• Share full article


Supported by

Student Opinion

How Did the Covid-19 Pandemic Affect You, Your Family and Your Community?

This week is the fourth anniversary of the pandemic. What are your most lasting memories? How did it reshape your life — and the world?

A movie theater marquee with a message saying that events in March are postponed.

By Jeremy Engle

It has been four years since the World Health Organization declared Covid-19 a global pandemic on March 11, 2020. The New York Times writes of the anniversary:

Four years ago today, society began to shut down. Shortly after noon Eastern on March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared Covid — or “the coronavirus,” then the more popular term — to be a global pandemic. Stocks plummeted in the afternoon. In the span of a single hour that night, President Donald Trump delivered an Oval Office address about Covid, Tom Hanks posted on Instagram that he had the virus and the N.B.A. announced it had canceled the rest of its season. It was a Wednesday, and thousands of schools would shut by the end of the week. Workplaces closed, too. People washed their hands frequently and touched elbows instead of shaking hands (although the C.D.C. continued to discourage widespread mask wearing for several more weeks). The worst pandemic in a century had begun.

For some people, the earliest days of the pandemic may feel like a lifetime ago; for others, it may feel like just yesterday. But for all of us Covid has indelibly changed our lives and the world. What do you remember about the earliest days of the pandemic? When did it first hit home for you? How did it affect you, your family and your community? What lessons did you learn about yourself and the world?

In “ Four Years On, Covid Has Reshaped Life for Many Americans ,” Julie Bosman writes that while the threat of severe illness and death has faded for many people, the pandemic’s effects still linger:

Jessie Thompson, a 36-year-old mother of two in Chicago, is reminded of the Covid-19 pandemic every day. Sometimes it happens when she picks up her children from day care and then lets them romp around at a neighborhood park on the way home. Other times, it’s when she gets out the shower at 7 a.m. after a weekday workout. “I always think: In my past life, I’d have to be on the train in 15 minutes,” said Ms. Thompson, a manager at United Airlines. A hybrid work schedule has replaced her daily commute to the company headquarters in downtown Chicago, giving Ms. Thompson more time with her children and a deeper connection to her neighbors. “The pandemic is such a negative memory,” she said. “But I have this bright spot of goodness from it.” For much of the United States, the pandemic is now firmly in the past, four years to the day that the Trump administration declared a national emergency as the virus spread uncontrollably. But for many Americans, the pandemic’s effects are still a prominent part of their daily lives. In interviews, some people said that the changes are subtle but unmistakable: Their world feels a little smaller, with less socializing and fewer crowds. Parents who began to home-school their children never stopped. Many people are continuing to mourn relatives and spouses who died of Covid or of complications from the coronavirus. The World Health Organization dropped its global health emergency designation in May 2023, but millions of people who survived the virus are suffering from long Covid, a mysterious and frequently debilitating condition that causes fatigue, muscle pain and cognitive decline . One common sentiment has emerged. The changes brought on by the pandemic now feel lasting, a shift that may have permanently reshaped American life.

As part of our coverage of the pandemic’s anniversary, The Times asked readers how Covid has changed their attitudes toward life. Here is what they said:

“I’m a much more grateful person. Life is precious, and I see the beauty in all the little miracles that happen all around me. I’m a humbled human being now. I have more empathy and compassion towards everyone.” — Gil Gallegos, 59, Las Vegas, N.M. “The pandemic has completely changed my approach to educating my child. My spouse and I had never seriously considered home-schooling until March 2020. Now, we wouldn’t have it any other way.” — Kim Harper, 47, Clinton, Md. “I had contamination O.C.D. before the pandemic began. The last four years have been a steady string of my worst fears coming true. I never feel safe anymore. I know very well now that my body can betray me at any time.” — Adelia Brown, 23, Madison, Wis. “I don’t take for granted the pleasure of being around people. Going to a show, a road trip, a restaurant, people watching at the opera. I love it.” — Philip Gunnels, 66, Sugar Land, Texas “My remaining years are limited. On the one hand, I feel cheated out of many experiences I was looking forward to; on the other hand, I do not want to live my remaining years with long Covid. It’s hard.” — Sandra Wulach, 77, Edison, N.J.

Students, read one or both of the articles and then tell us:

How did the Covid-19 pandemic affect you, your family and your community? How did it reshape your life and the world? What are your most lasting memories of this difficult period? What do you want to remember most? What do you want to forget?

How did you change during this time? What did you learn about yourself and about life? What do you wish you knew then that you know now?

Ms. Bosman writes that some of the people she interviewed revealed that four years after the global pandemic began, “Their world feels a little smaller, with less socializing and fewer crowds.” However, Gil Gallegos told The Times: “I’m a much more grateful person. Life is precious, and I see the beauty in all the little miracles that happen all around me. I’m a humbled human being now. I have more empathy and compassion towards everyone.” Which of the experiences shared in the two articles reminded you the most of your own experiences during and after the pandemic and why? How did Covid change your overall outlook on life?

“The last normal day of school.” “The nursing home shut its doors.” “The bride wore Lululemon.” These are just a few quotes from “ When the Pandemic Hit Home ,” an article in which The Times asked readers to share their memories of the world shutting down. Read the article and then tell us about a time when the pandemic hit home for you.

In the last four years, scientists have unraveled some of the biggest mysteries about Covid. In another article , The Times explores many remaining questions about the coronavirus: Are superdodgers real? Is Covid seasonal? And what’s behind its strangest symptoms? Read the article and then tell us what questions you still have about the virus and its effects.

How do you think history books will tell the story of the pandemic? If you were to put together a time capsule of artifacts from this era to show people 100 years from now, what would you include and why? What will you tell your grandchildren about what it was like to live during this time?

Students 13 and older in the United States and Britain, and 16 and older elsewhere, are invited to comment. All comments are moderated by the Learning Network staff, but please keep in mind that once your comment is accepted, it will be made public and may appear in print.

Find more Student Opinion questions here. Teachers, check out this guide to learn how you can incorporate these prompts into your classroom.

Jeremy Engle joined The Learning Network as a staff editor in 2018 after spending more than 20 years as a classroom humanities and documentary-making teacher, professional developer and curriculum designer working with students and teachers across the country. More about Jeremy Engle

  • Newsletters

Site search

  • Israel-Hamas war
  • 2024 election
  • TikTok’s fate
  • Supreme Court
  • Winter warming
  • All explainers
  • Future Perfect

Filed under:

Read these 12 moving essays about life during coronavirus

Artists, novelists, critics, and essayists are writing the first draft of history.

Share this story

  • Share this on Facebook
  • Share this on Twitter
  • Share this on Reddit
  • Share All sharing options

Share All sharing options for: Read these 12 moving essays about life during coronavirus

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

The world is grappling with an invisible, deadly enemy, trying to understand how to live with the threat posed by a virus . For some writers, the only way forward is to put pen to paper, trying to conceptualize and document what it feels like to continue living as countries are under lockdown and regular life seems to have ground to a halt.

So as the coronavirus pandemic has stretched around the world, it’s sparked a crop of diary entries and essays that describe how life has changed. Novelists, critics, artists, and journalists have put words to the feelings many are experiencing. The result is a first draft of how we’ll someday remember this time, filled with uncertainty and pain and fear as well as small moments of hope and humanity.

At the New York Review of Books, Ali Bhutto writes that in Karachi, Pakistan, the government-imposed curfew due to the virus is “eerily reminiscent of past military clampdowns”:

Beneath the quiet calm lies a sense that society has been unhinged and that the usual rules no longer apply. Small groups of pedestrians look on from the shadows, like an audience watching a spectacle slowly unfolding. People pause on street corners and in the shade of trees, under the watchful gaze of the paramilitary forces and the police.

His essay concludes with the sobering note that “in the minds of many, Covid-19 is just another life-threatening hazard in a city that stumbles from one crisis to another.”

Writing from Chattanooga, novelist Jamie Quatro documents the mixed ways her neighbors have been responding to the threat, and the frustration of conflicting direction, or no direction at all, from local, state, and federal leaders:

Whiplash, trying to keep up with who’s ordering what. We’re already experiencing enough chaos without this back-and-forth. Why didn’t the federal government issue a nationwide shelter-in-place at the get-go, the way other countries did? What happens when one state’s shelter-in-place ends, while others continue? Do states still under quarantine close their borders? We are still one nation, not fifty individual countries. Right?

Award-winning photojournalist Alessio Mamo, quarantined with his partner Marta in Sicily after she tested positive for the virus, accompanies his photographs in the Guardian of their confinement with a reflection on being confined :

The doctors asked me to take a second test, but again I tested negative. Perhaps I’m immune? The days dragged on in my apartment, in black and white, like my photos. Sometimes we tried to smile, imagining that I was asymptomatic, because I was the virus. Our smiles seemed to bring good news. My mother left hospital, but I won’t be able to see her for weeks. Marta started breathing well again, and so did I. I would have liked to photograph my country in the midst of this emergency, the battles that the doctors wage on the frontline, the hospitals pushed to their limits, Italy on its knees fighting an invisible enemy. That enemy, a day in March, knocked on my door instead.

In the New York Times Magazine, deputy editor Jessica Lustig writes with devastating clarity about her family’s life in Brooklyn while her husband battled the virus, weeks before most people began taking the threat seriously:

At the door of the clinic, we stand looking out at two older women chatting outside the doorway, oblivious. Do I wave them away? Call out that they should get far away, go home, wash their hands, stay inside? Instead we just stand there, awkwardly, until they move on. Only then do we step outside to begin the long three-block walk home. I point out the early magnolia, the forsythia. T says he is cold. The untrimmed hairs on his neck, under his beard, are white. The few people walking past us on the sidewalk don’t know that we are visitors from the future. A vision, a premonition, a walking visitation. This will be them: Either T, in the mask, or — if they’re lucky — me, tending to him.

Essayist Leslie Jamison writes in the New York Review of Books about being shut away alone in her New York City apartment with her 2-year-old daughter since she became sick:

The virus. Its sinewy, intimate name. What does it feel like in my body today? Shivering under blankets. A hot itch behind the eyes. Three sweatshirts in the middle of the day. My daughter trying to pull another blanket over my body with her tiny arms. An ache in the muscles that somehow makes it hard to lie still. This loss of taste has become a kind of sensory quarantine. It’s as if the quarantine keeps inching closer and closer to my insides. First I lost the touch of other bodies; then I lost the air; now I’ve lost the taste of bananas. Nothing about any of these losses is particularly unique. I’ve made a schedule so I won’t go insane with the toddler. Five days ago, I wrote Walk/Adventure! on it, next to a cut-out illustration of a tiger—as if we’d see tigers on our walks. It was good to keep possibility alive.

At Literary Hub, novelist Heidi Pitlor writes about the elastic nature of time during her family’s quarantine in Massachusetts:

During a shutdown, the things that mark our days—commuting to work, sending our kids to school, having a drink with friends—vanish and time takes on a flat, seamless quality. Without some self-imposed structure, it’s easy to feel a little untethered. A friend recently posted on Facebook: “For those who have lost track, today is Blursday the fortyteenth of Maprilay.” ... Giving shape to time is especially important now, when the future is so shapeless. We do not know whether the virus will continue to rage for weeks or months or, lord help us, on and off for years. We do not know when we will feel safe again. And so many of us, minus those who are gifted at compartmentalization or denial, remain largely captive to fear. We may stay this way if we do not create at least the illusion of movement in our lives, our long days spent with ourselves or partners or families.

Novelist Lauren Groff writes at the New York Review of Books about trying to escape the prison of her fears while sequestered at home in Gainesville, Florida:

Some people have imaginations sparked only by what they can see; I blame this blinkered empiricism for the parks overwhelmed with people, the bars, until a few nights ago, thickly thronged. My imagination is the opposite. I fear everything invisible to me. From the enclosure of my house, I am afraid of the suffering that isn’t present before me, the people running out of money and food or drowning in the fluid in their lungs, the deaths of health-care workers now growing ill while performing their duties. I fear the federal government, which the right wing has so—intentionally—weakened that not only is it insufficient to help its people, it is actively standing in help’s way. I fear we won’t sufficiently punish the right. I fear leaving the house and spreading the disease. I fear what this time of fear is doing to my children, their imaginations, and their souls.

At ArtForum , Berlin-based critic and writer Kristian Vistrup Madsen reflects on martinis, melancholia, and Finnish artist Jaakko Pallasvuo’s 2018 graphic novel Retreat , in which three young people exile themselves in the woods:

In melancholia, the shape of what is ending, and its temporality, is sprawling and incomprehensible. The ambivalence makes it hard to bear. The world of Retreat is rendered in lush pink and purple watercolors, which dissolve into wild and messy abstractions. In apocalypse, the divisions established in genesis bleed back out. My own Corona-retreat is similarly soft, color-field like, each day a blurred succession of quarantinis, YouTube–yoga, and televized press conferences. As restrictions mount, so does abstraction. For now, I’m still rooting for love to save the world.

At the Paris Review , Matt Levin writes about reading Virginia Woolf’s novel The Waves during quarantine:

A retreat, a quarantine, a sickness—they simultaneously distort and clarify, curtail and expand. It is an ideal state in which to read literature with a reputation for difficulty and inaccessibility, those hermetic books shorn of the handholds of conventional plot or characterization or description. A novel like Virginia Woolf’s The Waves is perfect for the state of interiority induced by quarantine—a story of three men and three women, meeting after the death of a mutual friend, told entirely in the overlapping internal monologues of the six, interspersed only with sections of pure, achingly beautiful descriptions of the natural world, a day’s procession and recession of light and waves. The novel is, in my mind’s eye, a perfectly spherical object. It is translucent and shimmering and infinitely fragile, prone to shatter at the slightest disturbance. It is not a book that can be read in snatches on the subway—it demands total absorption. Though it revels in a stark emotional nakedness, the book remains aloof, remote in its own deep self-absorption.

In an essay for the Financial Times, novelist Arundhati Roy writes with anger about Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s anemic response to the threat, but also offers a glimmer of hope for the future:

Historically, pandemics have forced humans to break with the past and imagine their world anew. This one is no different. It is a portal, a gateway between one world and the next. We can choose to walk through it, dragging the carcasses of our prejudice and hatred, our avarice, our data banks and dead ideas, our dead rivers and smoky skies behind us. Or we can walk through lightly, with little luggage, ready to imagine another world. And ready to fight for it.

From Boston, Nora Caplan-Bricker writes in The Point about the strange contraction of space under quarantine, in which a friend in Beirut is as close as the one around the corner in the same city:

It’s a nice illusion—nice to feel like we’re in it together, even if my real world has shrunk to one person, my husband, who sits with his laptop in the other room. It’s nice in the same way as reading those essays that reframe social distancing as solidarity. “We must begin to see the negative space as clearly as the positive, to know what we don’t do is also brilliant and full of love,” the poet Anne Boyer wrote on March 10th, the day that Massachusetts declared a state of emergency. If you squint, you could almost make sense of this quarantine as an effort to flatten, along with the curve, the distinctions we make between our bonds with others. Right now, I care for my neighbor in the same way I demonstrate love for my mother: in all instances, I stay away. And in moments this month, I have loved strangers with an intensity that is new to me. On March 14th, the Saturday night after the end of life as we knew it, I went out with my dog and found the street silent: no lines for restaurants, no children on bicycles, no couples strolling with little cups of ice cream. It had taken the combined will of thousands of people to deliver such a sudden and complete emptiness. I felt so grateful, and so bereft.

And on his own website, musician and artist David Byrne writes about rediscovering the value of working for collective good , saying that “what is happening now is an opportunity to learn how to change our behavior”:

In emergencies, citizens can suddenly cooperate and collaborate. Change can happen. We’re going to need to work together as the effects of climate change ramp up. In order for capitalism to survive in any form, we will have to be a little more socialist. Here is an opportunity for us to see things differently — to see that we really are all connected — and adjust our behavior accordingly. Are we willing to do this? Is this moment an opportunity to see how truly interdependent we all are? To live in a world that is different and better than the one we live in now? We might be too far down the road to test every asymptomatic person, but a change in our mindsets, in how we view our neighbors, could lay the groundwork for the collective action we’ll need to deal with other global crises. The time to see how connected we all are is now.

The portrait these writers paint of a world under quarantine is multifaceted. Our worlds have contracted to the confines of our homes, and yet in some ways we’re more connected than ever to one another. We feel fear and boredom, anger and gratitude, frustration and strange peace. Uncertainty drives us to find metaphors and images that will let us wrap our minds around what is happening.

Yet there’s no single “what” that is happening. Everyone is contending with the pandemic and its effects from different places and in different ways. Reading others’ experiences — even the most frightening ones — can help alleviate the loneliness and dread, a little, and remind us that what we’re going through is both unique and shared by all.

Will you help keep Vox free for all?

At Vox, we believe that clarity is power, and that power shouldn’t only be available to those who can afford to pay. That’s why we keep our work free. Millions rely on Vox’s clear, high-quality journalism to understand the forces shaping today’s world. Support our mission and help keep Vox free for all by making a financial contribution to Vox today.

We accept credit card, Apple Pay, and Google Pay. You can also contribute via

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Next Up In Culture

Sign up for the newsletter today, explained.

Understand the world with a daily explainer plus the most compelling stories of the day.

Thanks for signing up!

Check your inbox for a welcome email.

Oops. Something went wrong. Please enter a valid email and try again.

Biden and Netanyahu hug on the tarmac in front of Air Force One.

How Biden could dial up the pressure on Israel — if he really wanted to

A woman in a group of protesters holds up a sign that reads “ TikTok changed my life for the better,” while another sign is visible behind her reading “TikTok helped me grow my business.” The US Capitol is visible behind the group.

It’s not just Gen Z. Here’s what TikTok’s user base tells us about a potential ban’s impact.

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Is the US running out of Social Security?

Princess Catherine, Prince William, Prince Harry, and Meghan, Duchess of Sussex, walk side by side, all dressed in black. A crowd of people watch them from behind a barricade.

Who is the British royal family willing to protect?

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Many coral reefs are dying. This one is exploding with life.

A photograph of TikTok supporters standing outside the US Capitol. They are holding signs supportive of TikTok, reading “TikTok Helped Me Grow My Business” and other similar messages. One supporter is taking a selfie and smiling.

Banning TikTok would be both ineffective and harmful

Log in using your username and password

  • Search More Search for this keyword Advanced search
  • Latest content
  • Current issue
  • BMJ Journals More You are viewing from: Google Indexer

You are here

  • Volume 76, Issue 2
  • COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on social relationships and health
  • Article Text
  • Article info
  • Citation Tools
  • Rapid Responses
  • Article metrics

Download PDF

  • http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1512-4471 Emily Long 1 ,
  • Susan Patterson 1 ,
  • Karen Maxwell 1 ,
  • Carolyn Blake 1 ,
  • http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7342-4566 Raquel Bosó Pérez 1 ,
  • Ruth Lewis 1 ,
  • Mark McCann 1 ,
  • Julie Riddell 1 ,
  • Kathryn Skivington 1 ,
  • Rachel Wilson-Lowe 1 ,
  • http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4409-6601 Kirstin R Mitchell 2
  • 1 MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit , University of Glasgow , Glasgow , UK
  • 2 MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, Institute of Health & Wellbeing , University of Glasgow , Glasgow , UK
  • Correspondence to Dr Emily Long, MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G3 7HR, UK; emily.long{at}glasgow.ac.uk

This essay examines key aspects of social relationships that were disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. It focuses explicitly on relational mechanisms of health and brings together theory and emerging evidence on the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic to make recommendations for future public health policy and recovery. We first provide an overview of the pandemic in the UK context, outlining the nature of the public health response. We then introduce four distinct domains of social relationships: social networks, social support, social interaction and intimacy, highlighting the mechanisms through which the pandemic and associated public health response drastically altered social interactions in each domain. Throughout the essay, the lens of health inequalities, and perspective of relationships as interconnecting elements in a broader system, is used to explore the varying impact of these disruptions. The essay concludes by providing recommendations for longer term recovery ensuring that the social relational cost of COVID-19 is adequately considered in efforts to rebuild.

  • inequalities

Data availability statement

Data sharing not applicable as no data sets generated and/or analysed for this study. Data sharing not applicable as no data sets generated or analysed for this essay.

This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to copy, redistribute, remix, transform and build upon this work for any purpose, provided the original work is properly cited, a link to the licence is given, and indication of whether changes were made. See: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ .


Statistics from Altmetric.com

Request permissions.

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


Infectious disease pandemics, including SARS and COVID-19, demand intrapersonal behaviour change and present highly complex challenges for public health. 1 A pandemic of an airborne infection, spread easily through social contact, assails human relationships by drastically altering the ways through which humans interact. In this essay, we draw on theories of social relationships to examine specific ways in which relational mechanisms key to health and well-being were disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Relational mechanisms refer to the processes between people that lead to change in health outcomes.

At the time of writing, the future surrounding COVID-19 was uncertain. Vaccine programmes were being rolled out in countries that could afford them, but new and more contagious variants of the virus were also being discovered. The recovery journey looked long, with continued disruption to social relationships. The social cost of COVID-19 was only just beginning to emerge, but the mental health impact was already considerable, 2 3 and the inequality of the health burden stark. 4 Knowledge of the epidemiology of COVID-19 accrued rapidly, but evidence of the most effective policy responses remained uncertain.

The initial response to COVID-19 in the UK was reactive and aimed at reducing mortality, with little time to consider the social implications, including for interpersonal and community relationships. The terminology of ‘social distancing’ quickly became entrenched both in public and policy discourse. This equation of physical distance with social distance was regrettable, since only physical proximity causes viral transmission, whereas many forms of social proximity (eg, conversations while walking outdoors) are minimal risk, and are crucial to maintaining relationships supportive of health and well-being.

The aim of this essay is to explore four key relational mechanisms that were impacted by the pandemic and associated restrictions: social networks, social support, social interaction and intimacy. We use relational theories and emerging research on the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic response to make three key recommendations: one regarding public health responses; and two regarding social recovery. Our understanding of these mechanisms stems from a ‘systems’ perspective which casts social relationships as interdependent elements within a connected whole. 5

Social networks

Social networks characterise the individuals and social connections that compose a system (such as a workplace, community or society). Social relationships range from spouses and partners, to coworkers, friends and acquaintances. They vary across many dimensions, including, for example, frequency of contact and emotional closeness. Social networks can be understood both in terms of the individuals and relationships that compose the network, as well as the overall network structure (eg, how many of your friends know each other).

Social networks show a tendency towards homophily, or a phenomenon of associating with individuals who are similar to self. 6 This is particularly true for ‘core’ network ties (eg, close friends), while more distant, sometimes called ‘weak’ ties tend to show more diversity. During the height of COVID-19 restrictions, face-to-face interactions were often reduced to core network members, such as partners, family members or, potentially, live-in roommates; some ‘weak’ ties were lost, and interactions became more limited to those closest. Given that peripheral, weaker social ties provide a diversity of resources, opinions and support, 7 COVID-19 likely resulted in networks that were smaller and more homogenous.

Such changes were not inevitable nor necessarily enduring, since social networks are also adaptive and responsive to change, in that a disruption to usual ways of interacting can be replaced by new ways of engaging (eg, Zoom). Yet, important inequalities exist, wherein networks and individual relationships within networks are not equally able to adapt to such changes. For example, individuals with a large number of newly established relationships (eg, university students) may have struggled to transfer these relationships online, resulting in lost contacts and a heightened risk of social isolation. This is consistent with research suggesting that young adults were the most likely to report a worsening of relationships during COVID-19, whereas older adults were the least likely to report a change. 8

Lastly, social connections give rise to emergent properties of social systems, 9 where a community-level phenomenon develops that cannot be attributed to any one member or portion of the network. For example, local area-based networks emerged due to geographic restrictions (eg, stay-at-home orders), resulting in increases in neighbourly support and local volunteering. 10 In fact, research suggests that relationships with neighbours displayed the largest net gain in ratings of relationship quality compared with a range of relationship types (eg, partner, colleague, friend). 8 Much of this was built from spontaneous individual interactions within local communities, which together contributed to the ‘community spirit’ that many experienced. 11 COVID-19 restrictions thus impacted the personal social networks and the structure of the larger networks within the society.

Social support

Social support, referring to the psychological and material resources provided through social interaction, is a critical mechanism through which social relationships benefit health. In fact, social support has been shown to be one of the most important resilience factors in the aftermath of stressful events. 12 In the context of COVID-19, the usual ways in which individuals interact and obtain social support have been severely disrupted.

One such disruption has been to opportunities for spontaneous social interactions. For example, conversations with colleagues in a break room offer an opportunity for socialising beyond one’s core social network, and these peripheral conversations can provide a form of social support. 13 14 A chance conversation may lead to advice helpful to coping with situations or seeking formal help. Thus, the absence of these spontaneous interactions may mean the reduction of indirect support-seeking opportunities. While direct support-seeking behaviour is more effective at eliciting support, it also requires significantly more effort and may be perceived as forceful and burdensome. 15 The shift to homeworking and closure of community venues reduced the number of opportunities for these spontaneous interactions to occur, and has, second, focused them locally. Consequently, individuals whose core networks are located elsewhere, or who live in communities where spontaneous interaction is less likely, have less opportunity to benefit from spontaneous in-person supportive interactions.

