staff reported that Ukrainian forces continued offensive operations in the Melitopol (western Zaporizhia Oblast) direction on November 23 and 24.[97]

aiou solved assignment 1431 spring 2022

Ukrainian forces continued combat operations on the (east) left bank of the Dnipro River on November 23 and 24, and both Ukrainian and Russian forces have made confirmed gains in Krynky (30km northeast of Kherson City and 2km from the Dnipro River). Russian milbloggers claimed that Ukrainian forces intensified attacks on the forest area near Krynky on November 23, and then claimed on November 24 that elements of the Russian 810th Naval Infantry Brigade (Black Sea Fleet) and 144th Motorized Rifle Brigade (of the 40th Army Corps of the newly formed 18th Combined Arms Army) counterattacked and knocked Ukrainian forces out of positions in the forest areas near Krynky.[98] Geolocated footage published on November 23 confirms that both Russian and Ukrainian forces have advanced within Krynky, suggesting that intense fighting is ongoing in the settlement and positions are frequently changing hands.[99] Russian sources claimed that elements of the 188th and 144th brigades are facing extremely poor conditions and a lack of resources while trying to defend the Krynky area.[100] Ukrainian military officials confirmed that Ukrainian forces maintain positions on the east bank of Kherson Oblast.[101]

aiou solved assignment 1431 spring 2022

Russian sources claimed that Ukrainian forces launched a large-scale drone strike against occupied Crimea on the night of November 23 to 24. A prominent Russian milblogger claimed that Ukrainian forces launched a total of 13 drones in three waves from Kherson Oblast towards railway and military infrastructure in occupied Crimea.[102] Kherson Oblast occupation head Vladimir Saldo claimed that this was one of the largest Ukrainian air attacks on occupied Crimea since the beginning of the war.[103] The Russian MoD claimed that Russian air defense shot down all 13 drones over Crimea, and that Black Sea Fleet naval aviation also hit 12 unmanned aerial boats traveling towards Crimea.[104]

Russian Mobilization and Force Generation Efforts  (Russian objective: Expand combat power without conducting general mobilization)

The Russian aviation industry is likely facing significant constraints due to international sanctions and demands from the Russian defense industrial base (DIB). The Ukrainian Main Military Intelligence Directorate (GUR) reported on November 23 that it obtained many documents from the Russian Federal Air Transport Agency (Rosaviatsiya) detailing widespread issues within the Russian aviation industry.[105] The GUR reported that the documents show that there were 185 civil aviation accidents and 150 cases of technical malfunctions in the first nine months of 2023.[106] The GUR reported that the Russian aviation industry is transferring large portions of aircraft maintenance assets to Iran, where repairs occur without certification, due to a lack of repair capacity and specialists in Russia.[107] Russian aviation enterprises are reportedly increasingly using existing planes for component for new production.[108] The Russian United Aircraft Corporation announced on November 22 that it transferred a new batch of Su-34 frontline bombers manufactured at the Novosibirsk Aviation Plant to the Russian Ministry of Defense (MoD).[109] Widespread constraints on the civil aviation industry are likely also impacting defense aviation enterprises in Russia, but Russian officials are likely prioritizing military aviation production over the maintenance and production of civil aircraft.

Russian courts have reportedly considered over 4,000 criminal cases against Russian personnel for the unauthorized abandonment of their units since the start of partial mobilization. Russian opposition outlet  Mediazona  reported on November 24 that Russian courts considered 4,121 criminal cases for the unauthorized abandonment of a military unit and ruled in 3,740 cases as of November 21.[110]  Mediazona  reported that Russian courts have delivered sentences to roughly 100 Russian personnel a week on average since June 2023.[111]

Russian personnel from Russian federal subjects (regions) in Siberia and the Far East continue to represent a disproportionate number of Russian casualties in Ukraine. The  BBC  reported on November 24 that confirmed Russian military deaths per 10,000 males aged 16 to 61 in federal subjects of Russia show that the highest proportions of death happen in Siberian and Far Eastern regions.[112] The five highest proportions of military deaths occurred in the Tuva Republic (48.6 deaths), Republic of Buryatia (36.7 deaths), Nenets Autonomous Okrug (30 deaths), Altai Republic (26.5 deaths), and Transbaikal Krai (26.2 deaths).[113] St. Petersburg and Moscow have the lowest proportion of confirmed deaths with 2.5 and 1 per 10,000, respectively.[114]

Russian authorities continue to prevent the relatives of mobilized personnel from holding rallies calling for the demobilization of their relatives. Russian independent investigative outlet  Verstka  reported on November 23 that Russian authorities denied five applications for rallies by relatives of mobilized personnel in Moscow, Chelyabinsk, St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk, and Krasnoyarsk.[115] Russian opposition outlet  SOTA  reported that Moscow Mayor Sergei Sobyanin denied an appeal to his office’s decision to refuse permits for a rally in support of demobilization by citing COVID-19 public health restrictions.[116] Russian opposition outlet  Mobilization News  reported that officials in Novosibirsk Oblast accepted demands from relatives of mobilized personnel that would cap mobilization periods at a year with rotations no less than every three months.[117] ISW cannot confirm that any Russian officials have accepted conditions from relatives to set forth terms for mobilization.

