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Expectancy Violations as Experienced by the Irregular Students of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Sta. Mesa, Manila

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2020, Expectancy Violations as Experienced by the Irregular Students of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Sta. Mesa, Manila

Irregular students are those who are not part of a blocked section of students which they unlikely see the same faces and usually meet different classmates in each subject. This means that irregular students need to adapt up to time and with their classmates. While coping up in their situation, they may experience violated expectancies to their professors and their classmates which are regular students. This study discussed the reasons why they became an irregular student, how they experienced violated expectancies from their professors and their classmates, the advantages and disadvantages of being an irregular student by knowing its violation valence if they interpret the message as positive or negative valence, discussed the communicator reward valence by knowing the interpretation of violated expectancies of the irregular students by summing up the positive and negative attributes that they received, and knowing the outcomes of their violated expectancies by knowing how they did cope up in dealing with their violated expectancies and how they resolve their problems effectively. This study was conducted at the Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Sta. Mesa, Manila.

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  • Published: 17 December 2020

A qualitative content analysis of "problem students": how can we identify and manage them?

  • Soleiman Ahmady 1 ,
  • Nasrin Khajeali 2 ,
  • Masomeh Kalantarion 3 &
  • Mitra Amini 4  

BMC Research Notes volume  13 , Article number:  566 ( 2020 ) Cite this article

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Problem students is one of the important issues in medical education. This study aimed to identify the problem students and the ways for managing these students from the educational experts view. Purposive sampling was used, and data collection continued until data saturation was achieved. Data analysis was performed by the content analysis method based on the Heidegger approach. We interviewed 12 educational experts who had a history of dealing with "problem students”.

After data analysis, five main themes and 28 categories, and 164 codes were extracted. The reasons for changing a student to a problem students was: student self-regulation skills, multilayer interactions, curriculum failure, identification policy and supportive solutions. The results indicated that despite revision in the curriculum, there were shortcomings in identification and management of problem students. According to participants, existence of a comprehensive system and a capable counseling center can identify the problem student sooner. On the other hand by improving self-regulation skills, active teaching methods and frequent formative evaluation and the use of supportive strategies, problem student can be encouraged to complete their education successfully. This study emphasized faculty development, reviewing the faculty member recruitment, strengthening counseling centers, improving the exams.

Introduction

In some students, admission to the university causes cultural, social, and psychological deprivations and increases anxiety. In such cases, the student is unable to adapt efficiently and effectively and suffers from academic failure [ 1 ]. The academic decline is one of the problems of educational systems, including universities [ 2 ].

Vaughn et al. define a problem students as “a learner whose academic performance has declined significantly due to an emotional, cognitive, structural, or individual problem” [ 3 ]. It can ensue consequences such as addiction, apathy, anxiety, depression, and even suicide [ 2 ]. Problem students have various causes such as inappropriate teaching methods, improper use of teaching aids, the physical and social environment of the classroom, and the motivation of students and loneliness, family circumstances, and biological factors [ 4 ]. Also, students' academic failure is a major social problem, rather than a personal issue, which requires fundamental steps to solve [ 5 , 6 ]. Meanwhile, academic decline is of particular importance in regard to medical students due to their job sensitivity and direct relationship with people’s health [ 6 , 7 ].

Therefore, the problem students is of particular importance regarding medical students due to their job sensitivity and direct relationship with people's health [ 4 , 7 ]. In these students, dropping out will further entail poor performance in hospitals and medical centers, sometimes leading to irreversible conditions. Due to the importance of identifying these students, and little evidence for identifying and providing support for them, we aimed to explore how to identify and manage problem students among the students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. To the best of our knowledge, no research has been conducted on this issue in Iran; therefore, this study aimed to identify and manage "problem students" in medical education.

The data collection was performed via a one-on-one semi-structured. Semi-structured interview allow participants to show their opinions in their own words freely. It can provide valid and reliable data.

This qualitative approach was designed and implemented by a content analysis method [ 8 ].

Participants

The study population consisted of a director, experts in student support system, and the faculty members, who had a history of dealing with "problem students." Before starting the interview, the researcher built a good rapport with the participants and explained to the interviewees the purpose of the research. The study population consisted of director the Center for Education and Development of the Ministry of Health, the Deputy Minister of Education, the faculty members, a Faculty in Counseling Psychology, who had a history of dealing with “problem student”.

Data gathering

A member of the research team (N Kh) who is also has a history of studying with problem students, interviewed. Researchers used purposive sampling to provide their expert opinion on problem identification and management. Sampling continued until data saturation, and 12 respondents entered the study. One participants dropped out of the study because of didn’t have time. Each interview conducted in a private room in the medical school or Counseling center. We gathered additional information regarding age and sex from participants. The mean age of those participants was 52 years (range 42–62 years) and 77% were male and 23% were female.

To begin exploring the expert’ experiences, pilot study was conducted. The interviews were recorded by a tape recorder to increase the accuracy of data collection. Interviews lasted between 30 and 60 min. Filed note didn’t used.

Semi-structured interviews were done based on general questions such as the following questions:

Did you have any experience in dealing with problem students? How did you identify them? (May you define an objective example of coping with problem students?

What are the barriers and problems for problem students? Can you talk more about this?

In the current education system, what criteria (formal and informal) are problematic for comprehensive identification? By what criteria are they identified? What services do they receive?

What happens to them in the end?

What strategies are needed to be able to manage them?

What strategies are required to be able to support them?

Data analysis

The data were analyzed by the inductive qualitative content method [ 10 ]. After each interview, the interviews were immediately transcribed. Then, the text of the meetings was reviewed to gain a general understanding. After that, each summarized unit was abstracted and named with a code by two researchers. The codes were categorized based on similarities and how to merge them. 12 interview texts were examined and confirmed by two researchers. We didn’t use software for analyzing.

Trustworthiness

Dependability, the codes were checked with participants, and the accuracy of the information was examined.

Guba and Lincoln's criteria were used to achieve credibility and dependability [ 4 ]. Credibility, the interpretation and report (or a portion of it) were given to the members of the sample (informants) to check the authenticity of the work.

Furthermore, the findings were verified by external auditors familiar with qualitative research. It means that parts of the interview text, along with the relevant codes and classes produced by the two observer’s casual with qualitative research, were examined and confirmed. To make the findings transferable, we tried to transcribe the participants' sentences verbatim.

Ethical considerations

Participant's information was kept confidential to the researcher, and individuals had the option to withdraw from the study at any stage of the research.

Five main themes emerged in this study: self-regulation skills, multilayer interactions, curriculum failure, identification policy, and supportive solutions.

Self-regulation skills

This theme containing three more related categories including: self-awareness, low goal setting, and inability to describe oneself without judgment.

One participant ascertained: I think one of the significant challenges is that they don't have self-awareness, and that's why they're justifying it instead of rooting the problem out.

Multilayer interactions

This theme refers to the four categories: family role, peer role, hidden curriculum, and teacher-student relationships.

Family members both positively and negatively contribute to the prevention or creation of problematic students.

Participants said in this regard: "We have another problem. There are parents, called helicopter parents, according to our field. Helicopter parents are those who raise their children under the age of 18 in the lap of luxury. Then, they immediately bring their children to university and throw them down. They're spinning up. They're neither going to take our hand nor helping us to see what we should do. The story of our intervention is that the family has to intervene, but they are inefficient".

Participants in the study reported that the hidden curriculum and teacher-student relationships also played an essential role in creating or preventing problem learners.

Curriculum failure

The most common codes are presented in this theme. This could be described by three categories: inappropriate curriculum, ineffective teaching, and evaluation are the causes of curriculum failure.

One of the respondents said: teachers' inability to effectively communicate when teaching led to problem students.

A participant commented about the inappropriate curriculum: "For example, our problem is about the expected curriculum. Some students believe that the content of the medical curriculum is irrelevant to their future job needs. Hence, differences between the expected and experienced curricula sometimes make a huge discrepancy that can lead to disappointed students.

Identification policy

In this study, it has been stated that the identification system isn't systematic.

Some participants reported: some institutions identified a problem student based on formal criteria, while others identified informal group meetings, so there was no comprehensive identification policy.

Supportive strategies

In this category, supportive strategies have been proposed based on the role of family, peers, educational system, and teachers.

One participant said:"

In the educational system, in addition to assessing knowledge, we measure items such as study skills, learning style, etc., it can help us not have problem students.

Another participant reported:

The failure is desirable in some cases when the individuals have no talent in a particular field. So, these failures warn us to encourage the student to choose another field.

Some related themes and quotes are listed in the Table 1 .

This study aimed to explain the understanding of experts regarding the identification and management of problem medical students.

Self-regulation skill is the first theme of this study. Participants reported this skill is one of necessary skills for medical students. Guntern stated a significant relationship between self-regulatory skill and academic achievement [ 9 ].

Sobral [ 10 ] also showed that the more learning leads to reflective learning, the better one's academic achievement and preventing problem students. Reflective thinking, which is one of the sub-categories of self-regulatory skills [ 10 ].

Multilayer interactions was another theme in our study. Steinert points to the critical role of classmates and teachers in identifying and helping problem students [ 2 ]. If the teacher-student relationship is well established, educational goals will be achieved with more quality and ease. That was similar to our study.

In a case report of a dismissed medical student with a higher educational background, Aghaei Afshar emphasizes the role of the family in paying attention to their children's abilities and interests in identifying a problem student. On the other hand, the university counseling system should identify the endangered students especially at the beginning of the study and take care of them with maintain contact with the family [ 11 ].

Another important finding of the current study was the theme of curriculum failure in higher education. Participants cited the inappropriate curriculum, ineffective assessments, and lack of effective teaching methods as factors of curriculum failure. These results are consistent with Roos's study [ 12 ]. Therefore, curriculum should be tailored to the needs of the community, so students can provide valuable insights for the curriculum and this has impact on the learning process, which is essential for educational centers.

In the study of the graduates, one of the graduates was asked about the extent of the curriculum presented, only 4% agreed with the appropriateness of the curriculum to empower the physicians [ 13 ].

Regarding the theme of identification policy, the participants pointed out the lack of a comprehensive system of identification and ineffective intervention, consistent with the results of Shams [ 14 ]. Therefore, a global identification system and effective response are required to support problem students.