However, alongside this disruption, new opportunities to interact and obtain social support have arisen. The surge in community social support during the initial lockdown mirrored that often seen in response to adverse events (eg, natural disasters 16 ). COVID-19 restrictions that confined individuals to their local area also compelled them to focus their in-person efforts locally. Commentators on the initial lockdown in the UK remarked on extraordinary acts of generosity between individuals who belonged to the same community but were unknown to each other. However, research on adverse events also tells us that such community support is not necessarily maintained in the longer term. 16

Meanwhile, online forms of social support are not bound by geography, thus enabling interactions and social support to be received from a wider network of people. Formal online social support spaces (eg, support groups) existed well before COVID-19, but have vastly increased since. While online interactions can increase perceived social support, it is unclear whether remote communication technologies provide an effective substitute from in-person interaction during periods of social distancing. 17 18 It makes intuitive sense that the usefulness of online social support will vary by the type of support offered, degree of social interaction and ‘online communication skills’ of those taking part. Youth workers, for instance, have struggled to keep vulnerable youth engaged in online youth clubs, 19 despite others finding a positive association between amount of digital technology used by individuals during lockdown and perceived social support. 20 Other research has found that more frequent face-to-face contact and phone/video contact both related to lower levels of depression during the time period of March to August 2020, but the negative effect of a lack of contact was greater for those with higher levels of usual sociability. 21 Relatedly, important inequalities in social support exist, such that individuals who occupy more socially disadvantaged positions in society (eg, low socioeconomic status, older people) tend to have less access to social support, 22 potentially exacerbated by COVID-19.

Social and interactional norms

Interactional norms are key relational mechanisms which build trust, belonging and identity within and across groups in a system. Individuals in groups and societies apply meaning by ‘approving, arranging and redefining’ symbols of interaction. 23 A handshake, for instance, is a powerful symbol of trust and equality. Depending on context, not shaking hands may symbolise a failure to extend friendship, or a failure to reach agreement. The norms governing these symbols represent shared values and identity; and mutual understanding of these symbols enables individuals to achieve orderly interactions, establish supportive relationship accountability and connect socially. 24 25

Physical distancing measures to contain the spread of COVID-19 radically altered these norms of interaction, particularly those used to convey trust, affinity, empathy and respect (eg, hugging, physical comforting). 26 As epidemic waves rose and fell, the work to negotiate these norms required intense cognitive effort; previously taken-for-granted interactions were re-examined, factoring in current restriction levels, own and (assumed) others’ vulnerability and tolerance of risk. This created awkwardness, and uncertainty, for example, around how to bring closure to an in-person interaction or convey warmth. The instability in scripted ways of interacting created particular strain for individuals who already struggled to encode and decode interactions with others (eg, those who are deaf or have autism spectrum disorder); difficulties often intensified by mask wearing. 27

Large social gatherings—for example, weddings, school assemblies, sporting events—also present key opportunities for affirming and assimilating interactional norms, building cohesion and shared identity and facilitating cooperation across social groups. 28 Online ‘equivalents’ do not easily support ‘social-bonding’ activities such as singing and dancing, and rarely enable chance/spontaneous one-on-one conversations with peripheral/weaker network ties (see the Social networks section) which can help strengthen bonds across a larger network. The loss of large gatherings to celebrate rites of passage (eg, bar mitzvah, weddings) has additional relational costs since these events are performed by and for communities to reinforce belonging, and to assist in transitioning to new phases of life. 29 The loss of interaction with diverse others via community and large group gatherings also reduces intergroup contact, which may then tend towards more prejudiced outgroup attitudes. While online interaction can go some way to mimicking these interaction norms, there are key differences. A sense of anonymity, and lack of in-person emotional cues, tends to support norms of polarisation and aggression in expressing differences of opinion online. And while online platforms have potential to provide intergroup contact, the tendency of much social media to form homogeneous ‘echo chambers’ can serve to further reduce intergroup contact. 30 31

Intimacy relates to the feeling of emotional connection and closeness with other human beings. Emotional connection, through romantic, friendship or familial relationships, fulfils a basic human need 32 and strongly benefits health, including reduced stress levels, improved mental health, lowered blood pressure and reduced risk of heart disease. 32 33 Intimacy can be fostered through familiarity, feeling understood and feeling accepted by close others. 34

Intimacy via companionship and closeness is fundamental to mental well-being. Positively, the COVID-19 pandemic has offered opportunities for individuals to (re)connect and (re)strengthen close relationships within their household via quality time together, following closure of many usual external social activities. Research suggests that the first full UK lockdown period led to a net gain in the quality of steady relationships at a population level, 35 but amplified existing inequalities in relationship quality. 35 36 For some in single-person households, the absence of a companion became more conspicuous, leading to feelings of loneliness and lower mental well-being. 37 38 Additional pandemic-related relational strain 39 40 resulted, for some, in the initiation or intensification of domestic abuse. 41 42

Physical touch is another key aspect of intimacy, a fundamental human need crucial in maintaining and developing intimacy within close relationships. 34 Restrictions on social interactions severely restricted the number and range of people with whom physical affection was possible. The reduction in opportunity to give and receive affectionate physical touch was not experienced equally. Many of those living alone found themselves completely without physical contact for extended periods. The deprivation of physical touch is evidenced to take a heavy emotional toll. 43 Even in future, once physical expressions of affection can resume, new levels of anxiety over germs may introduce hesitancy into previously fluent blending of physical and verbal intimate social connections. 44

The pandemic also led to shifts in practices and norms around sexual relationship building and maintenance, as individuals adapted and sought alternative ways of enacting sexual intimacy. This too is important, given that intimate sexual activity has known benefits for health. 45 46 Given that social restrictions hinged on reducing household mixing, possibilities for partnered sexual activity were primarily guided by living arrangements. While those in cohabiting relationships could potentially continue as before, those who were single or in non-cohabiting relationships generally had restricted opportunities to maintain their sexual relationships. Pornography consumption and digital partners were reported to increase since lockdown. 47 However, online interactions are qualitatively different from in-person interactions and do not provide the same opportunities for physical intimacy.

Recommendations and conclusions

In the sections above we have outlined the ways in which COVID-19 has impacted social relationships, showing how relational mechanisms key to health have been undermined. While some of the damage might well self-repair after the pandemic, there are opportunities inherent in deliberative efforts to build back in ways that facilitate greater resilience in social and community relationships. We conclude by making three recommendations: one regarding public health responses to the pandemic; and two regarding social recovery.

Recommendation 1: explicitly count the relational cost of public health policies to control the pandemic

Effective handling of a pandemic recognises that social, economic and health concerns are intricately interwoven. It is clear that future research and policy attention must focus on the social consequences. As described above, policies which restrict physical mixing across households carry heavy and unequal relational costs. These include for individuals (eg, loss of intimate touch), dyads (eg, loss of warmth, comfort), networks (eg, restricted access to support) and communities (eg, loss of cohesion and identity). Such costs—and their unequal impact—should not be ignored in short-term efforts to control an epidemic. Some public health responses—restrictions on international holiday travel and highly efficient test and trace systems—have relatively small relational costs and should be prioritised. At a national level, an earlier move to proportionate restrictions, and investment in effective test and trace systems, may help prevent escalation of spread to the point where a national lockdown or tight restrictions became an inevitability. Where policies with relational costs are unavoidable, close attention should be paid to the unequal relational impact for those whose personal circumstances differ from normative assumptions of two adult families. This includes consideration of whether expectations are fair (eg, for those who live alone), whether restrictions on social events are equitable across age group, religious/ethnic groupings and social class, and also to ensure that the language promoted by such policies (eg, households; families) is not exclusionary. 48 49 Forethought to unequal impacts on social relationships should thus be integral to the work of epidemic preparedness teams.

Recommendation 2: intelligently balance online and offline ways of relating

A key ingredient for well-being is ‘getting together’ in a physical sense. This is fundamental to a human need for intimate touch, physical comfort, reinforcing interactional norms and providing practical support. Emerging evidence suggests that online ways of relating cannot simply replace physical interactions. But online interaction has many benefits and for some it offers connections that did not exist previously. In particular, online platforms provide new forms of support for those unable to access offline services because of mobility issues (eg, older people) or because they are geographically isolated from their support community (eg, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) youth). Ultimately, multiple forms of online and offline social interactions are required to meet the needs of varying groups of people (eg, LGBTQ, older people). Future research and practice should aim to establish ways of using offline and online support in complementary and even synergistic ways, rather than veering between them as social restrictions expand and contract. Intelligent balancing of online and offline ways of relating also pertains to future policies on home and flexible working. A decision to switch to wholesale or obligatory homeworking should consider the risk to relational ‘group properties’ of the workplace community and their impact on employees’ well-being, focusing in particular on unequal impacts (eg, new vs established employees). Intelligent blending of online and in-person working is required to achieve flexibility while also nurturing supportive networks at work. Intelligent balance also implies strategies to build digital literacy and minimise digital exclusion, as well as coproducing solutions with intended beneficiaries.

Recommendation 3: build stronger and sustainable localised communities

In balancing offline and online ways of interacting, there is opportunity to capitalise on the potential for more localised, coherent communities due to scaled-down travel, homeworking and local focus that will ideally continue after restrictions end. There are potential economic benefits after the pandemic, such as increased trade as home workers use local resources (eg, coffee shops), but also relational benefits from stronger relationships around the orbit of the home and neighbourhood. Experience from previous crises shows that community volunteer efforts generated early on will wane over time in the absence of deliberate work to maintain them. Adequately funded partnerships between local government, third sector and community groups are required to sustain community assets that began as a direct response to the pandemic. Such partnerships could work to secure green spaces and indoor (non-commercial) meeting spaces that promote community interaction. Green spaces in particular provide a triple benefit in encouraging physical activity and mental health, as well as facilitating social bonding. 50 In building local communities, small community networks—that allow for diversity and break down ingroup/outgroup views—may be more helpful than the concept of ‘support bubbles’, which are exclusionary and less sustainable in the longer term. Rigorously designed intervention and evaluation—taking a systems approach—will be crucial in ensuring scale-up and sustainability.

The dramatic change to social interaction necessitated by efforts to control the spread of COVID-19 created stark challenges but also opportunities. Our essay highlights opportunities for learning, both to ensure the equity and humanity of physical restrictions, and to sustain the salutogenic effects of social relationships going forward. The starting point for capitalising on this learning is recognition of the disruption to relational mechanisms as a key part of the socioeconomic and health impact of the pandemic. In recovery planning, a general rule is that what is good for decreasing health inequalities (such as expanding social protection and public services and pursuing green inclusive growth strategies) 4 will also benefit relationships and safeguard relational mechanisms for future generations. Putting this into action will require political will.

Ethics statements

Patient consent for publication.

Not required.

  • Office for National Statistics (ONS)
  • Ford T , et al
  • Riordan R ,
  • Ford J , et al
  • Glonti K , et al
  • McPherson JM ,
  • Smith-Lovin L
  • Granovetter MS
  • Fancourt D et al
  • Stadtfeld C
  • Office for Civil Society
  • Cook J et al
  • Rodriguez-Llanes JM ,
  • Guha-Sapir D
  • Patulny R et al
  • Granovetter M
  • Winkeler M ,
  • Filipp S-H ,
  • Kaniasty K ,
  • de Terte I ,
  • Guilaran J , et al
  • Wright KB ,
  • Martin J et al
  • Gabbiadini A ,
  • Baldissarri C ,
  • Durante F , et al
  • Sommerlad A ,
  • Marston L ,
  • Huntley J , et al
  • Turner RJ ,
  • Bicchieri C
  • Brennan G et al
  • Watson-Jones RE ,
  • Amichai-Hamburger Y ,
  • McKenna KYA
  • Page-Gould E ,
  • Aron A , et al
  • Pietromonaco PR ,
  • Timmerman GM
  • Bradbury-Jones C ,
  • Mikocka-Walus A ,
  • Klas A , et al
  • Marshall L ,
  • Steptoe A ,
  • Stanley SM ,
  • Campbell AM
  • ↵ (ONS), O.f.N.S., Domestic abuse during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, England and Wales . Available: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/crimeandjustice/articles/domesticabuseduringthecoronaviruscovid19pandemicenglandandwales/november2020
  • Rosenberg M ,
  • Hensel D , et al
  • Banerjee D ,
  • Bruner DW , et al
  • Bavel JJV ,
  • Baicker K ,
  • Boggio PS , et al
  • van Barneveld K ,
  • Quinlan M ,
  • Kriesler P , et al
  • Mitchell R ,
  • de Vries S , et al

Twitter @karenmaxSPHSU, @Mark_McCann, @Rwilsonlowe, @KMitchinGlasgow

Contributors EL and KM led on the manuscript conceptualisation, review and editing. SP, KM, CB, RBP, RL, MM, JR, KS and RW-L contributed to drafting and revising the article. All authors assisted in revising the final draft.

Funding The research reported in this publication was supported by the Medical Research Council (MC_UU_00022/1, MC_UU_00022/3) and the Chief Scientist Office (SPHSU11, SPHSU14). EL is also supported by MRC Skills Development Fellowship Award (MR/S015078/1). KS and MM are also supported by a Medical Research Council Strategic Award (MC_PC_13027).

Competing interests None declared.

Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

Read the full text or download the PDF:

Read our research on: TikTok | Podcasts | Election 2024

Regions & Countries

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

In Their Own Words, Americans Describe the Struggles and Silver Linings of the COVID-19 Pandemic

The outbreak has dramatically changed americans’ lives and relationships over the past year. we asked people to tell us about their experiences – good and bad – in living through this moment in history..

Pew Research Center has been asking survey questions over the past year about Americans’ views and reactions to the COVID-19 pandemic. In August, we gave the public a chance to tell us in their own words how the pandemic has affected them in their personal lives. We wanted to let them tell us how their lives have become more difficult or challenging, and we also asked about any unexpectedly positive events that might have happened during that time.

The vast majority of Americans (89%) mentioned at least one negative change in their own lives, while a smaller share (though still a 73% majority) mentioned at least one unexpected upside. Most have experienced these negative impacts and silver linings simultaneously: Two-thirds (67%) of Americans mentioned at least one negative and at least one positive change since the pandemic began.

For this analysis, we surveyed 9,220 U.S. adults between Aug. 31-Sept. 7, 2020. Everyone who completed the survey is a member of Pew Research Center’s American Trends Panel (ATP), an online survey panel that is recruited through national, random sampling of residential addresses. This way nearly all U.S. adults have a chance of selection. The survey is weighted to be representative of the U.S. adult population by gender, race, ethnicity, partisan affiliation, education and other categories.  Read more about the ATP’s methodology . 

Respondents to the survey were asked to describe in their own words how their lives have been difficult or challenging since the beginning of the coronavirus outbreak, and to describe any positive aspects of the situation they have personally experienced as well. Overall, 84% of respondents provided an answer to one or both of the questions. The Center then categorized a random sample of 4,071 of their answers using a combination of in-house human coders, Amazon’s Mechanical Turk service and keyword-based pattern matching. The full methodology  and questions used in this analysis can be found here.

In many ways, the negatives clearly outweigh the positives – an unsurprising reaction to a pandemic that had killed  more than 180,000 Americans  at the time the survey was conducted. Across every major aspect of life mentioned in these responses, a larger share mentioned a negative impact than mentioned an unexpected upside. Americans also described the negative aspects of the pandemic in greater detail: On average, negative responses were longer than positive ones (27 vs. 19 words). But for all the difficulties and challenges of the pandemic, a majority of Americans were able to think of at least one silver lining. 

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Both the negative and positive impacts described in these responses cover many aspects of life, none of which were mentioned by a majority of Americans. Instead, the responses reveal a pandemic that has affected Americans’ lives in a variety of ways, of which there is no “typical” experience. Indeed, not all groups seem to have experienced the pandemic equally. For instance, younger and more educated Americans were more likely to mention silver linings, while women were more likely than men to mention challenges or difficulties.

Here are some direct quotes that reveal how Americans are processing the new reality that has upended life across the country.

Sign up for our weekly newsletter

Fresh data delivered Saturday mornings

About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. It is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts .

How to Write About Coronavirus in a College Essay

Students can share how they navigated life during the coronavirus pandemic in a full-length essay or an optional supplement.

Writing About COVID-19 in College Essays

Serious disabled woman concentrating on her work she sitting at her workplace and working on computer at office

Getty Images

Experts say students should be honest and not limit themselves to merely their experiences with the pandemic.

The global impact of COVID-19, the disease caused by the novel coronavirus, means colleges and prospective students alike are in for an admissions cycle like no other. Both face unprecedented challenges and questions as they grapple with their respective futures amid the ongoing fallout of the pandemic.

Colleges must examine applicants without the aid of standardized test scores for many – a factor that prompted many schools to go test-optional for now . Even grades, a significant component of a college application, may be hard to interpret with some high schools adopting pass-fail classes last spring due to the pandemic. Major college admissions factors are suddenly skewed.

"I can't help but think other (admissions) factors are going to matter more," says Ethan Sawyer, founder of the College Essay Guy, a website that offers free and paid essay-writing resources.

College essays and letters of recommendation , Sawyer says, are likely to carry more weight than ever in this admissions cycle. And many essays will likely focus on how the pandemic shaped students' lives throughout an often tumultuous 2020.

But before writing a college essay focused on the coronavirus, students should explore whether it's the best topic for them.

Writing About COVID-19 for a College Application

Much of daily life has been colored by the coronavirus. Virtual learning is the norm at many colleges and high schools, many extracurriculars have vanished and social lives have stalled for students complying with measures to stop the spread of COVID-19.

"For some young people, the pandemic took away what they envisioned as their senior year," says Robert Alexander, dean of admissions, financial aid and enrollment management at the University of Rochester in New York. "Maybe that's a spot on a varsity athletic team or the lead role in the fall play. And it's OK for them to mourn what should have been and what they feel like they lost, but more important is how are they making the most of the opportunities they do have?"

That question, Alexander says, is what colleges want answered if students choose to address COVID-19 in their college essay.

But the question of whether a student should write about the coronavirus is tricky. The answer depends largely on the student.

"In general, I don't think students should write about COVID-19 in their main personal statement for their application," Robin Miller, master college admissions counselor at IvyWise, a college counseling company, wrote in an email.

"Certainly, there may be exceptions to this based on a student's individual experience, but since the personal essay is the main place in the application where the student can really allow their voice to be heard and share insight into who they are as an individual, there are likely many other topics they can choose to write about that are more distinctive and unique than COVID-19," Miller says.

Opinions among admissions experts vary on whether to write about the likely popular topic of the pandemic.

"If your essay communicates something positive, unique, and compelling about you in an interesting and eloquent way, go for it," Carolyn Pippen, principal college admissions counselor at IvyWise, wrote in an email. She adds that students shouldn't be dissuaded from writing about a topic merely because it's common, noting that "topics are bound to repeat, no matter how hard we try to avoid it."

Above all, she urges honesty.

"If your experience within the context of the pandemic has been truly unique, then write about that experience, and the standing out will take care of itself," Pippen says. "If your experience has been generally the same as most other students in your context, then trying to find a unique angle can easily cross the line into exploiting a tragedy, or at least appearing as though you have."

But focusing entirely on the pandemic can limit a student to a single story and narrow who they are in an application, Sawyer says. "There are so many wonderful possibilities for what you can say about yourself outside of your experience within the pandemic."

He notes that passions, strengths, career interests and personal identity are among the multitude of essay topic options available to applicants and encourages them to probe their values to help determine the topic that matters most to them – and write about it.

That doesn't mean the pandemic experience has to be ignored if applicants feel the need to write about it.

Writing About Coronavirus in Main and Supplemental Essays

Students can choose to write a full-length college essay on the coronavirus or summarize their experience in a shorter form.

To help students explain how the pandemic affected them, The Common App has added an optional section to address this topic. Applicants have 250 words to describe their pandemic experience and the personal and academic impact of COVID-19.

"That's not a trick question, and there's no right or wrong answer," Alexander says. Colleges want to know, he adds, how students navigated the pandemic, how they prioritized their time, what responsibilities they took on and what they learned along the way.

If students can distill all of the above information into 250 words, there's likely no need to write about it in a full-length college essay, experts say. And applicants whose lives were not heavily altered by the pandemic may even choose to skip the optional COVID-19 question.

"This space is best used to discuss hardship and/or significant challenges that the student and/or the student's family experienced as a result of COVID-19 and how they have responded to those difficulties," Miller notes. Using the section to acknowledge a lack of impact, she adds, "could be perceived as trite and lacking insight, despite the good intentions of the applicant."

To guard against this lack of awareness, Sawyer encourages students to tap someone they trust to review their writing , whether it's the 250-word Common App response or the full-length essay.

Experts tend to agree that the short-form approach to this as an essay topic works better, but there are exceptions. And if a student does have a coronavirus story that he or she feels must be told, Alexander encourages the writer to be authentic in the essay.

"My advice for an essay about COVID-19 is the same as my advice about an essay for any topic – and that is, don't write what you think we want to read or hear," Alexander says. "Write what really changed you and that story that now is yours and yours alone to tell."

Sawyer urges students to ask themselves, "What's the sentence that only I can write?" He also encourages students to remember that the pandemic is only a chapter of their lives and not the whole book.

Miller, who cautions against writing a full-length essay on the coronavirus, says that if students choose to do so they should have a conversation with their high school counselor about whether that's the right move. And if students choose to proceed with COVID-19 as a topic, she says they need to be clear, detailed and insightful about what they learned and how they adapted along the way.

"Approaching the essay in this manner will provide important balance while demonstrating personal growth and vulnerability," Miller says.

Pippen encourages students to remember that they are in an unprecedented time for college admissions.

"It is important to keep in mind with all of these (admission) factors that no colleges have ever had to consider them this way in the selection process, if at all," Pippen says. "They have had very little time to calibrate their evaluations of different application components within their offices, let alone across institutions. This means that colleges will all be handling the admissions process a little bit differently, and their approaches may even evolve over the course of the admissions cycle."

Searching for a college? Get our complete rankings of Best Colleges.

10 Ways to Discover College Essay Ideas

Doing homework

Tags: students , colleges , college admissions , college applications , college search , Coronavirus

2024 Best Colleges

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Search for your perfect fit with the U.S. News rankings of colleges and universities.

College Admissions: Get a Step Ahead!

Sign up to receive the latest updates from U.S. News & World Report and our trusted partners and sponsors. By clicking submit, you are agreeing to our Terms and Conditions & Privacy Policy .

Ask an Alum: Making the Most Out of College

You May Also Like

8 people to meet on your college campus.

Sarah Wood March 12, 2024

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Completing College Applications on Time

Cole Claybourn March 12, 2024

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Colleges Must Foster Civil Debate

Jonathan Koppell March 12, 2024

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

The Complete Guide to the TOEFL

Sarah Wood March 8, 2024

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Unique College Campus Visits

Sarah Wood March 7, 2024

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

MBA Programs Fail to Attract Women

Joy Jones March 7, 2024

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

12 Colleges With the Most NBA Players

Cole Claybourn March 1, 2024

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Higher Education on the Edge

Alan Mallach Feb. 29, 2024

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Disability Accommodations in College

Anayat Durrani Feb. 23, 2024

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Why Do Colleges Close?

Sarah Wood Feb. 20, 2024

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

  • - Google Chrome

Intended for healthcare professionals

  • Access provided by Google Indexer
  • My email alerts
  • BMA member login
  • Username * Password * Forgot your log in details? Need to activate BMA Member Log In Log in via OpenAthens Log in via your institution


Search form

  • Advanced search
  • Search responses
  • Search blogs
  • News & Views
  • The positive effects...

The positive effects of covid-19

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus pandemic.

  • Related content
  • Peer review
  • Bryn Nelson , science journalist
  • Seattle, WA, USA
  • bdnelson{at}nasw.org

As the coronavirus pandemic continues its deadly path, dramatic changes in how people live are reducing some instances of other medical problems. Bryn Nelson writes that the irony may hold valuable lessons for public health

Doctors and researchers are noticing some curious and unexpectedly positive side effects of the abrupt shifts in human behaviour in response to the covid-19 pandemic. Skies are bluer, fewer cars are crashing, crime is falling, and some other infectious diseases are fading from hospital emergency departments.

Other changes are unquestionably troubling. American doctors have expressed alarm over a nosedive in patients presenting to emergency departments with heart attacks, strokes, and other conditions, leading to fears that patients are too afraid of contracting covid-19 to seek necessary medical care. 1 Calls to poison control centres are up by around 20%, attributed to a rise in accidents with cleaners and disinfectants even before President Trump questioned whether injected disinfectants might stop the virus. 2 Calls to suicide prevention lines are skyrocketing, while health experts are fretting about signs of rising alcohol and drug use, poorer diets, and a lack of exercise among those cooped-up at home. 3 Millions of people are hungry and unemployed.

But doctors, researchers, and public health officials say the pandemic is also providing a unique window through which to view some positive health effects from major changes in human behaviour. And the pandemic may lead to a public more willing to accept and act on public health messages.

Alice Pong, a paediatric infectious disease physician and the medical director for infection control at Rady Children’s Hospital in San Diego, California, said the hospital has seen a sharp decline in paediatric admissions for respiratory illnesses. These include diseases such as influenza, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and human metapneumovirus.

“We track positive viral tests through our hospital lab and those numbers have gone down dramatically since everybody went into quarantine,” Pong told The BMJ . “We do think that’s a reflection of kids not being in day care or school.” The hospital is testing fewer patients, she said, which could be because more children might be staying home with respiratory symptoms. But more serious cases and intensive care unit admissions are down as well, suggesting a true decline in life threatening illnesses.

