The Classroom | Empowering Students in Their College Journey

Why Is it Important to Respect School Property?

Positive Effects of the Zero Tolerance Policy Used in Schools

Positive Effects of the Zero Tolerance Policy Used in Schools

Some children don’t make the connection between respect for school property and personal consequences, but the two have a strong link. The school belongs to the student as much as it belongs to the faculty. When a child disrespects her school, she is hurting herself and those around her.

Self Respect

The state of the educational tools and school grounds reflect the quality of students and faculty in a school. If your school has graffiti tags and damaged books, it will show that the students of that school don’t care about their education. They are more interested in pointless acts of destruction than using the tools provided by the school to better themselves and pursue a well-rounded education.

Conserving Resources

Students may have a hard time understanding that school property doesn’t magically replenish itself. The damage a student causes may require money for repairs, something many schools have a severe lack of already. This puts the school in a tight spot and may force administrators to recycle damaged educational tools until they receive a new influx of funding. For example, if a student pulls the pages out of an education text, the next student to receive that book may have to work around the damage because the school doesn’t have an extra book for him.

When you damage school property, you run the risk of punishment. The school may report the incident to your parents, which can result in a hefty bill for damages. The instance can also go in your record, leaving a stain on your school career and credibility. While the fear of punishment may seem like a selfish reason to respect school property, it is often enough of a deterrent to help children learn respect and encourage parents to teach it.

Schools should be a comfortable safe haven for children to accrue knowledge. When a student lacks respect for school property, it can bring the quality of life in the school down. For example, leaving litter around the school grounds can make the place seem uncomfortable and cluttered. It also poses a safety threat. Other students can slip on the litter and injure themselves. Carving derogatory words and symbols into school property can also make a student who inherits use of the property uncomfortable when they discover the defacement.

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  • University of Southern California: Lesson Plan: Respect
  • Respect
  • Discovery: Respect for Property and Authority

Shae Hazelton is a professional writer whose articles are published on various websites. Her topics of expertise include art history, auto repair, computer science, journalism, home economics, woodworking, financial management, medical pathology and creative crafts. Hazelton is working on her own novel and comic strip while she works as a part-time writer and full time Medical Coding student.

Schoolhouse Property

abstract . The Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments prohibit government actors from interfering with an individual’s property without due process of law. Property interests protected by the Due Process Clause are created by subconstitutional sources of law, such as federal, state, or local statutes or regulations, that create reasonable expectations of an entitlement, such as welfare benefits, in recipients. Individuals holding legitimate claims of entitlement to property are typically afforded procedural protections. In the landmark 1975 decision Goss v. Lopez , the Supreme Court determined that state laws entitling children to free public education conferred on public primary- and secondary-school students a property interest in education. To avoid unjust deprivation of students’ property interests, the Court held that the Due Process Clause requires school officials to provide students subject to suspension or expulsion with, at minimum, informal notice and opportunity to be heard by the school disciplinarian—a requirement that, in practice, affords students little protection against unjust exclusion. Since 1975, however, students’ constitutionally protected property interests have expanded beyond just education. Comprehensive fifty-state surveys of state laws and regulations reveal that the majority of states require schools to provide additional benefits to students, specifically government-subsidized meals and health services. This Note evaluates these entitlements and argues that they constitute property interests falling within the ambit of the Due Process Clause. As a result, students subject to exclusionary discipline are deprived not only of education, as the Goss Court foresaw, but also meals and health services. These additional property interests may require reevaluation and expansion of the minimum procedural requirements that schools must afford students subject to suspension or expulsion.

author. J.D. 2021, Yale Law School; B.S. Hon. 2017, Cornell University. Thank you to Professor Claire Priest for her invaluable support and guidance from this project’s inception. I am also deeply indebted to Professor Jason Parkin, Professor Nicholas Parrillo, Professor Andrew Hammond, Timur Akman-Duffy, Hirsa Amin, Joseph Daval, and David Herman for their perceptive feedback. Finally, I am grateful to the editors of the Yale Law Journal , particularly Kate Hamilton and Max Jesse Goldberg, for their insightful suggestions, assistance, and endless patience. All errors are my own.

This Note features three appendices regarding public primary- and secondary-school students’ rights to education granted by state constitutions and corollary entitlements to school meals and school health services granted by state laws and regulations. Each of these appendices are published online following the Note.


The Due Process Clause forbids government actors, including public-school officials, 1 from interfering with an individual’s “life, liberty, or property, without due process of law.” 2 The Clause protects some of the interests most vital to American democracy. The Supreme Court has understood the principal value of the Clause as promoting accurate decision making, 3 thus restraining arbitrary government action. 4 Procedural protections — often in the form of notice and opportunity to be heard before a government decision maker—function, in addition to facilitating accuracy of the substantive decision, 5 to promote participatory and dignitary values 6 and advance fundamental fairness. 7

The precise scope of the “property” interests protected by the Due Process Clause, and the process that must precede its deprivation, has provoked significant debate since the middle of the twentieth century. 8 In the 1970 decision Goldberg v. Kelly , the Supreme Court expanded the scope of constitutionally protected property to statutory entitlements, specifically welfare benefits. 9 By broadening the forms of property receiving constitutional protection, Goldberg initiated the “due process revolution,” 10 resulting in a series of Supreme Court decisions finding that public employment, 11 immigration status, 12 and, most importantly for this Note, public primary- and secondary-school education 13 are property under the Due Process Clause, 14 requiring the government to afford property-holders some kind of process. 15

Courts assess procedural due-process claims implicating property interests in two steps. The first step asks whether there exists a property interest protected by the Due Process Clause. 16 “To have a property interest in a benefit,” a person must “have a legitimate claim of entitlement to it.” 17 Legitimate claims of entitlement, in turn, arise from subconstitutional sources of positive law—such as federal, state, or local law or regulation, or express or implied government contracts—that create reasonable expectations of specific benefits. 18

If a court finds a protected property interest beyond a de minimis level, 19 it moves on to the second step, which asks what, if any, process is due. 20 In answering this question, courts focus on identifying the specific procedures that will promote accuracy in the substantive decision. 21 While the Supreme Court has explained that when state action implicates one’s property interests the Due Process Clause requires, at minimum, notice and a meaningful opportunity to be heard, 22 the “precise contours” of the procedures required by the Constitution are determined by the factual circumstances presented by each case . 23 Courts balance three interests: (1) the private property interest affected by the government’s action; (2) the risk of erroneous deprivation through the procedures used and the probable value of additional procedures; and (3) the financial and administrative burdens that additional procedures would impose on the government. 24 The private interest weighs heavily in this analysis: the formality of the process required corresponds to the court’s perception of the significance of the implicated property interest. 25 The more consequential the property interest, the more likely courts are to mandate more formal, trial-like procedures. Thus, due-process analysis, in both steps, “is sensitive to the facts and circumstances” that a specific deprivation presents. 26 At the first step, changes in substantive law may affect the existence or scope of a property interest, as well as the perceived import of the interest. At the second step, changed circumstances may affect how courts weigh the property interest against competing interests to establish the specific process due.

In Goss v. Lopez in 1975, the Supreme Court followed these two steps in determining whether students hold due-process rights to challenge their exclusion from school via short suspensions of ten days or less. 27 The Court first found that state laws guaranteeing resident children a free public education and compelling school attendance vested in students a constitutionally protected property interest in public education. 28 In other words, when school officials exclude students from the school setting even temporarily through suspensions, they deprive students of an important interest protected by the Due Process Clause. 29 The Court then, at the second step, considered which specific procedures were due to ensure that a school official’s decision to suspend a student was based on accurate findings of misconduct. 30 After weighing the interests of the student in avoiding unjust exclusion from school against the state interest in maintaining order in schools and conserving resources, the Court determined that schools owe students only informal, “rudimentary” procedures. 31 Specifically, school officials must give a student facing suspension “notice of the charges against him and, if he denies them, an explanation of the evidence the authorities have and an opportunity to present his side of the story.” 32 The Court specified that an informal conversation between student and disciplinarian moments after the alleged misconduct occurs will typically satisfy this notice-and-hearing requirement. 33

Goss ’s threshold determination—that public-school students hold a property interest in their educations—remains significant. 34 But the specific process it prescribed to protect that interest has done little in practice to shield students from unjust exclusion from schools. 35 Many commentators, addressing only the second step of the due-process inquiry, have called for additional procedures that might better protect students from unjust exclusion from school, such as mediation or representation at hearings. 36 Fewer, however, have suggested raising the procedural floor by reexamining the legal source of the property interest at stake at the first step. This Note provides such an approach by explaining how the procedural minimum for exclusionary discipline can be reevaluated upon a finding, at the first step of the due-process inquiry, that the state has conferred additional entitlements to students. 37

Unlike many other constitutional guarantees, an individual’s procedural rights are not fixed in time 38 —they evolve with both substantive developments in the law and evolving societal standards for “fairness.” 39 Indeed, the Court has repeated the maxim that “due process is flexible and calls for such procedural protections as the particular situation demands.” 40 The minimal procedures that Goss prescribed may have satisfied the constitutional requirements of the Due Process Clause in 1975. As both the legal landscape of entitlements and societal circumstances have evolved, however, those procedures may now be insufficient. 41

This Note argues that as the state has conferred additional entitlements on public primary- and secondary-school students in the form of school meals and health services, students’ property interests in avoiding unjust exclusion from school has correspondingly broadened. Given this expansion, the due-process protections owed to students subject to removal from school must be reevaluated. Since Goss was decided in 1975, both federal and state law have conferred additional entitlements— “legally enforceable individual right[s]”—upon students. 42 Federal nutrition-assistance programs have expanded to fund and administer a wide array of school-meal programs for all children. 43 Most importantly, fifty-state surveys reveal that states often require schools to participate in these federal-meal programs or a state equivalent. 44 Similarly, the great majority of states now require schools to provide health services of some kind to students. 45 Many states go so far as to require preventive healthcare to students at no cost to all parents, or, in some states, at no cost to indigent parents. 46

On the whole, since 1975, the school has become more than the child’s source of academic instruction and socialization—it has become a supplier of nutritional meals and a provider of health services. 47 Accordingly, the deprivation suffered by children excluded from school, for any period of time, has increased beyond what the Goss Court anticipated. 48 As students’ interests in avoiding unjust removal from the school setting evolve, so too should the protections they receive in the course of exclusion. 49

This Note proceeds in four parts. Part I outlines how the creation and growth of the welfare and administrative states in the twentieth century prompted a shift in procedural due-process jurisprudence. Through the 1960s and 1970s, the Supreme Court broadened its understanding of the types of “property” protected by the Due Process Clause, which in turn facilitated the extension of procedural rights to additional classes of individuals, including students in Goss v. Lopez .