Russian Technological Adaptations  (Russian objective: Introduce technological innovations to optimize systems for use in Ukraine)

Russian state-owned defense conglomerate Rostec debuted its new “Chistyulya” portable anti-drone system on November 24.[118] The device reportedly weighs eight kilograms (about 18 pounds) and can suppress drones within a one-kilometer radius.[119] Russian opposition outlet  Vazhnye Istorii  ( iStories)  reported that Chinese online retail service AliExpress sells a similar product with almost the same specifications.[120]

Activities in Russian-occupied areas  (Russian objective: Consolidate administrative control of annexed areas; forcibly integrate Ukrainian citizens into Russian sociocultural, economic, military, and governance systems)

The Russian occupation authorities continue efforts to indoctrinate Ukrainian children into Russian national and cultural identities. The Ukrainian Resistance Center reported on November 23 that the Kremlin instructed occupation authorities to ensure that 70 percent of Ukrainian students in occupied areas participate in educational exchange programs in Russia.[121] The Ukrainian Resistance Center reported that Russian occupation schools have started efforts aimed at indoctrinating as early as first grade.[122] The Luhansk People’s Republic (LNR) Militia claimed on November 24 that 248 children from occupied Luhansk Oblast returned from a trip to Moscow City that the Kremlin-funded pseudo-volunteer “Movement of the First” youth organization planned.[123] Donetsk People’s Republic (DNR) Head Denis Pushilin claimed on November 23 that over 60 students from occupied Donetsk Oblast are currently studying at the Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO), an institute of higher education subordinate to the Russian Foreign Ministry.[124] Ukrainian Mariupol City Advisor Petro Andryushchenko published footage on November 23 showing Russian military personnel teaching children from occupied Zaporizhia Oblast basic military skills at an event in occupied Sevastopol, Crimea.[125]

Nothing significant to report.

Significant activity in Belarus  (Russian efforts to increase its military presence in Belarus and further integrate Belarus into Russian-favorable frameworks and Wagner Group activity in Belarus)

Belarusian military leadership reportedly hopes to increase the combat capabilities of Belarusian forces by equipping them with new drones and armored personnel carriers. Ukrainian military observer Kostyantyn Mashovets stated on November 24 that Belarus’ military leadership will equip Belarusian artillery brigades with Russian-produced “Supercam” S350 drones in early 2024.[126] Mashovets stated that Belarusian artillery brigades are currently equipped with quadcopter drones that do not provide adequate fire control and adjustment and that the Russian-produced drones have an increased range. Mashovets added that Belarusian forces are also testing the Belarusian-produced Volat V2 armored personnel carrier at the 227th Combined Arms Training Ground in Borisov, Belarus.

Note: ISW does not receive any classified material from any source, uses only publicly available information, and draws extensively on Russian, Ukrainian, and Western reporting and social media as well as commercially available satellite imagery and other geospatial data as the basis for these reports. References to all sources used are provided in the endnotes of each update.

[1]  https://t.me/otarnavskiy/354 ; https://armyinform.com dot ua/2023/11/23/rosijski-okupanty-chotyry-razy-namagalysya-vidnovyty-vtracheni-ranishe-pozycziyi-u-rajoni-robotynogo-oleksandr-shtupun/

[2]  https://www.understandingwar.org/backgrounder/russian-offensive-campaign... https://armyinform.com dot ua/2023/11/23/rosijski-okupanty-chotyry-razy-namagalysya-vidnovyty-vtracheni-ranishe-pozycziyi-u-rajoni-robotynogo-oleksandr-shtupun/

[3]  https://www.facebook.com/GeneralStaff.ua/posts/pfbid036KfemUabt3tVEWTuzf... https://www.facebook.com/GeneralStaff.ua/posts/pfbid0P7Ai2W5xERok38bmoa7... https://www.facebook.com/GeneralStaff.ua/posts/pfbid0gjV3tuoLYDrq26W7GsQ...

[4]  https://t.me/RVvoenkor/57059 ; https://t.me/wargonzo/16616 ; https://t.me/negumanitarnaya_pomosch_Z/12483 ; https://t.me/negumanitarnaya_pomosch_Z/12516 ; https://t.me/negumanitarnaya_pomosch_Z/12497 ; https://t.me/TRO_DPR/13280 ; https://t.me/dntskmedia/210 ; https://t.me/DnevnikDesantnika/4947 ; https://t.me/voenkorKotenok/52312 ; https://t.me/voenkorKotenok/52313 ; https://t.me/readovkanews/69780 ; https://t.me/readovkanews/69828 ; https://t.me/multi_XAM/976 ; https://t.me/boris_rozhin/104620 ; https://t.me/wargonzo/16641 ; https://t.me/RVvoenkor/57059 ; https://t.me/wargonzo/16616 ; https://t.me/negumanitarnaya_pomosch_Z/12483 ; https://t.me/TRO_DPR/13280 ; https://t.me/dntskmedia/210 ; https://t.me/voenkorKotenok/52313 ; https://t.me/readovkanews/69828 ; https://t.me/wargonzo/16641 ; https://t.me/dva_majors/29587

[5]  https://t.me/RVvoenkor/57059 ; https://t.me/vozhak_Z/535 ; https://t.me/negumanitarnaya_pomosch_Z/12483 ; https://t.me/negumanitarnaya_pomosch_Z/12537

[6]  https://armyinform.com dot ua/2023/11/23/rosijski-okupanty-chotyry-razy-namagalysya-vidnovyty-vtracheni-ranishe-pozycziyi-u-rajoni-robotynogo-oleksandr-shtupun/

[7]  https://isw.pub/UkrWar101223 ; https://isw.pub/UkrWar102123

[8]  https://www.understandingwar.org/backgrounder/russian-offensive-campaign...

[9]  https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-67488646; https://storage.googlea... https://www.severreal.org/a/vazhnye-istorii-deputat-mironov-usynovil-poh...