Beyond the disease reducing effects of social distancing, Pong said she believes children and families are taking advice on hand washing, personal hygiene, and other prevention measures seriously. “I think this is going to be a good lesson for everybody,” she said. ‘‘The public is seeing why public health officials have advised them stay home when they feel sick, for example, and why they’ve emphasised hand washing and covering a cough or sneeze. Kids growing up now will know this is how germs are spread,” Pong said. That message could spread to their families and broaden awareness.

Fewer cars, blue skies

With covid-19 shutting down economic activity in most parts of the world and people staying closer to home, street crimes like assault and robbery are down significantly, though domestic violence has increased. 4 Traffic has plummeted as well. As a result, NASA satellites have documented significant reductions in air pollution—20-30% in many cases—in major cities around the world. 5 Based on those declines, Marshall Burke, an environmental economist at Stanford University, predicted in a blog post that two months’ worth of improved air quality in China alone might save the lives of 4000 children under the age of 5 and 73 000 adults over the age of 70 (a more conservative calculation estimated about 50 000 saved lives). 6

Although baseline pollution levels in the US are lower, Burke said a similar 20-30% reduction in pollution would still likely yield significant health benefits. “A pandemic is a terrible way to improve environmental health,” he emphasised. It may, however, provide an unexpected vantage to help understand how environmental health can be altered. “It may help bring into focus the effect of business as usual on health outcomes that we care about,” he told The BMJ . “In some sense, it helps us imagine the future.” Getting there, he says, could instead come through better regulation and technology.

A separate report coauthored by Fraser Shilling, director of the Road Ecology Center at the University of California at Davis, found that highway accidents—including those involving an injury or fatality—fell by half after the state’s shelter-in-place order on 19 March. 7 “The reduction in traffic accidents is unparalleled,” and yielded an estimated $40m (£32m; €37m) in public savings every day, the report asserted.

Whereas average traffic speeds increased by only a few miles per hour, traffic volume fell by 55%. Hospitals in the Sacramento region reported fewer trauma related admissions while other reports indicated fewer car collisions with pedestrians and cyclists.

In Washington, collisions on state highways fell even further—by 62%—in the month after the state’s stay-at-home order went into effect on 23 March, compared with the previous year, according to the Washington State Patrol. The question, Shilling said, is whether researchers can learn from the information to design safer transportation patterns. “We’re not going to be guessing anymore about what happens when you take half the cars away,” he said.

Emptier highways, though, may be triggering reckless driving that could undo the mortality reductions. Washington State Patrol spokesperson Darren Wright said that troopers are seeing a “scary trend” of more drivers travelling at extreme speeds—a phenomenon also observed in Missouri. “We’re seeing speeds in the 120 and 130 miles per hour range,” Wright said. One motorcyclist was clocked at more than 150 miles per hour.

Reassessing priorities

If the pandemic has prompted risky behaviour for some, it has encouraged others to embrace preventive measures. Randy Mayer, chief of the Bureau of HIV, STD, and Hepatitis at the Iowa Department of Public Health, said the public has become more responsive to calls from the department’s partner services, which perform contact tracing for people who test positive for HIV, gonorrhoea, and syphilis. “People are really interested in calling us back and finding out what information we have for them,” he said. That increased cooperation, Mayer said, may be a benefit of people associating public health departments with trying to keep them safe from covid-19.

Even so, he worries that a noticeable reduction in the number of new HIV diagnoses may partially reflect a reduction in available testing with many clinics open for limited hours, if not completely closed. But growing evidence suggests that more people are also heeding recent pleas by public health officials and even dating apps to reduce the risk of covid-19 infection by avoiding casual sex with new partners. Researchers in Portugal and the UK told The BMJ that they were beginning to see shifts in the incidence of sexually transmitted infections but were still collecting data to support their observations.

Miguel Duarte Botas Alpalhão, a dermatovenereologist and invited lecturer in the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Lisbon, said that he expects to see a lower rate of sexually transmitted infections during the lockdown. The crisis has caused people to question their priorities “and how much they are willing to give up to protect their lives and those of their loved ones,” he said. “People are now more aware that nothing really matters when health is lacking, and this raised awareness may be the driving force towards healthier habits. We will have to wait and see.”

Competing interests: I have read and understood BMJ policy on declaration of interests and have no relevant interests to declare.

  • ↵ Grady D. The pandemic’s hidden victims: sick or dying, but not from the virus. New York Times. 20 April 2020. www.nytimes.com/2020/04/20/health/treatment-delays-coronavirus.html .
  • Schnall AH ,
  • ↵ Bharath D. Suicide, help hotline calls soar in Southern California over coronavirus anxieties. Orange County Register. 19 April 2020. www.ocregister.com/2020/04/19/suicide-help-hotline-calls-soar-in-southern-california-over-coronavirus-anxieties .
  • ↵ Dazio S, Briceno F, Tarm M. Crime drops around the world as covid-19 keeps people inside. Associated Press. 11 April 2020. https://apnews.com/bbb7adc88d3fa067c5c1b5c72a1a8aa6 .
  • ↵ NASA. Airborne nitrogen dioxide plummets over China. 2 March 2020. www.earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/146362/airborne-nitrogen-dioxide-plummets-over-china .
  • ↵ Burke M. Covid-19 reduces economic activity, which reduces pollution, which saves lives. G-FEED.org. 8 March 2020. www.g-feed.com/2020/03/covid-19-reduces-economic-activity.html .
  • ↵ Shilling F, Waetjen D. Special report (update): impact of covid-19 mitigation on numbers and costs of California traffic crashes. 15 April 2020. https://roadecology.ucdavis.edu/files/content/projects/COVID_CHIPs_Impacts_updated_415.pdf .

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

COVID-19 and Chronic Disease: The Impact Now and in the Future

ESSAY — Volume 18 — June 17, 2021

Karen A. Hacker, MD, MPH 1 ; Peter A. Briss, MD, MPH 1 ; Lisa Richardson, MD, MPH 1 ; Janet Wright, MD 1 ; Ruth Petersen, MD, MPH 1 ( View author affiliations )

Suggested citation for this article: Hacker KA, Briss PA, Richardson L, Wright J, Petersen R. COVID-19 and Chronic Disease: The Impact Now and in the Future. Prev Chronic Dis 2021;18:210086. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd18.210086 external icon .


The Problem of COVID-19 and Chronic Disease

Raise awareness, collaborate on solutions and build trust, address long-term covid-19 sequelae, how will the national center for chronic disease prevention and health promotion contribute, acknowledgments, author information.

Chronic diseases represent 7 of the top 10 causes of death in the United States (1). Six in 10 Americans live with at least 1 chronic condition, such as heart disease, stroke, cancer, or diabetes (2). Chronic diseases are also the leading causes of disability in the US and the leading drivers of the nation’s $3.8 trillion annual health care costs (2,3).

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in enormous personal and societal losses, with more than half a million lives lost (4). COVID-19 is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that can result in respiratory distress. In addition to the physical toll, the emotional impact has yet to be fully understood. For those with chronic disease, the impact has been particularly profound (5,6). Heart disease, diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, and obesity are all conditions that increase the risk for severe illness from COVID-19 (7). Other factors, including smoking and pregnancy, also increase the risk (7). Finally, in addition to COVID-19–related deaths since February 1, 2020, an increase in deaths has been observed among people with dementia, circulatory diseases, and diabetes among other causes (8). This increase could reflect undercounting COVID-19 deaths or indirect effects of the virus, such as underutilization of, or stresses on, the health care system (8).

Some populations, including those with low socioeconomic status and those of certain racial and ethnic groups, including African American, Hispanic, and Native American, have a disproportionate burden of chronic disease, SARS-CoV-2 infection, and COVID-19 diagnosis, hospitalization, and mortality (9). These populations are at higher risk because of exposure to suboptimal social determinants of health (SDoH). SDoH are factors that influence health where people live, work, and play, and can create obstacles that contribute to inequities. Education, type of employment, poor or no access to health care, lack of safe and affordable housing, lack of access to healthy food, structural racism, and other conditions all affect a wide range of health outcomes (10–12). The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated existing health inequities and laid bare underlying root causes.

The COVID-19 pandemic has had direct and indirect effects on people with chronic disease. In addition to morbidity and mortality, high rates of community spread and various mitigation efforts, including stay-at-home recommendations, have disrupted lives and created social and economic hardships (13). This pandemic has also raised concerns about safely accessing health care (14) and has reduced the ability to prevent or control chronic disease. This essay discusses the impact that these challenges have or could have on people with chronic disease now and in the future. Exploring the impact of COVID-19 should help the public health and health care communities effectively improve health outcomes.

The challenges we face as public health professionals are divided into 3 categories. The first category involves the current effects of COVID-19 on those with, or at risk for, chronic diseases and those at higher risk for severe COVID-19 illness. Inherent in this category is the need for balance between protecting people with chronic diseases from COVID-19 while assuring they can engage in disease prevention, manage their conditions effectively, and safely receive needed health care.

The second category is the postpandemic impact of COVID-19 on the prevention, identification, and management of chronic disease. COVID-19 has resulted in decreases of many types of health care utilization (15), ranging from preventive care to chronic disease management and even emergency care (16). As of June 2020, 4 in 10 adults surveyed reported delaying or avoiding routine or emergent medical care because of the pandemic (14). Cancer screenings, for example, dropped during the pandemic (17). Decreases in screening have resulted in the diagnoses of fewer cancers and precancers (18), and modeling studies have estimated that delayed screening and treatment for breast and colorectal cancer could result in almost 10,000 preventable deaths in the United States (19). We have lost ground in prevention across the chronic disease spectrum and in other areas, including pediatric immunization (20), mental health (21,22), and substance abuse (21,22).

Some challenges with health care utilization may be improving, but improvement has not been consistent across all health care visit types, providers, patients, or communities (15). Questions about the impact of the pandemic on chronic disease include:

What diseases have been missed or allowed to worsen?

What is the status of prevention and disease management efforts?

Have prevention and disease management efforts been affected by concerns such as job loss, loss of insurance, lack of access to healthy food, or loss of places and opportunities to be physically active?

How have effects of the pandemic on health care systems (staff reductions, health practice closures, disrupted services) (23) and public health organizations’ deployment of personnel away from ongoing chronic disease prevention efforts been experienced nationally?

The effects of COVID-19, whether negative or positive, on health care and public health systems will certainly affect those with chronic disease. To fully understand the consequences of the pandemic, we need to assess its overall impact on incidence, management, and outcomes of chronic disease. This is particularly salient in communities where health inequities are already rampant or communities that are remote or underserved. Will our postpandemic response be strong enough to mitigate the exacerbation of inequities that have occurred? Can public health agencies effectively build trust in science and community health care systems where trust might never have been fully established or where it has been lost?

The third category relates to the long-term COVID-19 sequelae, both as a disease entity and from a population perspective. Has COVID-19 created a new group of patients with chronic diseases, neurologic or psychiatric conditions, diabetes, or effects on the heart, lungs, kidneys, or other organs (24)? Has it worsened existing conditions or caused additional chronic disease? And, at the population level, have the incidence and prevalence of chronic diseases increased because of pandemic-related health behaviors or other challenges, such as decreased food and nutrition security?

Given the rollout of COVID-19 vaccines and the coming end of the pandemic, this is an important time to examine the impact of COVID-19. Solutions at all levels are needed to improve health outcomes and lessen health inequities among people with or at risk for chronic disease. Solutions are likely to include increasing awareness about prevention and care during and after the pandemic, building or enhancing cross-organizational and cross-sector partnerships, innovating to address identified gaps, and addressing SDoH to improve health and achieve equity. So, what can be done?

Additional focus is required on several aspects of awareness about the impact of COVID-19. First, public health and health care practitioners need to allay people’s fears and help them safely return to health care. We need to reemphasize chronic disease prevention and care, explain how to safely access care, and convey the host of mitigation efforts made by health care systems, providers, and public health to ensure that environments are safe (eg, mask requirements, social distancing). Emphasis on safety and mitigation applies to both disease prevention (such as encouraging healthy nutrition and physical activity, screening for cancer and other conditions, and getting oral health care) and disease management (eg, educating patients about medications to control hypertension, diabetes, asthma, and other chronic conditions). Efforts must also include helping those with chronic diseases obtain access to and gain confidence in the COVID-19 vaccine. Given current community rates of COVID-19 and the need to reenter care after the height of the pandemic, information can help patients make informed choices about the need for in-person care, communication at a distance, or temporary delays in care that is more discretionary.

To garner support to help affected communities, there is a need to build awareness about how COVID-19 has disproportionately affected particular communities, including the unequal distribution of disease, morbidity, mortality, and resources, such as access to vaccines. Awareness is dependent on access to data at the granular geographic level, including information on the burden of chronic disease and the status of SDoH. Communities need data to effectively address health inequities in the aftermath of the pandemic.

Public health plays a significant role in addressing health behaviors (healthy eating, physical activity, avoiding tobacco and other substance use) and community solutions to address SDoH that impact prevention and control of chronic disease. Collaborations at both the individual and system levels, however, are required for success. Collaborative partners include other government and nongovernmental organizations, health care organizations, insurers, nonprofit organizations, community and faith-based groups, schools, businesses, and others. Coalitions and community groups are critical change agents. They have worked with local health departments and others to identify solutions, bring residents into discussions, and implement action. We can learn from them about how best to build trust and foster the innovation they are leading. Solutions must also include direct discussions with residents in affected communities to understand their priorities and effectively address their concerns. These relationships are particularly salient to address SDoH. These factors have been amplified as a direct consequence of COVID-19 and will require a multisector approach to problem solving.

To achieve this will require building trust in both the health care system and the public health system. The pandemic has taken a toll on an already fragile relationship between communities and public health and health care institutions where trust has been absent or insufficient. To begin to address the trust challenge will require investments in outreach, engagement, and transparency. Conversations need to be bidirectional, long-term, and conducted by people who are trusted, who are respectful, and who can identify with affected populations.

Creative solutions are needed to engage populations and promote resiliency among those who are disproportionately affected by COVID-19. Efforts that need to be further developed and brought to scale include the following:

Leveraging technology to expand the reach of health care and health promotion (eg, telemedicine, virtual program delivery, wearables, mobile device applications).

Providing more services in community settings, as is increasingly modeled in the National Diabetes Prevention Program (25).

Using community health workers to assist in assessing current conditions and connecting to community resources.

Further enhancing approaches to increase access to and convenience of services (eg, increasing access to home screenings, such as cancer screening) or monitoring (eg, home blood pressure monitoring) where appropriate.

Health care approaches, such as telemedicine, have expanded greatly during the pandemic and seem likely to continue expansion over time. As these and related efforts grow, practitioners will need to ensure that existing disparities are not magnified. Care is needed to ensure that those with the highest health needs can access services. For example, are technological solutions easily accessible, available in multiple languages, compatible with readily available hardware options, such as telephones rather than laptops? Are culturally appropriate resources available to help people use and value these technologies? In addition, computer availability and internet access will need to be expanded. Challenges such as unemployment, food insecurity, limited transportation, substance abuse, and social isolation will require a multisector effort uniquely adapted to local contexts. To begin, health equity–focused policy analyses and health impact assessments will help policy makers understand better how proposed SDoH-related action might either exacerbate or mitigate chronic disease inequities. These actions will help us develop a deeper understanding of what individual communities need to mobilize and build resilience for the future. We face serious public health and population health concerns that should be the focus in the near term — particularly as equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines is a consideration in every community across the nation. We clearly have an enormous amount of work to do as we enter recovery from the pandemic, but with recovery comes enormous opportunity.

A challenge related to long-term COVID-19 sequelae is that we do not know yet the extent that COVID-19 exacerbates chronic disease, causes chronic disease, or will be determined a chronic disease unto itself. Those interested in chronic disease prevention and management need to follow the research to understand better the role they will play with this emerging situation. Long-term studies and longitudinal surveillance will help clarify these issues, and there is much research to be done. The duty of the public health community is to help ensure that the most important issues from the perspectives of patients, providers, health care, and public health systems are addressed; that potential solutions are developed and tested; and that eventual solutions are delivered where they are needed most.

As the US enters the next phase of pandemic response, the work of National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is evolving to address health inequities and drive toward health equity with a multipronged approach. This approach includes enhanced access to data at the local level, a focus on SDoH including a shift in the Notice of Funding Opportunity process that emphasizes a health equity lens, and an expansion of partnerships and communications.

Placing data in the hands of communities is critical for local coalitions to determine their burden of chronic disease and COVID-19, their access to resources, and the best policies and practices to implement. Data will be useful for local public health, governments, and health care systems, but can also help human services, planning, and economic development organizations. An initial step is making available data from the PLACES Project (26), which provides data on 27 chronic disease measures at the census tract level, allowing communities to understand their own chronic disease burden. In addition, modules on SDoH are in development to enhance NCCDPHP data surveillance systems. This will increase the ability to overlay chronic disease data and SDoH data at the community level. The need is also a great for core SDoH measures that allow comparisons of related outcomes across communities. NCCDPHP can augment this effort by contributing to and amplifying the SDoH measures identified for Healthy People 2030 (27).

NCCDPHP is focusing on supporting and stimulating SDoH efforts by concentrating on 5 major areas: built environment, social connectedness, food and nutrition security, tobacco policies, and connections to clinical care. For example, SDoH are the foci of recent Notices of Funding Opportunities (available at https://www.grants.gov). NCCDPHP supports multisector partnerships in numerous funding announcements and launched a joint effort with the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials and the National Association of County and City Health Officials to identify best practices in multisector collaboration to address SDoH (28). Evidence will help build a standard for success to support local coalitions in their work. States and local communities are sites of innovation, and promoting lessons learned can help build broader efforts. To address urgent needs and facilitate change, NCCDPHP must link with other sectors outside of public health and health care. The work to evaluate these efforts and determine the most effective strategies to address SDoH, therefore, will be integrated fully into NCCDPHP.

An expansion of the Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) Program (29) and other programs that address health inequities will help to target resources where they are needed most. REACH and a recently released investment in community health workers (30) demonstrate NCCDPHP’s commitment to connecting with populations that are disproportionately affected by chronic disease at the local level. These efforts are aimed at addressing the ramifications of COVID-19 while also amplifying chronic disease prevention efforts. NCCDPHP also intends to enhance the use of a health equity lens, among other approaches, to determine the best use of resources and to help assess outcomes in all programmatic activities.

Finally, communication about the impact of COVID-19 on chronic disease, returning to care, and the extent of health inequities is critical to building trust. Efforts under way include a television and digital media campaign aiming to encourage those with chronic disease to return safely to care (31). In addition to expanding work with partner organizations, both external and internal to government, NCCDPHP will embrace new ways of garnering input from affected communities. Successes and failures experienced by communities during the pandemic will continue to be of the utmost importance to NCCDPHP. In addition, important insights gained from working closely with affected communities will help NCCDPHP continually refine its national chronic disease prevention and control goals and objectives. Activities related to SDoH and health equity, data, and communication will address difficult questions now and into the future. These efforts can only be successful with collaboration and partnerships across multiple sectors.

The impact of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, on people with or at risk for chronic disease cannot be overstated. COVID-19 has impeded chronic disease prevention and disrupted disease management. The problems and solutions outlined here are critically important to help those committed to chronic disease prevention and intervention to identify ways forward.

NCCDPHP is adjusting, preparing, and implementing multiple strategies to address the future. Although the work will be challenging, opportunities abound. NCCDPHP is committed to working with the health care community and a variety of partners at federal, state, and local levels to help address the realities of the post-COVID era.

The authors have no conflicts of interest to report. No copyrighted materials were used in the preparation of this essay.

Corresponding Author: Karen A. Hacker, MD, MPH, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341. Telephone: 404-632-5062. Email: [email protected] .

Author Affiliations: 1 National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Leading causes of death. Updated March 1, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/leading-causes-of-death.htm. Accessed April 8, 2021.
  • Buttorff C, Teague R, Bauman M. Multiple chronic conditions in the United States. Santa Monica (CA): RAND Corporation; 2017. https://www.rand.org/pubs/tools/TL221.html. Accessed April 8, 2021.
  • Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services. National health expenditures 2019 highlights. https://www.cms.gov/files/document/highlights.pdf. Accessed April 8, 2021.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. COVID Data Tracker. https://covid.cdc.gov/covid-data-tracker/#datatracker-home. Accessed April 8, 2021.
  • Rosenthal N, Cao Z, Gundrum J, Sianis J, Safo S. Risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality in a US national sample of patients with COVID-19. JAMA Netw Open 2020;3(12):e2029058. Erratum in: JAMA Netw Open 2021;1:e2036103[REMOVED IF= FIELD] CrossRef external icon
  • Williamson EJ, Walker AJ, Bhaskaran K, Bacon S, Bates C, Morton CE, et al. Factors associated with COVID-19-related death using OpenSAFELY. Nature 2020;584(7821):430–6. CrossRef external icon
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. People with certain medical conditions. Updated March 29, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/people-with-medical-conditions.html. Accessed April 8, 2021.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Excess deaths associated with COVID-19. Updated April 7, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/vsrr/covid19/excess_deaths.htm. Accessed April 8, 2021.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Risk for COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, and death by race/ethnicity. Updated March 12, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/covid-data/investigations-discovery/hospitalization-death-by-race-ethnicity.html. Accessed April 8, 2021.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Health equity considerations and racial and ethnic minority groups. Updated February 12, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/health-equity/race-ethnicity.html. Accessed April 8, 2021.
  • Millett GA, Jones AT, Benkeser D, Baral S, Mercer L, Beyrer C, et al. Assessing differential impacts of COVID-19 on Black communities. Ann Epidemiol 2020;47:37–44. CrossRef external icon
  • Cordes J, Castro MC. Spatial analysis of COVID-19 clusters and contextual factors in New York City. Spat Spatio-Temporal Epidemiol 2020;34:100355. CrossRef external icon
  • Nicola M, Alsafi Z, Sohrabi C, Kerwan A, Al-Jabir A, Iosifidis C, et al. The socio-economic implications of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19): a review. Int J Surg 2020;78:185–93. CrossRef external icon
  • Czeisler MÉ, Marynak K, Clarke KEN, Salah Z, Shakya I, Thierry JM, et al. Delay or avoidance of medical care because of COVID-19–related concerns — United States, June 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020;69(36):1250–7. CrossRef external icon
  • Mehrotra A, Chernew M, Linetsky D, Hatch H, Cutler D, Schneider EC, et al. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on outpatient care: visits return to prepandemic levels, but not for all providers and patients. 2020. https://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/2020/oct/impact-covid-19-pandemic-outpatient-care-visits-return-prepandemic-levels. Accessed April 8, 2021.
  • Hartnett KP, Kite-Powell A, DeVies J, Coletta MA, Boehmer TK, Adjemian J, et al. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on emergency department visits — United States, January 1, 2019–May 30, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020;69(23):699–704. CrossRef external icon
  • London JW, Fazio-Eynullayeva E, Palchuk MB, Sankey P, McNair C. Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer-related patient encounters. JCO Clin Cancer Inform. 2020;4(4):657–65. CrossRef external icon
  • Bakouny Z, Paciotti M, Schmidt AL, Lipsitz SR, Choueiri TK, Trinh QD. Cancer screening tests and cancer diagnoses during the COVID-19 pandemic. JAMA Oncol 2021;7(3):458–60. CrossRef external icon
  • Sharpless NE. COVID-19 and cancer. Science 2020;368(6497):1290. CrossRef external icon
  • Santoli JM, Lindley MC, DeSilva MB, Kharbanda EO, Daley MF, Galloway L, et al. Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on routine pediatric vaccine ordering and administration — United States, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020;69(19):591–3. CrossRef external icon
  • Czeisler MÉ, Lane RI, Petrosky E, Wiley JF, Christensen A, Njai R, et al. Mental health, substance use, and suicidal ideation during the COVID-19 pandemic — United States, June 24–30, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep . 2020;69:1049–1057. CrossRef external icon
  • Czeisler MÉ, Lane RI, Wiley JF, Czeisler CA, Howard ME, Rajaratnam SMW. Follow-up survey of US adult reports of mental health, substance use, and suicidal ideation during the COVID-19 pandemic, September 2020. JAMA Netw Open 2021;4(2):e2037665. CrossRef external icon
  • Song Z, Giuriato M, Lillehaugen T, Altman W, Horn DM, Phillips RS, et al. Economic and clinical impact of COVID-19 on provider practices in Massachusetts. New England Journal of Medicine Catalyst Innovations in Care Delivery . Published online September 11, 2020. https://catalyst.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/CAT.20.0441. Accessed May 19, 2021.
  • Rubin R. As their numbers grow, COVID-19 long haulers stump experts. JAMA 2020;324(14):1381–3. CrossRef external icon
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Diabetes Prevention Program: working together to prevent diabetes. Updated August 10, 2019. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/prevention/index.html. Accessed April 8, 2021.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Population Health. PLACES: local data for better health. Updated December 8, 2020. https://www.cdc.gov/places/about/index.html. Accessed April 8, 2021.
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Healthy people 2030: social determinants of health. https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/social-determinants-health. Accessed April 29, 2021.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Social determinants of health community pilots. Updated March 17, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/programs-impact/SDoH/community-pilots.htm. Accessed April 8, 2021.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity. Racial and ethnic approaches to community health. Updated October 16, 2020. https://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpao/state-local-programs/reach/index.htm. Accessed April 8, 2021.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Community health workers for COVID response and resilient communities (CCR) CDC-RFA-DP21-2109. Updated April 28, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/programs-impact/nofo/covid-response.htm. Accessed April 29, 2021.
  • The National Association of Chronic Disease Directors. Your health beyond COVID-19 matters! https://yourhealthbeyondcovid.org. Accessed April 29, 2021.

The opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors’ affiliated institutions.

Exit Notification / Disclaimer Policy

  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website.
  • Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website.
  • You will be subject to the destination website's privacy policy when you follow the link.
  • CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance (accessibility) on other federal or private website.


Editorial: coronavirus disease (covid-19): the impact and role of mass media during the pandemic.

\nPatrícia Arriaga

  • 1 Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, Iscte-University Institute of Lisbon, CIS-IUL, Lisbon, Portugal
  • 2 Department of Psychology and Social Work, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden
  • 3 Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical School and University Hospital, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany

Editorial on the Research Topic Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): The Impact and Role of Mass Media During the Pandemic

The outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has created a global health crisis that had a deep impact on the way we perceive our world and our everyday lives. Not only has the rate of contagion and patterns of transmission threatened our sense of agency, but the safety measures to contain the spread of the virus also required social and physical distancing, preventing us from finding solace in the company of others. Within this context, we launched our Research Topic on March 27th, 2020, and invited researchers to address the Impact and Role of Mass Media During the Pandemic on our lives at individual and social levels.

Despite all the hardships, disruption, and uncertainty brought by the pandemic, we received diverse and insightful manuscript proposals. Frontiers in Psychology published 15 articles, involving 61 authors from 8 countries, which were included in distinct specialized sections, including Health Psychology, Personality and Social Psychology, Emotion Science, and Organizational Psychology. Despite the diversity of this collective endeavor, the contributions fall into four areas of research: (1) the use of media in public health communication; (2) the diffusion of false information; (3) the compliance with the health recommendations; and (4) how media use relates to mental health and well-being.

A first line of research includes contributions examining the use of media in public health communication. Drawing on media messages used in previous health crises, such as Ebola and Zika, Hauer and Sood describe how health organizations use media. They offer a set of recommendations for COVID-19 related media messages, including the importance of message framing, interactive public forums with up-to-date information, and an honest communication about what is known and unknown about the pandemic and the virus. Following a content analysis approach, Parvin et al. studied the representations of COVID-19 in the opinion section of five Asian e-newspapers. The authors identified eight main issues (health and drugs, preparedness and awareness, social welfare and humanity, governance and institutions, the environment and wildlife, politics, innovation and technology, and the economy) and examined how e-newspapers from these countries attributed different weights to these issues and how this relates to the countries' cultural specificity. Raccanello et al. show how the internet can be a platform to disseminate a public campaign devised to inform adults about coping strategies that could help children and teenagers deal with the challenges of the pandemic. The authors examined the dissemination of the program through the analysis of website traffic, showing that in the 40 days following publication, the website reached 6,090 visits.

A second related line of research that drew the concern of researchers was the diffusion of false information about COVID-19 through the media. Lobato et al. examined the role of distinct individual differences (political orientation, social dominance orientation, traditionalism, conspiracy ideation, attitudes about science) on the willingness to share misinformation about COVID-19 over social media. The misinformation topics varied between the severity and spread of COVID-19, treatment and prevention, conspiracy theories, and miscellaneous unverifiable claims. Their results from 296 adult participants (Mage = 36.23; 117 women) suggest two different profiles. One indicating that those reporting more liberal positions and lower social dominance were less willing to share conspiracy misinformation. The other profile indicated that participants scoring high on social dominance and low in traditionalism were more willing to share both conspiracy and other miscellaneous claims, but less willing to share misinformation about the severity and spread of COVID-19. Their findings can have relevant contributions for the identification of specific individual profiles related to the widespread of distinct types of misinformation. Dhanani and Franz examined a sample of 1,141 adults (Mage = 44.66; 46.9% female, 74.7% White ethnic identity) living in the United States in March 2020. The authors examined how media consumption and information source were related to knowledge about COVID-19, the endorsement of misinformation about COVID-19, and prejudice toward Asian Americans. Higher levels of trust in informational sources such as public health organizations (e.g., Center for Disease Control) was associated with greater knowledge, lower endorsement of misinformation, and less prejudice toward Asian Americans. Media source was associated with distinct levels of knowledge, willingness to endorsement misinformation and prejudice toward American Asians, with social media use (e.g., Twitter, Facebook) being related with a lower knowledge about COVID-19, higher endorsement of misinformation, and stronger prejudice toward Asian Americans.

A third line of research addressed the factors that could contribute to compliance with the health recommendations to avoid the spread of the disease. Vai et al. studied early pre-lockdown risk perceptions about COVID-19 and the trust in media sources among 2,223 Italians (Mage = 36.4, 69.2% female). They found that the perceived usefulness of the containment measures (e.g., social distancing) was related to threat perception and efficacy beliefs. Lower threat perception was associated with less perception of utility of the containment measures. Although most participants considered themselves and others capable of taking preventive measures, they saw the measures as generally ineffective. Participants acknowledged using the internet as their main source of information and considered health organizations' websites as the most trustworthy source. Albeit frequently used, social media was in general considered an unreliable source of information. Tomczyk et al. studied knowledge about preventive behaviors, risk perception, stigmatizing attitudes (support for discrimination and blame), and sociodemographic data (e.g., age, gender, country of origin, education level, region, persons per household) as predictors of compliance with the behavioral recommendations among 157 Germans, (age range: 18–77 years, 80% female). Low compliance was associated with male gender, younger age, and lower public stigma. Regarding stigmatizing attitudes, the authors only found a relation between support for discrimination (i.e., support for compulsory measures) and higher intention to comply with recommendations. Mahmood et al. studied the relation between social media use, risk perception, preventive behaviors, and self-efficacy in a sample of 310 Pakistani adults (54.2% female). The authors found social media use to be positively related to self-efficacy and perceived threat, which were both positively related to preventive behaviors (e.g., hand hygiene, social distancing). Information credibility was also related to compliance with health recommendations. Lep et al. examined the relationship between information source perceived credibility and trust, and participants' levels of self-protective behavior among 1,718 Slovenians (age range: 18–81 years, 81.7% female). The authors found that scientists, general practitioners (family doctors), and the National Institute of Public Health were perceived as the more credible source of information, while social media and government officials received the lowest ratings. Perceived information credibility was found to be associated with lower levels of negative emotional responses (e.g., nervousness, helplessness) and a higher level of observance of self-protective measures (e.g., hand washing). Siebenhaar et al. also studied the link between compliance, distress by information, and information avoidance. They examined the online survey responses of 1,059 adults living in Germany (Mage = 39.53, 79.4% female). Their results suggested that distress by information could lead to higher compliance with preventive measures. Distress by information was also associated with higher information avoidance, which in turn is related to less compliance. Gantiva et al. studied the effectiveness of different messages regarding the intentions toward self-care behaviors, perceived efficacy to motivate self-care behaviors in others, perceived risk, and perceived message strength, in a sample of 319 Colombians (age range: 18–60 years, 69.9% female). Their experiment included the manipulation of message framing (gain vs. loss) and message content (economy vs. health). Participants judged gain-frame health related messages to be stronger and more effective in changing self-behavior, whereas loss-framed health messages resulted in increased perceived risk. Rahn et al. offer a comparative view of compliance and risk perception, examining three hazard types: COVID-19 pandemic, violent acts, and severe weather. With a sample of 403 Germans (age range: 18–89 years, 72% female), they studied how age, gender, previous hazard experience and different components of risk appraisal (perceived severity, anticipated negative emotions, anticipatory worry, and risk perception) were related to the intention to comply with behavioral recommendations. They found that higher age predicted compliance with health recommendations to prevent COVID-19, anticipatory worry predicted compliance with warning messages regarding violent acts, and women complied more often with severe weather recommendations than men.

A fourth line of research examined media use, mental health and well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. Gabbiadini et al. addressed the use of digital technology (e.g., voice/video calls, online games, watching movies in party mode) to stay connected with others during lockdown. Participants, 465 Italians (age range: 18–73 years, 348 female), reported more perceived social support associated with the use of these digital technologies, which in turn was associated with fewer feelings of loneliness, boredom, anger, and higher sense of belongingness. Muñiz-Velázquez et al. compared the media habits of 249 Spanish adults (Mage = 42.06, 53.8% female) before and during confinement. They compared the type of media consumed (e.g., watching TV series, listening to radio, watching news) and found the increased consumption of TV and social networking sites during confinement to be negatively associated with reported level of happiness. People who reported higher levels of well-being also reported watching less TV and less use of social networking sites. Majeed et al. , on the other hand, examined the relation between problematic social media use, fear of COVID-19, depression, and mindfulness. Their study, involving 267 Pakistani adults (90 female), suggested trait mindfulness had a buffer effect, reducing the impact of problematic media use and fear of COVID-19 on depression.

Taken together, these findings highlight how using different frames for mass media gives a more expansive view of its positive and negative roles, but also showcase the major concerns in the context of a pandemic crisis. As limitations we highlight the use of cross-sectional designs in most studies, not allowing to establish true inferences of causal relationships. The outcome of some studies may also be limited by the unbalanced number of female and male participants, by the non-probability sampling method used, and by the restricted time frame in which the research occurred. Nevertheless, we are confident that all the selected studies in our Research Topic bring important and enduring contributions to the understanding of how media, individual differences, and social factors intertwine to shape our lives, which can also be useful to guide public policies during these challenging times.

Author Contributions

PA: conceptualization, writing the original draft, funding acquisition, writing—review, and editing. FE: conceptualization, writing—review, and editing. MP: writing—review and editing. NP: conceptualization, writing the original draft, writing—review, and editing. All authors approved the submitted version.

PA and NP received partial support to work on this Research Topic through Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT) with reference to the project PTDC/CCI-INF/29234/2017. MP contribution was supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG, PA847/22-1 and PA847/25-1). The authors are independent of the funders.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Publisher's Note

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.


We would like to express our gratitude to all the authors who proposed their work, all the researchers who reviewed the submissions to this Research Topic, and to Rob Richards for proofreading the Editorial manuscript.

Keywords: COVID-19, coronavirus disease, mass media, health communication, prevention, intervention, social behavioral changes

Citation: Arriaga P, Esteves F, Pavlova MA and Piçarra N (2021) Editorial: Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): The Impact and Role of Mass Media During the Pandemic. Front. Psychol. 12:729238. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.729238

Received: 22 June 2021; Accepted: 30 July 2021; Published: 23 August 2021.

Edited and reviewed by: Eduard Brandstätter , Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria

Copyright © 2021 Arriaga, Esteves, Pavlova and Piçarra. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) . The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Patrícia Arriaga, patricia.arriaga@iscte-iul.pt

Disclaimer: All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic

The year 2019 will forever be engraved in many people’s hearts and minds as the time when a deadly virus known as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) invaded almost all the sectors, thereby disrupting daily activities. It is described as a communicable respiratory illness which is triggered by a new strain of coronavirus which leads to various ailments in human beings. There is currently no known cure or vaccine for the virus as scientists worldwide are still trying to learn about the illness to respond appropriately through research (Goodell, 2020). This paper aims at exploring the effects that the pandemic has had on society regarding the economy, social life, education, religion, and family.

The emergence of the pandemic, which began in China-2019, quickly spread to other nations across the world with devastating effects on their economies As a way of containing the disease, many countries instituted strict measures, such as curfews, the mandatory wearing of masks, and social distancing of 1 meter apart (Goodell, 2020). Covid-19 has significantly changed the way these preventive methods relate with each concerning trade matters. The majority of the states affected opted to close their borders as fear among the citizens increased. The implementation of the strict rules interfered with the business operations of many nations. It became difficult for international trade to continue as a result of the closed borders. Most businesses have also had to close due to financial constraints.

When it comes to socialization, people have been forced to use other means to meet their friends and families across the world. Social media platforms have seen an increased usage during this difficult time as people try to find new ways of socializing. It has happened especially in such countries as Australia, where the restrictions were extreme as it enforced a lockdown for close to a hundred days (Goodell, 2020). The use of masks is also quickly becoming the new norm across numerous states. Unlike in developed countries where the governments have offered their citizens some aid mostly in terms of cash transfers, developing countries have struggled to balance between the people’s livelihood and the containment of the Covid-19. As such, most people have turned to social media platforms as a medium of communication and socialization due to lockdowns.

Learning institutions have also not been spared by the Covid-19 pandemic. Most countries affected by the spread of the virus were forced to suspend their educational curriculum calendar to allow children and university students to stay home until the time when the disease is finally neutralized (Goodell, 2020). However, students and parents have been pushing the governments to resume schools with clear protocols which ensure that both the students and the teachers follow the rules, including the mandatory wearing of masks. Religion has also been significantly affected as it has become difficult for people to seek for spiritual nourishment (Goodell, 2020). Many religious leaders have had to devise other ways of reaching out to the congregates. For example, many churches now have to move their services online by using such platforms as YouTube, Facebook, Zoom, among others to convey essential teachings.

Covid-19 has also directly affected many families across the world, as the majority have succumbed to the disease. The United States of America and Italy are some of the pandemic’s worst casualties, where many people were killed by the lethal virus (Goodell, 2020). Some people have in the end lost more than one member of the family because of the disease, and in some worse case scenarios, the illness has claimed a whole family.

In conclusion, this paper has highlighted the impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic on the economy, social life, education, religion, and family units. Many countries and businesses had underestimated the disease’s impact before they later suffered from the consequences. Therefore, international bodies, such as the World Health Organization, need to help developing countries establish critical management healthcare systems, which can help to deal with the future pandemics.

Goodell, J. W. (2020). COVID-19 and finance: Agendas for future research. Finance Research Letters , 35 , 101512. Web.

Cite this paper

  • Chicago (N-B)
  • Chicago (A-D)

StudyCorgi. (2022, March 19). The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic. https://studycorgi.com/the-impact-of-covid-19-pandemic/

"The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic." StudyCorgi , 19 Mar. 2022, studycorgi.com/the-impact-of-covid-19-pandemic/.

StudyCorgi . (2022) 'The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic'. 19 March.

1. StudyCorgi . "The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic." March 19, 2022. https://studycorgi.com/the-impact-of-covid-19-pandemic/.


StudyCorgi . "The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic." March 19, 2022. https://studycorgi.com/the-impact-of-covid-19-pandemic/.

StudyCorgi . 2022. "The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic." March 19, 2022. https://studycorgi.com/the-impact-of-covid-19-pandemic/.

This paper, “The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic”, was written and voluntary submitted to our free essay database by a straight-A student. Please ensure you properly reference the paper if you're using it to write your assignment.

Before publication, the StudyCorgi editorial team proofread and checked the paper to make sure it meets the highest standards in terms of grammar, punctuation, style, fact accuracy, copyright issues, and inclusive language. Last updated: March 19, 2022 .

If you are the author of this paper and no longer wish to have it published on StudyCorgi, request the removal . Please use the “ Donate your paper ” form to submit an essay.

  • CBSE Class 10th
  • CBSE Class 12th
  • UP Board 10th
  • UP Board 12th
  • Bihar Board 10th
  • Bihar Board 12th
  • Top Schools in India
  • Top Schools in Delhi
  • Top Schools in Mumbai
  • Top Schools in Chennai
  • Top Schools in Hyderabad
  • Top Schools in Kolkata
  • Top Schools in Pune
  • Top Schools in Bangalore

Products & Resources

  • JEE Main Knockout April
  • Free Sample Papers
  • Free Ebooks
  • NCERT Notes
  • NCERT Syllabus
  • NCERT Books
  • RD Sharma Solutions
  • Navodaya Vidyalaya Admission 2024-25
  • NCERT Solutions
  • NCERT Solutions for Class 12
  • NCERT Solutions for Class 11
  • NCERT solutions for Class 10
  • NCERT solutions for Class 9
  • NCERT solutions for Class 8
  • NCERT Solutions for Class 7
  • JEE Main 2024
  • JEE Advanced 2024
  • BITSAT 2024
  • View All Engineering Exams
  • Colleges Accepting B.Tech Applications
  • Top Engineering Colleges in India
  • Engineering Colleges in India
  • Engineering Colleges in Tamil Nadu
  • Engineering Colleges Accepting JEE Main
  • Top IITs in India
  • Top NITs in India
  • Top IIITs in India
  • JEE Main College Predictor
  • JEE Main Rank Predictor
  • MHT CET College Predictor
  • AP EAMCET College Predictor
  • TS EAMCET College Predictor
  • KCET College Predictor
  • JEE Advanced College Predictor
  • View All College Predictors
  • JEE Main Question Paper
  • JEE Main Mock Test
  • JEE Main Registration
  • JEE Main Syllabus
  • Download E-Books and Sample Papers
  • Compare Colleges
  • B.Tech College Applications
  • JEE Main Paper 2 Result
  • MAH MBA CET Exam
  • View All Management Exams

Colleges & Courses

  • MBA College Admissions
  • MBA Colleges in India
  • Top IIMs Colleges in India
  • Top Online MBA Colleges in India
  • MBA Colleges Accepting XAT Score
  • BBA Colleges in India
  • XAT College Predictor 2024
  • SNAP College Predictor 2023
  • NMAT College Predictor
  • MAT College Predictor 2024
  • CMAT College Predictor 2024
  • CAT Percentile Predictor 2023
  • CAT 2023 College Predictor
  • CMAT 2024 Registration
  • XAT Cut Off 2024
  • XAT Score vs Percentile 2024
  • CAT Score Vs Percentile
  • Download Helpful Ebooks
  • List of Popular Branches
  • QnA - Get answers to your doubts
  • IIM Fees Structure
  • AIIMS Nursing
  • Top Medical Colleges in India
  • Top Medical Colleges in India accepting NEET Score
  • Medical Colleges accepting NEET
  • List of Medical Colleges in India
  • List of AIIMS Colleges In India
  • Medical Colleges in Maharashtra
  • Medical Colleges in India Accepting NEET PG
  • NEET College Predictor
  • NEET PG College Predictor
  • NEET MDS College Predictor
  • DNB CET College Predictor
  • DNB PDCET College Predictor
  • NEET Application Form 2024
  • NEET PG Application Form 2024
  • NEET Cut off
  • NEET Online Preparation
  • Download Helpful E-books
  • LSAT India 2024
  • Colleges Accepting Admissions
  • Top Law Colleges in India
  • Law College Accepting CLAT Score
  • List of Law Colleges in India
  • Top Law Colleges in Delhi
  • Top Law Collages in Indore
  • Top Law Colleges in Chandigarh
  • Top Law Collages in Lucknow

Predictors & E-Books

  • CLAT College Predictor
  • MHCET Law ( 5 Year L.L.B) College Predictor
  • AILET College Predictor
  • Sample Papers
  • Compare Law Collages
  • Careers360 Youtube Channel
  • CLAT Syllabus 2025
  • CLAT Previous Year Question Paper
  • AIBE 18 Result 2023
  • NID DAT Exam
  • Pearl Academy Exam

Animation Courses

  • Animation Courses in India
  • Animation Courses in Bangalore
  • Animation Courses in Mumbai
  • Animation Courses in Pune
  • Animation Courses in Chennai
  • Animation Courses in Hyderabad
  • Design Colleges in India
  • Fashion Design Colleges in Bangalore
  • Fashion Design Colleges in Mumbai
  • Fashion Design Colleges in Pune
  • Fashion Design Colleges in Delhi
  • Fashion Design Colleges in Hyderabad
  • Fashion Design Colleges in India
  • Top Design Colleges in India
  • Free Design E-books
  • List of Branches
  • Careers360 Youtube channel
  • NIFT College Predictor
  • UCEED College Predictor
  • JMI Mass Communication Entrance Exam
  • IIMC Entrance Exam
  • Media & Journalism colleges in Delhi
  • Media & Journalism colleges in Bangalore
  • Media & Journalism colleges in Mumbai
  • List of Media & Journalism Colleges in India
  • CA Intermediate
  • CA Foundation
  • CS Executive
  • CS Professional
  • Difference between CA and CS
  • Difference between CA and CMA
  • CA Full form
  • CMA Full form
  • CS Full form
  • CA Salary In India

Top Courses & Careers

  • Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com)
  • Master of Commerce (M.Com)
  • Company Secretary
  • Cost Accountant
  • Charted Accountant
  • Credit Manager
  • Financial Advisor
  • Top Commerce Colleges in India
  • Top Government Commerce Colleges in India
  • Top Private Commerce Colleges in India
  • Top M.Com Colleges in Mumbai
  • Top B.Com Colleges in India
  • IT Colleges in Tamil Nadu
  • IT Colleges in Uttar Pradesh
  • MCA Colleges in India
  • BCA Colleges in India

Quick Links

  • Information Technology Courses
  • Programming Courses
  • Web Development Courses
  • Data Analytics Courses
  • Big Data Analytics Courses
  • RUHS Pharmacy Admission Test
  • Top Pharmacy Colleges in India
  • Pharmacy Colleges in Pune
  • Pharmacy Colleges in Mumbai
  • Colleges Accepting GPAT Score
  • Pharmacy Colleges in Lucknow
  • List of Pharmacy Colleges in Nagpur
  • GPAT Result
  • GPAT 2024 Admit Card
  • GPAT Question Papers
  • NCHMCT JEE 2024
  • Top Hotel Management Colleges in Delhi
  • Top Hotel Management Colleges in Hyderabad
  • Top Hotel Management Colleges in Mumbai
  • Top Hotel Management Colleges in Tamil Nadu
  • Top Hotel Management Colleges in Maharashtra
  • B.Sc Hotel Management
  • Hotel Management
  • Diploma in Hotel Management and Catering Technology

Diploma Colleges

  • Top Diploma Colleges in Maharashtra
  • UPSC IAS 2024
  • SSC CGL 2024
  • IBPS RRB 2024
  • Previous Year Sample Papers
  • Free Competition E-books
  • Sarkari Result
  • QnA- Get your doubts answered
  • UPSC Previous Year Sample Papers
  • CTET Previous Year Sample Papers
  • SBI Clerk Previous Year Sample Papers
  • NDA Previous Year Sample Papers

Upcoming Events

  • NDA Application Form 2024
  • UPSC IAS Application Form 2024
  • CDS Application Form 2024
  • CTET Admit card 2024
  • HP TET Result 2023
  • SSC GD Constable Admit Card 2024
  • UPTET Notification 2024
  • SBI Clerk Result 2024

Other Exams

  • SSC CHSL 2024
  • UP PCS 2024
  • UGC NET 2024
  • RRB NTPC 2024
  • IBPS PO 2024
  • IBPS Clerk 2024
  • IBPS SO 2024
  • Top University in USA
  • Top University in Canada
  • Top University in Ireland
  • Top Universities in UK
  • Top Universities in Australia
  • Best MBA Colleges in Abroad
  • Business Management Studies Colleges

Top Countries

  • Study in USA
  • Study in UK
  • Study in Canada
  • Study in Australia
  • Study in Ireland
  • Study in Germany
  • Study in China
  • Study in Europe

Student Visas

  • Student Visa Canada
  • Student Visa UK
  • Student Visa USA
  • Student Visa Australia
  • Student Visa Germany
  • Student Visa New Zealand
  • Student Visa Ireland
  • CUET PG 2024
  • IGNOU B.Ed Admission 2024
  • DU Admission
  • UP B.Ed JEE 2024
  • DDU Entrance Exam
  • IIT JAM 2024
  • IGNOU Online Admission 2024
  • Universities in India
  • Top Universities in India 2024
  • Top Colleges in India
  • Top Universities in Uttar Pradesh 2024
  • Top Universities in Bihar
  • Top Universities in Madhya Pradesh 2024
  • Top Universities in Tamil Nadu 2024
  • Central Universities in India
  • CUET PG Admit Card 2024
  • IGNOU Date Sheet
  • CUET Mock Test 2024
  • CUET Application Form 2024
  • CUET PG Syllabus 2024
  • CUET Participating Universities 2024
  • CUET Previous Year Question Paper
  • CUET Syllabus 2024 for Science Students
  • E-Books and Sample Papers
  • CUET Exam Pattern 2024
  • CUET Exam Date 2024
  • CUET Syllabus 2024
  • IGNOU Exam Form 2024
  • IGNOU Result
  • CUET PG Courses 2024

Engineering Preparation

  • Knockout JEE Main 2024
  • Test Series JEE Main 2024
  • JEE Main 2024 Rank Booster

Medical Preparation

  • Knockout NEET 2024
  • Test Series NEET 2024
  • Rank Booster NEET 2024

Online Courses

  • JEE Main One Month Course
  • NEET One Month Course
  • IBSAT Free Mock Tests
  • IIT JEE Foundation Course
  • Knockout BITSAT 2024
  • Career Guidance Tool

Top Streams

  • IT & Software Certification Courses
  • Engineering and Architecture Certification Courses
  • Programming And Development Certification Courses
  • Business and Management Certification Courses
  • Marketing Certification Courses
  • Health and Fitness Certification Courses
  • Design Certification Courses


  • Digital Marketing Certification Courses
  • Cyber Security Certification Courses
  • Artificial Intelligence Certification Courses
  • Business Analytics Certification Courses
  • Data Science Certification Courses
  • Cloud Computing Certification Courses
  • Machine Learning Certification Courses
  • View All Certification Courses
  • UG Degree Courses
  • PG Degree Courses
  • Short Term Courses
  • Free Courses
  • Online Degrees and Diplomas
  • Compare Courses

Top Providers

  • Coursera Courses
  • Udemy Courses
  • Edx Courses
  • Swayam Courses
  • upGrad Courses
  • Simplilearn Courses
  • Great Learning Courses

Access premium articles, webinars, resources to make the best decisions for career, course, exams, scholarships, study abroad and much more with

Plan, Prepare & Make the Best Career Choices

Covid 19 Essay in English

Essay on Covid -19: In a very short amount of time, coronavirus has spread globally. It has had an enormous impact on people's lives, economy, and societies all around the world, affecting every country. Governments have had to take severe measures to try and contain the pandemic. The virus has altered our way of life in many ways, including its effects on our health and our economy. Here are a few sample essays on ‘CoronaVirus’.