Part II examines Goss and its consequences in greater depth, focusing on Goss ’s threshold finding that students have a protected property interest in their educations. Under the Court’s flexible conception of due process, that key determination serves as the basis for judicial “reevaluation” of the minimum process required by the Due Process Clause as students’ entitlements expand. 50

Part III identifies the functions of the school that have undergone significant growth, in both nature and scope, since Goss was decided. Fifty-state surveys of laws and regulations reflect paradigm shifts in the school’s role in society—it is now the centerpiece of child-welfare programs. Federal nutritional programs have expanded massively since Goss , and most states have enacted laws or promulgated regulations mandating schools to participate in the federal-meal programs and provide children with government-subsidized meals. Moreover, the laws and regulations of many states now also require the provision of formal school health services to students. 51 Such programs, guaranteed to at least some students by statute or regulation, create reasonable expectations of entitlements in public-school students that constitute property interests. 52 These additional property interests affect students’ interest in avoiding unjust removal from the school environment, and necessitate a reevaluation of whether the procedural safeguards demanded by the Due Process Clause in 1975 continue to satisfy due process today. 53

In light of Part III’s analysis of the additional statutory and regulatory entitlements to students that properly constitute property interests falling within the ambit of the Clause, Part IV provides preliminary thoughts on additional procedures, beyond the informal notice-and-hearing requirement from Goss , that students should be afforded when facing exclusionary discipline, subject to the duration of the exclusion, variations in state entitlement schemes, and the scope of benefits to which the specific student is entitled.

Announcing the Editors of Volume 134

Announcing the first-year editors of volume 133, announcing the seventh annual student essay competition.

See W. Va. State Bd. of Educ. v. Barnette, 319 U.S. 624, 637-38 (1943) (clarifying that public-school officials, as government actors, are subject to constitutional limits on government action).

U.S. Const. amends. V, XIV. The Supreme Court has read the cryptic language of the Due Process Clause as imposing both substantive and procedural limitations on government action. See Ryan C. Williams, The One and Only Substantive Due Process Clause , 120 Yale L.J. 408, 417-18 (2010). This Note focuses on the latter.

Robert L. Rabin, Job Security and Due Process: Monitoring Administrative Discretion Through a Reasons Requirement , 44 U. Chi. L. Rev. 60, 76 (1976) (observing that the “[u]nderlying . . . conception” of the Court’s early 1970s due-process jurisprudence “is the vital interest in promoting an accurate decision, in assuring that facts have been correctly established and properly characterized in conformity with the applicable legal standard”).

See Murray’s Lessee v. Hoboken Land & Improvement Co., 59 U.S. (18 How.) 272, 276 (1856).

See, e.g. , Martin H. Redish & Lawrence C. Marshall, Adjudicatory Independence and the Values of Procedural Due Process , 95 Yale L.J. 455, 476 (1986).

See, e.g. , Jerry L. Mashaw, Administrative Due Process: The Quest for a Dignitary Theory , 61 B.U. L. Rev. 885, 902-03 (1981) (highlighting participation in hearings as a “dignitary process value[]”); David L. Kirp, Proceduralism and Bureaucracy: Due Process in the School Setting , 28 Stan. L. Rev. 841, 845-49 (1976) (describing how hearings both facilitate accuracy in substantive outcomes and reduce the possibility of biased decision-making).

See, e.g. , Sanford H. Kadish, Methodology and Criteria in Due Process Adjudication—A Survey and Criticism , 66 Yale L.J. 319, 346 (1957) (explaining that one of the “objectives” of due process, to “insur[e] the reliability of the [adjudicatory] process,” is “often expressed in terms of ‘fairness’”).

See Cynthia R. Farina, On Misusing “Revolution” and “Reform”: Procedural Due Process and the New Welfare Act , 50 Admin. L. Rev. 591, 591-99 (1998) (summarizing “the debate about the direction of procedural due process”).

Goldberg v. Kelly, 397 U.S. 254, 262 (1970).

Richard J. Pierce, Jr., The Due Process Counterrevolution of the 1990s? , 96 Colum. L. Rev. 1973, 1974 (1996) (noting that until Goldberg , property rights “were defined narrowly” by the Supreme Court “to include only forms of property that are usually the fruits of an individual’s labor, such as money, a house, or a license to practice law”).

See, e.g. , Cleveland Bd. of Educ. v. Loudermill, 470 U.S. 532, 538, 542-43 (1985) (establishing that government employees, including, in this case, public-school security guards, are entitled to due process before termination on the grounds that state law granted public employees a property interest in their employment).

See, e.g. , Landon v. Plasencia, 459 U.S. 21, 34-35 (1982) (finding that lawful permanent residents are entitled to procedural protections under the Due Process Clause).

Goss v. Lopez, 419 U.S. 565, 573-76 (1975).

See, e.g. , Logan v. Zimmerman Brush Co., 455 U.S. 422, 430 (1982) (“[T]he types of interests protected as ‘property’ are varied and, as often as not, intangible, relating ‘to the whole domain of social and economic fact.’” (quoting Nat’l Mut. Ins. Co. v. Tidewater Transfer Co., 337 U.S. 582, 646 (1949) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting))).

Loudermill , 470 U.S. at 541 (“The right to due process ‘is conferred, not by legislative grace, but by constitutional guarantee. While the legislature may elect not to confer a property interest . . . it may not constitutionally authorize the deprivation of such an interest, once conferred, without appropriate procedural safeguards.’” (quoting Arnett v. Kennedy, 416 U.S. 134, 167 (1974) (Powell, J., concurring in part and concurring in result in part))).

Ky. Dep’t of Corrs. v. Thompson, 490 U.S. 454, 460 (1989). In other words, before determining what specific procedures are due, a court must make a threshold determination that an interest protected by the Due Process Clause is, in fact, implicated.

Bd. of Regents of State Colls. v. Roth, 408 U.S. 565, 577 (1972).

Id. at 576-77 ; see Rodney A. Smolla, The Reemergence of the Right/ P rivilege Distinction in Constitutional Law: The Price of Protesting Too Much , 35 Stan. L. Rev. 69, 72-73 (1982).

See Ingraham v. Wright, 430 U.S. 651, 674 (1977) (“There is, of course, a de minimis level of imposition with which the Constitution is not concerned.”).

Thompson , 490 U.S. at 460. A court may determine that a constitutionally protected interest is implicated at the first step of the due-process inquiry but nevertheless not require any process at the second step if the burdens the procedure would impose on the government outweigh the value of any “additional [procedural] safeguard[s].” See, e.g. , Ingraham , 430 U.S. at 682 (quoting Mathews v. Eldridge, 424 U.S. 319, 348 (1976)).

Rabin, supra note 3, at 76.

Cleveland Bd. of Educ. v. Loudermill, 470 U.S. 532, 542 (1985) (“An essential principle of due process is that a deprivation of life, liberty, or property ‘be preceded by notice and opportunity for hearing appropriate to the nature of the case.’” (quoting Mullane v. Cent. Hanover Bank & Tr. Co., 339 U.S. 306, 313 (1950))); Grannis v. Ordean, 234 U.S. 385, 394 (1914) (“The fundamental requisite of due process of law is the opportunity to be heard.”); Armstrong v. Manzo, 380 U.S. 545, 552 (1965) (stating that the opportunity to be heard “must be granted at a meaningful time and in a meaningful manner”); see also Larry Bartlett & James McCullagh, Exclusion from the Educational Process in the Public Schools: What Process Is Now Due , 1993 BYU Educ. & L.J. 1, 8-9 (explaining that, though the exact procedures required by the Due Process Clause depend in part on the nature of the deprivation, courts have recognized that due process requires notice and an opportunity to be heard).

Jason Parkin, Due Process Disaggregation , 90 Notre Dame L. Rev. 283, 301-02 (2014); see, e.g. , Hannah v. Larche, 363 U.S. 420, 442 (1960) (explaining that the specific procedure required “varies according to specific factual contexts”); Boddie v. Connecticut, 401 U.S. 371, 378 (1971) (“The formality and procedural requisites for the hearing can vary, depending upon the importance of the interests involved . . . .”).

Mathews , 424 U.S. at 334-35.

Frank H. Easterbrook, Substance and Due Process , 1982 Sup. Ct. Rev. 85, 89.

Jason Parkin, Dialogic Due Process , 167 U. Pa. L. Rev. 1115, 1119, 1127-28 (2019); see also Cafeteria & Rest. Workers Union, Local 473 v. McElroy, 367 U.S. 886, 895 (1961) (“The very nature of due process negates any concept of inflexible procedures universally applicable to every imaginable situation.”).

419 U.S. 565 (1975). Goss remains the only case that the Supreme Court has decided with respect to public-school students’ procedural rights when facing exclusionary discipline and is expressly limited “to the short suspension, not exceeding 10 days.” See id. at 584.

Id. at 572-74.

Id. at 576. Suspensions of ten days were deemed not de minimis. Id. The Court did not address the precise procedure constitutionally demanded for suspensions exceeding ten days or expulsions, instead merely noting that longer exclusions from the school setting “may require more formal procedures.” Id. at 584.

Id. at 577-78, 581.