The last theme was about supportive strategies. In this regard, Students can be supported through family, peers, educational systems, and teachers. These strategies have been reported in Steiner's study [ 2 ].

Aghaei Afshar is highlighted in family’s role in identifying problem student in case of dismissed medical student [ 11 ].

The result of our study was in line with the results of other studies and had a more comprehensive view of problem student identification in comparison to previous studies because it examined various aspects of medical education such as curriculum planning, teaching methods, evaluation, support strategies and educational policy changes.

The present study emphasized that we could identify and manage the problem students with the best approach by faculty development, reviewing the faculty member recruitment, strengthening counseling centers, improving the exams, and screening the students on arrival.

Future research could focus on recognize the demographic psychological status of problem learner for identifying and increase their coping rate with effective interventions. We designed a qualitative study, so did not investigate the files of the non-problem students in the cohorts. So a full case–control study would be required.

Limitations

A limitation of the present study was that some participants did not allow to record conversations; hence, the researcher had to write down everything she heard. Another limitation was that the researcher made several appointments to interview the experts, but the interviews were postponed due to the professors' busy schedule.

Availability of data and materials

The datasets used and analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

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Acknowledgements

The authors thank all of the authorities and teachers at medical School at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences for their assistance.

There were no sources of funding for the research.

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Department of Medical Education, Virtual School of Medical Education and Management, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Soleiman Ahmady

Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa, Iran

Nasrin Khajeali

Department of Medical Education, Students Research Committee, Virtual School of Medical Education and Management, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Masomeh Kalantarion

Clinical Education Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

Mitra Amini

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Contributions

SA and NK contributed to the study, coordination, participated in the acquisition of data and drafted the manuscript. MK and MA participated in the acquisition of data and analysis and drafting the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Nasrin Khajeali .

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This study was approved with an ethical approved number IR.SBMU.SME.REC.1397.003 in Ethic committee of School of Virtual, and Management and Medical Education, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Informed written consent to participate was obtained from all respondents participate in the study voluntarily, and the name of them was not mentioned in the scripts.

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Written informed consent was obtained from the participants for the publication of this research note.

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Ahmady, S., Khajeali, N., Kalantarion, M. et al. A qualitative content analysis of "problem students": how can we identify and manage them?. BMC Res Notes 13 , 566 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-020-05393-8

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DOI : https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-020-05393-8

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The Effect of Sleep Quality on Students’ Academic Achievement

Rostam jalali.

1 Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

Habibollah Khazaei

2 Sleep Disorders Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

Behnam Khaledi Paveh

Zinab hayrani, lida menati.

Sleep is an inseparable part of human health and life, which is crucial in learning, practice, as well as physical and mental health. It affects the capacity of individual learning, academic performance, and neural-behavioral functions. This study aimed to determine the relationship between sleep quality and students’ academic achievement among students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences.

In this cross-sectional study, 102 medical students from different fields, with maximum variation sampling, completed Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). For data analysis, SPSS 19 was used through which Pearson correlation test, Spearman test, and t -test were employed.

Based on the quality of sleep questionnaire scores, the results indicated no significant difference between students with high grades and those with low grades. However, there were moderate and sometimes severe sleep disturbances in both groups.

The results showed no significant difference between sleep quality and academic achievement. Nevertheless, longitudinal study should be performed to control for confounding factors.

Sleep is an inseparable part of human health and life, and is pivotal to learning and practice as well as physical and mental health. 1 Studies have suggested that insufficient sleep, increased frequency of short-term sleep, and going to sleep late and getting up early affect the learning capacity, academic performance, and neurobehavioral functions. 2 , 3 Previous studies have indicated that the quantity of sleep reported by individuals as delayed or inappropriate sleep, waking up too late, especially at weekends and daytime sleepiness is associated with compromised academic performance in children and adults. 2 Some studies have emphasized the relationship between delayed starting time of classes and academic success. 4 Reduced overnight sleep or altered sleep patterns has been associated with severe drowsiness and failure in academic success. 5 In a study, people who had enough sleep compared to their sleep-deprived individuals used innovative solutions twice as often when confronted with complex mathematical problems. 6 The chance of academic failure was as long as one or more than 1 year in students with inadequate sleep compared to those with proper sleep. 7 People who sleep less and sleep during the day are more prone to vehicle and work accidents. 8 In some studies, sleep efficiency has been considered as essential for recovery, cognitive processing, and memory integration. 9 On the other hand, lack of sleep has been associated with emotional instability and impaired concentration. 10 In this regard, students are particularly at risk of developing sleep disorders and development of the disorder among them has a negative effect on their academic performance across different grades, 11 – 13 However, there is no consensus in this case and not all studies state that sleep disorders yield a negative effect on academic performance. Eliasson (2010) believes that the time it takes to fall asleep and waking up affect academic performance more than duration of sleep does. 14 Sweileh and colleagues (2011) also believe that there is no relationship between sleep quality and academic success. 15 Similarly, it is claimed there is no relationship between the night sleep before the exam and test scores either. 16

In another study, the author believes stress from lack of sleep causes poor school performance. 17 On the other hand, in a systematic review, the authors could not establish a cause and effect relationship between sleep quality and academic performance. 2 In their meta-analysis study, Dewald and colleagues (2010) emphasized that because of the diversity of the methodology of studies, it is impossible to definitely derive a relationship between sleep quality and academic performance, and thus more longitudinal intervention studies are warranted. 1 According to different conclusions in this respect, the researchers decided to determine the relationship between sleep quality and academic performance among students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences.

In this cross-sectional study, through maximum variation sampling, the first three students with highest scores and three last students with lowest scores were selected, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was completed for them.

The study population consisted of students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. The samples were also students at each school with the highest GPA (first three high scores) and the lowest GPA (last three lowest scores). The sampling was purposeful sampling with maximum variation. The sample covered a number of disciplines in the third semester and above ( Figures 1 & 2 ). After determining the target students, the questionnaire was given to them and then returned to the researcher after completion.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is AMEP-11-497-g0001.jpg

Abundant distribution of students by field of study.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is AMEP-11-497-g0002.jpg

Frequency distribution of students by semester.

The data collection instruments were demographic form (including age, gender, place of residence, grade, rank in the class, discipline) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). PSQI is a self-report questionnaire which examines the quality of sleep. It has 18 questions which are classified into seven components: the first component is the subjective sleep quality which is determined with Question 9. The second component is related to delays in falling asleep, where the score is calculated by two questions, the mean score of Question 2 and part of Question 5. The third component deals with sleep duration and is determined by Question 4. The fourth component is related to the efficiency and effectiveness of sleeping in patients. Its score is calculated via dividing the total hours of sleep by total hours in the bed multiplied by 100. Then, the fifth component deals with sleep disorders and is achieved by calculating the mean value of Question 5. The sixth component is related to hypnotic drugs and is determined based on Question 6. Finally, the seventh component captures inadequate performance throughout the day and is determined by two questions (mean scores of Questions 7 and 8). Each question is rated between 0 and 3 points where maximum score for each component is 3. The total scores range of the seven components making up the total score range from 0 to 21. Higher scores represent a lower sleep quality, where a score above 6 indicates poor sleep quality. The reliability and validity of this inventory have also been approved in Iran, where the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.78 to 0.82. 18 In another study, Cronbach’s alpha for the Persian version was 0.77. In cut-off point 5, the sensitivity and specificity were 94% and 72%, and in cut-off point 6, they were 85% and 84%, respectively. 19

After collecting the questionnaires and introducing students’ demographic data to a computer using SPSS version 16, the relationship between sleep quality scores and grade point average (GPA high and low) was calculated.

The results indicated that 34 cases (33.3%) of the subjects were male. The mean age of the sample 23.10 ± 3.25, where the mean age for females was 22.46± 2.44 and for males was 24.38± 4.19. The participants in the study came from various disciplines including laboratory science, medicine, pharmacology, emergency medicine, obstetrics, radiology, operating room, health technology, and nursing.

Most students lived in dormitories (50%) and 46.1% at home, with 3.9% living in rental houses. The students' educational level ranged between the third semester and twelfth semester.

Among those participating in the study, 67 patients (65.7%) consumed coffee, 90 cases (88.2%) used tea, and 1 (1%) took a drug.

For comparing the mean scores of students and the component of sleep, Spearman test (non-normal data) was employed, where a significant correlation was observed between GPA and hours taking to fall asleep ( Table 1 ).

The Relationship Between Sleep Components and GPA in KUMS Students

Similarly, there was a relationship between sleep components and tea, coffee, hypnotic drugs, and drug ( Table 2 ).

The Relationship Between Sleep Components and Type of Drink or Drug in KUMS Students Kermanshah

On the other hand, independent t -test between Pittsburgh scores in the two groups did not show any significant differences. Nevertheless, impaired sleep quality was moderate to severe in both groups ( Table 3 ).

The Difference Between the Mean Pittsburg Scores in Two Groups (Students with High and Low GPA)

The results indicated that impaired sleep quality between the two groups was not statistically significant. Although the relationship between sleeping and academic success has been introduced in medical literature since a long time, there still no definitive answer in this case. In a meta-analysis study conducted to examine the impact of sleep quality, sleep duration, and sleepiness on adolescents’ academic performance, although all three variables were related to academic achievement (positive relationship between sleep quality and duration of sleep and negative association with sleepiness), this relationship was very trivial. 1

On the other hand, another systematic review study of descriptive studies concluded that sleep disturbance adversely affects different areas such as general health, social status, and academic performance. However, longitudinal studies are required for a more accurate examination. 20 , 21 In an another systematic review of other authors, the authors concluded that under-sleeping would have an impact on learning of some students, and could have a detrimental effect on academic achievement. 22 Further, another review study also suggests a conclusive recommendation which has to be done to modify sleep so that it can be used for academic success. 23

The present study was conducted to explore whether sleep disorder can influence academic achievement or not. Accordingly, a specific sample of accomplished or unachieved students were selected to compare the quality and quantity of sleep. However, no significant difference was between the two groups. Other studies have reached similar conclusions.