100 Words Essay on Covid 19

200 words essay on covid 19, 500 words essay on covid 19.

Covid 19 Essay in English

COVID-19 or Corona Virus is a novel coronavirus that was first identified in 2019. It is similar to other coronaviruses, such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, but it is more contagious and has caused more severe respiratory illness in people who have been infected. The novel coronavirus became a global pandemic in a very short period of time. It has affected lives, economies and societies across the world, leaving no country untouched. The virus has caused governments to take drastic measures to try and contain it. From health implications to economic and social ramifications, COVID-19 impacted every part of our lives. It has been more than 2 years since the pandemic hit and the world is still recovering from its effects.

Since the outbreak of COVID-19, the world has been impacted in a number of ways. For one, the global economy has taken a hit as businesses have been forced to close their doors. This has led to widespread job losses and an increase in poverty levels around the world. Additionally, countries have had to impose strict travel restrictions in an attempt to contain the virus, which has resulted in a decrease in tourism and international trade. Furthermore, the pandemic has put immense pressure on healthcare systems globally, as hospitals have been overwhelmed with patients suffering from the virus. Lastly, the outbreak has led to a general feeling of anxiety and uncertainty, as people are fearful of contracting the disease.

My Experience of COVID-19

I still remember how abruptly colleges and schools shut down in March 2020. I was a college student at that time and I was under the impression that everything would go back to normal in a few weeks. I could not have been more wrong. The situation only got worse every week and the government had to impose a lockdown. There were so many restrictions in place. For example, we had to wear face masks whenever we left the house, and we could only go out for essential errands. Restaurants and shops were only allowed to operate at take-out capacity, and many businesses were shut down.

In the current scenario, coronavirus is dominating all aspects of our lives. The coronavirus pandemic has wreaked havoc upon people’s lives, altering the way we live and work in a very short amount of time. It has revolutionised how we think about health care, education, and even social interaction. This virus has had long-term implications on our society, including its impact on mental health, economic stability, and global politics. But we as individuals can help to mitigate these effects by taking personal responsibility to protect themselves and those around them from infection.

Effects of CoronaVirus on Education

The outbreak of coronavirus has had a significant impact on education systems around the world. In China, where the virus originated, all schools and universities were closed for several weeks in an effort to contain the spread of the disease. Many other countries have followed suit, either closing schools altogether or suspending classes for a period of time.

This has resulted in a major disruption to the education of millions of students. Some have been able to continue their studies online, but many have not had access to the internet or have not been able to afford the costs associated with it. This has led to a widening of the digital divide between those who can afford to continue their education online and those who cannot.

The closure of schools has also had a negative impact on the mental health of many students. With no face-to-face contact with friends and teachers, some students have felt isolated and anxious. This has been compounded by the worry and uncertainty surrounding the virus itself.

The situation with coronavirus has improved and schools have been reopened but students are still catching up with the gap of 2 years that the pandemic created. In the meantime, governments and educational institutions are working together to find ways to support students and ensure that they are able to continue their education despite these difficult circumstances.

Effects of CoronaVirus on Economy

The outbreak of the coronavirus has had a significant impact on the global economy. The virus, which originated in China, has spread to over two hundred countries, resulting in widespread panic and a decrease in global trade. As a result of the outbreak, many businesses have been forced to close their doors, leading to a rise in unemployment. In addition, the stock market has taken a severe hit.

Effects of CoronaVirus on Health

The effects that coronavirus has on one's health are still being studied and researched as the virus continues to spread throughout the world. However, some of the potential effects on health that have been observed thus far include respiratory problems, fever, and coughing. In severe cases, pneumonia, kidney failure, and death can occur. It is important for people who think they may have been exposed to the virus to seek medical attention immediately so that they can be treated properly and avoid any serious complications. There is no specific cure or treatment for coronavirus at this time, but there are ways to help ease symptoms and prevent the virus from spreading.

Explore Career Options (By Industry)

  • Construction
  • Entertainment
  • Manufacturing
  • Information Technology

Bio Medical Engineer

The field of biomedical engineering opens up a universe of expert chances. An Individual in the biomedical engineering career path work in the field of engineering as well as medicine, in order to find out solutions to common problems of the two fields. The biomedical engineering job opportunities are to collaborate with doctors and researchers to develop medical systems, equipment, or devices that can solve clinical problems. Here we will be discussing jobs after biomedical engineering, how to get a job in biomedical engineering, biomedical engineering scope, and salary. 

Data Administrator

Database professionals use software to store and organise data such as financial information, and customer shipping records. Individuals who opt for a career as data administrators ensure that data is available for users and secured from unauthorised sales. DB administrators may work in various types of industries. It may involve computer systems design, service firms, insurance companies, banks and hospitals.

Ethical Hacker

A career as ethical hacker involves various challenges and provides lucrative opportunities in the digital era where every giant business and startup owns its cyberspace on the world wide web. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path try to find the vulnerabilities in the cyber system to get its authority. If he or she succeeds in it then he or she gets its illegal authority. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path then steal information or delete the file that could affect the business, functioning, or services of the organization.

Data Analyst

The invention of the database has given fresh breath to the people involved in the data analytics career path. Analysis refers to splitting up a whole into its individual components for individual analysis. Data analysis is a method through which raw data are processed and transformed into information that would be beneficial for user strategic thinking.

Data are collected and examined to respond to questions, evaluate hypotheses or contradict theories. It is a tool for analyzing, transforming, modeling, and arranging data with useful knowledge, to assist in decision-making and methods, encompassing various strategies, and is used in different fields of business, research, and social science.

Geothermal Engineer

Individuals who opt for a career as geothermal engineers are the professionals involved in the processing of geothermal energy. The responsibilities of geothermal engineers may vary depending on the workplace location. Those who work in fields design facilities to process and distribute geothermal energy. They oversee the functioning of machinery used in the field.

Remote Sensing Technician

Individuals who opt for a career as a remote sensing technician possess unique personalities. Remote sensing analysts seem to be rational human beings, they are strong, independent, persistent, sincere, realistic and resourceful. Some of them are analytical as well, which means they are intelligent, introspective and inquisitive. 

Remote sensing scientists use remote sensing technology to support scientists in fields such as community planning, flight planning or the management of natural resources. Analysing data collected from aircraft, satellites or ground-based platforms using statistical analysis software, image analysis software or Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a significant part of their work. Do you want to learn how to become remote sensing technician? There's no need to be concerned; we've devised a simple remote sensing technician career path for you. Scroll through the pages and read.

Geotechnical engineer

The role of geotechnical engineer starts with reviewing the projects needed to define the required material properties. The work responsibilities are followed by a site investigation of rock, soil, fault distribution and bedrock properties on and below an area of interest. The investigation is aimed to improve the ground engineering design and determine their engineering properties that include how they will interact with, on or in a proposed construction. 

The role of geotechnical engineer in mining includes designing and determining the type of foundations, earthworks, and or pavement subgrades required for the intended man-made structures to be made. Geotechnical engineering jobs are involved in earthen and concrete dam construction projects, working under a range of normal and extreme loading conditions. 


How fascinating it is to represent the whole world on just a piece of paper or a sphere. With the help of maps, we are able to represent the real world on a much smaller scale. Individuals who opt for a career as a cartographer are those who make maps. But, cartography is not just limited to maps, it is about a mixture of art , science , and technology. As a cartographer, not only you will create maps but use various geodetic surveys and remote sensing systems to measure, analyse, and create different maps for political, cultural or educational purposes.

Budget Analyst

Budget analysis, in a nutshell, entails thoroughly analyzing the details of a financial budget. The budget analysis aims to better understand and manage revenue. Budget analysts assist in the achievement of financial targets, the preservation of profitability, and the pursuit of long-term growth for a business. Budget analysts generally have a bachelor's degree in accounting, finance, economics, or a closely related field. Knowledge of Financial Management is of prime importance in this career.

Product Manager

A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  

Investment Banker

An Investment Banking career involves the invention and generation of capital for other organizations, governments, and other entities. Individuals who opt for a career as Investment Bankers are the head of a team dedicated to raising capital by issuing bonds. Investment bankers are termed as the experts who have their fingers on the pulse of the current financial and investing climate. Students can pursue various Investment Banker courses, such as Banking and Insurance , and  Economics to opt for an Investment Banking career path.


An underwriter is a person who assesses and evaluates the risk of insurance in his or her field like mortgage, loan, health policy, investment, and so on and so forth. The underwriter career path does involve risks as analysing the risks means finding out if there is a way for the insurance underwriter jobs to recover the money from its clients. If the risk turns out to be too much for the company then in the future it is an underwriter who will be held accountable for it. Therefore, one must carry out his or her job with a lot of attention and diligence.

Finance Executive

Operations manager.

Individuals in the operations manager jobs are responsible for ensuring the efficiency of each department to acquire its optimal goal. They plan the use of resources and distribution of materials. The operations manager's job description includes managing budgets, negotiating contracts, and performing administrative tasks.

Bank Probationary Officer (PO)

Welding engineer.

Welding Engineer Job Description: A Welding Engineer work involves managing welding projects and supervising welding teams. He or she is responsible for reviewing welding procedures, processes and documentation. A career as Welding Engineer involves conducting failure analyses and causes on welding issues. 

Transportation Planner

A career as Transportation Planner requires technical application of science and technology in engineering, particularly the concepts, equipment and technologies involved in the production of products and services. In fields like land use, infrastructure review, ecological standards and street design, he or she considers issues of health, environment and performance. A Transportation Planner assigns resources for implementing and designing programmes. He or she is responsible for assessing needs, preparing plans and forecasts and compliance with regulations.

An expert in plumbing is aware of building regulations and safety standards and works to make sure these standards are upheld. Testing pipes for leakage using air pressure and other gauges, and also the ability to construct new pipe systems by cutting, fitting, measuring and threading pipes are some of the other more involved aspects of plumbing. Individuals in the plumber career path are self-employed or work for a small business employing less than ten people, though some might find working for larger entities or the government more desirable.

Construction Manager

Individuals who opt for a career as construction managers have a senior-level management role offered in construction firms. Responsibilities in the construction management career path are assigning tasks to workers, inspecting their work, and coordinating with other professionals including architects, subcontractors, and building services engineers.

Urban Planner

Urban Planning careers revolve around the idea of developing a plan to use the land optimally, without affecting the environment. Urban planning jobs are offered to those candidates who are skilled in making the right use of land to distribute the growing population, to create various communities. 

Urban planning careers come with the opportunity to make changes to the existing cities and towns. They identify various community needs and make short and long-term plans accordingly.

Highway Engineer

Highway Engineer Job Description:  A Highway Engineer is a civil engineer who specialises in planning and building thousands of miles of roads that support connectivity and allow transportation across the country. He or she ensures that traffic management schemes are effectively planned concerning economic sustainability and successful implementation.

Environmental Engineer

Individuals who opt for a career as an environmental engineer are construction professionals who utilise the skills and knowledge of biology, soil science, chemistry and the concept of engineering to design and develop projects that serve as solutions to various environmental problems. 

Naval Architect

A Naval Architect is a professional who designs, produces and repairs safe and sea-worthy surfaces or underwater structures. A Naval Architect stays involved in creating and designing ships, ferries, submarines and yachts with implementation of various principles such as gravity, ideal hull form, buoyancy and stability. 

Orthotist and Prosthetist

Orthotists and Prosthetists are professionals who provide aid to patients with disabilities. They fix them to artificial limbs (prosthetics) and help them to regain stability. There are times when people lose their limbs in an accident. In some other occasions, they are born without a limb or orthopaedic impairment. Orthotists and prosthetists play a crucial role in their lives with fixing them to assistive devices and provide mobility.

Veterinary Doctor


A career in pathology in India is filled with several responsibilities as it is a medical branch and affects human lives. The demand for pathologists has been increasing over the past few years as people are getting more aware of different diseases. Not only that, but an increase in population and lifestyle changes have also contributed to the increase in a pathologist’s demand. The pathology careers provide an extremely huge number of opportunities and if you want to be a part of the medical field you can consider being a pathologist. If you want to know more about a career in pathology in India then continue reading this article.

Speech Therapist


Gynaecology can be defined as the study of the female body. The job outlook for gynaecology is excellent since there is evergreen demand for one because of their responsibility of dealing with not only women’s health but also fertility and pregnancy issues. Although most women prefer to have a women obstetrician gynaecologist as their doctor, men also explore a career as a gynaecologist and there are ample amounts of male doctors in the field who are gynaecologists and aid women during delivery and childbirth. 

An oncologist is a specialised doctor responsible for providing medical care to patients diagnosed with cancer. He or she uses several therapies to control the cancer and its effect on the human body such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy and biopsy. An oncologist designs a treatment plan based on a pathology report after diagnosing the type of cancer and where it is spreading inside the body.


The audiologist career involves audiology professionals who are responsible to treat hearing loss and proactively preventing the relevant damage. Individuals who opt for a career as an audiologist use various testing strategies with the aim to determine if someone has a normal sensitivity to sounds or not. After the identification of hearing loss, a hearing doctor is required to determine which sections of the hearing are affected, to what extent they are affected, and where the wound causing the hearing loss is found. As soon as the hearing loss is identified, the patients are provided with recommendations for interventions and rehabilitation such as hearing aids, cochlear implants, and appropriate medical referrals. While audiology is a branch of science that studies and researches hearing, balance, and related disorders.

Hospital Administrator

The hospital Administrator is in charge of organising and supervising the daily operations of medical services and facilities. This organising includes managing of organisation’s staff and its members in service, budgets, service reports, departmental reporting and taking reminders of patient care and services.

For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs. 

Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.

Video Game Designer

Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages.

Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.

Radio Jockey

Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.

A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.


The word “choreography" actually comes from Greek words that mean “dance writing." Individuals who opt for a career as a choreographer create and direct original dances, in addition to developing interpretations of existing dances. A Choreographer dances and utilises his or her creativity in other aspects of dance performance. For example, he or she may work with the music director to select music or collaborate with other famous choreographers to enhance such performance elements as lighting, costume and set design.


Multimedia specialist.

A multimedia specialist is a media professional who creates, audio, videos, graphic image files, computer animations for multimedia applications. He or she is responsible for planning, producing, and maintaining websites and applications. 

Social Media Manager

A career as social media manager involves implementing the company’s or brand’s marketing plan across all social media channels. Social media managers help in building or improving a brand’s or a company’s website traffic, build brand awareness, create and implement marketing and brand strategy. Social media managers are key to important social communication as well.

Copy Writer

In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism , Advertising , Marketing Management . Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook. 

Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.

For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.

In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. 

Ever since internet costs got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, a career as a vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the Vlogger eligibility, roles and responsibilities then continue reading the article. 

Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.

Linguistic meaning is related to language or Linguistics which is the study of languages. A career as a linguistic meaning, a profession that is based on the scientific study of language, and it's a very broad field with many specialities. Famous linguists work in academia, researching and teaching different areas of language, such as phonetics (sounds), syntax (word order) and semantics (meaning). 

Other researchers focus on specialities like computational linguistics, which seeks to better match human and computer language capacities, or applied linguistics, which is concerned with improving language education. Still, others work as language experts for the government, advertising companies, dictionary publishers and various other private enterprises. Some might work from home as freelance linguists. Philologist, phonologist, and dialectician are some of Linguist synonym. Linguists can study French , German , Italian . 

Public Relation Executive

Travel journalist.

The career of a travel journalist is full of passion, excitement and responsibility. Journalism as a career could be challenging at times, but if you're someone who has been genuinely enthusiastic about all this, then it is the best decision for you. Travel journalism jobs are all about insightful, artfully written, informative narratives designed to cover the travel industry. Travel Journalist is someone who explores, gathers and presents information as a news article.

Quality Controller

A quality controller plays a crucial role in an organisation. He or she is responsible for performing quality checks on manufactured products. He or she identifies the defects in a product and rejects the product. 

A quality controller records detailed information about products with defects and sends it to the supervisor or plant manager to take necessary actions to improve the production process.

Production Manager


A QA Lead is in charge of the QA Team. The role of QA Lead comes with the responsibility of assessing services and products in order to determine that he or she meets the quality standards. He or she develops, implements and manages test plans. 

Metallurgical Engineer

A metallurgical engineer is a professional who studies and produces materials that bring power to our world. He or she extracts metals from ores and rocks and transforms them into alloys, high-purity metals and other materials used in developing infrastructure, transportation and healthcare equipment. 

Azure Administrator

An Azure Administrator is a professional responsible for implementing, monitoring, and maintaining Azure Solutions. He or she manages cloud infrastructure service instances and various cloud servers as well as sets up public and private cloud systems. 

AWS Solution Architect

An AWS Solution Architect is someone who specializes in developing and implementing cloud computing systems. He or she has a good understanding of the various aspects of cloud computing and can confidently deploy and manage their systems. He or she troubleshoots the issues and evaluates the risk from the third party. 

Computer Programmer

Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.

ITSM Manager

Information security manager.

Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack 

Business Intelligence Developer

Applications for admissions are open..

JEE Main Important Chemistry formulas

JEE Main Important Chemistry formulas

As per latest 2024 syllabus. Chemistry formulas, equations, & laws of class 11 & 12th chapters

Aakash iACST Scholarship Test 2024

Aakash iACST Scholarship Test 2024

Get up to 90% scholarship on NEET, JEE & Foundation courses



Start your JEE preparation with ALLEN

NEET 2024 Most scoring concepts

NEET 2024 Most scoring concepts

Just Study 32% of the NEET syllabus and Score upto 100% marks

JEE Main high scoring chapters and topics

JEE Main high scoring chapters and topics

As per latest 2024 syllabus. Study 40% syllabus and score upto 100% marks in JEE

NEET previous year papers with solutions

NEET previous year papers with solutions

Solve NEET previous years question papers & check your preparedness

Everything about Education

Latest updates, Exclusive Content, Webinars and more.

Download Careers360 App's

Regular exam updates, QnA, Predictors, College Applications & E-books now on your Mobile




We Appeared in

Economic Times

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

COVID-19’s impact on our lives

Child in face mask looking out from behind closed window

CLOSER partner studies have launched questionnaires to  survey over 100,000 participants about the impact of COVID-19  on their lives.

These studies have been surveying hundreds of thousands of people about the impact COVID-19 has had on their lives.

The CLOSER hub is funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC).

Impact on individuals, families and communities

Data collected from CLOSER’s various longitudinal studies will explore the short and long-term impact of the pandemic on individuals, families and communities across the UK, assessing life before, during and post-COVID-19.

The data focuses on the effects of the various restrictions the UK has had in place, looking at health, social, economic and behavioural change. It represents all age groups, from adolescents to older generations.

Importantly, it provides insights for research and policy and helps to inform the UK’s response to the immediate and after-effects of COVID-19.

CLOSER has also launched a COVID-19 update bulletin –  sign up to stay informed .

Assessing the UK’s mental health

Separate to CLOSER, a weekly study is underway that looks at the mental health and wellbeing of UK adults throughout the pandemic.

The COVID-19 Social Study launched just before the UK went into lockdown. University College London (UCL) is conducting the research, which is funded by UKRI, the Nuffield Foundation and the Wellcome Trust.

The research findings are shared in real time with the government, community groups, the general public and the World Health Organisation. They have been used to help shape policy, wellbeing initiatives and the messaging around COVID-19.

Identifying a different pattern in the early stages

Dr Daisy Fancourt, Associate Professor of Psychobiology and Epidemiology at UCL and lead author of the study says there are interesting results so far.

During previous epidemics, such as SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), Ebola and MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome), mental health typically deteriorated for people during quarantine.

With COVID-19, Fancourt says a different pattern emerged during the early stages of lockdown:

There were higher levels of anxiety and depression than normal, but not the continued increase we thought would happen. It got worse prior to lockdown coming in, and then stabilised during lockdown.

The study comes under the umbrella of the mental health initiative the MARCH Network, which examines how social, cultural and community assets support mental health and is also funded by UKRI through AHRC and ESRC.

Social isolation and disadvantaged and vulnerable groups

Another part of ESRC’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic was a review that was commissioned and published to find out about the impacts of social isolation on disadvantaged, marginalised and vulnerable populations during pandemics and other public health crises.

The review defined vulnerable groups as those at greater risk of infection or of adverse effects of social distancing measures.

It identified gaps and priorities for further research and proposed policies to mitigate the impacts of social distancing and isolation and prevent the widening of social inequalities.

Key findings

Some of the key findings were:

  • mental health problems are more common in vulnerable and disadvantaged groups following individual or community-wide periods of social isolation in the context of public health crises
  • the disproportionate impact among vulnerable and disadvantaged groups extends to other outcomes like income, employment, access to food and discrimination
  • these disparities are especially pronounced at the intersections of multiple vulnerabilities and disadvantages, for example, those with low income, insecure employment and minority ethnic group status
  • social restrictions that confine people to their homes for extended periods increase the risk of abuse and exploitation, particularly among girls and women
  • further inequalities are evident in people’s capacity to comply with social distancing measures, with this being most difficult for those on low incomes, in insecure employment and living in overcrowded homes.

Last updated: 17 June 2022

This is the website for UKRI: our seven research councils, Research England and Innovate UK. Let us know if you have feedback or would like to help improve our online products and services .

Subscribe or renew today

Every print subscription comes with full digital access

Science News

Four years on, the covid-19 pandemic has a long tail of grief.

Millions in the U.S. lost loved ones to COVID-19 and the pandemic interrupted the grieving process 

A sea of white flags planted in the ground wave in front of the Washington Memorial. Each flag represented a person in the United States who had died from COVID-19 by early fall 2021.

The temporary exhibition In America: Remember , by Suzanne Brennan Firstenberg, ran from September 17 to October 3, 2021. More than 700,000 flags were planted at the National Mall in Washington, D.C., to represent each U.S. COVID-19 death at the time. People could dedicate flags to their loved ones. “For some families, it felt as if it was the funeral they never had,” says social anthropologist Sarah Wagner, who took part in running the exhibit.

Anna Moneymaker/Getty Images

Share this:

By Aimee Cunningham

March 11, 2024 at 7:00 am

March 11 marks the fourth anniversary of the World Health Organization’s declaration that the COVID-19 outbreak was a pandemic. COVID-19 hasn’t gone away, but there have been plenty of actions that suggest otherwise.

In May 2023, WHO announced COVID-19 was no longer a public health emergency ( SN: 5/5/23 ). The United States shortly followed suit, which meant testing and treatments were no longer free ( SN: 5/4/23 ). And on March 1 of this year, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention loosened their isolation guidelines for people with COVID-19. Now the CDC says infected people can be around others as soon as a day after a fever subsides and symptoms are improving, even though someone is contagious during an infection for six to eight days, on average ( SN: 7/25/22 ).

These outward signs of leaving the pandemic chapter behind neglect to acknowledge how many people cannot ( SN: 10/27/21 ). Nearly 1.2 million people have died in the United States from COVID-19. Close to 9 million adults have long COVID . Nearly 300,000 children have lost one or both parents .

There has been little official recognition in the United States of the profound grief people have experienced and continue to experience. There is no federal monument to honor the dead — mourners have constructed their own memorials. A resolution to commemorate the first Monday of March as “COVID-19 Victims Memorial Day” awaits action by the U.S. Congress.

Many people are coping not just with the deaths of family and friends from COVID-19, but with how the pandemic robbed them of the chance to say goodbye to loved ones and grieve with their family and community. Researchers are studying the extent to which these losses rippled out into society and how the pandemic interrupted the grieving process.

Emily Smith-Greenaway, a demographer at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, was part of team that estimated that for every one COVID-19 death, there are nine bereaved family members ( SN: 4/4/22 ). Sarah Wagner, a social anthropologist at George Washington University in Washington, D.C., leads a project called Rituals in the Making , which is examining how the pandemic disrupted rituals and the experience of mourning through interviews with mourners and death care workers, among other research methods. Science News spoke with Smith-Greenaway and Wagner about their work. The interviews have been edited for length and clarity.

SN : Why is it important to estimate the number of close family members affected by COVID-19 deaths?

Smith-Greenaway : We typically quantify mortality events in terms of numbers of casualties. By shedding light explicitly on the concentric circles of people surviving each of the deaths, we offer a much more experiential perspective — the burden that a large-scale mortality event imposes on those who are still alive. It also allows us to kind of rescale the true sense of the magnitude of the crisis.

[With the number of deaths today,] our model demonstrates that about 10.5 million people have lost a close relative to COVID, [which includes] grandparents, parents, siblings, spouses and children. We’re not even capturing cousins, aunts, uncles. Think about how many children lost teachers or how many neighbors or friends or coworkers [died]. This is an underestimate when we’re thinking about the many people who are affected by each single death.

SN : What motivated the Rituals in the Making project?

Wagner : We began in May of 2020, and this was this period of heightened pandemic restriction and confinement. We posed what we saw as a fundamental question: How do we mourn when we cannot gather? Particularly in that first year, we were focused on the rituals around funeral, burial and commemorative practice and how they would be impacted and changed by the pandemic. In the last two years, [the project] has included the ways in which misinformation also compounds individual grief and more collective mourning.