[10]  https://storage dot googleapis.com/istories/stories/2023/11/23/mironov-i-deti/index.html?utm_source=telegram&utm_medium=mainpage ;  https://t.me/svobodnieslova/3404 ; https://t.me/astrapress/42804 ; h... https://www.severreal.org/a/vazhnye-istorii-deputat-mironov-usynovil-poh...

[11]  https://storage dot googleapis.com/istories/stories/2023/11/23/mironov-i-deti/index.html?utm_source=telegram&utm_medium=mainpage ;  https://t.me/svobodnieslova/3404 ; https://t.me/astrapress/42804 ; h... https://www.severreal.org/a/vazhnye-istorii-deputat-mironov-usynovil-poh...

[12] y.  https://storage dot googleapis.com/istories/stories/2023/11/23/mironov-i-deti/index.html?utm_source=telegram&utm_medium=mainpage ;  https://t.me/svobodnieslova/3404 ; https://t.me/astrapress/42804 ; h... https://www.severreal.org/a/vazhnye-istorii-deputat-mironov-usynovil-poh...

[13]  https://twitter.com/mironov_ru/status/1727649749107405152

[14]  https://understandingwar.org/backgrounder/russian-offensive-campaign-ass...

[15]  https://isw.pub/RusCampaignAugust23; https://isw.pub/UkrWar102622; https://isw.pub/UkrWar111222

[16]  https://armyinform.com dot ua/2023/11/22/ukrayinskyj-povitryanyj-shhyt-staye-sylnishym-za-pidsumkamy-ramshtajnu-stvoreno-koalicziyu-ppo-prezydent/ ;  https://armyinform.com dot ua/2023/11/22/uspih-nashogo-maksymalnogo-yednannya/ ;  https://armyinform.com dot ua/2023/11/22/rustem-umyerov-rozpoviv-pro-osnovni-rezultaty-17-yi-zustrichi-kontaktnoyi-grupy-z-pytan-oborony-ukrayiny/

[17]  https://armyinform.com dot ua/2023/11/23/volodymyr-zelenskyj-posylennya-ppo-cze-najkrashha-strategichna-investycziya-v-bezpeku/

[18]  https://t.me/SJTF_Odes/3015 ; https://t.me/spravdi/34838 ; https://t.me/rustem_umerov_mo/324?single

[19]  http://kremlin dot ru/events/president/news/72800

[20]  https://t.me/rybar/54424 ; https://www.rbc dot ru/politics/22/11/2023/655de2d29a794726821e31cf

[21]  io/news/2023/11/23/v-minske-proshel-sammit-odkb-na-kotorom-ne-bylo-armenii-v-kremle-skazali-chto-sozhaleyut-ob-etom ;  https://tass dot ru/politika/19364435

[22]  https://www.understandingwar.org/backgrounder/russian-offensive-campaign...

[23]  https://t.me/youlistenedmayak/29551 ; https://meduza dot io/news/2023/11/23/v-minske-proshel-sammit-odkb-na-kotorom-ne-bylo-armenii-v-kremle-skazali-chto-sozhaleyut-ob-etom ;  https://tass dot ru/politika/19364435

[24]  https://www.understandingwar.org/backgrounder/russian-offensive-campaign...

[25]  https://tass dot ru/mezhdunarodnaya-panorama/19362479 ;  https://t.me/readovkanews/69802

[26]  https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/11/24/russia-crimea-tunnel-china/ ; https://archive.ph/14Cs9

[27]  https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/11/24/russia-crimea-tunnel-china/

[28]  https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/11/24/russia-crimea-tunnel-china/ ;  https://www1.hkexnews dot hk/listedco/listconews/sehk/2008/0229/01186_295219/c118.pdf

[29]  https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/11/24/russia-crimea-tunnel-china/

[30]  https://t.me/Aksenov82/3558 ; https://t.me/rbc_news/84650 ; https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/11/24/russia-crimea-tunnel-china/

[31]  https://yle dot fi/a/74-20061648 ;  https://yle dot fi/a/74-20061790

[32]  https://www.tv2 dot no/nyheter/innenriks/store-apner-for-a-stenge-grensen-til-russland/16241924/

[33]  https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/11/23/finland-russia-border-fr... https://www.theguardian.com/world/2023/nov/23/estonia-accuses-russia-wea...

[34]  https://www.reuters.com/world/europe/estonia-accuses-russia-helping-migr...

[35]  https://www.hs dot fi/politiikka/art-2000010015707.html

[36]  https://mid dot ru/ru/foreign_policy/news/1916562/

[37]  https://isw.pub/UkrWar112023

[38]  https://t.me/RDS_Official_channel/323

[39]  https://t.me/RDS_Official_channel/323

[40]  https://t.me/RDS_Official_channel/323

[41]  https://t.me/readovkanews/69861 ; https://meduza dot io/news/2023/11/24/politsiya-ustroila-reyd-na-sklade-wildberries-v-podmoskovie-rabotayuschim-tam-migrantam-vydali-povestki-v-voenkomat

[42]  https://t.me/bazabazon/23176

[43]  https://t.me/bazabazon/23176 ; https://t.me/bazabazon/23168

[44]  https://www.interfax dot ru/russia/933030

[45]  https://t.me/breakingmash/49613

[46]  https://www.interfax dot ru/russia/933030

[47]  https://www.kommersant dot ru/doc/6352767

[48]  https://www.kommersant dot ru/doc/6352767

[49]  https://www.kommersant dot ru/doc/6352767

[50]  https://www.kommersant dot ru/doc/6352767

[51]  https://www.facebook.com/GeneralStaff.ua/posts/pfbid02HKTPFWmgq4q16wKZqE...