Sweileh and his colleagues in a study on 400 Palestinian students concluded that academic achievement was not correlated with sleep quality. 15 In another study on 189 medical students in Pakistan, there was no significant association between lack of sleep and test scores. 16 In this regard, there is a possibility of sleep disorder in students, and this possibility has been expressed for the lack of academic achievement, but it has not been clearly explained. 11 In another study, sleepiness during the day (not the quality and quantity of sleep) was identified as an independent predictor of academic success. 5 In a similar study again the time it takes to fall sleep and the wake-up time (not the total amount of sleep) were associated with academic success, 14 where the total amount of sleep in adolescents with a dynamic mind was not related to their academic achievement. 24 In contrast to such studies that emphasize lack of association or low association, there are other studies that have observed an inverse relationship between sleep disturbance and academic achievement. In a study on 491 first-, second-, and third-year medical students, there was a correlation between academic performance and the amount of nighttime sleep as well as daytime sleepiness. 25 In a similar study on medical students, lack of sleep at night, late going to bed, and daytime sleepiness had a negative effect on the academic performance of the students. 26 Notably, sleep disturbances are likely to yield a negative impact on academic performance, thereby causing a vicious cycle. 25 , 27 Taken together, the studies suggest that most studies have mentioned poor quality sleep among the majority of students. 3 , 26 , 27 Accordingly, concluding the relationship between common sleep disturbance and academic performance should be done with caution. The reason is that academic success can be affected by different factors including the level of family income, the evolutionary process, intake of supplements and vitamins, family size, social media dependency, addiction to social networks, and social issues. In studies these extraneous factors are not under control, thus emphasizing the fact that the presence or absence of correlation between sleep quality and academic performance should be done with caution and using longitudinal studies.

Limitations

The main limitation of this study was the small sample size, but a specific sampling method was chosen to overcome this shortcoming. Another limitation of the study was not controlling for confounding factors in the study. Based on the results of this study and similar studies, further research should be conducted with a better design.

The results indicated no significant difference between sleep quality in achieved and unachieved academic performance. Nevertheless, to conclude with more certainty, longitudinal studies should be performed to control confounding factors.

Acknowledgments

The authors of this article appreciate the collaborations of the Sleep Disorders Research Center.

Funding Statement

Funding for this research was provided by the Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Sleep Disorders Research Center (93026).

Data Sharing Statement

The datasets used and analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Ethics Approval and Consent to Participate

Informed consent obtained from all participants in the study and this study conducted by the Sleep Disorders Research Center. Identity letter obtained from deputy of research and technology to collecting data. Ethics approval was received from the ethics committee of deputy of research and technology – Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, number 93026 on 6 April 2013.

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research supervision in distance learning: issues and challenges

Asian Association of Open Universities Journal

ISSN : 2414-6994

Article publication date: 28 April 2020

Issue publication date: 3 July 2020

The purpose of this study is to explore and highlight the issues and challenges teachers face while supervising thesis and projects in distance/online learning mode.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a cross-sectional qualitative study. Grounded theory approach using Gioia methodology has been applied. Semi-structured interviews of 16 research supervisors have been conducted to explore the issues and challenges faced by the supervisors in guiding research students. Purposive sampling is used to select the subjects for data collection.

Results of the study reveal that the time constraints, official restrictions, irregular contacts and technology are the main issues faced by supervisors. Whereas student–supervisor interaction, diversity, perceptions, virtual communities and academic collaboration are the biggest challenges for the supervisors in distance learning. Lastly, it is found that students' attitude and supervisors' mindset are the key success factors in distance research supervision.

Practical implications

Findings of this paper will help institutions particularly in Asia, to strategically review their research programs to make these programs more effective. Effectiveness will encompass two things, timely completion and novel research. If these two things are addressed efficiently, comparison of distance learning with conventional learning will be more favorable for distance learning.

Originality/value

This study will be helpful for the top management of distance/online learning institutes to better equip their teachers and students to complete their research endeavors accordingly. This is an empirical research based on primary data collected from the research supervisors currently supervising thesis/projects at Virtual University of Pakistan.

  • Distance learning
  • Higher education
  • Research supervision

Zaheer, M. and Munir, S. (2020), "Research supervision in distance learning: issues and challenges", Asian Association of Open Universities Journal , Vol. 15 No. 1, pp. 131-143. https://doi.org/10.1108/AAOUJ-01-2020-0003

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2020, Muhammad Zaheer and Saba Munir

Published in Asian Association of Open Universities Journal . Published by Emerald Publishing Limited. This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) license. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article (for both commercial and non-commercial purposes), subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. The full terms of this license may be seen at http://creativecommons.org/licences/by/4.0/legalcode

1. Introduction

Pakistan is a big country in terms of population as it is world's sixth-most populous country, to this large population, provision of education is a daunting task. Large population with small number of qualified faculty members resulted in shortage of institutional capacity to cater the needs of education. One of the solutions to this problem was establishing distance learning (DL) institutions and Government of Pakistan took the initiative in this regard. Currently two distance/online universities are working in Pakistan, Allama Iqbal Open University, established in 1974 and Virtual University of Pakistan established in 2002. Moreover, many conventional universities have also started DL programs.

DL improves the access to education for all the aspiring students. DL overcomes the issues of capacity, infrastructure and faculty. It provides standardized quality content to all the students without any discrimination.

Like conventional system, DL is also not free from certain shortcomings, for example, burden of learning is shifted on the learner (though flexibility is there), there is too much diversity in the same course, more importantly student and teacher are separated by time and space leading to asynchronous mode. Though, by using modern information and communication technology (ICT), universities are trying hard to be synchronous whenever possible. These issues of learning are exacerbated when students enter their research phase like research thesis or research project. Research requires a closer contact and frequent interaction between supervisor and the student. And the flexibility of DL can become an obstacle to complete research with quality within specific time period.

In research, supervisors' responsibility increases exponentially as each student is working on a different topic and requires customized mentoring. This poses a bigger challenge to the supervisors to take a student along the bumpy road of research with ease by maintaining quality and following the timeline given by the university.

This research is focused on exploring the issues and challenges faced by the research supervisors in DL. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore the problems and issues faced by the students in DL, while issues of supervisors need more attention.

Primary data have been collected from the teachers who are supervising research theses or projects in DL. Semi-structured interviews have been used for data collection with informed consent. Grounded theory has been used as qualitative technique for exploring the issues and challenges in research supervision.

2. Literature review

Students in higher education generally struggle to complete their research endeavor in specified time ( Costa, 2018 ). This problem exacerbates when it comes to students studying in DL. Irrespective of the mode of education (DL or conventional), supervisors play a vital role in research supervision. Supervisors' motivation to supervise the students is very important ( Askew et al. , 2016 ). According to Askew et al. (2016) , four factors that affect research supervisors are workload agreements, time pressures, quality of students and recognition of the supervisors' contribution.

Supervision is a social interaction between two people who might have diverging views but same objectives. Supervision is defined as “intensive, interpersonally focused one-to-one relationship between the supervisor and the student” ( Wood and Louw, 2018 ). Supervision plays vital role during thesis or research work and the relationship between the supervisor and the student determines the successful completion of the research thesis ( Da Costa, 2016 ). Increasing the throughput of thesis students is the main focus of the universities these days due to certain time restrictions imposed by the Higher Education Commissions. On the other hand, it enhances the reputation of the institutions as well as provides the economic benefits in terms of more admissions. The completion rate and the quality of thesis can be increased by improving the processes associated with thesis in organization and among those factors supervisor–student interaction is the most important one ( Aghaee, 2015 ). In online and distance learning (ODL), the role of supervisor becomes even critical where a supervisor is required to build a culture of productive interaction with his/her supervisee ( Easton, 2003 ).

In DL mode where student–teacher interaction lacks face-to-face interaction and physical absence of the supervisors hinders the quick relationship building. ODL poses various threats to the students as they might feel alone and dejected and physical distance from the supervisor may make them skeptical about the quality of their work. In such virtual mode, the responsibility of the supervisors increases in building an interactive setup where the students should feel confident and supported by the supervisor during the whole time period of research work ( Donnelly and Fitzmaurice, 2013 ). The successful completion of research work or a thesis depends on multiple factors pertaining to supervisor and supervisee. These factors can be experience, attitude toward the completion of the thesis and the ability of the student. A study conducted by Guin (2019) on the social work programs offered in Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) where it is mandatory for supervisor and the supervisee to meet, it was found that student–teacher interaction was the biggest challenge due to distance between the study center and students' residence and socioeconomic background of the students.

A graduate class usually is a mix of diverse students in terms of age, culture, experience, ability, etc. ( Abiddin et al. , 2011 ). This diversity is even more noticeable in DL where a class may consist of a student from a metropolitan city or a far flung area, a full-time student or a job holder, a student with clear idea of his research topic or a student having no idea of his topic or the methodology he/she is going to adopt. These variations in the ability and knowledge of students make supervision more challenging for the supervisors teaching in distance education. Many studies have been conducted on the issues and challenges faced by students but lesser studies are available on the difficulties of the supervisors who are the key player of research process.

According to Lessing and Schulze (2002) , a supervisor has to establish a balance among multiple factors like supporting students, having expertise in research, providing positive criticism and bringing creativity. He needs to work on various fronts to bring quality research work by providing guidance to the students in a way that leads to innovative ideas while keeping in mind the timelines and rules established by the organization. These tasks become even more horrendous in DL mode. Student persistence is a key element in ODL, Au et al. (2018) recommend that to enhance student persistence advisors should be appointed for proper guidance of students and lesson videos should be kept short for better attention.

According to MacKeogh (2006) , distance teaching mode poses many challenges for the instructors including student's access to the resources and increased chances of deception by students in their work as being distant it sometimes become difficult for a teacher to analyze that whether the work submitted by student is really done by him, in other words authenticity of student's work cannot be ensured easily as compared to conventional mode. Lack of research skills, as Lindner et al. (2001) conceptualized that lack of on-campus interpersonal dimension can be a disadvantage for research students as face-to-face interaction helps them in acquisition of research knowledge.

Social presence and interaction is enhanced by the nonverbal gestures and cues that help students understand the point of discussion more effectively. In the absence of nonverbal communication, distance supervision becomes more challenging for the supervisors and they need to exert extra efforts to compensate it ( Lindlof and Shatzer, 1998 ). In the same way, teacher cannot guess when student is bored, confused or frustrated. This makes the participants less social and more task-oriented. Moreover it takes long for a supervisor and student in DL to develop social relation as compared to conventional, face-to-face supervision. According to Stacey and Fountain (2001) , power and status differences cannot easily be perceived in DL. Although it is considered good in building trusting social interaction, but in some cases it may distort the respect element associated with a teacher. Another issue faced by off campus students is the difficulty in accessing the appropriate resources like software, research tools or articles for literature review, that ultimately affect the quality of research work; the main focus of the instructor.