Id. at 581.

Id. at 582; see Justin Driver, The Schoolhouse Gate: Public Education, the Supreme Court, and the Battle for the American Mind 144-45 (2018) (discussing the minimal procedural requirements imposed by Goss v. Lopez ).

See infra Section II.B.2.

See, e.g. , Nadine Strossen, Protecting Student Rights Promotes Educational Opportunity: A Response to Judge Wilkinson , 1 Mich. L. & Pol’y Rev. 315, 316-18 (1996).

See, e.g. , John M. Malutinok, Beyond Actual Bias: A Fuller Approach to an Impartiality in School Exclusion Cases , 38 Child.’s Legal Rts. J. 112, 138-42 (2018) (proposing the addition of a requirement of impartial adjudication); Simone Marie Freeman, Note, Upholding Students’ Due Process Rights: Why Students Are in Need of Better Representation at, and Alternatives to, School Suspension Hearings , 45 Fam. Ct. Rev. 638, 644-46 (2007) (proposing representation at exclusionary hearings); James W. McMasters, Comment, Mediation: New Process for High School Disciplinary Expulsions , 84 Nw. U. L. Rev. 736, 737-38, 764-70 (1990) (proposing student-teacher mediation).

See Parkin, supra note 26, at 1119 (emphasizing that the specific procedure that satisfies the Due Process Clause is “amenable to reevaluation and revision”).

Cafeteria & Rest. Workers Union, Local 473 v. McElroy, 367 U.S. 886, 895 (1961) (“‘[D]ue process,’ unlike some legal rules, is not a technical conception with a fixed content unrelated to time, place and circumstances.” (quoting Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Comm. v. McGrath, 341 U.S. 123, 162 (1951) (Frankfurter, J., concurring))).

Parkin, supra note 23, at 322; see Griffin v. Illinois, 351 U.S. 12, 20-21 (1956) (Frankfurter, J., concurring) (“‘Due process’ is, perhaps, the least frozen concept of our law—the least confined to history and the most absorptive of powerful social standards of a progressive society.”).

Morrissey v. Brewer, 408 U.S. 471, 481 (1972); see also Wilkinson v. Austin, 545 U.S. 209, 224 (2005) (observing that the Court has “declined to establish rigid rules” to govern the due-process inquiry); Hannah v. Larche, 363 U.S. 420, 442 (1960) (“‘Due process’ is an elusive concept. Its exact boundaries are undefinable, and its content varies according to specific factual contexts.”).

Cf. Jason Parkin, Adaptable Due Process , 160 U. Pa. L. Rev. 1309, 1311, 1314-17 (2012) (summarizing how changes in the administration of public benefits may have changed the specific procedures necessary to comport with the dictates of the Due Process Clause).

See David A. Super, The Political Economy of Entitlement , 104 Colum. L. Rev. 633, 648 (2004). David A. Super helpfully delineates six different types of entitlements: subjective, unconditional, positive, budgetary, responsive, and functional. See id. at 644-58. This Note, when referring to entitlements, employs Super’s definition of “positive entitlement,” one that confers “a legally enforceable individual right,” id. at 648, since that is the definition that courts use to determine whether a benefit constitutes a property interest protected by the Due Process Clause, id. at 648-50.

See Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act, ch. 281, §§ 2-11, 60 Stat. 230, 230-34 (1946) (codified at 42 U.S.C. §§ 1751-1759 (2018)); see also infra Section III.A. Super observes that federal provisions concerning school lunches and breakfasts meet the criteria for budgetary, responsive, and functional entitlements, and arguably meet the criteria for unconditional entitlements, in addition to the positive-entitlement definition used in this Note. Super, supra note 42, at 728. In effect, then, regardless of one’s definition of “entitlement,” school-meal services meet it.

This Note features three online appendices. Appendix A displays relevant constitutional provisions from all fifty states concerning the right to education. Appendix B provides, where applicable, states’ laws and regulations pertaining to school meals. And Appendix C provides, where applicable, states’ laws and regulations pertaining to school healthcare. In each of the appendices, I exclude (1) state provisions that relate to measures related only during the COVID-19 public health emergency; and (2) state provisions regarding public charter schools and private schools. Each appendix is current as of March 1, 2022.

See infra Appendix C; Section III.B.

See infra Appendix C.

See infra Part III; Appendices B & C.

See Patricia Wald, Goss v. Lopez : Not the Devil; Nor the Panacea , 1 Mich. L. & Pol’y Rev. 331, 333 (1996).

Cf. Parkin, supra note 41, at 1317 (“By undermining many of the factual assumptions that originally justified the right to a fair hearing, these changes in the facts and circumstances of welfare programs and welfare recipients have increased the risk that benefits will be erroneously terminated.”).

Parkin, supra note 26, at 1152-53 (explaining that the Supreme Court’s due-process jurisprudence “open[s] the door to reevaluation of procedural due process precedents when changes in the underlying facts and circumstances bear upon the factors that courts must consider when evaluating challenges to existing procedures”).

See infra Appendices B & C. Inspiration for looking to applicable state laws and regulations to see change over time is drawn from James Bryce, who commented in 1888 that “he who would understand the changes [in] the American democracy will find far more instruction in a study of the state governments than of the federal Constitution.” 1 James Bryce, The American Commonwealth 366 (Indianapolis, Liberty Fund, Inc. 1995) (1888). Moreover, localities, via school district boards of education, can and have mandated additional nutritional and health programs. See Timothy D. Lytton, An Educational Approach to School Food: Using Nutrition Standards to Promote Healthy Dietary Habits , 2010 Utah L. Rev. 1189, 1190. I omit analysis of local regulations for the sake of brevity. See infra note 276.

See Bd. of Regents of State Colls. v. Roth, 408 U.S. 564, 577 (1972) (holding that constitutionally protected property interests are not created by the Constitution but “stem from an independent source such as state law”).

See Parkin, supra note 41, at 1362-65 (arguing that amending the procedures demanded by the Due Process Clause to account for “changing facts and circumstances is faithful to the Court’s” understanding of due process).

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Is Vandalism a Problem in Your School?

Damaging or stealing school property is a trend in some schools thanks to a recent TikTok craze. What about yours?

essay on school property

By Shannon Doyne

Do students at your school damage the bathrooms or other spaces on campus? Do they steal school property? If so, what does your school do about it?

Are you aware of the recent TikTok trend that encourages school vandalism and theft? In “ TikTok’s Latest Craze: Stealing Stuff From School ,” Giulia Heyward writes about how schools are trying to deal with it. The article begins:

Teenagers are acting out — and their high schools are the victims. It’s all on TikTok. Missing are soap dispensers, bathroom mirrors, paper towel holders, fire alarms and even a teacher’s desk — anything that can be swiped from school and then revealed in a TikTok video, with the hashtag #deviouslicks. In the last month or so, TikTok has hosted close to 94,200 similar videos under #deviouslicks, or #diabolicallicks, according to the website Know Your Meme. The hashtag also seems to have encouraged more serious vandalism, with students taking ceiling tiles, hand-railings, toilets and bathroom stalls. “Zoinks dude. Sometimes licks are a little too devious,” one commenter wrote about a video in which the poster walked toward school, with a key, hashtag “diabolical.”

The article also includes the perspective of some school leaders, as well as TikTok’s response:

To school administrators, the thefts are not what they want to deal with now, just weeks into the new school year, with the virus and learning loss and other pressures bearing down. And to some social watchers, the trend is a sign, perhaps, of what teenagers are feeling, about the disruptions and powerlessness in their lives. Schools from California to Michigan to Georgia are cracking down. There have been suspensions, criminal charges and restitution orders. There are bans on bathroom breaks. And there have been warnings. TikTok is also trying to stop the trend by deleting the content and redirecting hashtags and search results to its Community Guidelines page, according to a spokesperson. But as of Thursday, tens of thousands of videos can still be found under adaptations of the original hashtag.

It also attempts to explain why students might gravitate to such pranks, especially now:

For Amanda Brennan, the senior director of trends for the digital marketing agency XX Artists, the answer might be the pandemic. After more than a year of shutdowns and virtual schooling, students, who are now returning to schools for the first time, may just be looking for a way to rebel. “It makes sense to see kids stealing things because it feels like a power play,” Ms. Brennan said. “You feel powerful over these systems that you may not have felt as if you had a lot of control over.”

Students, read the entire article, then tell us:

Have you heard of this trend? Is it happening in your school? Have you watched #deviouslicks and #diabolicallicks videos? If so, what is your opinion of them?

Have vandalism and theft been a problem in your school even before this trend? If so, what has been done about it?

Why do you think people who share videos of themselves doing things that could get them in trouble are willing to take that risk?

The article suggests factors besides the prospect of becoming TikTok famous that explain why students would commit vandalism at school. What do you think about them? Are they valid, in your opinion?

What is TikTok’s responsibility here? What about other social media platforms? If they crack down on user-generated content that shows acts of vandalism or stealing, should they also ban other things? If so, what? And who gets to decide?

Another meme, #angelicyields, shows students attempting to undo the destruction of others or otherwise doing something nice, like putting hand soap back in a dispenser in a school bathroom or installing a coffee maker in what looks to be a teachers’ bathroom . What is your opinion of these videos? Are they entertaining? Do you think this meme could take off as well? Why or why not?

If you were a school principal at a school that had increasing incidents of student vandalism, how would you handle it? Would you use any of the tactics mentioned in the article? Why or why not?

Learn more about Student Opinion here and find all of our questions in this column . Teachers, see how you can incorporate this feature into your classroom routine here .

Students 13 and older in the United States and the United Kingdom, and 16 and older elsewhere, are invited to comment. All comments are moderated by the Learning Network staff, but please keep in mind that once your comment is accepted, it will be made public.

Rights People Lose on Public School Property Research Paper

Public schools are institutions funded by government through taxpayers’ money, and that is why is owns most of the schools. The heads of schools are accountable to the government because they bear responsibility for running public schools. Government supervises many institutions, from elementary level school to Universities. Even though there is an opinion that there is little supervision on the heads of schools, the government has created a special department which follows schools heads’ performance.