[52]  https://t.me/voenkorKotenok/52312

[53]  https://t.me/wargonzo/16616

[54]  https://t.me/notes_veterans/13679

[55]  https://t.me/zvizdecmanhustu/1422

[56]  https://t.me/RKadyrov_95/4189

[57]  https://t.me/luhanskaVTSA/15319 ; https://www.facebook.com/watch/?v=885352229454340

[58]  https://t.me/mod_russia/32771 ; https://t.me/mod_russia/32783 ; http...

[59]  https://t.me/voenkorKotenok/52312 ; https://t.me/negumanitarnaya_pomos... https://t.me/wargonzo/16616 ;  https://t.me/negumanitarnaya_pomosch_Z/12527

[60]  https://t.me/mod_russia/32771 ; https://t.me/mod_russia/32784

[61] https://twitter.com/moklasen/status/1727431258094096727; https://twitte...

[62]  https://t.me/wargonzo/16616 ; https://t.me/voenkorKotenok/52312 ; ht...

[63]  https://www.facebook.com/GeneralStaff.ua/posts/pfbid0MHnF4AQYCC2nz5uW938...

https://www.facebook.com/GeneralStaff.ua/posts/pfbid02HKTPFWmgq4q16wKZqE...

[64]  https://t.me/wargonzo/16616 ; https://t.me/negumanitarnaya_pomosch_Z/1... https://t.me/dva_majors/29587

[65]  https://t.me/voenkorKotenok/52312

[66]  https://suspilne dot media/624211-vijskovi-rf-vikoristovuut-nicni-droni-kamikadze-situacia-na-doneckomu-napramku/ ; https://suspilne dot media/624057-rosijski-okupanti-pocinaut-gnati-pihotu-na-oboh-flangah-bahmuta-nacalnik-stabu-artilerii-4-brigadi-ngu-rubiz/

[67]  https://suspilne dot media/624211-vijskovi-rf-vikoristovuut-nicni-droni-kamikadze-situacia-na-doneckomu-napramku/

[68]  https://t.me/mod_russia/32799

[69]  https://t.me/RVvoenkor/57079 ; https://t.me/nm_dnr/11303 ; https://t...

[70]  https://t.me/negumanitarnaya_pomosch_Z/12497

[71]  https://t.me/wargonzo/16641

[72]  https://t.me/voenkorKotenok/52312

[73]  https://t.me/RVvoenkor/57059 ; https://t.me/wargonzo/16616 ; https:/... https://t.me/TRO_DPR/13280 ; https://t.me/dntskmedia/210 ;  https://t.me/DnevnikDesantnika/4947 ; https://t.me/voenkorKotenok/5231...

[74]  https://t.me/RVvoenkor/57059 ; https://t.me/wargonzo/16616 ; https:/... https://t.me/TRO_DPR/13280 ; https://t.me/dntskmedia/210 ;  https://t.me/voenkorKotenok/52313 ; https://t.me/readovkanews/69828 ;... https://t.me/negumanitarnaya_pomosch_Z/12537 ;  https://t.me/rybar/54467 ; https://t.me/vozhak_Z/535 ; https://t.me/...

[75]  https://t.me/negumanitarnaya_pomosch_Z/12516 ; https://t.me/voenkorKot...

[76]  https://t.me/RVvoenkor/57059

[77]  https://t.me/negumanitarnaya_pomosch_Z/12483 ; https://t.me/negumanita...

[78]  https://t.me/vozhak_Z/535

[79]  https://t.me/DnevnikDesantnika/4947

[80]  https://www.facebook.com/GeneralStaff.ua/posts/pfbid0MHnF4AQYCC2nz5uW938...

[81]  https://t.me/wargonzo/16652

[82]  https://www.unian dot ua/war/viyna-v-ukrajini-ochilnik-avdijivskoji-mva-rozkriv-osoblivosti-tretoji-hvili-ataki-voroga-na-misto-12465069.html ;  https://uazmi dot org/news/post/deb6e23cc6342579fa47d4729e851ee9

[83]  https://www.facebook.com/GeneralStaff.ua/posts/pfbid0MHnF4AQYCC2nz5uW938... https://www.facebook.com/GeneralStaff.ua/posts/pfbid02HKTPFWmgq4q16wKZqE...

[84]  https://t.me/wargonzo/16616

[85]  https://www.facebook.com/GeneralStaff.ua/posts/pfbid036KfemUabt3tVEWTuzf...

[86]  https://t.me/batalyon_vostok/262 ;  https://t.me/RVvoenkor/57117

[87]  https://t.me/readovkanews/69780; https://t.me/readovkanews/69828; http...

[88]  https://t.me/voin_dv/6052

[89]  https://t.me/mod_russia/32769; https://t.me/mod_russia/32804

[90]  https://t.me/voenkorKotenok/52312

[91]  https://t.me/WarArchive_ua/7773

[92]  https://t.me/DnevnikDesantnika/4965; https://t.me/DnevnikDesantnika/4970

[93]  https://www.facebook.com/GeneralStaff.ua/posts/pfbid02HKTPFWmgq4q16wKZqE...

[94]  https://twitter.com/moklasen/status/1727442323532058769; https://t.me/B...

[95]  https://twitter.com/moklasen/status/1727660505400062155; https://t.me/B...

[96]  https://t.me/vrogov/12990; https://t.me/dva_majors/29520; https://t.me...

[97]  https://t.me/mod_russia/32805; https://www.facebook.com/GeneralStaff.ua...