Butcher and Sieminski (2006) stated that face-to-face interaction between student and teacher is vital for the motivation, confidence building and knowledge enhancement of supervisee and distance supervision sometimes becomes passive due to lack of face-to-face interaction, causing dissatisfaction among the students that becomes the biggest challenge for the supervisors ( MacKeogh, 2006 ). But, the effective and appropriate use of ICT can help providing a supportive environment to the thesis students and supervisors. According to study conducted by Iwasaki et al. (2019) no significant difference was found between face-to-face tutoring and online tutoring using ICT. ICT can be of great assistance in providing frequent feedbacks and high level of interaction between supervisor and supervisee ( Hansen and Hansson, 2015 ). Virtual meetings with supervisee can save the traveling time of supervisors and allow them to arrange meetings in flexible timings that ultimately increases the student-teacher interaction ( Aghaee et al. , 2013 ). This interaction only depends on the preference of the supervisor, for example when and how often he/she wants to meet his/her supervisee ( Karunaratne, 2018 ). So it can be concluded that with or without technology, the supervisor is the key element in the research process and universities should focus on resolving the issue and challenges faced by the supervisor if they want to provide quality supervision to the students or want to attain maximum satisfaction and motivation for them. Unfortunately most of the studies have focused on the issues faced by the students of DL while ignoring the supervisor or teacher end. This study particularly has focused on the challenges faced by the supervisors.

3. Methodology

This is a qualitative study and inductive approach has been used. Philosophical assumption is interpretivism, and grounded theory approach is used to collect and analyze the data.

How long have you been supervising thesis/research projects?

Please explain your supervision experience in DL.

Have you also supervised students in conventional system? If yes how was the experience?

What issues have you faced while supervising students in VU (both thesis and projects)?

In your opinion what are the biggest challenges of research supervision in DL?

How things can be improved? Suggestions.

Demographic data of the informants were also collected, which have been shown in Table 1 .

All the interviews were audio recorded with the permission of informants. 16 interviews were conducted, according to Steinar (2007) in qualitative research sample size ranging from 5 to 25 is sufficient. However, in grounded theory we follow theoretical sampling, which means data are collected till data saturation is achieved ( Glaser and Strauss, 1967 ). In this study, data saturation was there after 10 interviews, six more interviews were conducted to validate the findings of the previous interviews. After each interview, audio recording was transcribed and main themes were extracted. Gioia et al. 's (2013) methodology was applied, in this methodology main ideas (themes) are called first-order categories, from these categories, second-order themes are developed and at the end aggregate dimensions are extracted from second-order themes. For each question data were analyzed and compared with other responses to have constant comparison ( Glaser and Strauss, 1967 ). This adds to the validity of the data.

First-order categories are the initial codes generated from the responses of informants, these codes or categories resemble to what Corbin and Strauss (1990) termed as open coding, a large number of codes generally emerge in the beginning. As the data collection and analysis continues, similarities and differences among these initially developed codes are visible, similar categories are merged and this reduces the number of initially generated categories, these categories are second-order themes, similar to axial coding ( Corbin and Strauss, 1990 ). Second-order analysis is more abstract and theoretical in nature, it is analyzed if the emerging concepts explain the phenomena under observation ( Gioia et al. , 2013 ). After second-order analysis, second-order themes are further explored to merge into aggregate dimensions. The pictorial representation of this process is called data structure. Figures 1–3 represent the data structures of the responses of the informants.

4. Data analysis

Table 1 shows the information of informants. VUP is just 17 years old institution and it has relatively young faculty members as compared to other universities. Out of 16 informants, 12 belong to VUP and rest four belongs to conventional universities. It is noteworthy that authors of this study have 12 years of experience in DL.

VUP has a good number of females working in the faculty, which is quite representative of Pakistan's population mix. Average age of the VUP informants is 37 years approximately, which shows that VUP has quite young faculty members.

Figure 1 , represents the data structure of issues faced by the supervisors in DL. Five second-order themes emerged which made up an aggregate dimension “communication barriers”.

Time constraints are the most frequently cited problem of the students in DL by the research supervisors. DL is an opportunity for those students who cannot attend regular classes in conventional class room environment. So these students are either living in remote areas where they do not have the access to higher education institutions or they are working students. Working students have their own issues. Due to their time schedule in office they are unable to contact their supervisors as scheduled. This makes their research work a bumpy road to travel. As teachers/supervisors and students have the same working hours, so, there is a clash of time. As one of the supervisors reported “students have to take off from office to contact me for research discussion”. This is not always possible for the working students to take leave from the job, but some students do, according to one informant “my student always came for discussion on voice call whenever I had scheduled him”. These constraints prohibit students to contact their supervisors for mentoring; hence the result is delayed research.

Another factor is the official restrictions of the working students, some students are working in law enforcement agencies and have the official restriction on the use Internet and even cell phones, this aggravates the communication gap. Sometimes they are deployed in far areas where they have no access to networks. So, this becomes a hurdle in the communication.

Irregular contact with the supervisor is yet another issue, students in DL are not bound to appear in class as they are in conventional mode, and attendance is not an issue (that's why they are in DL). This also becomes an unnecessary hurdle, students sometimes become complacent, they become dormant and lose contact with their superior as one professor told “one of my students did not appear for 2 yrs then came and asked for extension, in conventional system you find student who is slow you ask him/her what's going on so you may say something, in DL it is not possible” this professor is basically teaching in conventional system and also supervising thesis in DL. Remaining away for some time has some influence on the supervisors as well, irregular contact results in dissatisfaction of the supervisor, one supervisor explained “when any student remains away for quite some time, even I forget what I had suggested and what was in my mind, I have to start from scratch and this is really depressing”. There are some genuine reasons for remaining dormant including marriage, pregnancy and official deployment in any mission.

Technological issues also restrict contact which has been termed here as tech-issues. These issues include non-availability of Internet, Internet speed, interrupted power supply and students' expertise to use IT devices and applications. Due to infrastructure issues, provision of Internet services is not up to the mark in certain areas which becomes a hurdle in contacting the supervisor. This leads to interrupted communication which damages the learning process. According to one supervisor “when they (students) come online there are issues of technology like Internet speed or students' understanding of technology”. Sometimes students are unable to use the application effectively which is being used for communication, as one supervisor complained “we are stuck in tech issues then on research, initial interactions are just focused on training the students on how to use this application for voice or video calls”. Sometimes there are issues of electricity supply, though university is well equipped to cater such issues but students in far areas face problems of irregular power supply.

Another aspect is the official restriction on the use of certain user applications by some countries especially in Gulf. This becomes a big barrier and restricts student–teacher interactions. Students use proxies to bypass these restrictions but these proxies sometimes work and sometimes not. Overall academic interaction is severely affected by these restrictions.

These second-order themes, time constraints, official restrictions, irregular contacts, tech and legal issues make up an aggregate dimension “Communication Barrier”. Communication barrier is a major issue in DL, though flexibility has its own benefits but in research endeavors distance can make a difference. If student–supervisor interactions are regular without any delays, this can foster this relationship and let students finish their research projects/theses well within time.

Figure 2 shows the data structure of challenges faced by the research supervisors during their supervision in DL mode. Five second-order themes have emerged from the data, which are discussed here.

Student–supervisor interaction is at the very heart of research endeavor in any mode. Higher the number of effective interactions, greater are the chances of good research output. Though, technology has overcome most of the issues and barriers of interactions, yet, according to some supervisors face-to-face interactions have to add value. According to one supervisor “thesis supervision is not just an academic activity it is more than that, it is an overall grooming activity for student in which student not only learns about research but other aspects of life as well.” This factor is quite peculiar and needs to be addressed for example according to another supervisor “lack of physical contact does not let student teacher relationship build, we cannot motivate them.”

Students in DL are quite diverse; Pakistan is a big country with cultural diversity and students from diverse background are present. Sometimes, this diversity is good and at times perplexing for the supervisor. Students from different regions require different levels of mentoring. Supervisors have to adjust accordingly. Moreover, this diversity is also found in the subjects, for example, Psychology, Management Sciences or Mathematics. One respondent explained “it is very difficult to explain the feedback on student's work in my subject as it requires different software.”

This is quite common that students in distance/online learning join virtual communities and groups. Not everything found on the Internet is authentic; students discuss their research topics and methodologies there, and are influenced by the discussions on these forums and they then try to convince their supervisors. These suggestions unnecessarily affect the research process. Students unintentionally, sometimes, reveal their novel research ideas in blogs/groups which are then adapted by others. This is very serious matter. As reported by one supervisor “my student who was at data analysis stage of his thesis, innocently shared the data file on Internet, which was quickly used by someone else, and wrote a paper, moreover the paper was also uploaded, when we checked the plagiarism, my student's original work was then plagiarized”. Such online communities pose an extra challenge to research supervision.

Students' perceptions regarding DL and supervision also bring a hard challenge for the supervisors. There are certain myths among the students that research in DL is tough. As revealed by a respondent “negativity regarding DL is quite common that it is difficult to complete thesis in DL, students are influenced by such remarks so ultimately it takes more time to complete.” Since there is lack of physical interaction, so supervisors feel they are not able to convince or motivate students at times. Students do spread positive and negative word of mouth about supervisors which also affects the minds of students and they request for supervisor change. Some students think that they cannot complete their research in DL, these are the students with low self-efficacy. Supervisors have to keep their students motivated that they can do it.

Research is a joint venture of student and supervisor, after successful completion of the project/thesis, next step should be the publication of the research paper. But this has been a rare phenomenon in DL as reported by the supervisors. There are some students who after the completion of their thesis got their papers published with their supervisors. But in general it does not happen. Generally, students do not remain in contact with the supervisor, according to one supervisor “once thesis is done students no more contact you, like I had a student whose work was good but he disappeared as soon as passed out, I urged him to present and publish his work, but he never did, which is really a drawback.” Student–supervisor academic collaboration is very important factor for research publications that needs to be addressed.

These five second-order themes, namely, student–supervisor interaction, diversity, perceptions, virtual communities and academic collaboration contribute to aggregate dimension challenges in DL.