A throughline in the research is that this mourning was interrupted and constrained by the conditions of the pandemic itself, but also troubled by politicization of the deaths. And then [there’s] this expectation that we move on, we push past the pandemic, and yet we have not acknowledged the enormity of the tragedy.

SN : Why are rituals and memorials important to grieving?

Wagner : We think about rituals as providing a means to respond to rupture. We are able to come together, gathering to stand before a coffin to say goodbye, or to have a wake, to sit down and have a meal with the bereaved. They are about providing an opportunity to remember and honor that loved one. But they are also about the living — a way of supporting the surviving family members, a way of helping them out of the chasm of that grief.

Memorials [such as a day of remembrance or a monument] are a nation saying, we recognize these lives and we anoint them with a particular meaning. We think about memorials as forms of acknowledgement and a way of making sense of major tragedies or major sacrifices.

In the context of the pandemic, the rituals that are broken and [the lack of] memorials at that national level help us see that the mourners have been left in many ways to take memory matters into their own hands. The responsibility has been pushed onto them at these acute moments of their own grief.

SN : How has the pandemic impacted survivors and the grieving process?

Smith-Greenaway : Societies have demographic memory. There is a generational effect any time we have a mortality crisis. A war or any large-scale mortality event lingers in the population, in the lives and memories of those who survived it.

This pandemic will stay with us for a very long time. [There are] young people who remember losing their grandma, but they couldn’t go see her in the hospital, or remember losing a parent in this sudden way because they brought COVID-19 home from school. So many lives were imprinted at such an early stage of life.

Wagner : Whether we are talking to the bereaved, members of the clergy, health care workers or staff from funeral homes, people describe the isolation. It is incredibly painful for families because they weren’t able to be with their loved one, to be able to touch someone, to hold their hand, to caress a cheek. People were left to wonder, “was my loved one aware? Were they confused? Were they in pain?” [After the death], not being able to have people into one’s home, not being able to go out. That sort of joy of having other people around you in your depths of grief — that was gone.

As the study progressed, [we learned about] the impact political divisiveness had on people’s grief. [Families were asked,] did the person have underlying health issues? What was the person’s vaccination status? It was as if the blame was getting shifted onto the deceased. Then to be confronted with, “this is all just a hoax,” or “[COVID-19 is] nothing worse than a bad cold.” To be a family member, and to struggle for recognition in the face of these conversations that their loved ones’ death and memory is not just dismissed, but in a way feels denied.

SN : How can society better support the need to grieve?

Smith-Greenaway : Bereavement policies are not very generous, as we would expect in America. Sometimes it’s one, two or three days. They’re also very restrictive, where it has to be a particular relation.

Think about kids. I’m a professor at a university. There’s this callous joke that college students just tell you their grandmother died because they don’t want to turn something in. This reflects how we treat bereavement as a society, especially for young people. Kids’ grief can often be misunderstood. It’s perceived to be bad behavior, that they’re acting out. I think we need comprehensive school policies that take better care to recognize how many kids are suffering losses in their lives.

Wagner : We’re enveloped in this silence around pandemic death. I think there’s a willingness to talk about the pandemic losses in other realms, the economic losses or the loss of social connection. Why is there this silence around 1.2 million deaths — the enormity of the tragedy?

If you know someone who has lost a loved one to COVID-19, talk to them about it. Ask them about that loved one. Just being an active part of conversations around memory can be a beautiful act. It can be a restorative act.

From the Nature Index

Subscribers, enter your e-mail address for full access to the Science News archives and digital editions.

Not a subscriber? Become one now .

The Anxiety You’re Feeling Might Be Pandemic Grief


D espite a global pandemic that caused the deaths of millions of people and drastically altered our way of life, we still haven’t mastered the art of recognizing grief when it shows up.

Four years ago, life as we knew it slipped away. As news of the covid death tolls rose around the world, we watched footage on television of our front-line workers struggling with overcrowded hospitals, our children were sent home from school, weddings and graduations were canceled, jobs came to a halt, and toilet-paper flew off the shelves. Everywhere you turned someone was losing something or someone. But instead of grief rising to the surface, it was anxiety that was soaring.

By November of 2020 research shows that in the United States reports of anxiety increased to 50% and depression to 44%—six times higher than in 2019. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that globally the prevalence of anxiety and depression increased by 25%, with women and young people being affected the most. But what hasn’t been studied as closely is the amount of grief we were also experiencing. I believe there is a direct correlation between the two. As a therapist specializing in grief for almost two decades now, I’ve come to understand that anxiety is a common response to loss. At its core, loss is about change, and when we lose someone or something we care about the landscape of our world changes. Feelings of uncertainty arise, fear surfaces, and anxiety blooms.

I’ve also come to understand is that while loss is something that happens to us, how we grieve is up to us. We can choose to move through the experience of loss consciously and with intention, or we can avoid it and suppress it. Grief is a process that requires support, attention, and room to breathe. When we attempt to avoid or suppress grief it almost always spills out in the form of anger, anxiety, and irritability. 

There was a moment, early in the pandemic, when it seemed as though a new wave of grief understanding was cresting and that perhaps Americans were finally willing to acknowledge all the ways loss impacts our lives. In July of 2020, sociologist Ashton Verdery and his team at Pennsylvania State University introduced the COVID-19 Bereavement Multiplier and calculated that for every person who died of covid-19, nine grieving loved ones were left behind. Then in February of 2021 a coalition of national bereavement organizations and grief experts urged President Biden to fund grief intervention, services, and training for front-line workers. Later that same year, prolonged grief disorder was added as an official diagnosis to a revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, outlining a type of grief that can persist in a seemingly endless cycle of mourning that impacts daily functioning.

During that same time grief started trending on TikTok and Instagram. Art installations centered around mourning cropped up in major cities. The phrase “disenfranchised grief” was being used to validate all the kinds of loss (divorce, racial injustice, illness, lost jobs, and canceled vacations) that typically go unrecognized.

Now, on the fourth anniversary of the onset of the pandemic, many of these efforts have been thwarted or dismissed. It seems as though we have slipped back into our age-old habit of sneaking out the back door of the funeral home and dusting our hands of all that grief. The majority of my clients who lost a loved one directly or indirectly to COVID-19 tell me how no one recognizes their grief anymore. Even with COVID still surfacing, people have moved on.

Read More: Experts Can’t Agree If We’re Still in a Pandemic

We have long been a “grief illiterate nation,” as Maria Shriver wrote in her introduction to Elisabeth Kubler Ross’s On Grief and Grieving. People tend to show up in the beginning of a loss, attending memorials, dropping off casseroles, and sending grief books, but after a few weeks or months, even the most well-meaning folks move on. When this drop-off in attention to the bereaved occurs it sends a message that they too are supposed to be ready to move on from their loss.  

When we lose someone significant the fallout can be immense. Grief can be a lengthy process and secondary losses in the form of finances, identity shifts, childcare help, and even physical health are common occurrences. But because of the lack of available and affordable grief support, many Americans are being denied the opportunity to grieve in healthy ways. And for someone who doesn’t know where to turn in their grief, they often struggle in silence, attempting to suppress their grief in the same ways our culture does externally.

When this happens an undercurrent of anxiety thrums beneath our surface. The world no longer feels like a safe place. Uncertainty and catastrophe loom on every corner. Panic attacks, social phobias and healthy anxiety take hold. We even become anxious about anxiety. But what if much of this anxiety is due to repressed grief?

The COVID-19 pandemic unleashed a new realm of grief for many of us–not just for all the deaths that occurred, but also grief for jobs lost, for the overwhelming technological advances, marriage inequality, racial disparity, illnesses, and political strife we have experienced, not to mention the loss of safety and certainty in the future. We don’t know what to do with these kinds of losses, all that accumulated and collective repressed grief is now showing itself in soaring rates of anxiety, making anxiety the most common mental illness in the world .

It's time our culture does the same. We need to acknowledge the individual and collective grief we are carrying. We need to lean into it, embrace it, memorialize it, and let it teach us more about ourselves. I always say that grief asks a lot of us because I believe that is true, but in turn, grief can offer us a new lens with which to discover what really matters to us, what is meaningful in our lives, and who we want to be going forward.

More Must-Reads From TIME

  • Why We're Spending So Much Money Now
  • The Fight to Free Evan Gershkovich
  • Meet the 2024 Women of the Year
  • John Kerry's Next Move
  • The Quiet Work Trees Do for the Planet
  • Breaker Sunny Choi Is Heading to Paris
  • Column: The Internet Made Romantic Betrayal Even More Devastating
  • Want Weekly Recs on What to Watch, Read, and More? Sign Up for Worth Your Time

Contact us at [email protected]

You May Also Like

Thursday, March 14, 2024 9:25 pm (Paris)

  • Environment
  • Covid-19 pandemic

Covid-19 has shortened human life expectancy by one and a half years, according to new study

A vast compilation of statistics, published in 'The Lancet,' estimates the additional mortality attributable to the pandemic between 2019 and 2021 at 15.9 million individuals.

By  Julien Lemaignen

Time to 3 min.

  • Share on Twitter
  • Share on Messenger
  • Share on Facebook
  • Share by email
  • Share on Linkedin

Subscribers only

People attend the burial of a family member who died of Covid-19 at Campo da Esperanca cemetery in the Taguatinga neighborhood of Brasilia, Brazil, on September 3, 2020.

A year after the World Health Organization declared the highest level of alert for Covid-19, and as Sars-CoV-2 was still causing tens of thousands of cases a week, statisticians continued to assess the virus' impact on demographics.

Thus, according to a study published by the British scientific journal The Lancet on March 12 , life expectancy worldwide fell by one and a half years (1.5 years) between 2019 and 2021. This corresponds to an excess mortality of 15.9 million deaths during the two years of the pandemic's acute phase.

Covid-19 has brought to a brutal halt the steady increase in life expectancy since the post-war period: Between 1950 and 2019, it had risen from 51.6 to 76 years for women and from 46.7 to 70.8 years for men. This impacted 84% of the 200 or so countries covered by the study, which notes that the youngest age groups were "minimally affected."

"For adults worldwide, the Covid-19 pandemic has had a more profound impact than any event seen in half a century, including conflicts and natural disasters," said Austin E. Schumacher, a professor at the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation in Washington and one of the study's authors, in a press release. In his view, the decline in life expectancy attributable to the pandemic testifies to the "devastating potential impacts of novel pathogens."

It appears that the pandemic was "disproportionately severe" in countries in sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, South Asia and Latin America. The study notes, however, that the correlation between a country's level of development and the severity of Covid-19 is not particularly strong. In plain English, this means that the new coronavirus was not automatically more deadly in poorer countries – the authors cite the examples of Bhutan and the Solomon Islands.

Positive impact of vaccination

On the other hand, countries such as Bolivia and South Africa suffered much higher mortality rates than nations at the same level of development. In the authors' view, these results show that vaccination, appropriate public policies and changes in individual behavior have had a positive impact, irrespective of a country's wealth.

The study also points out that infant mortality continued to decline during the pandemic, "albeit more slowly than in earlier years." In fact, 4.7 million children under the age of 5 died in 2021, compared with 5.2 million in 2019. While the trend remains on the right track, the researchers note that at this rate, 38 countries will not manage to get below the rate of 25 deaths per thousand live births by 2030, one of the sustainable development goals set by the United Nations. Regional disparities remain significant: Of all the children under 5 who died in 2021, half lived in sub-Saharan Africa and a quarter in South Asia.

You have 44.12% of this article left to read. The rest is for subscribers only.

Lecture du Monde en cours sur un autre appareil.

Vous pouvez lire Le Monde sur un seul appareil à la fois

Ce message s’affichera sur l’autre appareil.

Parce qu’une autre personne (ou vous) est en train de lire Le Monde avec ce compte sur un autre appareil.

Vous ne pouvez lire Le Monde que sur un seul appareil à la fois (ordinateur, téléphone ou tablette).

Comment ne plus voir ce message ?

En cliquant sur «  Continuer à lire ici  » et en vous assurant que vous êtes la seule personne à consulter Le Monde avec ce compte.

Que se passera-t-il si vous continuez à lire ici ?

Ce message s’affichera sur l’autre appareil. Ce dernier restera connecté avec ce compte.

Y a-t-il d’autres limites ?

Non. Vous pouvez vous connecter avec votre compte sur autant d’appareils que vous le souhaitez, mais en les utilisant à des moments différents.

Vous ignorez qui est l’autre personne ?

Nous vous conseillons de modifier votre mot de passe .

Lecture restreinte

Votre abonnement n’autorise pas la lecture de cet article

Pour plus d’informations, merci de contacter notre service commercial.

Get unlimited access to Le Monde in English €2.49/month, cancel anytime

  • Alzheimer's disease & dementia
  • Arthritis & Rheumatism
  • Attention deficit disorders
  • Autism spectrum disorders
  • Biomedical technology
  • Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes
  • Endocrinology & Metabolism
  • Gastroenterology
  • Gerontology & Geriatrics
  • Health informatics
  • Inflammatory disorders
  • Medical economics
  • Medical research
  • Medications
  • Neuroscience
  • Obstetrics & gynaecology
  • Oncology & Cancer
  • Ophthalmology
  • Overweight & Obesity
  • Parkinson's & Movement disorders
  • Psychology & Psychiatry
  • Radiology & Imaging
  • Sleep disorders
  • Sports medicine & Kinesiology
  • Vaccination
  • Breast cancer
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • Colon cancer
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Heart attack
  • Heart disease
  • High blood pressure
  • Kidney disease
  • Lung cancer
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Post traumatic stress disorder
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Schizophrenia
  • Skin cancer
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Full List »

share this!

March 12, 2024

This article has been reviewed according to Science X's editorial process and policies . Editors have highlighted the following attributes while ensuring the content's credibility:


peer-reviewed publication

reputable news agency

Study finds COVID-19 had greater impact on life expectancy than previously believed

by Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation


A new study published in The Lancet reveals never-before-seen details about staggeringly high mortality from the COVID-19 pandemic within and across countries. Places such as Mexico City, Peru, and Bolivia had some of the largest drops in life expectancy from 2019 to 2021.

The research, which presents updated estimates from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2021, provides the most comprehensive look at the pandemic's toll on human health to date, indicating that global life expectancy dropped by 1.6 years from 2019 to 2021, a sharp reversal from past increases.

Among GBD's other key findings, child mortality continued to drop amid the COVID-19 pandemic, with half a million fewer deaths among children under 5 years old in 2021 compared to 2019. Mortality rates among children under 5 decreased by 7% from 2019 to 2021.

"For adults worldwide, the COVID-19 pandemic has had a more profound impact than any event seen in half a century, including conflicts and natural disasters," says co-first author Dr. Austin E. Schumacher, Acting Assistant Professor of Health Metrics Sciences at the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) at the University of Washington.

"Life expectancy declined in 84% of countries and territories during this pandemic, demonstrating the devastating potential impacts of novel pathogens."

Researchers from IHME identified high mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic in places that were previously less recognized and/or reported. For example, the study reveals that after accounting for the age of the population, countries such as Jordan and Nicaragua had high excess mortality due to the COVID-19 pandemic that was not apparent in previous all-age excess mortality estimates.

In analyzing subnational locations not previously investigated, the South African provinces of KwaZulu-Natal and Limpopo had among the highest age-adjusted excess mortality rates and largest life expectancy declines during the pandemic in the world. Conversely, the places with some of the lowest age-adjusted excess mortality from the pandemic during this period included Barbados, New Zealand, and Antigua and Barbuda.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, mortality among older people worldwide rose in ways unseen in the previous 70 years. While the pandemic was devastating, killing approximately 16 million people around the globe in 2020 and 2021 combined, it did not completely erase historic progress—life expectancy at birth rose by nearly 23 years between 1950 and 2021.

GBD 2021 analyzes past and current demographic trends at global, regional, national, and subnational levels. The study provides globally comparable measures of excess mortality and is one of the first studies to fully evaluate demographic trends in the context of the first two years of the COVID-19 pandemic.

In estimating excess deaths due to the pandemic, the authors accounted for deaths from the virus that causes COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, as well as deaths associated with indirect effects of the pandemic, such as delays in seeking health care.

Employing innovative methods to measure mortality, excess mortality from the COVID-19 pandemic, life expectancy, and population, the study authors estimate that the pandemic caused global mortality to jump among people over age 15, rising by 22% for males and 17% for females from 2019 to 2021.

GBD 2021 goes beyond assessing the impact of the first two years of the COVID-19 pandemic. As the authors note, it also offers "implications for the future of health-care systems, economies, and societies and ... a valuable foundation for policy evaluation, development, and implementation around the world."

GBD 2021 indicates that, despite early warnings that COVID-19 could threaten the gains that the world had made in saving children's lives, these improvements continued during the pandemic, albeit at a slower pace. Still, stark differences in child mortality persist between regions. In 2021, one out of every four children who died worldwide lived in South Asia, while two out of every four children who died lived in sub-Saharan Africa.

"Our study suggests that, even after taking stock of the terrible loss of lives the world experienced due to the pandemic, we have made incredible progress over 72 years since 1950, with child mortality continuing to drop globally," said co-first author Dr. Hmwe Hmwe Kyu, Associate Professor of Health Metrics Sciences at IHME at the University of Washington.

"Now, continuing to build on our successes, while preparing for the next pandemic and addressing the vast disparities in health across countries, should be our greatest focuses."

The GBD 2021 study also assessed population trends. Beginning in 2017, the rate of global population growth began to drop following years of stagnation. Then, during the COVID-19 pandemic, these declines accelerated. As of 2021, 56 countries have reached peak population.

Now, these countries are seeing their populations shrink. However, rapid population growth has continued in many lower-income countries. In addition, populations around the world are aging. Between 2000 and 2021, the number of people who were 65 and older grew faster than the number of people under age 15 in 188 countries and territories.

"Slowing population growth and aging populations, along with the concentration of future population growth shifting to poorer locations with worse health outcomes, will bring about unprecedented social, economic, and political challenges, such as labor shortages in areas where younger populations are shrinking and resource scarcity in places where population size continues to expand rapidly," says Dr. Schumacher.

"This is worth restating, as these issues will require significant policy forethought to address in the affected regions. As one example, nations around the world will need to cooperate on voluntary emigration, for which one source of useful guidance is the UN's Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration ."

Explore further

Feedback to editors

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Cool insights: Research explores how brains perceive temperature

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Often overlooked stem cells hold hidden powers for blood disease treatments

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Researchers one step closer to preventing preeclampsia

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Scientists compete to make best predictions about pertussis vaccine

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

FRYL gene variants linked to a new neurological disorder

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Neurobiologists uncover how stress turns into fear in the brain in conditions such as PTSD

2 hours ago

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Age and sex associated with patient's likelihood of antimicrobial resistance

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

New study explores next-generation vaccine technology for RSV

3 hours ago

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Lived experience perspectives essential to reducing global mental health stigma: Study

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Cell division, DNA repair and cancer progression closely tied to CDK9 dysfunction

Related stories.

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

US life expectancy rose last year, but it remains below its pre-pandemic level

Nov 29, 2023

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Accurately calculating life expectancy since COVID-19

Nov 8, 2023

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

The rise and fall in Australia's life expectancy during the pandemic

Sep 25, 2023

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Pandemic's two-year global death toll may be close to 15 million

Dec 15, 2022

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Excess death gap widens between US and Europe

Mar 29, 2023

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Global death toll of COVID-19 pandemic may be more than three times higher than official records, estimates indicate

Mar 10, 2022

Recommended for you

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Researchers establish India's first national benchmark for survival among hemodialysis patients

5 hours ago

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Q&A: The rising rates of immunosuppression among US adults

6 hours ago

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Lives could be saved from tropical disease with new rapid test

20 hours ago

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Tryptophan in diet and gut bacteria protect against E. coli infection, study shows

Mar 13, 2024

Let us know if there is a problem with our content

Use this form if you have come across a typo, inaccuracy or would like to send an edit request for the content on this page. For general inquiries, please use our contact form . For general feedback, use the public comments section below (please adhere to guidelines ).

Please select the most appropriate category to facilitate processing of your request

Thank you for taking time to provide your feedback to the editors.

Your feedback is important to us. However, we do not guarantee individual replies due to the high volume of messages.

E-mail the story

Your email address is used only to let the recipient know who sent the email. Neither your address nor the recipient's address will be used for any other purpose. The information you enter will appear in your e-mail message and is not retained by Medical Xpress in any form.

Newsletter sign up

Get weekly and/or daily updates delivered to your inbox. You can unsubscribe at any time and we'll never share your details to third parties.

More information Privacy policy

Donate and enjoy an ad-free experience

We keep our content available to everyone. Consider supporting Science X's mission by getting a premium account.

E-mail newsletter

U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

The .gov means it’s official. Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.

The site is secure. The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

  • Publications
  • Account settings
  • Advanced Search
  • Journal List
  • Springer Nature - PMC COVID-19 Collection

Logo of phenaturepg

The Social and Economic Impact of Covid-19 on Family Functioning and Well-Being: Where do we go from here?

Claudia andrade.

1 Polytechnic of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal

Martie Gillen

2 University of Florida, Florida, USA

José Alberto Molina

3 Faculty of Economics and Business Studies, University of Zaragoza, Gran Vía 2, 50005 Zaragoza, Spain

Melissa J. Wilmarth

4 University of Alabama, Alabama, USA

A growing body of research demonstrates that COVID-19 has had a profound impact on family functioning and well-being in a range of countries. The fear and uncertainty of the health risks, in addition to the stress from ensuing restrictions and constraints on everyday life caused major disruptions, impacting the financial, emotional, and physical well-being of adults and children alike. In this report, we summarize the current literature on the impact of COVID-19 disruption to family functioning and economic well-being as a context for this special issue. Our findings indicate that while the pandemic may have caused a reallocation of intra-familial tasks, a large gender disparity remains regarding the proportion of domestic work and childcare. The pandemic disproportionally impacted lower-income families, families from ethnic minority and vulnerable groups, and women. Finally, the financial impacts of the emergence in Spring of 2020 have strained family relationships, although the effects depend to a large extent on quality of the relationships and family well-being before COVID-19. To address the long-term bidirectional effects of the pandemic on family well-being and the well-being of the global economy calls for research that crosses disciplinary divides.

The COVID-19 pandemic is more than a global health crisis. In 2020, the pandemic placed nearly half of the 3.3 billion global workforce at risk of losing their livelihoods (World Health Organization [WHO], 2020 ). Compared to fourth quarter 2019, global working hours lost in 2020 topped 8.8%, the equivalent of 255 million full-time jobs (International Labour Organization [ILO], 2021 ). As businesses shuttered in the US, the unemployment rate jumped to the highest recorded month-to-month change (10% in April 2020), bringing the national rate to 15% (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2022 ). At the household level, COVID-19 related restrictions impacted nearly every aspect of daily life, negatively affecting the psychological-wellbeing of individuals worldwide (Ammar et al., 2020 ). In this report, we provide a brief review of the current literature examining the impact of COVID-19 disruption on family functioning and economic well-being as a context for this special issue. Because evidence from past economic crises suggests that the effects on families are not distributed evenly or experienced in the same way, we summarized the literature on the impact of COVID-19 on three aspects of family functioning: (a) reallocation of intra-familial tasks; (b) sociodemographic disparities in COVID-19 impact; and (c) financial stress and family relationships.

Reallocation of intra-familial tasks

From an economic perspective, intra-family analyses of tasks are being carried out in the context of the Beckerian theory of the household (Becker, 1965 ), which identifies the degree of complementarity or substitutability between parents in different household tasks. The theory does a good job of explaining family adaptations to lockdowns and identifies those household tasks for which a gender reallocation would be more likely to happen in response to policy reforms. In this methodological context, the collective household model predicts that the division of domestic work is driven by the relative opportunity costs of partners Chiappori, 1988 , 1992 , Donni & Molina, 2018 ). If specialization in the family is a response to the economic incentives that couples face, then it could be expected that fathers assume the primary role at home in couples where the mother is the main earner or where only her job remains active.

Previous economic recessions have shown that men were more likely to experience greater negative employment effects (Rubery & Rafferty, 2013 ; Hoynes et al., 2012 ). In pre-analysis of employment effects of the pandemic, Alon et al., ( 2020 ) using the American Time Use Survey and the American Community Survey, and Hupkau & Petrongolo ( 2020 ) using the UK Labour Force Survey, predicted that a number of fathers would become, temporarily, the main caregivers and this temporary change could lead to shifts in gender roles. A number of studies have found some evidence of reallocation of household and childcare tasks in countries affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, although gender disparities continued.

In the US, Zamarro & Prados ( 2021 ) found an increase in gender inequality with respect to childcare. In the case of the UK, Andrew et al., ( 2020 ) showed that very large gender asymmetries emerge when one partner stopped working for pay during the crisis: mothers who stopped working for pay did far more domestic work than fathers in the equivalent situation. Similar results were found in Canada (Shafer et al., 2020 ), Australia (Craig & Churchill, 2021 ), and Spain (Farré et al., 2020 ; Sevilla & Smith, 2020 ) used UK time use data to show that mothers in the UK continued to provide more childcare than fathers during the pandemic, even though the “gender childcare gap,“ i.e., the difference between the share of childcare provided by mothers and fathers, narrowed. These authors focused on childcare in UK families with young children and found that the gender childcare gap was smaller during the lockdown. Adams-Prassl et al., ( 2020 ) found that women did approximately an hour and a half more childcare per workday than did men, but there was no analysis of the relationship with employment. Additionally, Oreffice and Quintana-Domeque ( 2020 ) found that poorer employment outcomes for women during the crisis were also accompanied by a higher incidence of mental health issues.