[98]  https://t.me/rybar/54430; https://t.me/dva_majors/29577; https://t.me/... ttps://t.me/negumanitarnaya_pomosch_Z/12527; https://www.understandingwar.org/backgrounder/russia%E2%80%99s-military-...

[99]  https://t.me/Dnepro_Rub/1557; https://twitter.com/foosint/status/172791... https://twitter.com/moklasen/status/1727984954976403787

[100]  https://t.me/rodinarussia27/2194; https://t.me/rodinarussia27/2197

[101]  https://www.facebook.com/GeneralStaff.ua/posts/pfbid0MHnF4AQYCC2nz5uW938...

[102]  https://t.me/rybar/54448

[103]  https://t.me/SALDO_VGA/1466

[104]  https://t.me/mod_russia/32805; https://t.me/mod_russia/32794

[105]  https://armyinform.com dot ua/2023/11/23/voyenna-rozvidka-ukrayiny-pid-chas-kiberspeczoperacziyi-otrymala-dostup-do-zakrytyh-dokumentiv-rosaviacziyi/ ; https://t.me/DIUkraine/3122 ; https://gur dot gov.ua/content/voienna-rozvidka-ukrainy-zdiisnyla-kiberspetsoperatsiiu-shchodo-rosaviatsii-sanktsii-pryskoriuiut-aviakolaps-rf.html ; https://t.me/DIUkraine/3122 ; https://t.me/DIUkraine/3126

[106]  https://armyinform.com dot ua/2023/11/23/voyenna-rozvidka-ukrayiny-pid-chas-kiberspeczoperacziyi-otrymala-dostup-do-zakrytyh-dokumentiv-rosaviacziyi/ ; https://t.me/DIUkraine/3122 ; https://gur dot gov.ua/content/voienna-rozvidka-ukrainy-zdiisnyla-kiberspetsoperatsiiu-shchodo-rosaviatsii-sanktsii-pryskoriuiut-aviakolaps-rf.html ; https://t.me/DIUkraine/3122 ; https://t.me/DIUkraine/3126

[107]  https://armyinform.com dot ua/2023/11/23/voyenna-rozvidka-ukrayiny-pid-chas-kiberspeczoperacziyi-otrymala-dostup-do-zakrytyh-dokumentiv-rosaviacziyi/ ; https://t.me/DIUkraine/3122 ; https://gur dot gov.ua/content/voienna-rozvidka-ukrainy-zdiisnyla-kiberspetsoperatsiiu-shchodo-rosaviatsii-sanktsii-pryskoriuiut-aviakolaps-rf.html ; https://t.me/DIUkraine/3122 ; https://t.me/DIUkraine/3126

[108]  https://armyinform.com dot ua/2023/11/23/voyenna-rozvidka-ukrayiny-pid-chas-kiberspeczoperacziyi-otrymala-dostup-do-zakrytyh-dokumentiv-rosaviacziyi/ ; https://t.me/DIUkraine/3122 ; https://gur dot gov.ua/content/voienna-rozvidka-ukrainy-zdiisnyla-kiberspetsoperatsiiu-shchodo-rosaviatsii-sanktsii-pryskoriuiut-aviakolaps-rf.html ; https://t.me/DIUkraine/3122 ; https://t.me/DIUkraine/3126

[109]  https://t.me/s/uac_ru; https://ria dot ru/20231122/vks-1910966961.html; https://t.me/boris_rozhin/104499; https://t.me/boris_rozhin/104496

[110]  https://zona dot media/news/2023/11/24/4k ; https://t.me/severrealii/21462 ; https://t.me/bbcrussian/56851 ; https://t.me/astrapress/42893

[111]  https://zona dot media/news/2023/11/24/4k ; https://t.me/severrealii/21462 ; https://t.me/bbcrussian/56851 ; https://t.me/astrapress/42893

[112]  https://t.me/bbcrussian/56814

[113]  https://t.me/bbcrussian/56814

[114]  https://t.me/bbcrussian/56814

[115]  https://t.me/svobodnieslova/3405

[116]  https://t.me/sotaproject/69739

[117]  https://t.me/mobilizationnews/16548 ; https://t.me/mobilizationnews/16554

[118]  https://rostec dot ru/news/rostekh-vpervye-pokazal-nosimyy-antidronnyy-kompleks-chistyulya/

[119]  https://rostec dot ru/news/rostekh-vpervye-pokazal-nosimyy-antidronnyy-kompleks-chistyulya/

[120]  https://t.me/istories_media/4275

[121]  https://sprotyv dot mod.gov.ua/rosiyany-pragnut-zbilshyty-kilkist-ukrayinskyh-ditej-zaluchenyh-do-program-promyvky-mizkiv/

[122]  https://sprotyv dot mod.gov.ua/rosiyany-pragnut-zbilshyty-kilkist-ukrayinskyh-ditej-zaluchenyh-do-program-promyvky-mizkiv/

[123]  https://t.me/sons_fatherland/11253

[124]  https://t.me/pushilindenis/4030 ; https://www.mid dot ru/ru/about/educational/

[125]  https://t.me/andriyshTime/15388

[126]  https://t.me/zvizdecmanhustu/1425

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cropped aiou 2

  • Bachelor (B.A/B.Com) + Associate Degree , Home

AIOU Course Code 1424-1 Solved Assignment Spring 2022

1424 1

ASSIGNMENT No. 1

DOWNLOAD BUTTON IS GIVEN AT THE END

Q.1   Read pages 1-14 carefully (the content is related to ‘academic writing’ and various types of ‘essays’) and briefly answer the following questions (in your own words).                 

  • What is ‘academic writing’? How is it different from other types of writing?