Schools have become the place for embezzlement of funds. Corruption can interfere learning in many ways. The heads of school siphon millions of dollars annually through crooked reason leaving children with outdated and discarded books, which eventually lead to their unintentional failure (Segal 102).

Frauds by the heads of schools always hinder development in such schools. This forces some children to learn in unfinished classrooms, without chairs, etc. This deprives the innocent children of their right for healthy and supportive environment.

Joel Turtel writes that our public schools have become an educational menace to our children. He shows statistics for 2002 in the New York State Department of Education on public schools where 65% of elementary students, 90% of intermediate student and 84% of high school students failed to meet the New York Standards (86). This failure should be partially attributed to the administration fraud and partially to the students’ irresponsible attitude to studying.

Teachers are often overworked due to their little number in comparison with many children. Teachers do not give children attention they need and children may go home with some lessons missed which may lead to class failure at the end of the term. A public school can also turn to be a dangerous place because of violence (Segal 46). Teenagers often lack judgment and cannot control their emotion.

With the class, having teenagers of different ages, bullying of younger children by their elders is something inevitable. With no teachers around, children have more time to interact with each other eventually budding peer pressure. Peer pressure makes the class a natural breeding place for drug abuse. Children’s right of protection from substance abuse is therefore suspended. With substance abuse, parents do not expect their children to deliver something substantial from school.

Adolescents always have raging hormones and arousing sexuality. Therefore with the critical issue of socialization in public schools, younger girls will end up dropping out of school because of unwanted pregnancies. I believe that bullying, peer pressure, and sexual tension create an environment which is non-blissful and violent.

Mandatory attendance law also contributes to violation of children rights. The law forces children to sit in boring classes from six up to eight hours consequently. This kills desire for learning. Those teenagers who are forced to be at school will take their aggression on other students.

The compulsory attendance law helps government own children for 12 years and at the same time assuming the parental responsibility. With all the 12 years, parents have little to say on matters regarding their children. The school authorities nowadays threaten parent with arrest if they choose not to comply with the compulsory attendance law, but many scholars believe this is wrong (Alexander and Alexander 257).

Disabled children also face discrimination in public schools. It becomes hectic for the socially impaired children to interact with other kids. They always have motives that other children will subject them to insults. This adds another potential layer of violence. Violence can often kill a child morally.

One of the parental responsibilities is protecting their children from adverse sex behaviors. Yet many public schools still force potentially harmful sex education into the brains of the innocent students. Most of the time parents have no control over the content of the classes and hence their children may end up spoiled by the bad values taught.

I mean that the failure to incorporate appropriate sexual education, failure of a teacher to create a contact between him/herself and students may lead to controversial effect. Therefore, the lack of attention of a teacher to his/her students and the inability to implement appropriate sexual education may lead to increase of the violence, but not the understanding of the protected healthy sexual relations.

Some public schools tend to turn their students against their parents. They tell them stories about child abuse, which make children become suspicious. Some school authorities inquire teachers to ask children how their parents behave at home.

Many public schools now teach children anti-Christianity and try to mold children’s mind in a way that they embrace different religions (Turtel 52). Showing children that all religions are good and should be respected, teachers fail to stress on Christianity as native religion and many children are confused. Believing that children are at good hands, parents do not pay much attention to their children and harm them greatly.

People lose their rights mainly because of mismanagement characterizing public schools which is the part of public school property. This gives the implication that the federal government should put more effort in ensuring that these rights are maintained. This can only be achieved by ensuring that the publics are enlightened on the statutes that govern the country. Therefore, public school property depends on many factors and the failure to meet some specific laws, norms of behavior and teaching may result in loss of rights.

Alexander, Kern and M. David Alexander. American public school law . Cengage Learning, 2005. Print.

Segal, Lydia G, et al. Battling Corruption in America’s Public Schools . Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2005. Print.

Turtel, J. Public Schools, Public Menace: How Public Schools Lie to Parents and Betray Our Children . New York: Liberty Books, 2005. Print.

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IvyPanda. (2018, June 10). Rights People Lose on Public School Property.

"Rights People Lose on Public School Property." IvyPanda , 10 June 2018,

IvyPanda . (2018) 'Rights People Lose on Public School Property'. 10 June.

IvyPanda . 2018. "Rights People Lose on Public School Property." June 10, 2018.

1. IvyPanda . "Rights People Lose on Public School Property." June 10, 2018.


IvyPanda . "Rights People Lose on Public School Property." June 10, 2018.

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Center for Problem oriented policing

School Vandalism and Break-Ins

Guide no.35 (2005).

by Kelly Dedel

PDF Guide   Order Bound Copy

The Problem of School Vandalism and Break-Ins

This guide addresses school vandalism and break-ins, describing the problem and reviewing the risk factors. It also discusses the associated problems of school burglaries and arson. The guide then identifies a series of questions to help you analyze your local problem. Finally, it reviews responses to the problem, and what is known about them from evaluative research and police practice.

Related Problems

School vandalism and break-ins are similar to vandalism and break-ins elsewhere, and some of the responses discussed here may be effective in other settings. However, schools are unique environments; the factors underlying school vandalism and break-ins differ from those underlying similar acts elsewhere, and therefore must be analyzed separately. Related problems not addressed in this guide include

  • Vandalism in nonschool settings
  • School theft by students (e.g., of student backpacks and wallets)
  • School theft by staff (e.g., of equipment)
  • Burglary of retail establishments
  • Burglary of single-family houses .

School break-ins typically fall into one of three categories:

  • Nuisance break-ins, in which youth break into a school building, seemingly as an end in itself. They cause little serious damage and usually take nothing of value.
  • Professional break-ins, in which offenders use a high level of skill to enter the school, break into storage rooms containing expensive equipment, and remove bulky items from the scene. They commit little incidental damage and may receive a lot of money for the stolen goods.
  • Malicious break-ins entail significant damage to the school's interior and may include arson. Offenders sometimes destroy rather than steal items of value. 1

While school vandalism and break-ins generally comprise many often-trivial incidents, in the aggregate, they pose a serious problem for schools and communities, and the police and fire departments charged with protecting them. Many school fires originate as arson or during an act of vandalism. 2 Though less frequent than other types of school vandalism, arson has significant potential to harm students and staff. In the United Kingdom in 2000, approximately one-third of school arson fires occurred during school hours, when students were present, a significant proportional increase since 1990. 3

Graffiti tagging and other forms of defacement often mar school buildings and grounds.

Graffiti tagging and other forms of defacement often mar school buildings and grounds.  Credit: David Corbett

These statistics likely fail to reveal the magnitude of the problem. While the U.S. Department of Education, major education associations, and national organizations regularly compile data on school-related violence, weapons, and gang activity, they do not do so regarding school vandalism and break-ins. One reason for this may be that schools define vandalism very differently—some include both intentional and accidental damage, some report only those incidents that result in an insurance claim, and some include only those incidents for which insurance does not cover the costs. 6 School administrators may hesitate to report all cases of vandalism, break-ins, or arson because they view some as trivial, or because they fear it will reflect poorly on their management skills. 7 Partially because of the failure to report, few perpetrators are apprehended, and even fewer are prosecuted. 8

The lack of consistency in reporting school vandalism and break-ins means that cost estimates are similarly imprecise. Vandalism costs are usually the result of numerous small incidents, rather than more-serious incidents. Various estimates reveal that the costs of school vandalism are both high and increasing. 9 In 1970, costs of school vandalism in the United States were estimated at $200 million, climbing to an estimated $600 million in 1990. 10 Not only does school vandalism have fiscal consequences associated with repairing or replacing damaged or stolen property and paying higher insurance premiums if schools are not self-insured, but it also takes its toll in terms of aspects such as difficulties in finding temporary accommodations and negative effects on student, staff, and community morale.

Not all incidents of vandalism and break-ins have the same effect on the school environment. Again, two useful dimensions for understanding the problem's impact are the monetary cost (where the repair charges are high), and the social cost (where the event has a significant negative impact on student, staff, and community morale). Events with high monetary and social costs typically occur less frequently than those with low monetary and social costs. 11

essay on school property

Factors Contributing to School Vandalism and Break-Ins

Understanding the factors that contribute to your problem will help you frame your own local analysis questions, determine good effectiveness measures, recognize key intervention points, and select appropriate responses.

Offender Characteristics

Those who vandalize or break into schools are typically young and male, acting in small groups. Vandalism and break-ins are most common among junior high school students, and become less frequent as students reach high school. 12 Those involved in school-related arson are more likely to be in high school. 13 Many vandals have done poorly academically, and may have been truant, suspended, or expelled. 14 As is typical of many adolescents, students who vandalize and break into schools have a poor understanding of their behavior's impact on others, and are more concerned with the consequences to themselves. 15 Offenders are no more likely to be emotionally disturbed than their peers who do not engage in the behavior, nor are they any more critical of their classes, teachers, or school in general. 16

While the majority of students do not engage in vandalism, they do not generally harbor negative feelings toward those who do. In other words, "vandalism is a behavior that students can perform without the risk of condemnation by other students." 17 Youth who lack full-time parental supervision during after-school hours have been found to be more involved in all types of delinquency than students whose parents are home when they return from school. 18 In 2002-2003, 25 percent of all school-aged children were left to care for themselves after school, including half of children in grades 9 through 12 and one third of children in grades 6 though 8. 19

Though far less frequently, adults sometimes commit school vandalism and break-ins. Most often, they do so to steal high-value items (e.g., computers, televisions, cameras) and sell them on the street. 20 Adults are far less likely to maliciously deface or destroy school property.


The typical observer may think school vandalism and break-ins are pointless, particularly when the offenders have focused on property destruction and have taken nothing of value. One can better understand the behavior when considering it in the context of adolescence, when peer influence is a particularly powerful motivator. Most delinquent acts are carried out by groups of youths, and vandalism is no exception. Participating in vandalism often helps a youth to maintain or enhance his or her status among peers. 21 This status comes with little risk since, in contrast to playing a game or fighting, there are no winners or losers.