With respect to the literature examining the impact of the pandemic on the distribution of care work in Germany, Zinn et al., ( 2020 ) use a special Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP-CoV) survey and found that mothers took on the majority of additional child care during the first lockdown, in Spring of 2020. While mothers looked after their children aged up to eleven for an average of about ten hours on weekdays during this period, fathers spent only half as long, at about five hours. Zoch et al., ( 2020 ), using the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS), showed that mothers took on the central role in childcare in the Spring of 2020. Fathers did participate in childcare, but usually together with the mother or with the support of third parties. Similar results were reported in a study by Hipp & Bünning ( 2021 ) based on survey data from a non-probability sample collected in spring 2020. Additionally, Kohlrausch & Zucco ( 2020 ) showed that, since the beginning of the pandemic, women had taken over the main burden of care work in almost one-third of households, while this was only the case for about 10% of men. Möhring et al., ( 2020 ) also showed that in the first weeks of the lockdown, in Spring 2020, mothers alone took over childcare in about half of the families. More recently, Boll et al., ( 2021 ) showed, based on data collected from June to August 2020, that fathers who took over more childcare had done so mostly in contexts where the mother could not work from home. Jessen et al., ( 2021 ) found that the share of households where the woman was completely - or almost completely - responsible for childcare and/or housework increased significantly during the pandemic.

There is important evidence from other European countries. Farr´e et al. ( 2020 ) for Spain, and Boca et al., ( 2020 ) for Italy, examined the impacts on both paid and domestic work, and found that women took over most of the increased childcare burden, but evidence on labor market outcomes was less clear-cut. These authors showed an initial shift towards a more equal distribution of household and childcare between men and women in the first months of the pandemic, although most of the extra work caused by the crisis had fallen on women. A comparative analysis of a novel data set including Italy, the UK, and the US confirmed these results (Biroli et al., 2020 ; Boca et al., 2021 ) used data on a representative sample of 800 Italian working women, collected before and during the crisis, to find that most of the additional responsibilities had fallen to women, although childcare activities were shared more equally than housework. In previous work (Boca et al., 2020 ), the authors also focused on the outbreak of the pandemic in Italy, using the first wave of the survey and showed that most of the additional housework and childcare associated with COVID-19 fell to women, even though childcare activities were more equally shared within the couple than housework activities. More recently, Mangiavacchi et al., ( 2021 ) showed that a slight increase in the share of fathers providing childcare led to the increased well-being of children.

Finally, Costoya et al. ( 2021 ) provide a Latin American perspective on time reallocation using online data collected from 962 couples (785 with children in the home) in Argentina during the summer 2020 lockdown. The authors found that the lockdown led to a reduction in paid work and an increase in time spent in unpaid activities for both men and women. However, the additional time spent by couples in unpaid activities was disproportionally carried out by women, who performed 65.1% of the additional hours of housework, 60.3% of the additional childcare, and 76.7% of the additional educational support activities.

In summary, these studies provide some evidence of a narrowing of the gender disparity in paid employment, gender reallocation of time spent on childcare, and to a lesser extent, housework during the early stages of COVID-19. Thus far, it is unclear whether the COVID-induced changes are only observed during the pandemic or whether they have also impacted overall norms, with potential long-term consequences. Indeed, even with the shifts, a large gender disparity remains regarding the proportion of housework and childcare tasks within the household. Nonetheless, these findings suggest that the gender division of childcare and housework, as well as shopping and other family tasks, is not fixed, but is influenced by external factors - be it a pandemic or policy instruments - that change the existing financial incentives for intra-household task sharing. If policies aim to increase gender equality in the family as well as in the labor market, they can effectively do so by setting incentives for a more equal sharing of childcare and housework.

Sociodemographic disparities in COVID-19 impact

Although the long-term impacts of COVID-19 on work, family, and its intersections are yet to be fully understood, families around the world are struggling to keep up with the changing demands and constraints of the pandemic (WHO, 2020 ). Alternative employment options and work arrangements including the shift to working from home, work overloads, and technological challenges contribute to family tensions (Chung et al., 2020 ). Families are on the front line of finding ways to adjust to the so-called “new normal”. School and day-care closures, homeschooling, inadequacies in the availability of technology, unequal divisions of household labor, and increased strain, especially for women, loss of contact with non-residential family members, death of family members, and other health concerns are among the most mentioned stressful situations that families are navigating (Lee & Ward, 2020 ; Kelley et al., 2022 ; Petts et al., 2020 ; Power, 2020 ; Wang et al., 2022 ).

Within families, the combination of work and family roles and the increase in time that families spent together meant that they experienced a combination of positive and negative experiences (Fraenkel & Cho, 2020 ; Fisher et al., 2020 ). Overall, the experience of uncertainty and fear in response to the pandemic itself is portrayed as a stressful situation in the face of the major disruptions in family and working lives, with impacts on the emotional and physical well-being of adults and children alike (Holmes et al., 2020 ; Lebow, 2020 ; Van Lancker & Parolin, 2020 ). It is no surprise that families with children report high rates of parental stress (Griffith, 2020 ; Spinelli et al., 2020 ), parenting-related exhaustion (Marchetti et al., 2020 ) and higher than normal levels of depression and anxiety among parents and children (Wang et al., 2020 ). Government actions to contain the spread of the virus, via different strategies and resources, have tried to support both the changing employment scenarios and family economic volatility. Yet for some families, contending with unemployment, reduced income, and short-time work, add a social and economic crisis on top of the health crisis (Blustein &, Guarino, 2020 ), deepening inequalities (Fisher et al., 2020 ; Karpman et al., 2020 ).

Since the start of the pandemic, families from lower-SES background, families from ethnic minority and vulnerable groups, and women have experienced heightened effects (Lebow, 2020 ; Parker et al., 2020 ). Many single parents (and those from single-income families) had to maintain the work-family balance with few supports. Some researchers caution that the long-term effects of the pandemic may further widen existing inequalities in income and poverty, education and skills, and intergenerational inequalities, particularly children (including vulnerable children), families with children and young people (British Academy, 2021 ; Horowitz et al., 2021 ; Sanrey et al., 2021 ).

One way to conceptualize the varying impacts of the pandemic and its potential long-term effects is through the perspective of ecological theory (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 2006 ). From this perspective, family interactions are the foundation for growth and well-being. However, these interactions take place within ever-widening sources of influence, including social networks, cultural community and society. In other words, the quality of interactions within the family is dependent upon the quality of the interactions outside the family, including social policies and the condition of the broader economic environment. Recent research provides a number of examples that demonstrate the influence of contextual factors on how COVID-19 impacted families in different ways. Rural communities offer one contextual explanation for the uneven impact of the pandemic. Drawing on research conducted on rural low-income families over the past twenty years in the US, Sano and Mammen (this issue) describe how fewer employment and educational opportunities, less access to childcare, transportation, and family support services, create a condition of cascading impact. With few resources available within the family and limited support available in the community, any disruption has the potential to threaten their ability to survive the crisis. Urban immigrant communities provide another contextual explanation for the impact of the pandemic. Solheim et al. ( 2022 ) describe the contextual impact of stressors during the pandemic as a pile-up, investigating the problems facing urban Somali, Latinx, and Karen (refugees from Burma) immigrant families in the Midwestern US between June and August 2020. Specifically, a job loss may be the precipitating event for housing insecurity which is further complicated by language barriers, lack of technology skills, and documentation. Despite its global reach, countries had different experiences with and different response to the pandemic. Providing a national context for understanding the impact of the pandemic, Roll et al. ( 2022 ) conducted a comparative analysis of household spending and hardship in the US (collected April-May 2020) and Israel (collected June-July 2020). The researchers found several similarities between the countries, including stable housing expenditures but more volatile food and credit card payment expenditures. Of note, whereas racial/ethnic/religious minorities in both countries were more likely to experience spending volatility, only Black and Hispanic (in the US) and Arab (in Israel) households were more likely to experience hardships. Sanrey et al., ( 2021 ) examined social class as a contextual factor in understanding the quantity and quality of homeschooling in France during the April 2020 lockdown. Their findings provided some evidence of a widening educational achievement gap during the first wave of the pandemic.

In the context of a pervasive crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic, there is much to be learned from the shared experiences of struggle and resilience that families face when juggling work and family roles. This is also an opportunity to revisit inequalities in work and family and their intersections that have been exacerbated and to come together as social scientists to raise awareness and to promote interventions to avoid the long-term consequences of this health crisis.

Financial stress and family relationships

Both couple and family well-being and relationships are impacted in a variety of ways because of financial stress (Dew, 2020 ; Kelley et al., 2020 ), and the pandemic has had a significant impact on finances and relationships. When the world essentially shut down in March 2020, families confronted many unknowns. These unknowns included extensive economic challenges and concerns, which led to increased financial stress for many individuals and families (NEFE, 2020 ). In the face of massive employment disruption worldwide, government financial support provided essential support for families and households; even with this support, nearly 1 in 3 people reported at least one financial difficulty (OECD, 2021 ). The financial impacts of COVID-19 in Spring of 2020 led to fear and uncertainty regarding emergency savings, job security, income fluctuations, ability to pay utilities and housing expenses, as well as broader concerns over the financial markets (NEFE, 2020 ). In essence, virtually all families experienced some change and uncertainty. In addition to economic pressure, lockdown restrictions and mandated shelter-in-home orders impacted family relationships in unprecedented ways. Many people moved in with relatives to cut back on expenses; family members were forced to live in closed physical spaces days on end, while others were forces to stay apart (Liu et al., 2020 ). For many people, “home” became a basecamp to accommodate a wide range of family activities: a place of work, schooling, parenting, housework, shopping, leisure, and religion (Lee et al., 2020 ).

Although the economic hardship and forced confinement of families may have strained family relationships, in also provided opportunities for family growth. In a mixed-methods study of adult couples and parents conducted in Spain during the first few weeks of lockdown (Günther-Bel et al., 2020 ), participants were more likely to indicate an improvement in family relationships (61.7%), such as increased (re)connection, versus deterioration (41.0%) including conflict. Open-ended responses to a social media survey conducted in Spring 2020 among Australian parents of children 0–18 years (Evans et al., 2020 ), found a wide range of positive and negative impacts,, with many families reporting mental health difficulties and strained family relationships and others citing opportunities for strengthening relationships, finding new hobbies, and developing positive characteristics such as appreciation, gratitude, and tolerance. Both benefits and harm were also documented in an online survey study conducted among Chinese adults in Hong Kong (Wong et al., 2021 ). In this study, the authors found that socioeconomic status (SES) differentiated between the types of responses, with higher SES respondents reporting more perceived benefits on family physical and mental health and family relationships compared to lower (SES) respondents. Lower SES respondents were also more likely to report harm to family income.

With stay-at-home orders and lockdowns, combined with increased economic uncertainty and stress, many couples felt increased stress and anxiety, and this combined with poor coping strategies led to alarming increases in reports of domestic violence both in the US and internationally (Boserup et al., 2020 ). In March 2020, calls to domestic violence hotline in Spain increased 10.5% and online requests increased 182.93% and in Italy requests for help to the anti-violence centers increased by 75% percent as compared to the same period the previous year (Donato, 2020 ). In the UK, calls and contacts to the Helpline during the lockdown averaged a 66% increase weekly compared to the pre COVID-19 period (Gibson, 2020 ; Langhinrichsen-Rohling et al., 2022 ) investigated the potential risk factors that contributed to incidences of couple conflict and intimate partner violence focusing on a group of lower-income residents in North Carolina. Unexpectedly, the majority of the participants did not report an increase, However, the participants who did report an increase were more likely to be unemployed, and also reported having difficulty getting needed social support and losing their health insurance. Using mobile device tracking data and city-level unemployment data, the study by Henke and Hsu ( 2022 ) suggests that the effects of the pandemic on domestic violence wane over time (mid-March to mid-June 2020). Researchers have called for an increase in policy responses and resources for domestic violence survivors and victims, as well as focusing on historically marginalized groups who may have felt additional strain from the public health protocols enacted to address COVID-19 (Galea et al., 2020 ; Piquero et al., 2021 ). The results of social isolation, economic instability, and increasing relationship and family conflict will likely produce long-term effects on women’s mental and physical health, similar to what has been seen before resulting from natural disasters and other epidemics (Parkinson, 2019 ; Piquero et al., 2021 ).

While the labor market has shown signs of improvement since the beginning of the pandemic and the immediate financial stressors have eased somewhat, it is longer-term impacts that are still concerning for many. In a Pew Research Institute study, about half of respondents indicated that the outbreak will make it harder for them to achieve their long-term financial goals (Horowitz et al., 2021 ). However, that number is higher among households that experienced job or wage loss. Income matters in this context; 76% of low-income adults indicated that their finances were in fair or poor shape compared to only 14% of upper-income adults at the same time period (Horowitz et al., 2021 ). As the pandemic lingers, financial concerns have become less pressing as compared with the early months of 2020, but many still worry about their basic needs. This is more prevalent among lower-income households and those with job or wage losses (Horowitz et al., 2021 ). The recovery appears to be having unbalanced outcomes, likely having longer and more negative effects for those who were already experiencing poverty prior to COVID-19.

The body of research regarding the long-term effects and implications of COVID-19 on family wellbeing and the functioning of relationships is only just emerging. It is clear that COVID-19 and the associated lockdowns and changes in lifestyle have increased stress, and even conflict, within relationships (Brown et al., 2020 ), and how that stress is handled is critical for relationship outcomes. Experiencing COVID-19-related stress is likely to increase negative processes in relationships, including hostility, withdrawal, and less responsive support. These harmful processes compromise and diminish relationship quality (Pietromonaco & Overall, 2021 ). The effects and outcomes on relationships and family well-being largely depend on where they were before COVID-19. Relationships that were experiencing stress and were already struggling before COVID-19, were more likely to experience an increase in harmful processes (e.g., hostility), and this may have been exacerbated by the felt effects of financial distress. On the other hand, those with stable relationships and stable finances may have been able to increase relationship quality due to unexpected time together.

Where do we go from here?

As families resume more typical daily routines in terms of work and schooling, many are feeling exhaustion (OECD, 2021 ). In 2020, 22% of people reported not being able to complete necessary housework after paid work, but in 2021, that number had increased to 33% (OECD, 2021 ). What was hoped to be a short-term disruption for households has become a chronic stressor event for family and household finances and functioning. What does the post-pandemic future hold? Although global economic growth increased by 5.5% in 2021, global growth is projected to soften to 3.2% in 2023; for developing economies (i.e., Northern Africa, Western Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean), the projected 2023 growth is still below their 2019 levels (World Bank, 2022 ). In the US, finances improved during 2021 for many households with the receipt of economic stimulus payments and enhanced childcare tax credits; however, many families, particularly low-income families, continue to struggle financially, as most economic relief measures ending (Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, 2022 ). Over 65% of U.S. adults report that the impact of the pandemic will make it harder for them to achieve their financial goals and nearly a quarter of U.S. adult workers aged 50 and older expect to delay their retirement (Horowitz et al.,2021). Rising global concerns are further complicating the economic recovery, including inflation, energy prices, and supply chain disruptions due to geopolitical instability and conflicts (Seiler, 2022 ). According to a recent report by the International Labour Organization (ILO, 2021 , the scarring effects of the pandemic are deep, and the economic recovery for families and countries may be slow and complex. To address the long-term bidirectional effects of the pandemic on family well-being and the well-being of the global economy calls for research that crosses disciplinary divides.


We thank Editor Joyce Serido for the helpful suggestions and comments. They substantially contributed to improve the quality of the article.

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

  • Adams-Prassl, A., Boneva, T., & Golin, M. (2020). Inequality in the Impact of the Coronavirus Shock: Evidence from Real Time Surveys. Working Paper 2018 , Cambridge-INET
  • Alon, T., Doepke, M., Olmstead-Rumsey, J., & Tertilt, M. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 on gender equality. NBER Working Paper 26947 . 10.3386/w26947
  • Ammar, A., Brach, M., Trabelsi, K., Chtourou, H., Boukhris, O., Masmoudi, L. … Hoekelmann, A. ; On Behalf of the ECLB-COVID19 Consortium. (2020). Effects of COVID-19 Home Confinement on Eating Behaviour and Physical Activity: Results of the ECLB-COVID19 International Online Survey.Nutrients, 12 ( 6 ),1583. 10.3390/nu12061583 [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ]
  • Andrew, A., Cattan, S., Costa Dias, M., Farquharson, C., Kraftman, L., Krutikova, S. … Sevilla, A. (2020). The Gendered Division of Paid and Domestic Work Under Lockdown. IZA Discussion Paper 13500
  • Becker G. A theory of the allocation of time. The Economic Journal. 1965; 75 (299):493–517. doi: 10.2307/2228949. [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Biroli, P., Bosworth, S., Della Giusta, M., Di Girolamo, A., Jawoeska, S., & Vollen, J. (2020). Family life in lockdown. IZA Discussion Paper 13398 [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ]
  • Blustein D, Guarino PA. Work and Unemployment in the Time of COVID-19: The Existential Experience of Loss and Fear. Journal of Humanistic Psychology. 2020; 60 (5):702–709. doi: 10.1177/0022167820934229. [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Boll, C., Müller, D., & Schüller, S. (2021). Neither Backlash nor Convergence: Dynamics of Intracouple Childcare Division after the First COVID-19 Lockdown and Subsequent Reopening in Germany. IZA Discussion Paper 14375
  • Boserup B, McKenney M, Elkbuli A. Alarming trends in us domestic violence during the covid-19 pandemic. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2020; 38 :2753–2755. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2020.04.077. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • British Academy. (2021). The COVID decade: Understanding the long-term societal impacts of COVID-19 . London: The British Academy. DOI doi.org/10.5871/bac19stf/9780856726583.001
  • Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. A. (2006). The Bioecological Model of Human Development. In R. M. Lerner, & W. Damon (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Theoretical models of human development (pp. 793–828). John Wiley & Sons Inc
  • Brown, S. M., Doom, J., Watamura, S. E., Lechuga-Pena, S., & Koppels, T. (2020). Stress and parenting during the global COVID-19 pandemic. Child Abuse & Neglect , 110(2), 10.1016/j.chiabu.2020.104699 [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ]
  • Bureau of Labor Statistics (2022). The employment situation – January 2022 . https://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/empsit.pdf
  • Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (2022). The COVID-19 economy’s effects on food, housing, and employment hardships . https://www.cbpp.org/sites/default/files/8-13-20pov.pdf
  • Chiappori PA. Rational household labor supply. Econometrica. 1988; 56 :63–89. doi: 10.2307/1911842. [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Chiappori PA. Collective labor supply and welfare. Journal of Political Economy. 1992; 100 :437–467. doi: 10.1086/261825. [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Chung, H., Seo, H., Forbes, S., & Birkett, Y. (2020). H. Working from home during the COVID-19 lockdown: Changing preferences and the future of work. University of Kent and the University of Birmingham. University of Kent. Accessed via: https://wafproject.org/covidwfh/
  • Costoya, V., Echeverría, L., Edo, M., et al. (2021). Gender Gaps within Couples: Evidence of Time Re-allocations during COVID-19 in Argentina.Journal of Family and Economic Issues.10.1007/s10834-021-09770-8 [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ]
  • Craig L, Churchill B. Dual-earner parent couples’ work and care during COVID‐ 19. Gender. Work & Organization. 2021; 28 :66–79. doi: 10.1111/gwao.12497. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Del Boca, D., Oggero, N., Profeta, P., & Rossi, M. C. (2020). Women’s Work, Housework and Childcare, before and during COVID-19. IZA Discussion Paper 13409 [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ]
  • Del Boca D, Oggero N, Profeta P, Rossi MC. Household division of labor during two waves of COVID-19 in Italy. Covid Economics. 2021; 75 (7):60–80. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Dew J. Ten years of marriage and cohabitation research in the Journal of Family and Economic Issues. Journal of Family and Economic Issues. 2020; 42 :S52–S61. doi: 10.1007/s10834-020-09723-7. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Donato, S. (2020). Gender-based violence against women in intimate and couple relationships: The case of Spain and Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. Italian Sociological Review, 10 (3S) , 869–887. 10.13136/isr.v10i3s.402
  • Donni, O., & Molina, J. A. (2028). Household collective models: three decades of theoretical contributions and empirical evidence. IZA Discussion Paper 11915
  • Evans S, Mikocka-Walus A, Klas A, Olive L, Sciberras E, Karantzas G, Westrupp EM. From “it has stopped our lives” to “spending more time together has strengthened bonds”: the varied experiences of Australian families during COVID-19. Frontiers in Psychology. 2020; 11 :588667. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.588667. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Farré, L., Fawaz, Y., González, L., & Graves, J. (2020). How the COVID-19 lockdown affected gender inequality in paid and unpaid work in Spain. IZA Discussion Paper 13434
  • Fraenkel P, Cho WL. Reaching up, down, in, and around: Couple and family coping during the Coronavirus pandemic. Family Process. 2020; 59 (3):847–864. doi: 10.1111/famp.12570. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Fisher J, Languilaire JC, Lawthom R, Nieuwenhuis, et al. Community, work, and family in times of COVID-19. Community, Work & Family. 2020; 23 (3):247–252. doi: 10.1080/13668803.2020.1756568. [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Galea S, Merchant RM, Lurie N. The mental health consequences of COVID-19 and physical distancing: The need for prevention and early intervention. JAMA Internal Medicine. 2020; 180 (6):817–818. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.1562. [ PubMed ] [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Gibson J. Domestic violence during COVID-19: the GP role. British Journal of General Practice. 2020; 70 (696):340. doi: 10.3399/bjgp20X710477. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Griffith AK. Parental Burnout and Child Maltreatment During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Family Violence. 2020 doi: 10.1007/s10896-020-00172-2. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Günther-Bel C, Carratala E, Torras-Garat S, Pérez-Testor C. A mixed-method study of individual, couple, and parental functioning during the state-regulated lockdown in Spain. Family Process. 2020; 59 (3):1060–1079. doi: 10.1111/famp.12585. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Henke A, Hsu L. COVID-19 and domestic violence: Economics or isolation? Journal of Family and Economic Issues. 2022 doi: 10.1007/s10834-022-09829-0. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Hipp L, Bünning M. Parenthood as a driver of increased gender inequality during COVID-19? Exploratory Evidence from Germany. European Society. 2021; 23 (1):658–673. doi: 10.1080/14616696.2020.1833229. [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Holmes OC, et al. Multidisciplinary research priorities for the COVID-19 pandemic: A call for action for mental health science. The Lancet Psychiatry. 2020; 7 (6):547–560. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30168. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Horowitz, J. M., Brown, A., & Minkin, R. (2021). A year into the pandemic, long-term financial impact weighs heavily on many Americans.Pew Research Institute, March 5. https://www.pewresearch.org/social-trends/2021/03/05/a-year-into-the-pandemic-long-term-financial-impact-weighs-heavily-on-many-americans/
  • Hoynes H, Miller DL, Schaller J. Who suffers during recessions? Journal of Economic Perspectives. 2012; 26 (3):27–48. doi: 10.1257/jep.26.3.27. [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Hupkau C, Petrongolo B. Work, care and gender during the COVID-19 crisis. Fiscal Studies. 2020; 41 (3):623–651. doi: 10.1111/1475-5890.12245. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • International Labour Organization (2021). World employment and social outlook: Trends 2021. Retrieved from https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/---publ/documents/publication/wcms_795453.pdf
  • Jessen, J., Spiess, C. K., Waights, S., & Wrohlich, K. (2021). Sharing the Caring? The gender divide on care work during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. IZA Discussion Paper 14457
  • Karpman, M., Zuckerman, S., Gonzalez, D., & Kenney, G. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic is straining families’ abilities to afford basic needs.Urban Institute, April 28. https://www.urban.org/research/publication/covid-19-pandemicstraining-families-abilities-afford-basic-needs
  • Kelley HH, LeBaron AB, Hill EJ. Family matters: Decade review from Journal of Family and Economic Issues. Journal of Family and Economic Issues. 2020; 42 :S20–S33. doi: 10.1007/s10834-020-09706-8. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Kelley HH, Lee Y, LeBaron-Black A, et al. Change in Financial Stress and Relational Wellbeing During COVID-19: Exacerbating and Alleviating Influences. Journal of Family and Economic Issues. 2022 doi: 10.1007/s10834-022-09822-7. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Kohlrausch, B., & Zucco, A. (2020). Corona trifft Frauen doppelt – weniger Erwerbseinkommen und mehr Sorgearbeit.WSI Policy Brief No. 40
  • Langhinrichsen-Rohling J, Schroeder GE, Langhinrichsen-Rohling RA, Mennicke A, Harris YJ, Sullivan S, Cramer RJ. Couple conflict and intimate partner violence during the early lockdown of the pandemic: The good, the bad, or is it just the same in a North Carolina, low-resource population? International Journal of Environmental Research in Public Health. 2022; 19 :2608. doi: 10.3390/ijerph19052608. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Lee, J., Chin, M., & Sung, M. (2020). How has COVID-19 changed family life in well-being in Korea? Journal of Comparative Family Studies , 51(3–4), 10.3138/jcfs.51.3-4.006
  • Lee, S. J., & Ward, K. P. (2020). Stress and parenting during the coronavirus pandemic. 10.1016/j.chiabu.2020.104699 [ CrossRef ]
  • Lebow JL. Family in the age of COVID-19. Family Process. 2020; 59 (20):309–312. doi: 10.1111/famp.12543. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Liu W, Tao Z, Wang L, Yuan M, Liu K, Zhou L, Hu Y. Analysis of factors associated with disease outcomes in hospitalized patiens with 2019 novel coronavirus disease. China Medical Journal. 2020; 133 (9):1032–1097. doi: 10.1097/CM9.0000000000000775. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Mangiavacchi, L., Piccoli, L., & Pieroni, L. (2021). Fathers matter: intrahousehold responsibilities and children’s wellbeing during the COVID-19 lockdown in Italy.Economics & Human Biology,101016 [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ]
  • Marchetti D, Fontanesi L, Mazza C, Di Giandomenico S, Roma P, Verrocchio MC. Parenting-related exhaustion during the Italian COVID-19 lockdown. Journal of Pediatrics Psychology. 2020; 45 (10):1114–1123. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsaa093. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Seiler, D. (2022). The coronavirus effect on global economic sentiment. McKinsey & Company. March 30. Retrieved from https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/strategy-and-corporate-finance/our-insights/the-coronavirus-effect-on-global-economic-sentiment
  • Möhring, K., Naumann, E., Reifenscheid, M., Blom, A. G., Wenz, A., Rettig, T. … Cornesse, C. (2020). Die Mannheimer Corona-Studie:Schwerpunktbericht zu Erwerbstätigkeit und Kinderbetreuung
  • NEFE, & Survey (2020, April 16). : Nearly 9 in 10 Say COVID-19 Crisis is Causing Financial Stress. National Endowment for Financial Education. https://www.nefe.org/news/2020/04/survey-covid-19-crisisi-causing-financial-stress.aspx
  • OECD . COVID-19 and Well-being: Life in the Pandemic. Paris: OECD Publishing; 2021. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Oreffice, S., & Quintana-Domeque. (2020). Gender Inequality in COVID-19 Times: Evidence from UK Prolific Participants . mimeo
  • Parker, K., Minkin, R., & Bennet, J. (2020). Economic fallout from COVID-19 continues to hit lower-income Americans the hardest . Pew Research Center. September 24. https://www.pewresearch.org/social-trends/2020/09/24/economic-fallout-from-covid-19-continues-to-hit-lower-income-americans-the-hardest/
  • Parkinson D. Investigating the increase in domestic violence post-disaster: An Australian case study. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 2019; 34 (11):2333–2362. doi: 10.1177/0886260517696876. [ PubMed ] [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Petts RJ, Carlson DL, Pepin JR. A gendered pandemic: Childcare, homeschooling, and parents’ employment during COVID-19. Gender, Work & Organization. 2020; 28(S (2):515–534. doi: 10.1111/gwao.12614. [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Pietromonaco PR, Overall NC. Applying relationship science to evaluate how the COVID-19 pandemic may impact couples’ relationships. American Psychologist. 2021; 76 (3):438–450. doi: 10.1037/amp0000714. [ PubMed ] [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Piquero AR, Jennings WG, Jemison E, Kaukinen C, Knaul FM. Domestic violence during the COVID-19 pandemic-Evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Criminal Justice. 2021; 74 :101806. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2021.101806. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Power K. The COVID-19 pandemic has increased the care burden of women and families. Sustainability: Science, Practice and Policy. 2020; 16 (1):67–73. doi: 10.1080/15487733.2020.1776561. [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Roll S, Chun Y, Kondratjeva O, Despard M, Schwartz-Tayri TM. Household Spending Patterns and Hardships during COVID-19: A Comparative Study of the U.S. and Israel. Journal of Family and Economic Issues. 2022 doi: 10.1007/s10834-021-09814-z. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Rubery J, Rafferty A. Women and recession revisited. Work, Employment and Society. 2013; 27 (3):414–432. doi: 10.1177/0950017012460314. [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Sano, Y., & Mammen, S. Mitigating the Impact of the Coronavirus Pandemic on Rural Low-Income Families.Journal of Family and Economic Issue.10.1007/s10834-021-09800-5 [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ]
  • Sanrey C, Goudeau S, Stanczak A, Darnon C. A two-sided lockdown? Social class variations in the implementation of homeschooling during the COVID-19 lockdown. Frontiers of Psychology. 2021; 12 :670722. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.670722. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Sevilla A, Smith S. Baby steps: the gender division of childcare during the COVID19 pandemic. Oxford Review of Economic Policy. 2020; 36 :169–186. doi: 10.1093/oxrep/graa027. [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Shafer K, Scheibling C, Milkie MA. The Division of Domestic Labor before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Canada: Stagnation versus Shifts in Fathers’ Contributions. Canadian Review of Sociology/Revue Canadienne de Sociologie. 2020; 57 (4):523–549. doi: 10.1111/cars.12315. [ PubMed ] [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Solheim CA, Ballard J, Fatiha N, Dini Z, Buchanan G, Song S. Immigrant Family Financial and Relationship Stress From the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Family and Economic Issues. 2022 doi: 10.1007/s10834-022-09819-2. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Spinelli M, Lionetti F, Pastore M, Fasolo M. Parents’ stress and children’s psychological problems in families facing the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy. Frontiers of Psychology. 2020; 11 :1713. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01713. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • United Nations Statistics Division. (n.d.). Decent work and economic growth. Sustainable Development Goals. Retrieved from https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/report/2021/goal-08/#:~:text=By%202020%2 C%20 the%20global%20unemployment,33%20million%2 C%20reaching%20220%20million
  • Van Lancker, W., & Parolin, Z. (2020). COVID-19, school closures, and child poverty: A social crisis in the making. The Lancet Public Health , 2468266720300840. 10.1016/S2468-2667(20)30084-0 [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ]
  • Wang C, Cheong Y, Zhu Q, Havewala M, Ye Y. Parent work–life conflict and adolescent adjustment during COVID-19: Mental health and parenting as mediators. Journal of Family Psychology. 2022 doi: 10.1037/fam0000948. [ PubMed ] [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Wang G, Zhang Y, Zhao J, Zhang J, Jiang F. Mitigate the effects of home confinement on children during the COVID-19 outbreak. The Lancet. 2020; 395 (10228):945–947. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30547-X. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Wong BYM, Lam TH, Lai AYK, Wang MP, Ho SY. Perceived Benefits and Harms of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Family Well-Being and Their Sociodemographic Disparities in Hong Kong: A Cross-Sectional Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18 :1217. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18031217. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • World Bank (2022). Global economic prospects, January 2022. Washington, DC: World Bank. doi: 10.1596/978-1-4648-1758-8. License: Creative Commons Attribution CC BY 3.0 IGO. Retrieved from https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/36519/9781464817601.pdf
  • World Health Organization (WHO) (2020, October 13). Impact of Covid-19 on people’s livelihoods, their health and our food systems. [Statement]. Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/news/item/13-10-2020-impact-of-covid-19-on-people%27s-livelihoods-their-health-and-our-food-systems
  • Zamarro G, Prados MJ. Gender differences in couples’ division of childcare, work and mental health during COVID-19. Review of Economics of the Household. 2021; 19 (1):11–40. doi: 10.1007/s11150-020-09534-7. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Zinn, S., Kreyenfeld, M., & Bayer, M. (2020). Kinderbetreuung in Corona-Zeiten: Mütter tragen die Hauptlast, aber Väter holen auf.DIW Aktuell,51
  • Zoch G, Bächmann AC, Vicari B. Who Cares When Care Closes? Carearrangements and Parental Working Conditions during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Germany. European Societies. 2020; 23 (51):576–588. doi: 10.1080/14616696.2020.1832700. [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]