Academic writing is the style of writing we use in the field of academics. Research projects, term papers, conference papers, essays, abstracts, reports, etc. in various disciplines are written in this style. The main difference between academic writing and other styles of writings is that it is more formal and structured. Academic writing also has its own set of rules and structures. The target audience or the readers of academic writing is the scholars of the same discipline.

Academic writing is generally objective, concise and impersonal. It is also more complex than general writing and may consist of technical jargon. Precision is also another very important factor in academic writing.  Punctuation and grammar  should be strictly followed. Contractions (don’t, can’t, etc.),  slang  or informal words, clichés, unnecessary filler words such as really, very, etc. should also be avoided in academic writing.

Referencing and citations  is another major difference in academic writing. In academic writing, the writer is expected to support his argument by citing evidence by other sources. However, this evidence from other sources always has to be properly attributed according to an accepted style guide such as  APA, MLA ,  Chicago and Harvard referencing .

https://wa.me//+923038507371

Writing for non-academic and no-technical purposes can be described as general writing. This is the style of writing we use in our day to day life. Diary and journal entries, letters, emails, newspaper articles, advertisements, posters, etc. are all written in a general writing style. Although general writing also requires correct spelling and grammar, it is not as strict as academic writing. In addition, there are no restrictions on the use of slang, contractions, clichés and other words. General writing can be informal, formal or semi-formal, but it’d be simpler and easier to understand than academic writing. There is also no need to use strict referencing and citation in general writing. Academic Writing  is used in research projects, conference papers, essays, abstracts, reports, etc.

General Writing  is used in letters, emails, newspaper articles, diary and journal entries, etc. Academic Writing  uses formal, objective, concise language. General Writing  uses informal, semi-formal language.

  • What is ‘analysis essay’? Write an analysis essay on ‘Internet’.

An analytical essay is a piece of writing that provides substantive analysis of a topic. Analysis papers can be written about art, music, literary works, current events, historical events, politics, scientific research, and philosophy, among other topics. Analytical essays are common in academic settings, and they also appear in magazines, newspapers, academic journals, trade journals. A good analytical essay can explain and contextualize basic information for the benefit of a reader. Analytical essays serve two purposes, one for the reader and one for the writer. High school teachers and college professors assign analytical papers to help their students grow as writers and thinkers. Analytical papers boost a student’s writing skills and enhance their comprehension of a particular topic.

Analytical essays also benefit readers. Newspapers and magazines routinely publish critical analysis essays to help their readers make sense of the news of the day. These types of essays enable authors, who may be experts in their fields, to educate their fellow citizens on matters of politics, economics, art, architecture, culture, and many other subjects of importance.

Analysis essay on ‘Internet’

Internet  has already firmly established in the life of modern people. Practically no one can imagine their lives without it, whether they study, work, sit at home or travel around the world. The age when people start using it is on constant decrease, and I will not be surprised if I find out that my 10-year-old neighbor knows how to use it better than me.

Although there are the tendencies I just described, there are certain people who consider this  technology to be harmful  and of no real good to people. Well, what can I say? Those who say so just don’t know what they are talking about, because if they did, they would understand that the  advantages of Internet  usage greatly outweigh the drawbacks it may sometimes have.

First of all,  Internet is a valuable source of information . Yes, people not so long ago succeeded to get education and be informed of the latest news without the web, but does it mean that we should stop using it for information purposes? I don’t think so. Previously people had to spend  many hours in the libraries , writing and rewriting the  necessary information . It took much time and nerves. Today all you have to do if you need some data is access it from your home, sitting in your favorite chair and maybe even listening to music. Isn’t it great? The opportunities it gives to students and all the people who like to be informed are just immense.

Q.2   Read pages 24-30 carefully (the content is about various parts of an academic essay) and write an academic essay (of about 150 words) on ‘My Favorite Subject’.        

My favorite subject among all subjects is English. When I was studying in the primary section then only I loved to study English, as the book was filled up with different interesting stories. We had two books of English up to class 8th. Further, we had one book containing drama. We have separate teachers for teaching us grammar and literature. I eagerly wait for the period of English.

The subject of English helps me in increasing my vocabulary and reading capability. I am fond of reading stories and poems and later on, I use to write it all in my own words. We also have our assignments. We have to perform skits or presentations on the provided topic. I choose to perform a skit and always did the role of the narrator. English is a subject that helps me in improving my writing skills. I wrote many small stories based on my imagination and my story was published in our school library collection.

Q.3   Read pages 31-34 carefully (the content is about formal and informal styles of writing) and decide what type of writing style (formal/informal) is used in the following text and how?                                                                                  

This is a formal writing because the text is of academic point of view.

Q.4   Read Unit 2 which is on ‘sequence’ or ‘chronological order’ (pages 39-72). Sequence is a writing technique that writers use to present information in a step by step manner or in a process or in a sequence (of story, for example).        

Now LINK (connect) sentences (given in the following text) by using appropriate SEQUENCE MARKERS (such as first, secondly, subsequently, then, after, finally, at last etc.). You are required to use at least TEN sequence markers in your answer.

Firstly , the early death of his mother in the Indiana wilderness, then a rude upbringing verging on the ill-mannered, the damage of rough and tumble frontier politics, unbearable mental breakdown resulting from uncertainty in life, all these played their role in the life of Lincoln. Subsequently the hurts of a not altogether happy marriage, and, then the loss of an infant son, all these had added their traces to the life of this great leader.