Beyond peer influence, there are several other motivations for school vandalism:

  • Acquisitive vandalism is committed to obtain property or money.
  • Tactical vandalism is used to accomplish goals such as getting school cancelled.
  • Ideological vandalism is oriented toward a social or political cause or message, such as a protest against school rules.
  • Vindictive vandalism (such as setting fire to the principal's office after being punished) is done to get revenge.
  • Play vandalism occurs when youth intentionally damage property during the course of play.
  • Malicious vandalism is used to express rage or frustration. Because of its viciousness and apparent senselessness, people find this type particularly difficult to understand. 22

As schools have become increasingly technologically equipped, thefts of electronic and high-tech goods have become more common. 23 Computers, VCRs, and DVD players are popular targets because they are relatively easy to resell. Students also steal more-mundane items such as food and school supplies, for their own use.

In addition, youth may participate in school vandalism or break-ins in a quest for excitement. 24 Some communities do not have constructive activities for youth during after-school hours and in the summer. Without structured alternatives, youth create their own fun, which may result in relatively minor vandalism or major property damage to schools and school grounds.

A high proportion of vandalism occurs, quite naturally, when schools are unoccupiedbefore and after school hours, on weekends, and during vacationsas well as later in the school week and later in the school year. 25 Local factors, such as the community's use of school facilities after hours, may also determine when vandalism is most likely to occur in any one school.

Schools are prime targets for vandalism and break-ins for a number of reasons:

  • They have high concentrations of potential offenders in high-risk age groups.
  • They are easily accessible.
  • They are symbols of social order and middle-class values.
  • Some youth believe that public property belongs to no one, rather than to everyone.

Partially hidden entryways can provide opportunity for would-be vandals.

Partially hidden entryways can provide opportunity for would-be vandals.  Credit: David Corbett

Some schools are much more crime-prone than others, and repeat victimization is common. 26 A school's attractiveness as a vandalism target may also be related to its failure to meet some students' social, educational, and emotional needs; students may act out to express their displeasure or frustration. 27 Schools with either an oppressive or a hands-off administrative style, or those characterized as impersonal, unresponsive, and nonparticipatory, suffer from higher levels of vandalism and break-ins. 28 Conversely, in schools with lower vandalism rates,

  • Parents support disciplinary policies
  • Students value teachers' opinions
  • Teachers do not express hostile or authoritarian attitudes toward students
  • Teachers do not use grades as a disciplinary tool
  • Teachers have informal, cooperative, and fair dealings with the principal
  • Staff consistently and fairly enforce school rules. 29

Certain physical attributes of school buildings and grounds also affect their vulnerability to vandalism and break-ins. In general, large, modern, sprawling schools have higher rates of vandalism and break-ins than smaller, compact schools. 30 The modern, sprawling schools have large buildings scattered across campus, rather than clustered together. A school's architectural characteristics may also influence the quality of administrative and teacher-student relationships that are developed, which can affect the school's vulnerability. Common vandalism locations and typical entry points include 31

Rooftops that are accessible only from within the building provide a greater degree of security.

Rooftops that are accessible only from within the building provide a greater degree of security.  Credit: David Corbett

  • Partially hidden areas around buildings that are large enough for small groups of students to hang out in (which can give rise to graffiti, damaged trees and plants, and broken windows)
  • Alcoves created by stairways adjacent to walls, depressed entrances, and delivery docks (which offer coverage for prying at windows, picking locks, and removing door hinges)
  • Main entrances not secured by grills or gates when school is closed, and secondary entrances with removable exterior door hardware
  • Unsecured windows and skylights
  • Large, smooth, light-colored walls (which are prime graffiti targets)
  • Rooftops accessible from the ground, from nearby trees, or from other rooftops (which can allow access to damageable equipment and hardware).

Vandals damage schools that neglect grounds and building maintenance, those whose grounds have little aesthetic appeal, and those that do not appear to be occupied or looked after more often than they damage carefully tended and preserved schools. 32

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Lauren on Property

Property: Examples and Explanations (6th ed.)

Barlow Burke, and Joseph Snoe KF560 .B87 2019 Examples & Explanations Series Good for: Understanding Concepts, Outlining This series is always dependable. It is a great companion to read along with your class assignments, or to clarify issues that you need more exposure to. Each chapter starts off with an overview of the topic and then delves into the relevant topics under that heading. Mentioned are all of the landmark cases, and it gives you helpful hypotheticals with lengthy explanations at the end of each chapter.

Acing Property: A Checklist Approach to Solving Property Problems (2nd ed.)

Colleen E. Medill KF560 .M43 2012 (and online ) Acing Law School Series Good for: Understanding Concepts, Outlining The Acing series is always dependable. It's a great companion to read along with, or to clarify issues that you need more exposure to. It has overviews of the topics, and delves into the relevant topics under each heading. It mentions all of the landmark cases, and gives you helpful hypotheticals with lengthy explanations at the end of each chapter.

Questions and Answers: Property (2nd ed.)

John Copeland Nagle KF560 .Z9 N34 2014 Questions & Answers Series Good for: Exam Preparation Containing only practice questions, this book is very simple and straightforward. It is divided into ten broad topics of property law containing both short answer and objective questions, ranging from 10 to 20 questions each topic. Lastly, there are 50 final exam questions in short answer and objective form. The Q&A is a great way to test your knowledge and sharpen your understanding of the law leading up to an exam.

Property (18th ed.)

James Krier KF561 .D84 2013 (and online ) Gilbert Law Summaries Good for: Outlining Gilbert’s is a well-known provider of study aides and is best used for outlining and preparing exam answers. It provides a comprehensive outline of property with sufficient explanations of the subjects and rules. At the beginning of each chapter there is a "Chapter Approach" which lets you know the key subjects addressed in that chapter and gives a succinct version of the key rules. Gilbert's lays out the relevant rule right away and then gives helpful examples to contextualize the rule. Throughout the chapters there are helpful figures and charts for those who appreciate a visual representation of the rules. There are also many "exam tips" throughout the chapters to keep you focused on how to respond to potential exam questions. The 100 objective questions and 7 short issue spotter exam questions at the end will test your comprehensive knowledge and prepare you for your upcoming exam.

Property (8th ed.)

Steven L. Emanuel KF561 .E47 2012 Emanuel Law Outlines Good for: Outlining, Exam Preparation The Emanuel outline is comprehensive in its review of property law. There is a capsule summary at the beginning, with just the essentials you may want on an outline. It describes the rules and concepts in outline form, and includes important cases. There are short-answer quizzes, and exam tips at the end of each chapter. The tables and charts throughout the book are really helpful for complicated rules. And, at the end, there are 25 multi-state style exam questions and three essay style questions to help you prepare for the exam.

The Glannon Guide to Property: Learning Property through Multiple-Choice Questions and Analysis (3rd ed.)

James Charles Smith KF561 .S627 2015 Glannon Guides Good for: Understanding Concepts, Exam Preparation The Glannon Guide is similar to the Examples & Explanations, but with less depth or discussion of cases. It gives you a broader summary of the rules and concepts of property. Each chapter has specific sections that will spell out the rules and relevant cases. There is an objective style question following each section, and the book gives a detailed analytical answer, using the rules and cases described (there are also 15 broader practice questions at the end). I recommend this guide if you are looking for a broad overview, and a few practice questions to test yourself on specific subjects.

The Law of Property (2nd ed.)

Christopher Serkin KF570 .S47 2016 (and online ) Concepts and Insights Series Good for: Understanding Concepts This would make a great companion to read alongside your casebook, and to supplement your reading for class. The information flows nicely, and the author makes the overall concepts easy to understand. Each chapter starts with a roadmap, and then delves into the relevant cases that shape the various doctrines. Then, the chapter discusses overall justifications (policy, economic, labor theory, etc.) driving those doctrines, and the different ways to analyze issues based on those justifications. The most helpful aspect of the Concepts and Insights series is that it summarizes the relevant cases and goes into an in-depth discussion of their rules, to help the reader understand the importance of the case. If you are struggling with understanding the rules or overall importance of cases, this book is a great help.

Principles of Property Law (7th ed.)

Herbert Hovenkamp, and Sheldon F. Kurtz KF570 .S532 2016 (and online ) Concise Hornbooks Series Good for: Understanding Concepts The Concise Hornbook addresses the main subjects of property law, with sections describing the rules. The rules are very clear and given to the reader in a short and concise paragraph or two. Then, the rest of the chapter is dedicated to 10 or so problems based on actual cases. The book goes into detail in the analysis part of the problems to explain courts’ reasoning and how the rules were applied. This guide is best used for understanding the concepts of property law and how those have been applied to the common law cases.

Property (6th ed.)

Roger Bernhardt, and Ann M. Burkhart KF570 .Z9 B46 2012 (and online ) Black Letter Outlines Good for: Outlining, Exam Preparation The Black Letter outlines provide a comprehensive overview of property law in an outline format. There is a capsule summary at the beginning which would be helpful to review in the week before your exam. The rest of the study aid is a more extensive outline with helpful examples throughout and review questions at the end of each subject. There are 23 objective exam-style questions and three issue-spotter essay questions at the end. This book might be helpful for exam preparation, but is most helpful for making your outline.

Property (5th ed.)

Stephen L. Emanuel KF570 .Z9 E43 2017 CrunchTime Series Good for: Outlining, Exam Preparation The CrunchTime is similar to the Emanuel outline, however, it's tailored for studying in the week or days before your exam. There's a capsule summary outline with exam tips throughout. The 108 short answer questions are divided by chapter, so you can practice questions relating to specific topics that you would like to work on. Then, there's 25 multiple choice questions that test you on your general knowledge. Perhaps the most valuable part of this guide are the many flowcharts that help you visualize topics, from adverse possession to future interests. The charts are extremely helpful for visual learners, or those who would like to see the material in a different format.