These are not small challenges in a country like Pakistan where DL is still fighting for its recognition as the equally effective education mode like conventional mode.

Data structure shown in Figure 3 depicts the key success factors in distance supervision. Two second-order themes attitude and mindset were discovered form the interviews.

According to supervisors, in DL students' attitude is a critical factor. Students should be self-motivated and should have high self-efficacy. Students having internal locus of control are the best for DL as in DL burden of knowledge acquisition is borne by the learner in general, this mode requires a persistent motivational effort on the part of the students ( Zaheer, 2013 ). Students who are ready to put more efforts finish their research work well within time, according to a senior research supervisor “some of my students who were motivated enough completed their research in one semester and they were position holders of their sessions”. This is important that whether a student is a full-time student or working student, enthusiasm and self-discipline are very important. As explained by another supervisor “my working students came on the scheduled time on voice call for guidance, I seldom had to wait”. It is clear that students' own positive attitude is the key, when they follow the instructions and seek guidance they are able to complete their work accordingly.

Second important theme that emerged is the mindset of supervisors. If supervisors are of the view that supervising a research work from the distance is a difficult or uphill task they are less likely to motivate their students. As shared by one supervisor “in my opinion conventional and distance have not much difference, we have just made up our mind that virtual is difficult.” Positive mindset of the mentor is also critical; supervising from the distance may require different skills. Comments of another supervisor were “as instructors we should realize the limitations of students, our mindset needs to be changed.” And “if proper guideline is given to students they follow the supervisors”. It was also expressed “distance learning students are technically self-reliant on IT.” So it is very important to acknowledge that these students are self-confident and self-reliant. This quality of students is a quality that is hallmark of these students in general. According to another supervisor “online guidance is better than conventional face to face, you can give more time to students, they do not have to travel and bother too much, to meet the supervisor”.

Students' attitude and supervisors' mindset are the factors that are the key success factors in DL research. Positive student attitude and supervisor mindset are the factors that make DL a successful experience.

5. Conclusion and recommendations

The present study has focused on the issues and challenges of research supervision in DL. It was found that time constraints, irregular contact, technological issues, legal issues and official restrictions are the issues in DL that create communication barriers between students and supervisors. Whereas student–supervisor interaction, student diversity, virtual communities, students perceptions toward DL and academic collaboration are the main challenges in the DL supervision.

On the basis of supervisors' suggestions it is recommended that institutions should facilitate face-to-face interactions more frequently with the students who are involved in research. Though, technology has its advantages but it is not without issues. For example issues of bandwidth are always there in Asian countries, such distortions hinder communication. Institutions should adopt a two prong strategy to overcome these issues; they should increase the number of study centers where students can go and use technology to connect to their supervisors, since bandwidth of home users is not that good; and if possible, students who are geographically nearer to supervisors should be allocated to them so that more frequent face-to-face interaction may take place.

Institutions should invest more in gaining access to online research databases so that the access to online databases of students is also enhanced. Moreover, students should be facilitated to participate in research workshops, conferences and seminars to sharpen their research skills.

There is also a need of specific trainings for the teachers in DL, they are away from their students and at times they fail to exhibit empathy which may result in communication barriers. Special research initiatives are required to develop training modules for online/DL teachers and research supervisors. Similarly, at the start of study program, effective orientation sessions need to be arranged by the universities to acclimatize the students with DL environment and use of technology so that they learn how to work independently and effectively. Moreover, at the start of research projects/theses, students should be given effective orientations and refreshers regarding research, data analysis and related software.

Findings of this paper will help institutions particularly in Asia, to strategically review their research programs to make these programs more effective. Effectiveness will encompass two things, timely completion and novel research. If these two things are addressed efficiently, comparison of DL with conventional learning will be more favorable for DL.

irregular student research paper

Communication barriers

irregular student research paper

Challenges in distance learning

irregular student research paper

Key success factors

Information of supervisors

Note(s) : *AP: Assistant professor, *DL: Distance learning

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MacKeogh , K. ( 2006 ), “ Supervising undergraduate research using online and peer supervision ”, in Huba , M. (Ed.), 7th International Virtual University Conference, Bratislava 14-15 December 2006 , Technical University Bratislava , Bratislava , pp. 19 - 24 .

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Analysis of Life and Studies of Irregular Student

Analysis of Life and Studies of Irregular Student

Objectives of the Research 1. This researchgives knowledge to other Fine Arts students of the University of Sto. Tomas about the life of the irregular students they encounter every day. 2. To tackle the main cause of why they become irregular students. 3. To enlighten other students that being an irregular doesn’t always mean you failed a subject. 4. To find out how irregular students are affected by their situation. 5. To know how they adapt to the changes that usually comes with being an irregular student 6. Determine the year they usually start being an irregular 7.

To imply awareness to each one about this certain issue III. Problem What are the causes of being an irregular student? What are its effects to the students who are in this situation? How does it feel to be an irregular? What are the advantages and disadvantages of being one? How does being an irregular affect a student’s social life and studies? The first thought that comes in mind when students see an irregular student is perhaps they failed the subject they were supposed to be in. Their reasons may vary. And one could probably be failure to meet the requirements of his past subjects but is not always the case.

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There are also other reasons that cause these students to be in this certain situation. Different students from the College of Fine Arts and Design of different year levels and majors will be chosen randomly to be interviewed to enlighten us about the causes that make a student an irregular. Can the reason be because of having difficulty in understanding the lessons involved in a subject? Is the student involved in extracurricular activities? Lack of money, failure due to absences, etc. Being irregular doesn’t always have to be seen negatively. As mentioned earlier, there are other causes of being one.

There may be disadvantages but there are certainly advantages and this depends on the irregular student faced with this certain situation. Each irregular student may have reasons but these reasons that we really are to find out form the irregular students themselves, should be for their good and the good of the other students who fails to understand their situation. By being able to give answer to each question, we would be able to find more about the lives of irregular students in the College of Fine Arts and Design of the University of Santo Tomas.

We would be enlightened about the main cause and its effect on their social lives and studies. IV. Introduction Oftentimes we think of being an irregular as a taboo, students who do not pass certain subject requirements are doomed to repeat it, thus making a bad mark on his or her transcript of records. And worst, making an impression of failing. In this research we create a whole new perspective of irregular students. As much as possible, this research will analyze the various circumstances that bring students to certain situations like these.

There will always be different sides to a certain story and this must definitely apply to how irregular students are viewed. Irregulars are misunderstood people, some think they do not have high regard for their education, like they just think of it as a free gift given to all, but people don’t really know why they became an irregular in the first place. A survey will be conducted to determine the main cause of being an irregular. There has always been one initial reaction regarding this topic and this research aims to give answers to the many questions that go on concerning a position that irregular student are put into.

Irregulars are students who skip year levels, depending on the subject they failed in (if or example this was the reason); they do not have a permanent block and a given schedule. Irregular students handle their own time, they are to fix their desired schedule on their own, so if he or she is lucky enough, he or she can choose a class that suites his or her preferences. Irregular students are oftentimes the ones who have the most friends because they get to meet and stay with new sets of classmates every semester, if they choose a different class each semester.

But not all are can adapt easily to the many changes that go with being an irregular student , thinking that they are better off focusing on passing the subject on their own to get back to where they were really supposed to be. Irregular students are oftentimes stereotyped. And as a result, they begin to stereotype. As this certain situation is being explained, other people outside the group of irregular students and irregular students themselves begin to understand that being one may affect lives greatly. It may be negatively or positively depending on that certain person.

This research will give a clear statement on the life of irregular students in the College of Fine Arts and Design in the University of Sto. Tomas. This research involves a number of students that can surely relate to this certain situation. Through this research, we are able to impart knowledge, to enlighten other students about a situation like this. To tackle the main cause of why some students become irregular. We are also able to find out the effects of this on the life of a student, his studies and social life. This research will give clear understanding and awareness to those who know little of it.

By being successful in conducting this research, people will be given clarification of what irregular students go through in the College of Fine Arts and Design of the University of Santo Tomas. Chapter 2 The researchers have decided to build a study on the causes and effects of being an irregular student in the College of Fine Arts and Design. This issue has been significant in all the universities due to its increasing number. But first, let us define what a regular and irregular means. Regular is for something to be normal, usual or customary. Irregular is for something to be not according to rule or unusual.

In relation to our study, regular students are those who are following the normal flow of the given subjects to be passed, while irregular students are those who may have difficulties or problems in their given subjects. Those problems and difficulties may be defined or given, but needs further explanation. “There have been a number of studies researching the factors that affect a person’s grade point average (GPA). Many of these factors include family life, personality characteristics, employment, and extracurricular activities. Lee and Lee (2007) found that family closeness is a key factor in determining a child’s academic performance.

Their results indicated that students who rated their family closeness at a higher level displayed an ability to adjust to their schools better, which could enhance academic performance because they were more comfortable in their environment. Although not suggesting that the closeness of the family is a predictor of GPA, the Halawah study (2006) did indicate that children whose parents were involved in their education and encouraged them to do their work had significantly higher GPAs. ” (The Impact of Sleepiness Levels on Academic Achievement for College Students Vol.

7) Though it is not a requirement to have personal closeness with the family members, the study have concluded that having supportive parents gives a huge impact on the student’s academic performance. The less the support the student get, the less he/she may respond to the academic requirements. “Cheung and Kwok (1998) indicated that a student’s participation in extracurricular activities may not help their academic achievement and might actually harm it. This might also include employment during school months. Working an excessive number of hours (35 hours or more per week) may have unfavorable consequences for students.

Kulm and Cramer (2006) suggested that students who worked this many hours spent less time preparing for class, which resulted in a lower GPA. Students who worked excessive amounts of hours also did not have time to get as much sleep. ” (The Impact of Sleepiness Levels on Academic Achievement for College Students Vol. 7) In college, there a lot of activities to be considered, there are organizations that allow students to enhance their given talent. But those activities should be balance with the student’s academic performance.

The imbalance of extracurricular activities and academics may lead to failure of minor or worst, major subjects, which should be highly prioritized. Another problem in academic failure is the imbalance of work and academics. In the Philippines, it is normal for college to students to be working while continuing their studies. But, according to Kulm and Cramer (2006) these students who work excessive hours does not take enough sleep to obtain energy to their next activity which usually is attending their classes. For some health reasons, sleep is a very important part of the life of a normal human being.