Q.5   Read the text titled as ‘A Day in the Life of a Nurse’ on pages 56-57 carefully. Also read Exercise-9 given on page 58. Now write down a PARAGRAPH of about 150 words on ‘A Day in the Life of a Bank Manager’. Follow the use of SEQUENCE MARKERS in your answer.

At exactly 5:30 am the alarm clock besides Ms Sarah goes off prompting her out of bed. Ms Mayanja has to rise early because of the nature of her family situation and new position as branch Manager of Equatorial Bank Ltd.

Her husband of 5 years, Sam, works up – country in Gulu, Northern Uganda, for a relief and development NGO and visits over the weekend. This means during his absence Ms sarah has to drop their 5-year-old son, Ali, at Aunt Molly’s kindergarten. Their three- year old, Sobia, is left in the care of a maid.

Quickly, with the help of her maid, she sees that Ali is dressed and readied for school. They sit down to breakfast by 6:30 and by 7:00 am there are both out of the driveway in a jet- blue Toyota Corsa while listening to their favourite morning show on 104.1 Power FM.

After dropping Ali at school, Sarah heads to the Acacia branch of Equatorial Bank and drops in by her normal time of 8 a.m. The first thing she does once in her office is to look at her diary and plot a to – do list.  She always purposes to get through her in- tray before 9 a.m and then go through the day’s errand.

Sarah’s number-one prior­ity is customer service-keeping current customers satisfied and signing up new ones. Privatization has intensified competition in the banking sector.  No longer are the days of sitting back and waiting for corporate customers; the modern banker has to go out scouting for new customers, which is part of Sarah’s job.

To bring in new customers, she tries to make visits each day to potential business clients. Unless she finds the time for such visits, she is unlikely to meet her target of expanding the branch’s business-customer base. Her immediate boss, Mr. Fred Nsereko, the General Manager of Retail banking gave her a target of bringing in 50 new clients with a portfolio worth over $ 2 million each this year. She has already scheduled two important appointments today. One visit will be to Fang Fang restaurant whose proprietor wants to expand her lucrative business.

Another target is lawyers. She has already sent letters to the Uganda Law Society President, Mr. Shafiq Nkuruziza, trying to interest them in a special type of account that lets lawyers purchase Mercedes Benzes on credit. She hopes to find time to visit the Law society offices before Lunchtime, as she has to pick up Ali from school.

Sarah has also a personnel problem to handle in the day. A competitor bank recently recruited one of her assistant managers, Yvonne Nambi, and she has to talk to Human Resource to find her a suitable replacement.  Sarah is happy that her people are competitive but she knows that the bank is weak in succession planning and hopes the Human Resource department devises a way to bridge the effect of these departures.

Sarah has also another personnel problem to handle. Lately, she has observed that Customer Relationship Manager, Musa Byamugisha, seems to be undermining her suggestions. She knows that Musa, who she hears is a relation to a certain Board member, had thought that the promotion would go to him yet in the end it was offered to her. She wonders also if Musa is ignoring her because she is a female and quiet younger than him. But Sarah knows that she was only promoted because of her proven track record. She decides she has to talk to Musa on the issue of insubordination late in the afternoon.

Sarah reviews her in-tray. There is a Memo containing new procedures she is to initiate at the branch, as well as information about new promotions (discounts on traveller’s checks and incentives to open checking ac­counts) that must be implemented. She then opens her Local Area Network mail system. There over 30 mails but she focuses on those addressed to her and near her concern. The rest she can catch up on later.

As she is going through her mail, a credit assistant knocks on the door and enters. Sarah keeps an open door and staff can access her anytime. The credit assistant has a report showing clients with rejected debits, indicat­ing insufficient funds. On the basis of a customer’s account history, Sarah must decide whether to cover a check or let it bounce.

Since this is a Monday, Sarah holds staff meetings at 9 a.m., to review the bank’s performance last week and plans for the week.  The meeting with her senior managers lasts less than an hour, as a rule for there is so much to do in the day.

During the peak time in the middle of the day, Sarah does what she calls Management by Walking Around (MBWA)- pitch­ing in and helping her staff whenever needed. She might review loan applications, talk with customers, or handle special prob­lems, such as the breakdown of an automated teller machine. If cus­tomer lines get particularly long, she works at a teller window. She must also sometimes deal with irate cus­tomers, who may be upset because lines are long or a mistake has been made.

Still, as much as possible, she likes to leave the operations of the branch to her assistant managers. Otherwise, she might get caught up in day-to-day problems and lose sight of her, main task-getting more customers for the bank and meeting her targets. Besides, she also feels the best way to help people grow in confidence is by letting them grow in their jobs.

Q.6   Read the text titled as ‘Planting a Tree: A Step by Step Guide’ on pages 60-61 carefully. Now draw a flow chart for ‘Shopping Online’ and write a paragraph on it by using appropriate SEQUENCE MARKERS.

Q.7   Read the text titled as ‘Pollution’ on pages 98-91 carefully and complete the following tasks briefly:                                                                                    

  • Define air pollution.

Air pollution is caused by a combination of gaseous and particulate pollutants such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrogen dioxide emitted from point sources such as factories and motor vehicles that burn fuel. Some gaseous emissions are visible to the eye and sometimes may even diffuse into the atmosphere and become invisible. Particulate pollution, on the other hand, such as soot and black carbon, is always visible.

  • Create a diagram illustrating various types of air pollution.
  • Explain what causes air pollution?

Certain gases in the atmosphere can cause air pollution. For example, in cities, a gas called  ozone  is a major cause of air pollution. Ozone is also a greenhouse gas that can be both good and bad for our environment. It all depends where it is in Earth’s  atmosphere . When particles in the air combine with ozone, they create smog.  Smog  is a type of air pollution that looks like smoky fog and makes it difficult to see.