A Short and Happy Guide to Property (2nd ed.)

Paula Franzese KF570 .Z9 F728 2012 (and online ) Short & Happy Law Series Good for: Understanding Concepts In fewer than 150 pages, this book condenses property law into its most basic form. It presents the material in a simple and clear fashion, and provides helpful examples throughout. There are also some charts and useful memory devices to make things easier to comprehend: such as adverse possession, and estates in land. The Short & Happy books don't go in-depth, or discuss important cases, so it's best used to help your knowledge of property, and for reviewing leading up to your exam.

Joseph William Singer KF570 .Z9 S56 2017 Aspen Student Treatise Series Good for: Understanding Concepts This treatise is extensive when it comes to property concepts and theories. Where most guides gloss over underlying theories and go straight to possession, this guide takes a different approach. It first addresses the main theories that influence property decisions, and then is divided into main subject areas. Each area is described in depth, with many cases and examples. There are also "Hard Cases" included at the end of each section to show how the courts have been treating tough borderline cases. Overall, this treatise is best used for understanding the basic property concepts, to grind the lenses through which you may view certain issues.


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Many state bar associations post former bar exam essay questions and sample answers on their websites. These model answers are useful for studying for the bar and final exams.

Search online for state bar exam questions and answers, or use the list provided at the bottom of this page. Access is free.

  • Try writing a response to a practice question, then comparing your response to the model answer.
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Property Study Guide: Sample Exam Questions

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The Law Library carries a number of resources that test your knowledge of property law. This guide provides a listing of resources of practice essay exams as well as multiple choice questions. There are also links to online multiple choice questions as well as resources to help with law school exams.  The multiple choice questions in property law can be a great way to track your progress. Review the description of each resource for more details.   

Essay Samples

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Multiple Choice Practice Questions

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Real Property on the Multistate Essay Exam: Highly Tested Topics and Tips

Real Property is regularly tested on the MEE. Here, we give you tips for approaching Real Property on the MEE and we reveal some of the highly tested issues in Real Property MEE questions.

Real Property on the Multistate Essay Exam

1. first, be aware of how real property is tested.

Real Property is tested, on average, about once a year. Real Property is generally tested on its own and not combined with another subject.

Real Property can be a challenging subject for many students. To prepare for Real Property on the MEE, it is best to begin by focusing on the highly tested issues. Also make sure to understand key Real Property vocabulary, as we discuss below.

2. Be aware of the highly tested Real Property issues

The examiners tend to test several of the same issues in Real Property MEE questions. You can maximize your score by being aware of these highly tested issues. (We have a nice summary of these in our  MEE One-Sheets  if you want to see all of them and have them all in one place.)

Some of the highly tested Real Property Multistate Essay Exam issues include:

Deeds are frequently tested when Real Property is tested on the MEE. Remember that there are two different types of deeds: general warranty deeds and quitclaim deeds.

  • With a quitclaim deed , the grantee receives whatever interest the grantor has in the property. There are no warranties.
  • A general warranty deed has six covenants: right to convey , seisen , no encumbrances , further assurances , quiet enjoyment , and warranty .

Types of Deeds

Recording acts

If you see a recording act issue tested, you should start your answer by discussing the common law default rule of first-in-time first-in-right .

Recording Acts - Common Law Default Rule

Remember that a grantor can only convey the rights the grantor has at the time of conveyance. Many states have implemented recording acts that change the common law result. There are three different types of recording acts :

  • Notice acts:  The language of a notice recording act will be something like, “A conveyance of interest in land is not valid against any subsequent purchaser for value without notice unless it is recorded .” This act has the word “recorded” but says nothing about recording  first .
  • Race-notice acts:  The language of a race-notice act will be something like, “No conveyance of an interest in land is valid against any subsequent purchaser for value without notice unless it is recorded first . ” This act mentions both notice  and “recording first, which is your cue it is a race-notice act!
  • Pure race acts:  Pure race acts protect a subsequent purchaser who records first. These are rare and are virtually never tested!

Three Kinds of Recording Acts

Landlord-tenant law

Landlord-tenant law turns up frequently in Real Property on the MEE. Be aware of the following points:

  • Assignment of a lease or subleasing is permitted as long as there is no language in the original lease prohibiting it.

The Landlord Can Sue the Assignor and Assignee if Assignee does not pay rent

  • The tenant has specific duties , including the duty to pay rent . If the tenant does not pay rent but has abandoned the property, the landlord can sue the tenant for damages or treat it as a surrender . Under the common law, the landlord has no duty to mitigate damages. However, many states have instituted their own laws requiring landlords to make a reasonable attempt to mitigate damages.
  • The landlord also has specific duties , including the implied warranty of habitability —which requires the landlord to deliver residential premises in habitable condition —and the covenant of quiet enjoyment —which prohibits the landlord from interrupting the tenant’s enjoyment of the premises or making the premises unsuitable .

Implied Warranty of Habitability

3. Learn Real Property vocabulary 

Not only is it important to understand and be able to define key terms, but it is also a good idea to bold and underline Real Property buzzwords on your MEE answers. By doing so, you will draw the grader’s attention to them and maximize your potential points.

Here are a few Real Property terms you should be aware of:

  • Warranty deed:  contains six warranties (or covenants).
  • Quitclaim deed:   contains no covenants.
  • Merger:   once the closing occurs, the contract “merges” with the deed and the buyer can  only  sue on the deed at that point.


  • Wild deed:   a deed that is not properly recorded in the chain of title and is outside the chain of title.
  • Mortgagor:  the party responsible for the mortgage.
  • Mortgagee:   The bank (or whoever lends money in exchange for a security interest). If you mix up the terms “mortgagor” and “mortgagee” remember that “it is better to be the mortgagee!”
  • Term-of-years lease:   This term is deceiving because it does not have to be for years. This type of lease just has a specific start and end date . You can also think of this as a “fixed term” lease.
  • Assignment:   the tenant grants  all the time remaining on the lease to the assignee.
  • Sublease:   the tenant grants only part of the time on the lease and still has an interest in the property.
  • Easement:   The non-possessory right to use the property of another . In other words, an easement holder does not  own  the property that is subject to the easement; it merely has a right to  use  the property.
  • Joint tenancy:   When parties own an equal interest in land with the  right of survivorship (as opposed to  tenants in common , where there is no right of survivorship).

Requirements to Create a Joint Tenancy (TTIP)

  • Adverse possession:  when a party possesses land adversely (e.g., without permission), that party can become the true owner of the land after the statutory period has passed .

Adverse Possession Requirements (Change)

4. Practice!

Practice is critical if you want to master Real Property on the MEE. As an added bonus, you may also see your MBE score improve if you practice writing answers to Real Property MEE essays.

Note that since many Real Property issues are tested repeatedly, practice can make a big difference. For example, many of the same concepts in February 2018 were tested in February 2010 ! Any student who completed the February 2010 question would have been well prepared for the Real Property MEE on the February 2018 exam.

Here, we have provided you with some links to free Real Property MEE questions and NCBE point sheets. (If you would like to purchase a book of Real Property MEE questions and NCBE point sheets, check out our  MEE books  here. You can also see some additional exams  on the NCBE website for free here .)

  • February 2023 Real Property MEE: this MEE covers adverse possession; color of title and constructive adverse possession; tacking for cause of action; and tolling of statute of limitations for disability (minor).
  • July 2022 Real Property MEE: this MEE covers life estate, vested remainder, and duties of a life tenant; fee simple determinable and possibility of reverter; devisability, and RAP.
  • February 2015 Real Property MEE: this MEE covers adverse possession and deeds.
  • July 2013 Real Property MEE: this MEE covers deeds, merger, and warranties.
  • February 2013 Real Property MEE: this MEE covers several landlord-tenant issues.

Go to the next topic, Secured Transactions .

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Good Essay Example 1 (February 2020 Real Property)

This lesson presents a real, good response to the February 2020 MEE Real Property question . First, read the essay, then listen to the analysis below.

Download the essay as a PDF.

Good Essay 1

The initial issue is whether the husband and wife originally had a valid joint tenancy with right of survivorship. A joint tenancy with right of survivorship requires the four unities of time (joint interested created at same time), title (created under the same instrument), interest (each JT has equal interest in the property), and possession (each JT has a right to undivided possession of the property). The right of survivorship just be unambiguous. Here there is a joint tenancy since they purchased the property at the same time, with the same instrument, with clear survivorship language, and each had an undivided interest of the property and were entitled to possession. Thus, there was a joint tenancy.

Another issue is which state's law should be applied in this case. The rule is that the law of the situs (where real property is located) is the law that should be used for property disputes. Here, the law of state A should be applied.

1. The issue is whether the Husband's execution of a mortgage severed the joint tenancy when he granted the mortgage to his friend.

The rule is that in a lien theory state, a mortgage does not sever a joint tenancy (JT); however, in a title approach theory jurisdiction, a mortgage does sever a JT. If severed the two joint tenants now each possess a tenancy in common.

Here, because they're in a title theory state, the mortgage did sever the joint tenancy because the unity of interest no longer existed upon mortgaging the property. At that point, the husband and wife now each possessed their interest as tenants in common.

2(a). Assuming the mortgage did not sever the JT, did the husband's execution of a lease sever the JT?

The rule is that it depends on the jurisdiction. The common law approach is that creating a lease would sever the joint tenancy, whereas the modern approach is that it would not.

Here, if the jurisdiction of state A applies the common law, then the lease did sever the JT, but if it follows the modern approach, it did not. Since the facts state that the courts "strictly apply the common law four-unities test", it's likely that the lease would sever the joint tenancy, giving the husband and wife a tenancy in common for their respective interests.

2(b). The issue is that assuming that the lease severed the JT, then what rights did the tenant have in the building.

The rule is that lease grants a tenant a present possessory interest in the property. Because it's a contractual obligation, it can survive the death of lease grantor. Here, the tenant still has a present possessory interest in the building until the termination of the lease.