4 years later, lessons and lingering effects of COVID-19 pandemic in Windsor, Ont. persist

Four years ago, the lives of people around the world changed when a global pandemic was declared by the World Health Organization (WHO).

And while the COVID-19 pandemic is officially over, the effects are still with us.

Looking back at that time in the early days of the pandemic, even people who were ready and preparing for the onslaught of patients couldn’t believe what was happening.

“You're thinking, ‘Is that real? Are we living through this? Is this actually happening?’ Because that's something you would only see in a movie,” said Windsor Regional Hospital President, David Musyj.

At Windsor Regional Hospital, Musyj recalled it feeling like a waiting game.

With COVID-19 cases piling up around the world and a global pandemic declared, Windsor didn’t receive its first confirmed case until March 20, 2020.

“Everyone was walking on eggshells because we are waiting for our first patient,” he recalled.

One patient after another arrived at the hospital.

Since that first case, more than more than 5,800 people have been admitted at area hospitals, or the temporary field hospital at St. Clair College, with COVID-19.

According to the Windsor-Essex County Health Unit (WECHU), there have been 56,322 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the community.

In total, 809 people died with the virus, while the healthcare system tried and struggled to keep up.

“There was a ton of unknowns and the information was just crashing down on us and we're trying to share it with the staff as best as we could with respect to what the latest and greatest was,” said Musyj. “And it changed on 20 minutes, 30 minutes notice.”

But Musyj said it brought lessons about treatment and patient management that will stick with healthcare workers forever.

“We want to move on from it, but we’ve got to learn from it not forget that it occurred and not forget, in case it were to occur again,” he said.

In May of 2023, the WHO said COVID-19 was no longer a global health emergency , but the lingering effects remain.

Since then, 564 people have been hospitalized and 30 have died in hospital, according to WECHU data.

Musyj said approximately 15 people are still in hospital daily with COVID-19, a number that has fluctuated between 10 and 40 at any given time over the past year.

“Unfortunately it's now part of our life on a daily basis,” Musyj said. “So yeah, it's going to be with us for quite some time.”

Ontario Premier Doug Ford meanwhile commemorated the milestone with rose coloured glasses.

“We did extremely well compared to the rest of the world,” Ford said during a stop in Windsor Monday . “Everyone pitched in everyone helped out from manufacturers to health care workers to industry. Everyone did an incredible job and never seen anything like it.”

But for some like Windsor resident Mike Rainone, it’s the financial impact that persists.

He lives on Ontario Works and ODSP. He took the $2,000 monthly Canada Emergency Response Benefit (CERB) payments from the federal government.

“I was told by the agent at CRA that my Ontario Works met that criteria because I was looking after a senior,” he said, before taking CERB.

He collected seven payments, totalling $14,000 and figured the tax he’d pay back later would be in the ballpark of $3,000.

Today however, the Canada Revenue Agency is hounding him for the full amount back.

“I met that criteria and somewhere along the way they changed the rules,” Rainone argued.

Right now, he’s paying $50 a month back to avoid any penalties.

But living on a limited income, at that pace, the 64 year old will be square in 23 years.

“To be penalized $14,000, and I’m on ODSP, barely getting by now, please rethink and take a better look at what was done to people in the beginning of this,” he said.

He’s one of many who collectively owes the government billions of dollars in CERB repayments. 

Windsor Top Stories

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Pedestrian struck in Windsor on Monday dies

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

$629,000 in drugs seized in province-wide investigation

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

$500 in fragrances stolen from LaSalle business

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Prime Minister in Windsor on Thursday

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Repeat offender from Windsor arrested in Sarnia

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Loblaw under fire for testing self-checkout receipt scanners at 4 Ontario locations

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

14-year-old youth arrested in connection to group assault on teen with autism: Windsor police

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Unique program that reviews Canadian sex assault cases with no charges to run out of funding

Ctvnews.ca top stories.

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

'There are better ways:' Toronto police issue statement after officer tells residents to leave car keys near front door amid home invasions

A bit of unconventional advice given to residents by an officer at an Etobicoke town hall last month has prompted the Toronto Police Service to clarify its position on preventing home invasions.

Ottawa mass killing suspect makes brief court appearance

The suspect accused in the mass killing of six people, including four children, at a Barrhaven home last week, made a brief appearance in an Ottawa courtroom Thursday afternoon.

Why do I wake up at 3 a.m. every night?

Now wide awake from a once peaceful slumber, you roll over to check the clock and find it’s 3 a.m. That’s the same time you woke up last night. And the night before. What's going on?

Loblaw is facing criticism after installing receipt scanners in four of its southern Ontario stores this week as part of a pilot project.

Canada reduces diplomatic footprint in Haiti citing 'volatile' environment

The Canadian government is reducing its diplomatic footprint in Haiti to 'essential employees,' at the embassy in Port-au-Prince, but so far has no plans to begin evacuating citizens as unrest continues to grip the Caribbean nation.

B.C. couple sold firm for fortune. With last $92M donation, they've given it all away

A pair of British Columbia philanthropists are donating the last $92 million from a “windfall” sale of their medical imaging company to the charitable foundation they founded.

Home office expense changes, the cost of paying late and other things you may not know about taxes

Taxes may well be a certainty of life, but they can morph and multiply by the year, including some big changes this filing season.

Princes William and Harry to appear separately at event honouring Diana

Prince William and Prince Harry will separately take part in an event on Thursday honouring their mother, Diana, Princess of Wales.

B.C. law will allow province to sue social media companies, other 'wrongdoers' for health costs

The British Columbia government has introduced proposed legislation to recover health-related costs from alleged 'wrongdoers,' including social-media giants.

Shopping Trends

The Shopping Trends team is independent of the journalists at CTV News. We may earn a commission when you use our links to shop.  Read about us.

Editor's Picks

Scotland's top outdoor clothing brand just arrived in canada, and here are a few of our favourite finds, the absolute best earplugs you can get in canada in 2024, there's a total solar eclipse coming up in canada, and here’s how to protect your eyes, amazon canada’s big spring big spring sale is coming up, so brace yourself for amazing deals, the carepod spring sale is officially on, and you can snag award-winning humidifiers at major discounts, from knix to lululemon: here are all the best deals and discounts you'll find online right now, 7 furniture and decor finds for small apartments, 14 of the best interactive dog toys to stimulate your dog's mind, 14 essential gardening tools for when the spring thaw hits, if you want your dark circles to disappear, add at least one of these under-eye concealers to your cart, 10 of the best vitamin c serums you can get online right now, if your hair gets oily one day after washing, you probably need at least one of these dry shampoos, 'wake up': officials urge action after fatal guelph, ont. townhouse fire, attempted carjacking in kitchener driveway.

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Increased police presence in Exeter for an 'active investigation'

Suspicious package prompts 'active investigation' in woodstock.

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Driver killed in crash on Simcoe County Road 27

Cause of washout that severed highway 35 in muskoka in two under investigation, 1st confirmed case of measles in simcoe muskoka is an immunized person & others may have been exposed, northern ontario.

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

City of Greater Sudbury worker killed in Highway 144 crash

One dead, one in custody after river valley shooting, opp says, regina woman speaks out after family dog fatally injured at local dog park, sault ste. marie.

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Missing non-verbal Manitoulin Island man with autism rescued

Two from gta charged, $400k in drugs seized in northern ont. traffic stop, northwestern ont. police arrest southern ont. drug dealers, seize handgun, cocaine, fentanyl.

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

BREAKING | City of Ottawa claims credit record will be corrected if old fines are paid

Six people facing charges related to dangerous drug trafficking in pembroke, ont., video shows individual in handcuffs after woman found dead in scarborough home, union president fires back after doug ford accuses them of 'lying' to members.

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Legault to ask Trudeau for full immigration powers

Opposition party says quebec rating agencies worry it will cost more to borrow, former quebec judge jacques delisle pleads guilty to manslaughter.

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Winnipeg police looking for man believed to have dumped soil into bulk food bins

Supreme court will not hear appeal from churches who fought manitoba covid rules, 'we don’t engage in time travel': winnipeg mayor warns about text message scam.

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Supreme Court will not hear appeal of Calgary man who killed five people

3 calgarians face over 20 charges after allegedly trying to steal licence plate in crossiron mills, lethbridge woman faces assault charge in whoop up drive bus incident.

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

City of Edmonton reaches tentative deal with workers' union, avoiding strike

Edmonton man charged with killing 72-year-old father, new draft k-6 social studies curriculum will be piloted in 2024-25 school year.

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Sask. teachers call for a referee to end contract stalemate, province not interested

Sask. ndp say province used foi 'loophole' to avoid disclosing physician, specialist numbers, one arrested following string of fuel thefts in moose jaw.

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

St. Patrick's Day and other celebrations in Vancouver this weekend

Tv series about notorious murder of b.c. teen to premiere in april, vancouver island.

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Victoria police lost another notebook – and it ended up in a suspect's hands

'i fell for it once': seminar teaches seniors to protect themselves against scams.

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Fredericton police identify remains of 29-year-old man found in city landfill

Suspect who tried to flee police in lake arrested: n.s. rcmp, final person sleeping rough at halifax’s grand parade encampment leaves.

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

Newfoundland capelin out of 'critical zone,' but not because there are more fish

Baking business launches newfoundland's first cake vending machine, gushue returns to newfoundland after history-making brier championship, stay connected.

effect of covid 19 on our lives essay


  1. ≫ How the Outbreak of Coronavirus Changed Our Lives Free Essay Sample

    effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

  2. Fourth Grader Pens Essay About Coronavirus Anger and Fears

    effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

  3. Interdisciplinary Course Explores Broad Impact of Covid-19

    effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

  4. How coronavirus affects your body

    effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

  5. UN/DESA Policy Brief #67: Protecting and mobilizing youth in COVID-19

    effect of covid 19 on our lives essay

  6. Making a difference

    effect of covid 19 on our lives essay


  1. Impact of COVID-19 on people's livelihoods, their health and our food

    Reading time: 3 min (864 words) The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a dramatic loss of human life worldwide and presents an unprecedented challenge to public health, food systems and the world of work. The economic and social disruption caused by the pandemic is devastating: tens of millions of people are at risk of falling into extreme poverty ...

  2. How the Pandemic Has Changed Our Lives

    From lifestyle changes to better eating habits, people are using this time to get healthier in many areas. Since the pandemic started, nearly two-thirds of the survey's participants (62%) say ...

  3. How Did the Covid-19 Pandemic Affect You, Your Family and Your

    March 14, 2024, 5:08 a.m. ET. It has been four years since the World Health Organization declared Covid-19 a global pandemic on March 11, 2020. The New York Times writes of the anniversary: Four ...

  4. Effects of COVID-19 pandemic in daily life

    COVID-19 (Coronavirus) has affected day to day life and is slowing down the global economy. This pandemic has affected thousands of peoples, who are either sick or are being killed due to the spread of this disease. The most common symptoms of this viral infection are fever, cold, cough, bone pain and breathing problems, and ultimately leading ...

  5. Impact of COVID-19 on the social, economic, environmental and energy

    1. Introduction. The newly identified infectious coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was discovered in Wuhan and has spread rapidly since December 2019 within China and to other countries around the globe (Zhou et al., 2020; Kabir et al., 2020).The source of SARS-CoV-2 is still unclear (Gorbalenya et al., 2020).Fig. 1 demonstrates the initial timeline of the development of SARS-CoV-2 (Yan et al., 2020).

  6. Insights into the impact on daily life of the COVID-19 pandemic and

    1. Introduction. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to unprecedented changes in people's daily lives, with implications for mental health and well-being [1-4], both at the level of a given country's population, and when considering specific vulnerable groups [5-7].In order to mitigate the untoward impact of the pandemic (including lockdown) and support mental health ...

  7. 12 moving essays about life during coronavirus

    The days dragged on in my apartment, in black and white, like my photos. Sometimes we tried to smile, imagining that I was asymptomatic, because I was the virus. Our smiles seemed to bring good ...

  8. COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on social relationships and health

    This essay examines key aspects of social relationships that were disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. It focuses explicitly on relational mechanisms of health and brings together theory and emerging evidence on the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic to make recommendations for future public health policy and recovery. We first provide an overview of the pandemic in the UK context, outlining the ...

  9. How the COVID-19 pandemic has changed Americans' personal lives

    The outbreak has dramatically changed Americans' lives and relationships over the past year. We asked people to tell us about their experiences - good and bad - in living through this moment in history. Pew Research Center has been asking survey questions over the past year about Americans' views and reactions to the COVID-19 pandemic.

  10. COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on social relationships and health

    The dramatic change to social interaction necessitated by efforts to control the spread of COVID-19 created stark challenges but also opportunities. Our essay highlights opportunities for learning, both to ensure the equity and humanity of physical restrictions, and to sustain the salutogenic effects of social relationships going forward.

  11. How to Write About Coronavirus in a College Essay

    Writing About Coronavirus in Main and Supplemental Essays. Students can choose to write a full-length college essay on the coronavirus or summarize their experience in a shorter form. To help ...

  12. The positive effects of covid-19

    As the coronavirus pandemic continues its deadly path, dramatic changes in how people live are reducing some instances of other medical problems. Bryn Nelson writes that the irony may hold valuable lessons for public health Doctors and researchers are noticing some curious and unexpectedly positive side effects of the abrupt shifts in human behaviour in response to the covid-19 pandemic. Skies ...

  13. COVID-19: The Ripple Effects

    Researchers are studying the many ways COVID-19 affects our lives and health in order to help everyone better handle the COVID-19 pandemic. They hope to help us better assess the benefits and risks of things like stay-at-home orders, limiting health care services, and closing non-essential businesses. Their findings will also help us be better ...

  14. COVID-19 and Chronic Disease: The Impact Now and in the Future

    The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in enormous personal and societal losses, with more than half a million lives lost (4). COVID-19 is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that can result in respiratory distress. In addition to the physical toll, the emotional impact has yet to be fully understood.

  15. Everyone Included: Social Impact of COVID-19

    Special UN DESA Voice edition puts spotlight on COVID-19 impact on our lives and societies WHO is working closely with global experts, governments and partners to rapidly expand scientific knowledge on this new virus, to track the spread and virulence of the virus, and to provide advice to countries and individuals on measures to protect health ...

  16. Frontiers

    Majeed et al., on the other hand, examined the relation between problematic social media use, fear of COVID-19, depression, and mindfulness. Their study, involving 267 Pakistani adults (90 female), suggested trait mindfulness had a buffer effect, reducing the impact of problematic media use and fear of COVID-19 on depression.

  17. The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic

    This paper, "The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic", was written and voluntary submitted to our free essay database by a straight-A student. Please ensure you properly reference the paper if you're using it to write your assignment. Before publication, the StudyCorgi editorial team proofread and checked the paper to make sure it meets the highest ...

  18. Covid 19 Essay in English

    500 Words Essay on Covid 19. In the current scenario, coronavirus is dominating all aspects of our lives. The coronavirus pandemic has wreaked havoc upon people's lives, altering the way we live and work in a very short amount of time. It has revolutionised how we think about health care, education, and even social interaction.

  19. Social Consequences of the COVID-19 Pandemic. A Systematic Review

    Scope of knowledge and education. COVID-19 has disrupted students' lives in different ways and it has provided anxious times for students and parents. According to UNESCO, more than 1.5 billion students in about 165 countries have been affected by the restrictions on schools and universities. As a result, schools, colleges and universities were ...

  20. What is the global impact of the new coronavirus pandemic?

    In this Special Feature, we investigate. At the time of writing this Special Feature, there are over 2,700,000 confirmed cases of COVID-19 across the globe. According to official reports, the ...

  21. COVID-19's impact on our lives

    CLOSER partner studies have launched questionnaires to survey over 100,000 participants about the impact of COVID-19 on their lives. These studies have been surveying hundreds of thousands of people about the impact COVID-19 has had on their lives. The CLOSER hub is funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC).

  22. Four years on, the COVID-19 pandemic has a long tail of grief

    Close to 9 million adults have long COVID. Nearly 300,000 children have lost one or both parents. There has been little official recognition in the United States of the profound grief people have ...

  23. The Anxiety You're Feeling Might Be Pandemic Grief

    The COVID-19 pandemic unleashed a new realm of grief for many of us-not just for all the deaths that occurred, but also grief for jobs lost, for the overwhelming technological advances, marriage ...

  24. The global impact of the coronavirus pandemic

    Abstract. The coronavirus pandemic has engulfed the nations of the world for the first five months of 2020 and altered the pace, fabric and nature of our lives. In this overview accompanying the Special Issue of Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews, we examine some of the many social and scientific issues impacted by SARS-CoV2 - personal lives ...

  25. Covid-19 has shortened human life expectancy by one and a half years

    Covid-19 has brought to a brutal halt the steady increase in life expectancy since the post-war period: Between 1950 and 2019, it had risen from 51.6 to 76 years for women and from 46.7 to 70.8 ...

  26. Study finds COVID-19 had greater impact on life expectancy than

    Employing innovative methods to measure mortality, excess mortality from the COVID-19 pandemic, life expectancy, and population, the study authors estimate that the pandemic caused global ...

  27. Essay Topic: Effects of Covid-19 on Daily Life of Common ...

    Another long-term impact of COVID-19 is unemployment since it will take time for the economy to recover due to which the buying power of common people has become reduced. However, the digital ...

  28. The Social and Economic Impact of Covid-19 on Family Functioning and

    A growing body of research demonstrates that COVID-19 has had a profound impact on family functioning and well-being in a range of countries. The fear and uncertainty of the health risks, in addition to the stress from ensuing restrictions and constraints on everyday life caused major disruptions, impacting the financial, emotional, and physical well-being of adults and children alike.

  29. Windsorites reflect on COVID-19 pandemic four years later

    In May of 2023, the WHO said COVID-19 was no longer a global health emergency, but the lingering effects remain. Since then, 564 people have been hospitalized and 30 have died in hospital ...