Having or not having a proper sleep effects the activity of a person during non-sleeping hours. Murphy, Richard, Masaki, and Segalowitz (2005) studied the effects of wakefulness on test taking. The tests were given after four hours of wakefulness as well as after 20 hours of wakefulness. They concluded that participants were less able to recognize mistakes that were made during the tests after extended wakefulness. “College students are well known for sleep deprivation; therefore, Buboltz, Brown, and Barlow (2001) researched the sleep quality of this age group.

There was a high percentage of sleep problems, which supported past research that college students suffer more from sleep problems than the “normal” adult population. McClelland and Pilcher (2007) also examined college students’ self-report on sleepiness. They surveyed 14 undergraduate students and studied their self-assessment of sleepiness during a 28-hour period of sleep deprivation. At the beginning of the night the participants were able to separate sleepiness into two dimensions, state and behavioral. However, as the night progressed the participants could not distinguish between the two dimensions.

Baranski (2007) observed adults during a 28-hour period of sleep deprivation as well. The study focused on the metacognitive ability to self-monitor cognitive performance during sleep deprivation. They found that persons’ ability to assess their performance accuracy did not change significantly with sleep deprivation. ” (The Impact of Sleepiness Levels on Academic Achievement for College Students Vol. 7) The study on causes and effects of irregular student’s is very wide and broad. There are a lot of factors to be considered. According to Hansen, Joe (B.

2000) race, gender and sex can affect student’s performance McDill, E. , 1989, Levin, H. , 1986) B. A Chansarkar and A. Mishaeloudis (2001), explained that it is also found that those who live near the university perform better than other students A lot of college students in Manila are living in dormitories, which is because majority of them lives or come from different places around the country. It is believed the Manila is where the best schools and universities are found. It is concluded by McDill, E. , 1989, Levin, H. , 1986) B. A Chansarkar and A.

Mishaeloudis (2001), that those who live near the university perform better than other students. This just shows that distance is also a factor on a students’ academic performance. Flood, J. , Brensinger, J. , Cheek, S. (2001). The Impact of Sleepiness Levels on Academic Achievement for College Students Vol. 7. www. con. org. January 10, 2012. http://www. kon. org/urc/v7/flood. html Hijazi, S. T. , Naqvi, R. (no date). Factors Affecting Students’ Performance. http://www. scribd. com. January 10, 2012. http://www. scribd. com/doc/5486916/FACTORS-AFFECTING-STUDENTS-PERFORMANCE Lee, P. , & Lee, C. C.

(2007). The relationship of family closeness with college students’ self-regulated learning and school adjustment. College Student Journal. 41 (4), 779-787. Halawah, I. (2006). The effect of motivation, family environment, and student characteristics on academic achievement. Journal of Instructional Psychology. 33 (2), 91-99. Cheung, C. , & Kwok, S. (1998). Activities and academic achievement among college students. The Journal of Genetic Psychology. 159 (2), 147-162. Kulm, T. L. , & Cramer, S. (2006). The relationships of student employment to student role, family relationships, social interactions and persistence.

College Student Journal. 40 (4), 927-938. Chapter 3 I. Research Design Descriptive statistics is the term given to the analysis of data that helps describe, show or summarize data in a meaningful way such that, for example, patterns might emerge from the data. They are used in the first instance to get a feel for the data, in the second for use in the statistical test themselves, and in the third to indicate the error associated with results and graphical output. Descriptive statistics do not, however, allow us to make conclusions beyond the data we have analyzed or reach conclusions regarding any hypotheses we might have made.

They are simply a way to describe our data. Descriptive statistics is distinguished from inferential statistics, in that descriptive statistics aim to summarize a data set, rather than use the data to learn about the population that the data are thought to represent. This generally means that descriptive statistics, unlike inferential statistics, are not developed on the basis of probability theory. Even when a data analysis draws its main conclusions using inferential statistics, descriptive statistics are generally also presented.

Descriptive statistics are very important, as if we simply presented our raw data it would be hard to visualize what the data was showing, especially if there was a lot of it. Descriptive statistics therefore allow us to present the data in a more meaningful way which allows simpler interpretation of the data. For example, if we had the results of 100 pieces of students’ coursework, we may be interested in the overall performance of those students. We would also be interested in the distribution or spread of the marks. Descriptive statistics allow us to do this. II. Research Method

We used the survey method as a way to gather the information that we needed. A survey is a written output given to the respondents to fill up the needed information. We used this method because it only takes a short amount of time to answer. The respondent would only have to tick on the statements that correspond to his answers. As for us, we could give out the surveys all at once to all the respondents. Also, because a survey is a written output, it is easier to compile the data that we have gathered. It is also easier to interpret the information. III. Research Instrument

SAMPLE QUESTIONAIRE: NAME: ________________________________ AGE:____ YEAR:______COURSE:____________________ GENDER: MALE FEMALE WHEN DID YOU START BECOMING AN IRREGULAR STUDENT? 1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year WHAT TYPE OF SUBJECT CAUSED YOU TO BE AN IRREGULAR STUDENT? MINOR MAJOR WHAT ARE THE POSSIBLE REASONS WHY YOU BECAME AN IRREGULAR STUDENT (PLEASE CHECK ONE) FAILING MARK FAILURE DUE TO ABSENCES FINANCIAL PROBLEMS FAMILY PROBLEM DROPPED A SUBJECT CHANGE COURSE BEING SINGULARY HATED BY THE PROFESSOR CAN YOU EASILY ADAPT TO THE CHANGES OF BEING A IRREGULAR STUDENT?

_________________________________________________________________________________ DOES CHOOSING YOUR OWN SCHEDULE MORE CONVIENT FOR YOU? WHY? __________________________________________________________________________________ IV. Research Respondent The study will have irregular students of CFAD in all levels. All of these participants were selected through random sampling. This sampling method is conducted where each member of a population has an equal opportunity to become part of the sample. As all the participants have an equal chance of becoming a research participant, this is to be the most efficient sampling procedure.

In order to conduct this sampling strategy, the researcher defines the population first, lists down all the members of the population, and then selects members to make the sample. For this purpose, a self-administered survey questionnaire is given to the respondents to answer. The irregular students assessed to answer the following questionnaire. No inclusion criteria were applied for the individual applicants; hence, all were made part of the population. However, due to time and budget constraints, the researcher opted for a smaller sample size. Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

Summary A survey will be conducted to determine the main cause of being an irregular. There has always been one initial reaction regarding this topic and this research aims to give answers to the many questions that go on concerning a position that irregular student are put into. Irregular students are oftentimes stereotyped. And as a result, they begin to stereotype. As this certain situation is being explained, other people outside the group of irregular students and irregular students themselves begin to understand that being one may affect lives greatly.

It may be negatively or positively depending on that certain person. This research will give a clear statement on the life of irregular students in the College of Fine Arts and Design in the University of Sto. Tomas. This research involves a number of students that can surely relate to this certain situation. Through this research, we are able to impart knowledge, to enlighten other students about a situation like this. To tackle the main cause of why some students become irregular. We are also able to find out the effects of this on the life of a student, his studies and social life.

This research will give clear understanding and awareness to those who know little of it. By being successful in conducting this research, people will be given clarification of what irregular students go through in the College of Fine Arts and Design of the University of Santo Tomas. The first thought that comes in mind when students see an irregular student is perhaps they failed the subject they were supposed to be in. Their reasons may vary. And one could probably be failure to meet the requirements of his past subjects but is not always the case.

There are also other reasons that cause these students to be in this certain situation. Different students from the College of Fine Arts and Design of different year levels and majors will be chosen randomly to be interviewed to enlighten us about the causes that make a student an irregular. Being irregular doesn’t always have to be seen negatively. As mentioned earlier, there are other causes of being one. Each irregular student may have reasons but these reasons that we really are to find out form the irregular students themselves, should be for their good and the good of the other students who fails to understand their situation.

Conclusions Conclusion: Year Level: It is more likely for CFAD students to be an irregular during their sophomore year, which has a53 percentage of students being irregular during that year and the most unlikely year for CFAD students to be an irregular is 3rd year college, since it only has a16 percent chance of being an irregular during that year. Gender: Based on our data collected male students have a percent of becoming an irregular student since they are 58 percent more than females which only has 42 percent. Type of Subject:

Students become an irregular mostly on major subjects which has a 54 percent value higher than minor subjects which only has 46 percent. Reasons: CFAD students’ most likely reason for failing is getting a failing mark and being given an FA or failure due to absences by the professor, by which failing mark has 25% and FA has 23% both are the two highest reasons chosen among the other reasons prepared and listed by the interviewees, the lowest reason for a student to become a irregular would be the office not encoding their subjects which only has 4%. Recommendations

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Effect Of Irregular Students In Socializing

Filed Under: Courseworks Tagged With: Education

1. This researchgives knowledge to other Fine Arts students of the University of Sto. Tomas about the life of the irregular students they encounter every day. 2. To tackle the main cause of why they become irregular students. 3. To enlighten other students that being an irregular doesn’t always mean you failed a subject. 4. To find out how irregular students are affected by their situation. 5. To know how they adapt to the changes that usually comes with being an irregular student 6. Determine the year they usually start being an irregular 7. To imply awareness to each one about this certain issue

III. Problem

What are the causes of being an irregular student? What are its effects to the students who are in this situation? How does it feel to be an irregular? What are the advantages and disadvantages of being one? How does being an irregular affect a student’s social life and studies? The first thought that comes in mind when students see an irregular student is perhaps they failed the subject they were supposed to be in. Their reasons may vary. And one could probably be failure to meet the requirements of his past subjects but is not always the case. There are also other reasons that cause these students to be in this certain situation. Different students from the College of Fine Arts and Design of different year levels and majors will be chosen randomly to be interviewed to enlighten us about the causes that make a student an irregular.

The Essay on Univerities Should Accept Equal Numbers of Male and Female Students Inevery Subject

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Can the reason be because of having difficulty in understanding the lessons involved in a subject? Is the student involved in extracurricular activities? Lack of money, failure due to absences, etc. Being irregular doesn’t always have to be seen negatively. As mentioned earlier, there are other causes of being one. There may be disadvantages but there are certainly advantages and this depends on the irregular student faced with this certain situation. Each irregular student may have reasons but these reasons that we really are to find out form the irregular students themselves, should be for their good and the good of the other students who fails to understand their situation.