3(a). The issue is that assuming that neither the mortgage nor lease sever the JT, during the spouse's lifetimes, was the woman entitled to half of the rental income payable to her husband under the lease as a joint tenant owner of the property.

The rule is that when a joint tenancy exists and the property is rented to a third party, the rent received should be split evenly among joint tenants after repairs/operating expenses of the property are paid. Here, the wife was entitled to half of the annual $9K in rent, less her 1/2 share of the expenses associated with managing the property.

3(b) Assuming that the JT was not severed, the issue is at the husband's death, what rights, if any, do the woman and the tenant have in the building.

The rule is that when one Joint tenant dies, its share goes to the other joint tenant. When the husband dies, the wife will acquire her husband's interest in the property through her right of survivorship and she will own the property clear of any mortgages or other obligations she did not join. She will properly be allowed to eject the tenant as the tenant will no longer have any possessory rights in the building.

Analysis of the Sample Essay

Now we're going to look at two representative good answers. One's from New York and one's from Minnesota, and like we did with the analysis above, we're going to go prompt by prompt, noting what these answers do well and what they could have done better. Now, again, these are both good answers, really good answers, but they take very different approaches to answering the essays, which is a good illustration of the fact that there are multiple ways to write a high-scoring MEE essay.

Let's start with representative answer number 1, which comes to us from Minnesota. Now, two overall things jump out just by glancing at the page before we start looking at it prompt by prompt. First, this is not an essay that's leading off its answers with strong, bolded conclusions. Remember, we want the first part of our written answer to be a conclusion. That's the first C in our CRAC.

And, ideally, we want it to include a reason as well. Something with a "because" in it. Now, for all five of the prompts, this test taker has instead put a number and either restated the prompt or stated it as an issue. And that's not going to score any points because it doesn't convey anything useful to the grader.

In a perfect world, we want that first bolded sentence to have a lot packed into it, our answer, and a reason. If we can do that, then we've really hit the ground running in terms of picking up points, and we've probably put our grader into a good frame of mind as well. That grader knows we're going to be clear and decisive.

Now, having said that, it's not always easy to write out a conclusion like that, especially on an essay like this one with so many prompts, and it's entirely possible that this test taker just used these headers as a way to stay focused and organized while writing. If so, that's good. There's certainly nothing wrong with it, and you won't lose points for this kind of thing. It just won't directly score points either.

The second thing that stands out is that this essay starts off with a kind of introductory set of paragraphs, addressing what it calls "two initial issues," whether the husband and the woman had a valid joint tendency to begin with, and which state's law should be applied in this case.

And I don't mean to be harsh on the test taker here, again, this is a really good answer, but this is wasted effort. We already have five prompts to cover in this essay, and essentially this poor test taker's just added two more. And the analysis is just fine. Yes, there is a joint tenancy, and yes, State A's law applies, but we weren't asked about either of those things.

In fact, the prompts specifically refer to the joint tenancies, so it's a pretty safe bet that it was valid. Now, if you're ever wondering about whether you need to include brush clearing analysis like this, the answer is almost always no. I can't think of a good representative answer I've seen where this kind of thing was important.

You're going to be really pressed for time already, and you want to start with the first prompt right away. That's where you can pick up points. In fact, if you look at the analysis provided by the bar examiners for MEE questions, you'll sometimes see a summary or an introductory paragraph at the beginning before the answers to the prompts.

But, and this is the really crucial thing, note that there are no points associated with that paragraph. The percentages start with the answers to the prompts, so that's where we want to focus our energy. That's where we can pick up points. Okay. So those are two broad things that this essay could have done better, and by done better, I mean, really just made easier on itself.

When it comes to the individual prompts, the essay actually really settles into a nice rhythm. It's the same basic elements over and over. After that issue statement, which, again, I'd prefer to be a conclusion, a C instead of an I, we get a nice rule application, RA, for all five prompts. Each of them has a sentence starting, "This rule is," which is a nice way to draw the grader's attention to the fact that you're stating a rule. And all but one of the prompts follow that up with an application sentence or two, starting with the word "Here." So that's some really nice work on the RA part of CRAC.

Not many of the prompts include a final C, that's the "therefore" sentence, but in this particular case, for this essay, I think that's not so bad because there are so many prompts and each of them is so straightforward. And, in fact, if this essay had led off each prompt with a good C, then I'd be totally fine with a CRA approach throughout.

As for specifics, I think that the answer on prompt 1 is really nicely done. It's probably not even necessary to explain the lien theory, actually, since we know we're in a title theory state, but that's great work.

Prompt 2(a) is really nicely done. In fact, note that the test taker here acknowledges both the common law rule, which is that a lease does sever the joint tenancy, and an alternative, which is that the lease does not sever the joint tenancy. Now, we know from the bar examiners' own notes, their own analysis, that either one of those would have been perfectly acceptable, and so noting them both is really especially good.

Prompt 2(b) is also well done. Might've been good here just to mention that the woman and her husband, who is the lease grantor, as the test taker puts it here, became tenants in common after severance, which is why the commercial tenant can maintain its possessory interest even after he dies. If they were still joint tenants, that is, if the woman and her husband were still joint tenants, then the commercial tenant's lease would just disappear, as we'll see in a minute.

Prompt 3(a) is perfectly done for rule and application. I have no notes there. And likewise, prompt 3(b) is superb as well.

So what we've got with this representative model answer is some really excellent, clear formulaic answers to the prompts, which more than makes up for those two broad things that could have been done better, which is the wasted effort at the beginning and the failure to clearly state conclusions. Still, this is clearly an excellent answer. I'm just pointing out how it could have been even better.

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Apart hotel yantar, choose dates to view prices, photo gallery for apart hotel yantar.

Front of property

Overview of Apart Hotel Yantar

Property highlights.

  • Free parking
  • Child-friendly activities
  • 24/7 front desk
  • Non-smoking

Main amenities

  • Daily housekeeping
  • Breakfast available
  • 24-hour front desk
  • Arcade/game room
  • Front-desk safe

Feel at home

  • Children stay free
  • Free self parking

What's around


  • Popular Location Electrostal History and Art Museum 6 min drive
  • Popular Location Noginsk Museum and Exhibition Center 10 min drive
  • Popular Location Central Museum of the Air Forces at Monino 28 min drive
  • Airport Moscow (BKA-Bykovo) 86 min drive

Room options

View all photos for twin room, private bathroom.

Twin Room, Private Bathroom

  • 2 Twin Beds

View all photos for Superior Double Room

Superior Double Room | Desk, free WiFi

Superior Double Room

  • 1 Queen Bed

View all photos for Triple Room, Private Bathroom

Triple Room, Private Bathroom

  • 3 Twin Beds

About the neighborhood

What's nearby.

  • Electrostal History and Art Museum - 6 min drive
  • Noginsk Museum and Exhibition Center - 10 min drive
  • History of Russian Scarfs and Shawls Museum - 19 min drive
  • Central Museum of the Air Forces at Monino - 28 min drive
  • Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center - 41 min drive

Getting around

  • Zhukovsky (ZIA) - 69 min drive
  • Moscow (DME-Domodedovo Intl.) - 79 min drive
  • Sheremetyevo Intl. Airport (SVO) - 84 min drive
  • Moscow (VKO-Vnukovo Intl.) - 122 min drive
  • Noginsk Station - 16 min drive
  • Monino Station - 22 min drive
  • Pavlovsky Posad Station - 25 min drive

About this property

At a glance, arriving/leaving.

  • Check-in time ends: anytime
  • Minimum check-in age: 18
  • Check-out time is noon

Restrictions related to your trip

  • Check COVID-19 restrictions.

Special check-in instructions

  • Front desk staff will greet guests on arrival

Required at check-in

  • Credit card, debit card, or cash deposit required for incidental charges
  • Government-issued photo ID may be required
  • Minimum check-in age is 18
  • If you require a visa to enter the country, your property may be able to help with the supporting documents needed to obtain one*
  • Russian citizens: Adults (aged 14 and over) must present a valid internal passport at check-in (international Russian passports and driver's licenses are not accepted). Birth certificates must be presented for all Russian children (aged under 14) at check-in. If a Russian relative or legal guardian (rather than a parent) is traveling in Russia with a child under 14, that relative or legal guardian is also required to present documentation certifying authority to accompany child at check-in. Non-Russian citizens: Adults and children must present a valid passport, visa, and migration card at check-in.
  • One child (5 years old and younger) stays free when occupying the parent or guardian's room, using existing bedding
  • No cribs (infant beds)
  • Pets not allowed
  • Free WiFi in public areas
  • Free WiFi in rooms
  • Free onsite self parking
  • Wheelchair-accessible parking on site

Other information

  • Smoke-free property

Property amenities

Food and drink.

  • Continental breakfast (surcharge) each morning 7:00 AM–11:00 AM

Traveling with children

  • Children stay free (see details)
  • Children's games
  • Safe-deposit box at front desk


  • Braille/raised signage
  • Wheelchair-accessible parking

Room amenities

Be entertained.

  • LCD television
  • Satellite TV channels

Home comfort

  • Shower only
  • Free toiletries
  • Hair dryer (on request)

Stay connected

Fees & policies, optional extras.

  • Continental breakfast is offered for an extra charge of approximately RUB 200 per person

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40 facts about elektrostal.

Lanette Mayes

Written by Lanette Mayes

Modified & Updated: 02 Mar 2024

Jessica Corbett

Reviewed by Jessica Corbett


Elektrostal is a vibrant city located in the Moscow Oblast region of Russia. With a rich history, stunning architecture, and a thriving community, Elektrostal is a city that has much to offer. Whether you are a history buff, nature enthusiast, or simply curious about different cultures, Elektrostal is sure to captivate you.

This article will provide you with 40 fascinating facts about Elektrostal, giving you a better understanding of why this city is worth exploring. From its origins as an industrial hub to its modern-day charm, we will delve into the various aspects that make Elektrostal a unique and must-visit destination.