Q.8   Read text titled as ‘Types of Teachers’ on pages 96-98 carefully and answer the following questions briefly:                                                                             

  • a) What are the characteristics of a friendly teacher?
  • expert communication skills
  • superior listening skills
  • deep knowledge and passion for their subject matter
  • the ability to build caring relationships with students
  • friendliness and approachability
  • excellent preparation and organization skills
  • strong work ethic
  • community-building skills
  • high expectations for all
  • How would you define a friendly teacher?

Some qualities of a good teacher include skills in communication, listening, collaboration, adaptability, empathy and patience. Other characteristics of effective teaching include an engaging classroom presence, value in real-world learning, exchange of best practices and a lifelong love of learning.

Q.9   Read about Cause and Effect’ (as given on pages 107-112) carefully and complete the exercises (given on pages 112-146) in the unit.                                      

         Now write down an ESSAY of about 250 words on the causes and effects of ‘Deforestation’. Follow the use of Cause and Effect relationship in your essay. You can discuss ONE effect of multiple causes and reasons and vice versa (multiple effects of ONE reason).

Deforestation refers to the decrease in forest areas across the world that are lost for other uses such as agricultural croplands, urbanization, or mining activities. Greatly accelerated by human activities since 1960, deforestation has been negatively affecting natural ecosystems, biodiversity, and the climate.

Causes of Deforestation

Agriculture.

Commercial or industrial agriculture (field crops and livestock) cause around 40% of forest loss – in the search for space to grow food, fibers or biofuel (such as soybeans, palm oil, beef, rice, maize, cotton and sugar cane). It is also particularly interesting to note  livestock  is believed to be responsible for about 14% of global deforestation. The main reasons why have to do with the large areas require both to raise livestock but also to grow its (soy-based) food.

New Constructions

The construction of human infrastructures has also been driving deforestation. More specifically, 10% of deforestation can be attributed to new infrastructures that serve the current human lifestyle in four main ways: transportation, transformation and energy generation.

On one hand, roads, rails, ports or airports have been built to move all sorts of goods – from cereals and fruits to spices, minerals or fossil fuels – either directly to trade centers or to transformation sites.

Urbanization

The populational shift that is leading people to move from rural areas to urban areas is also contributing to deforestation (5%, according to FAO). This urban growth – in which  68% of the world’s population  is expected to live in cities by 2050 – is leading to an exponential growth of housing and consumption sites. And as cities become larger so they can host more people, they challenge the natural boundaries surrounding them, often leading to deforestation. This is one of the reasons why deforestation is happening.

Deforestation Effects

Effects of deforestation on biodiversity.

The most known consequence of deforestation is its  threat to biodiversity . In fact, forests represent some of the most veritable hubs of  biodiversity . From mammals to birds, insects, amphibians or plants, the forest is home to many rare and fragile species. 80% of the Earth’s land animals and plants live in forests.

By destroying the forests, human activities are putting entire ecosystems in danger, creating natural imbalances, and putting Life at threat. The natural world is complex, interconnected, and made of thousands of inter-dependencies and among other functions, trees provide shade and colder temperatures for animals and smaller trees or vegetation which may not survive with the heat of direct sunlight. Besides, trees also feeding animals with their fruits while providing them with food and shelter they need to survive.

Local People and Their Livelihoods

Healthy forests support the livelihoods of 1.6 billion people globally , one billion of whom are among the worlds poorest. This means there are many people depending on forests for survival and using them to hunt and gather raw products for their small-scale agriculture processes. But in developing countries such as Borneo, Indonesia, Vietnam, Brazil, or Mexico, land tenure systems are weak. This allows big businesses to get these lands and use them for other ends, disrupting local people’s lives.

Food Insecurity in the Future

Today, 52% of all the land used for food production is moderately or severely impacted by  soil erosion . In the long term, the lack of healthy, nutritious soil can lead to low yields and food insecurity.

Soil Erosion

Deforestation weakens and  degrades the soi l. Forested soils are usually not only richer on organic matter, but also more resistant to erosion, bad weather, and extreme weather events. This happens mainly because roots help fix trees in the ground and the sun-blocking tree cover helps the soil to slowly dry out. As a result, deforestation will probably mean the soil will become increasingly fragile, leaving the area more vulnerable to natural disasters such as landslides and floods.

Climate Change

Firstly, taking down trees means they’ll release back into the atmosphere the CO2 they were keeping. Secondly, fewer trees available means reducing the planet’s overall ability to capture and store CO2. Both these effects negatively contribute to the  greenhouse effect  and to  climate change . As a matter of fact, while  food and agriculture  account for 24% of greenhouse gas emissions, deforestation is estimated to be responsible for 10-15% of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions.

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علامہ اقبال اوپن یونیورسٹی  کی   حل شدہ اسائنمنٹس۔ پی ڈی ایف۔ ورڈ فائل۔ ہاتھ سے لکھی ہوئی، لیسن پلین، فائنل لیسن پلین، پریکٹس رپورٹ، ٹیچنگ پریکٹس، حل شدہ تھیسس، حل شدہ ریسرچ پراجیکٹس انتہائی مناسب ریٹ پر گھر بیٹھے منگوانے کے لیے  واٹس ایپ پر رابطہ کریں۔ اس کے علاوہ داخلہ بھجوانے ،فیس جمع کروانے ،بکس منگوانے ،آن لائن ورکشاپس،اسائنمنٹ ایل ایم ایس پر اپلوڈ کروانے کے لیے رابطہ کریں۔

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