By being able to give answer to each question, we would be able to find more about the lives of irregular students in the College of Fine Arts and Design of the University of Santo Tomas. We would be enlightened about the main cause and its effect on their social lives and studies.

IV. Introduction

Oftentimes we think of being an irregular as a taboo, students who do not pass certain subject requirements are doomed to repeat it, thus making a bad mark on his or her transcript of records. And worst, making an impression of failing. In this research we create a whole new perspective of irregular students. As much as possible, this research will analyze the various circumstances that bring students to certain situations like these. There will always be different sides to a certain story and this must definitely apply to how irregular students are viewed. Irregulars are misunderstood people, some think they do not have high regard for their education, like they just think of it as a free gift given to all, but people don’t really know why they became an irregular in the first place. A survey will be conducted to determine the main cause of being an irregular.

There has always been one initial reaction regarding this topic and this research aims to give answers to the many questions that go on concerning a position that irregular student are put into. Irregulars are students who skip year levels, depending on the subject they failed in (if or example this was the reason); they do not have a permanent block and a given schedule. Irregular students handle their own time, they are to fix their desired schedule on their own, so if he or she is lucky enough, he or she can choose a class that suites his or her preferences. Irregular students are oftentimes the ones who have the most friends because they get to meet and stay with new sets of classmates every semester, if they choose a different class each semester.

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But not all are can adapt easily to the many changes that go with being an irregular student , thinking that they are better off focusing on passing the subject on their own to get back to where they were really supposed to be. Irregular students are oftentimes stereotyped. And as a result, they begin to stereotype. As this certain situation is being explained, other people outside the group of irregular students and irregular students themselves begin to understand that being one may affect lives greatly. It may be negatively or positively depending on that certain person. This research will give a clear statement on the life of irregular students in the College of Fine Arts and Design in the University of Sto. Tomas.

This research involves a number of students that can surely relate to this certain situation. Through this research, we are able to impart knowledge, to enlighten other students about a situation like this. To tackle the main cause of why some students become irregular. We are also able to find out the effects of this on the life of a student, his studies and social life. This research will give clear understanding and awareness to those who know little of it. By being successful in conducting this research, people will be given clarification of what irregular students go through in the College of Fine Arts and Design of the University of Santo Tomas.

The researchers have decided to build a study on the causes and effects of being an irregular student in the College of Fine Arts and Design. This issue has been significant in all the universities due to its increasing number. But first, let us define what a regular and irregular means. Regular is for something to be normal, usual or customary. Irregular is for something to be not according to rule or unusual. In relation to our study, regular students are those who are following the normal flow of the given subjects to be passed, while irregular students are those who may have difficulties or problems in their given subjects. Those problems and difficulties may be defined or given, but needs further explanation. “There have been a number of studies researching the factors that affect a person’s grade point average (GPA).

The Term Paper on Enhancing Students’ Academic Performance Through the Workbook

The government shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels (Philippine Constitution, 1987) and has a responsibility to guarantee the people’s right to education (UDHR, 1948). Michail (2012) further described education as a basic human right that enable an individual to live his full potential as a human being. It is perceived by the masses as a stepping ...

Many of these factors include family life, personality characteristics, employment, and extracurricular activities. Lee and Lee (2007) found that family closeness is a key factor in determining a child’s academic performance. Their results indicated that students who rated their family closeness at a higher level displayed an ability to adjust to their schools better, which could enhance academic performance because they were more comfortable in their environment. Although not suggesting that the closeness of the family is a predictor of GPA, the Halawah study (2006) did indicate that children whose parents were involved in their education and encouraged them to do their work had significantly higher GPAs.” (The Impact of Sleepiness Levels on academic achievement for College Students Vol. 7) Though it is not a requirement to have personal closeness with the family members, the study have concluded that having supportive parents gives a huge impact on the student’s academic performance.

The less the support the student get, the less he/she may respond to the academic requirements. “Cheung and Kwok (1998) indicated that a student’s participation in extracurricular activities may not help their academic achievement and might actually harm it. This might also include employment during school months. Working an excessive number of hours (35 hours or more per week) may have unfavorable consequences for students. Kulm and Cramer (2006) suggested that students who worked this many hours spent less time preparing for class, which resulted in a lower GPA. Students who worked excessive amounts of hours also did not have time to get as much sleep.” (The Impact of Sleepiness Levels on Academic Achievement for College Students Vol. 7)

The Term Paper on Why Students Fail In College

The society of the twentieth-first century has put an extremely high demand on attending and graduating college. Some basic employment opportunities today require a college degree, where close to ten to fifteen years ago, the only requirement was a high school diploma and acceptable ability to perform the specific task. However, the twentieth-first century college experience has become a challenge ...

In college, there a lot of activities to be considered, there are organizations that allow students to enhance their given talent. But those activities should be balance with the student’s academic performance. The imbalance of extracurricular activities and academics may lead to failure of minor or worst, major subjects, which should be highly prioritized. Another problem in academic failure is the imbalance of work and academics. In the Philippines, it is normal for college to students to be working while continuing their studies. But, according to Kulm and Cramer (2006) these students who work excessive hours does not take enough sleep to obtain energy to their next activity which usually is attending their classes. For some health reasons, sleep is a very important part of the life of a normal human being.

Having or not having a proper sleep effects the activity of a person during non-sleeping hours. Murphy, Richard, Masaki, and Segalowitz (2005) studied the effects of wakefulness on test taking. The tests were given after four hours of wakefulness as well as after 20 hours of wakefulness. They concluded that participants were less able to recognize mistakes that were made during the tests after extended wakefulness. “College students are well known for sleep deprivation; therefore, Buboltz, Brown, and Barlow (2001) researched the sleep quality of this age group. There was a high percentage of sleep problems, which supported past research that college students suffer more from sleep problems than the “normal” adult population. McClelland and Pilcher (2007) also examined college students’ self-report on sleepiness. They surveyed 14 undergraduate students and studied their self-assessment of sleepiness during a 28-hour period of sleep deprivation.

At the beginning of the night the participants were able to separate sleepiness into two dimensions, state and behavioral. However, as the night progressed the participants could not distinguish between the two dimensions. Baranski (2007) observed adults during a 28-hour period of sleep deprivation as well. The study focused on the metacognitive ability to self-monitor cognitive performance during sleep deprivation. They found that persons’ ability to assess their performance accuracy did not change significantly with sleep deprivation.” (The Impact of Sleepiness Levels on Academic Achievement for College Students Vol. 7) The study on causes and effects of irregular student’s is very wide and broad.

The Term Paper on Online Communities Students Community College

I. Introduction York university in Canada once created a web site called York University Student Center Online. This web site concern about the student activities on campus and outside. First lunched in 2001, the aim of York's website is entertainment and media publication. It has a good reputation among other Canadian universities' websites. The web site archives many of the student activities ...

There are a lot of factors to be considered. According to Hansen, Joe (B.2000) race, gender and sex can affect student’s performance McDill, E., 1989, Levin, H., 1986) B.A Chansarkar and A. Mishaeloudis (2001), explained that it is also found that those who live near the university perform better than other students A lot of college students in Manila are living in dormitories, which is because majority of them lives or come from different places around the country. It is believed the Manila is where the best schools and universities are found. It is concluded by McDill, E., 1989, Levin, H., 1986) B.A Chansarkar and A. Mishaeloudis (2001), that those who live near the university perform better than other students.

This just shows that distance is also a factor on a students’ academic performance.

Flood, J., Brensinger, J., Cheek, S. (2001).

The Impact of Sleepiness Levels on Academic Achievement for College Students Vol. 7. www.con.org. January 10, 2012. http://www.kon.org/urc/v7/flood.html Hijazi, S. T., Naqvi, R. (no date).

Factors Affecting Students’ Performance. http://www.scribd.com. January 10, 2012. http://www.scribd.com/doc/5486916/FACTORS-AFFECTING-STUDENTS-PERFORMANCE Lee, P., & Lee, C. C. (2007).

The relationship of family closeness with

college students’ self-regulated learning and school adjustment. College Student Journal. 41 (4), 779-787. Halawah, I. (2006).The effect of motivation, family environment, and student characteristics on academic achievement. Journal of Instructional Psychology. 33 (2), 91-99. Cheung, C., & Kwok, S. (1998).

Activities and academic achievement among college students. The Journal of Genetic Psychology.159 (2), 147-162. Kulm, T. L., & Cramer, S. (2006).

The Essay on High school students should take a year off before enter college or university

I agree that high school student should take a year off before enter college or university. There are several reasons for this thing. In this easy, I’m going to explain about these reasons. One of the reasons is that students can enjoy their interests and relax after long years studying. Graduating from high school is one of great points in life of each person. They can reward themselves with ...

The relationships of student employment to student role, family relationships, social interactions and persistence. College Student Journal. 40 (4), 927-938.

I. Research Design

Descriptive statistics is the term given to the analysis of data that helps describe, show or summarize data in a meaningful way such that, for example, patterns might emerge from the data. They are used in the first instance to get a feel for the data, in the second for use in the statistical test themselves, and in the third to indicate the error associated with results and graphical output. Descriptive statistics do not, however, allow us to make conclusions beyond the data we have analyzed or reach conclusions regarding any hypotheses we might have made. They are simply a way to describe our data. Descriptive statistics is distinguished from inferential statistics, in that descriptive statistics aim to summarize a data set, rather than use the data to learn about the population that the data are thought to represent. This generally means that descriptive statistics, unlike inferential statistics, are not developed on the basis of probability theory. Even when a data analysis draws its main conclusions using inferential statistics, descriptive statistics are generally also presented.

Descriptive statistics are very important, as if we simply presented our raw data it would be hard to visualize what the data was showing, especially if there was a lot of it. Descriptive statistics therefore allow us to present the data in a more meaningful way which allows simpler interpretation of the data. For example, if we had the results of 100 pieces of students’ coursework, we may be interested in the overall performance of those students. We would also be interested in the distribution or spread of the marks. Descriptive statistics allow us to do this.