So, join us as we uncover the hidden treasures of Elektrostal and discover what makes this city a true gem in the heart of Russia.

Key Takeaways:

  • Elektrostal, known as the “Motor City of Russia,” is a vibrant and growing city with a rich industrial history, offering diverse cultural experiences and a strong commitment to environmental sustainability.
  • With its convenient location near Moscow, Elektrostal provides a picturesque landscape, vibrant nightlife, and a range of recreational activities, making it an ideal destination for residents and visitors alike.

Known as the “Motor City of Russia.”

Elektrostal, a city located in the Moscow Oblast region of Russia, earned the nickname “Motor City” due to its significant involvement in the automotive industry.

Home to the Elektrostal Metallurgical Plant.

Elektrostal is renowned for its metallurgical plant, which has been producing high-quality steel and alloys since its establishment in 1916.

Boasts a rich industrial heritage.

Elektrostal has a long history of industrial development, contributing to the growth and progress of the region.

Founded in 1916.

The city of Elektrostal was founded in 1916 as a result of the construction of the Elektrostal Metallurgical Plant.

Located approximately 50 kilometers east of Moscow.

Elektrostal is situated in close proximity to the Russian capital, making it easily accessible for both residents and visitors.

Known for its vibrant cultural scene.

Elektrostal is home to several cultural institutions, including museums, theaters, and art galleries that showcase the city’s rich artistic heritage.

A popular destination for nature lovers.

Surrounded by picturesque landscapes and forests, Elektrostal offers ample opportunities for outdoor activities such as hiking, camping, and birdwatching.

Hosts the annual Elektrostal City Day celebrations.

Every year, Elektrostal organizes festive events and activities to celebrate its founding, bringing together residents and visitors in a spirit of unity and joy.

Has a population of approximately 160,000 people.

Elektrostal is home to a diverse and vibrant community of around 160,000 residents, contributing to its dynamic atmosphere.

Boasts excellent education facilities.

The city is known for its well-established educational institutions, providing quality education to students of all ages.

A center for scientific research and innovation.

Elektrostal serves as an important hub for scientific research, particularly in the fields of metallurgy, materials science, and engineering.

Surrounded by picturesque lakes.

The city is blessed with numerous beautiful lakes, offering scenic views and recreational opportunities for locals and visitors alike.

Well-connected transportation system.

Elektrostal benefits from an efficient transportation network, including highways, railways, and public transportation options, ensuring convenient travel within and beyond the city.

Famous for its traditional Russian cuisine.

Food enthusiasts can indulge in authentic Russian dishes at numerous restaurants and cafes scattered throughout Elektrostal.

Home to notable architectural landmarks.

Elektrostal boasts impressive architecture, including the Church of the Transfiguration of the Lord and the Elektrostal Palace of Culture.

Offers a wide range of recreational facilities.

Residents and visitors can enjoy various recreational activities, such as sports complexes, swimming pools, and fitness centers, enhancing the overall quality of life.

Provides a high standard of healthcare.

Elektrostal is equipped with modern medical facilities, ensuring residents have access to quality healthcare services.

Home to the Elektrostal History Museum.

The Elektrostal History Museum showcases the city’s fascinating past through exhibitions and displays.

A hub for sports enthusiasts.

Elektrostal is passionate about sports, with numerous stadiums, arenas, and sports clubs offering opportunities for athletes and spectators.

Celebrates diverse cultural festivals.

Throughout the year, Elektrostal hosts a variety of cultural festivals, celebrating different ethnicities, traditions, and art forms.

Electric power played a significant role in its early development.

Elektrostal owes its name and initial growth to the establishment of electric power stations and the utilization of electricity in the industrial sector.

Boasts a thriving economy.

The city’s strong industrial base, coupled with its strategic location near Moscow, has contributed to Elektrostal’s prosperous economic status.

Houses the Elektrostal Drama Theater.

The Elektrostal Drama Theater is a cultural centerpiece, attracting theater enthusiasts from far and wide.

Popular destination for winter sports.

Elektrostal’s proximity to ski resorts and winter sport facilities makes it a favorite destination for skiing, snowboarding, and other winter activities.

Promotes environmental sustainability.

Elektrostal prioritizes environmental protection and sustainability, implementing initiatives to reduce pollution and preserve natural resources.

Home to renowned educational institutions.

Elektrostal is known for its prestigious schools and universities, offering a wide range of academic programs to students.

Committed to cultural preservation.

The city values its cultural heritage and takes active steps to preserve and promote traditional customs, crafts, and arts.

Hosts an annual International Film Festival.

The Elektrostal International Film Festival attracts filmmakers and cinema enthusiasts from around the world, showcasing a diverse range of films.

Encourages entrepreneurship and innovation.

Elektrostal supports aspiring entrepreneurs and fosters a culture of innovation, providing opportunities for startups and business development.

Offers a range of housing options.

Elektrostal provides diverse housing options, including apartments, houses, and residential complexes, catering to different lifestyles and budgets.

Home to notable sports teams.

Elektrostal is proud of its sports legacy, with several successful sports teams competing at regional and national levels.

Boasts a vibrant nightlife scene.

Residents and visitors can enjoy a lively nightlife in Elektrostal, with numerous bars, clubs, and entertainment venues.

Promotes cultural exchange and international relations.

Elektrostal actively engages in international partnerships, cultural exchanges, and diplomatic collaborations to foster global connections.

Surrounded by beautiful nature reserves.

Nearby nature reserves, such as the Barybino Forest and Luchinskoye Lake, offer opportunities for nature enthusiasts to explore and appreciate the region’s biodiversity.

Commemorates historical events.

The city pays tribute to significant historical events through memorials, monuments, and exhibitions, ensuring the preservation of collective memory.

Promotes sports and youth development.

Elektrostal invests in sports infrastructure and programs to encourage youth participation, health, and physical fitness.

Hosts annual cultural and artistic festivals.

Throughout the year, Elektrostal celebrates its cultural diversity through festivals dedicated to music, dance, art, and theater.

Provides a picturesque landscape for photography enthusiasts.

The city’s scenic beauty, architectural landmarks, and natural surroundings make it a paradise for photographers.

Connects to Moscow via a direct train line.

The convenient train connection between Elektrostal and Moscow makes commuting between the two cities effortless.

A city with a bright future.

Elektrostal continues to grow and develop, aiming to become a model city in terms of infrastructure, sustainability, and quality of life for its residents.

In conclusion, Elektrostal is a fascinating city with a rich history and a vibrant present. From its origins as a center of steel production to its modern-day status as a hub for education and industry, Elektrostal has plenty to offer both residents and visitors. With its beautiful parks, cultural attractions, and proximity to Moscow, there is no shortage of things to see and do in this dynamic city. Whether you’re interested in exploring its historical landmarks, enjoying outdoor activities, or immersing yourself in the local culture, Elektrostal has something for everyone. So, next time you find yourself in the Moscow region, don’t miss the opportunity to discover the hidden gems of Elektrostal.

Q: What is the population of Elektrostal?

A: As of the latest data, the population of Elektrostal is approximately XXXX.

Q: How far is Elektrostal from Moscow?

A: Elektrostal is located approximately XX kilometers away from Moscow.

Q: Are there any famous landmarks in Elektrostal?

A: Yes, Elektrostal is home to several notable landmarks, including XXXX and XXXX.

Q: What industries are prominent in Elektrostal?

A: Elektrostal is known for its steel production industry and is also a center for engineering and manufacturing.

Q: Are there any universities or educational institutions in Elektrostal?

A: Yes, Elektrostal is home to XXXX University and several other educational institutions.

Q: What are some popular outdoor activities in Elektrostal?

A: Elektrostal offers several outdoor activities, such as hiking, cycling, and picnicking in its beautiful parks.

Q: Is Elektrostal well-connected in terms of transportation?

A: Yes, Elektrostal has good transportation links, including trains and buses, making it easily accessible from nearby cities.

Q: Are there any annual events or festivals in Elektrostal?

A: Yes, Elektrostal hosts various events and festivals throughout the year, including XXXX and XXXX.

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    Target Ages: Intermediate, Secondary. Tags: I Can Respect School Property When I am at school it is important to respect school property. Respecting property means to take care of things I use in and around the school building and classroom. When I take care of school property it makes me feel good inside. That feeling is called pride!

  7. Rights People Lose on Public School Property Research Paper

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  8. School Vandalism and Break-Ins

    The Problem of School Vandalism and Break-Ins. This guide addresses school vandalism and break-ins, describing the problem and reviewing the risk factors. It also discusses the associated problems of school burglaries and arson. The guide then identifies a series of questions to help you analyze your local problem.

  9. Property

    Property (18th ed.) James Krier KF561 .D84 2013 (and online) Gilbert Law Summaries Good for: Outlining Gilbert's is a well-known provider of study aides and is best used for outlining and preparing exam answers. It provides a comprehensive outline of property with sufficient explanations of the subjects and rules.

  10. PDF 3-HOUR EXAM, SPRING 2017 Student Exam # PROPERTY LAW Prof. Diller EXAM

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  11. Bar Exam Sample Essays

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  12. Property Study Guide: Sample Exam Questions

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  13. Real Property on the Multistate Essay Exam: Highly Tested Topics and

    1. First, be aware of how Real Property is tested. Real Property is tested, on average, about once a year. Real Property is generally tested on its own and not combined with another subject. Real Property can be a challenging subject for many students. To prepare for Real Property on the MEE, it is best to begin by focusing on the highly tested ...

  14. Property Law Essay

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  15. Good Essay Example 1 (February 2020 Real Property)

    This lesson presents a real, good response to the February 2020 MEE Real Property question. First, read the essay, then listen to the analysis below. Download the essay as a PDF. Good Essay 1. The initial issue is whether the husband and wife originally had a valid joint tenancy with right of survivorship.

  16. School Finance Property Tax Caps

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  20. 40 Facts About Elektrostal

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