II. Research Method

We used the survey method as a way to gather the information that we needed. A survey is a written output given to the respondents to fill up the needed information. We used this method because it only takes a short amount of time to answer. The respondent would only have to tick on the statements that correspond to his answers. As for us, we could give out the surveys all at once to all the respondents. Also, because a survey is a written output, it is easier to compile the data that we have gathered. It is also easier to interpret the information.

III. Research Instrument

SAMPLE QUESTIONAIRE:

NAME: ________________________________

YEAR:______COURSE:____________________

WHEN DID YOU START BECOMING AN IRREGULAR STUDENT?

WHAT TYPE OF SUBJECT CAUSED YOU TO BE AN IRREGULAR STUDENT?

WHAT ARE THE POSSIBLE REASONS WHY YOU BECAME AN IRREGULAR STUDENT (PLEASE CHECK ONE) * FAILING MARK

* FAILURE DUE TO ABSENCES

* FINANCIAL PROBLEMS

* FAMILY PROBLEM

* DROPPED A SUBJECT

* CHANGE COURSE

* BEING SINGULARY HATED BY THE PROFESSOR

CAN YOU EASILY ADAPT TO THE CHANGES OF BEING A IRREGULAR STUDENT? _________________________________________________________________________________ DOES CHOOSING YOUR OWN SCHEDULE MORE CONVIENT FOR YOU? WHY?

__________________________________________________________________________________

IV. Research Respondent

The study will have irregular students of CFAD in all levels. All of these participants were selected through random sampling. This sampling method is conducted where each member of a population has an equal opportunity to become part of the sample. As all the participants have an equal chance of becoming a research participant, this is to be the most efficient sampling procedure. In order to conduct this sampling strategy, the researcher defines the population first, lists down all the members of the population, and then selects members to make the sample. For this purpose, a self-administered survey questionnaire is given to the respondents to answer. The irregular students assessed to answer the following questionnaire. No inclusion criteria were applied for the individual applicants; hence, all were made part of the population. However, due to time and budget constraints, the researcher opted for a smaller sample size.

Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

A survey will be conducted to determine the main cause of being an irregular. There has always been one initial reaction regarding this topic and this research aims to give answers to the many questions that go on concerning a position that irregular student are put into. Irregular students are oftentimes stereotyped. And as a result, they begin to stereotype. As this certain situation is being explained, other people outside the group of irregular students and irregular students themselves begin to understand that being one may affect lives greatly. It may be negatively or positively depending on that certain person. This research will give a clear statement on the life of irregular students in the College of Fine Arts and Design in the University of Sto. Tomas. This research involves a number of students that can surely relate to this certain situation.

Through this research, we are able to impart knowledge, to enlighten other students about a situation like this. To tackle the main cause of why some students become irregular. We are also able to find out the effects of this on the life of a student, his studies and social life. This research will give clear understanding and awareness to those who know little of it. By being successful in conducting this research, people will be given clarification of what irregular students go through in the College of Fine Arts and Design of the University of Santo Tomas. The first thought that comes in mind when students see an irregular student is perhaps they failed the subject they were supposed to be in. Their reasons may vary.

And one could probably be failure to meet the requirements of his past subjects but is not always the case. There are also other reasons that cause these students to be in this certain situation. Different students from the College of Fine Arts and Design of different year levels and majors will be chosen randomly to be interviewed to enlighten us about the causes that make a student an irregular. Being irregular doesn’t always have to be seen negatively. As mentioned earlier, there are other causes of being one. Each irregular student may have reasons but these reasons that we really are to find out form the irregular students themselves, should be for their good and the good of the other students who fails to understand their situation.

Conclusions

Conclusion:

Year Level:

It is more likely for CFAD students to be an irregular during their sophomore year, which has a53 percentage of students being irregular during that year and the most unlikely year for CFAD students to be an irregular is

3rd year college, since it only has a16 percent chance of being an irregular during that year.

Based on our data collected male students have a percent of becoming an irregular student since they are 58 percent more than females which only has 42 percent.

Type of Subject:

Students become an irregular mostly on major subjects which has a 54 percent value higher than minor subjects which only has 46 percent.

CFAD students’ most likely reason for failing is getting a failing mark and being given an FA or failure due to absences by the professor, by which failing mark has 25% and FA has 23% both are the two highest reasons chosen among the other reasons prepared and listed by the interviewees, the lowest reason for a student to become a irregular would be the office not encoding their subjects which only has 4%.

Recommendations

We recommend the following as a guide for students to avoid being an irregular based on some of their reasons,

· Since failing marks are the highest of all the reasons, students should not take that failing If a student feels that he or she is being treated unfairly, one should always think positively and take it as a challenge given by the professor so that he or she can excel in that certain area.

· In the area of having subject so lightly to avoid repeating it, if they find that subject difficult they should put in extra effort to understand what is difficult for them

· Failure due to absences are caused by plenty of reasons, but still students should learn how to prioritize and time management, with these two one can avoid being marked absent.

· Family problems, one should learn how to separate school from home so that it will not affect one’s performance in school.

· In the case of dropping of subjects, think twice before dropping them, because who knows if one was able to strive hard enough to pass then he or she would no longer need to drop that subject and repeat it again

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irregular student research paper

Experts provide advice on how students and academics can avoid citing bad research

Scientific research requires updated and accurate information — but retracted papers still find their way into scholarship, according to several experts who also provided ways to fix this problem.

Information scientist Jodi Schneider calls these papers “zombie studies,” because though they appeared dead, they continue to live on, infecting research in the future.

“Research publications are retracted for many reasons — plagiarism, fraud, and honest error to name a few,” Schneider, a professor at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, wrote in an email to The College Fix .

“Explicitly marking the literature we can’t rely on is important,” she said. “People build on research all the time — to pilot new medical treatments, design new materials, develop advice about air pollution, and of course to think up new ideas or write new papers.”

“To get reliable results, we need to build on the best available knowledge. Retracting research cleans up the literature,” she said.

Flagging flawed research and retracted papers can be incredibly difficult to do as the retraction process is long and not all retractions are adequately documented.

“Different databases don’t have the same information about what is retracted! This makes it hard for people to be sure that they’re not citing retracted papers,” Schneider said. She gave a statistic from a paper she wrote in 2021: “94% of the post-retraction citations in biomedicine show no awareness of the retraction.”

There are groups that do work to help students and researchers identify questionable sources, such as the Cooperation & Liaison between Universities & Editors, or CLUE.

The CLUE working group has recommendations on best practices in research. Endnote helps to manage and track citations, alerting the user of potential retractions.

Schneider also said the Communications of Retractions, Removals, and Expressions of Concern Working Group, or CREC, is working on a standard for how to inform readers of changes. She is a member of the group, which operates through the National Information Standards Organization.

She provided other tips for avoiding the citation of zombie research.

“When you’re looking for research, librarians are great partners,” Schneider said in an email to The Fix . “Consider what kinds of sources to use. For instance, individual research papers tell you what is going on at the forefront of the field.”

“Encyclopedias and handbooks digest the research and provide perspective. They’re good for different things,” she also said. “Not everything is written down and not everything ever written down is still easy to retrieve.”

The information scientist provided advice on how to think about research.

“It’s important to think about how knowledge is produced: who produced it, for what purpose, when,” she said. “Think about research as a PROCESS – we can’t rely utterly on the PRODUCT at any one given time but over time, the PROCESS of research leads to improvements in what we know on the whole.”

Problematic science papers alone total tens of thousands

Schneider, writing for The Hill , said there have been “40,000 scientific publications,” retracted since 1980. “They either contained errors, were based on outdated knowledge or were outright frauds,” she wrote. However, this number should be much larger according to the co-founder of Retraction Watch .

“It’s important to remember just how many papers that should be retracted aren’t,” Ivan Oransky said in a Zoom interview with The College Fix . “There are easily ten times as many papers that need to be retracted and haven’t been then there are that have been retracted.”

He is a medical doctor by training and teaches journalism at New York University.

If a researcher’s work is called into question, he should thank whoever raised the question and should take it seriously, Oransky advises.

“Science works best when people take that criticism seriously. They should do an analysis of work with those critiques in mind,” he told The Fix . “If they find a significant error, they should say publicly that they found this error, notify the journal, and retract the work.”

He warned against legal action when someone tries to correct a scholar’s work.

“They shouldn’t hire lawyers. A decent number of researchers seem to think that this is a good idea. I’ve seen very few cases where the researcher was completely right and was defamed,” Oransky said.

“The effect is not good for science,” he said. “It discourages other researchers from pointing out errors in papers.”

Like Schneider, Oransky said students should rely on good mentors. He also mentioned programs that can help. Retraction Watch entered into agreements first with research company Zotero and later with Crossref. It also works with Endnote .

“If you are a student you should develop a good mentorship or mentorships so that you have someone more experienced to sit and read papers with; this way you are not doing it on your own. Someone to help you figure things out.”

MORE: Fired scholar’s disputed race research totals more than 3,000 citations

MORE: Former Stanford president retracts ‘groundbreaking’ Alzheimer’s research

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Bootstrap Diagnostics for Irregular Estimators

Empirical researchers frequently rely on normal approximations in order to summarize and communicate uncertainty about their findings to their scientific audience. When such approximations are unreliable, they can lead the audience to make misguided decisions. We propose to measure the failure of the conventional normal approximation for a given estimator by the total variation distance between a bootstrap distribution and the normal distribution parameterized by the point estimate and standard error. For a wide class of decision problems and a class of uninformative priors, we show that a multiple of the total variation distance bounds the mistakes which result from relying on the conventional normal approximation. In a sample of recent empirical articles that use a bootstrap for inference, we find that the conventional normal approximation is often poor. We suggest and illustrate convenient alternative reports for such settings.

We acknowledge funding from the National Science Foundation (SES-1654234, SES-1949047) and the Semester Undergraduate Program for Economics Research at Harvard. We thank our dedicated research assistants for their contributions to this project, as well as the many authors who helped us to work with their code, data, and bootstrap replicates. We thank Anna Mikusheva, Jon Roth, and participants at the Princeton Day of Statistics for helpful comments. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.

Shapiro has, in the past, been a paid visitor at Microsoft Research New England and a paid consultant for FutureOfCapitalism, LLC. Shapiro has been paid for writing by the New York Times.

Shapiro's spouse has a disclosure statement posted at https://emilyoster.net/about/.

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  17. Challenges Of Irregular Students Research [92q3dmnx70op]

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