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Problem Solving in Artificial Intelligence

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The reflex agent of AI directly maps states into action. Whenever these agents fail to operate in an environment where the state of mapping is too large and not easily performed by the agent, then the stated problem dissolves and sent to a problem-solving domain which breaks the large stored problem into the smaller storage area and resolves one by one. The final integrated action will be the desired outcomes.

On the basis of the problem and their working domain, different types of problem-solving agent defined and use at an atomic level without any internal state visible with a problem-solving algorithm. The problem-solving agent performs precisely by defining problems and several solutions. So we can say that problem solving is a part of artificial intelligence that encompasses a number of techniques such as a tree, B-tree, heuristic algorithms to solve a problem.  

We can also say that a problem-solving agent is a result-driven agent and always focuses on satisfying the goals.

There are basically three types of problem in artificial intelligence:

1. Ignorable: In which solution steps can be ignored.

2. Recoverable: In which solution steps can be undone.

3. Irrecoverable: Solution steps cannot be undo.

Steps problem-solving in AI: The problem of AI is directly associated with the nature of humans and their activities. So we need a number of finite steps to solve a problem which makes human easy works.

These are the following steps which require to solve a problem :

  • Problem definition: Detailed specification of inputs and acceptable system solutions.
  • Problem analysis: Analyse the problem thoroughly.
  • Knowledge Representation: collect detailed information about the problem and define all possible techniques.
  • Problem-solving: Selection of best techniques.

Components to formulate the associated problem: 

  • Initial State: This state requires an initial state for the problem which starts the AI agent towards a specified goal. In this state new methods also initialize problem domain solving by a specific class.
  • Action: This stage of problem formulation works with function with a specific class taken from the initial state and all possible actions done in this stage.
  • Transition: This stage of problem formulation integrates the actual action done by the previous action stage and collects the final stage to forward it to their next stage.
  • Goal test: This stage determines that the specified goal achieved by the integrated transition model or not, whenever the goal achieves stop the action and forward into the next stage to determines the cost to achieve the goal.  
  • Path costing: This component of problem-solving numerical assigned what will be the cost to achieve the goal. It requires all hardware software and human working cost.

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Artificial Intelligence (AI)

What is artificial intelligence (ai).

Artificial Intelligence (AI) refers to computer systems that can perform tasks that typically require human intelligence. These tasks include learning, reasoning, problem-solving, understanding natural language, and adapting to new information. 

AI applications range from virtual assistants and image recognition to complex tasks such as autonomous vehicles and medical diagnosis. The overarching goal is to create intelligent machines capable of emulating and augmenting human cognitive functions.

In this video, AI Product Designer Ioana Teleanu talks about how AI is changing the world.

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AI systems use algorithms and computational models to analyze vast datasets, identify patterns, and make decisions. Machine learning, a subset of AI, enables systems to improve performance over time by learning from experience without explicit programming. Deep learning, a specialized subset of machine learning, centers around deep neural networks with multiple layers, which mimics the human brain's complexity. These networks autonomously extract intricate patterns from extensive datasets, enabling advanced capabilities like image recognition and natural language processing. 

An illustrated infographic that demonstrates how machine learning and deep learning fits in with artificial intelligence.

© Interaction Design Foundation, CC BY-SA 4.0

The AI Landscape: Different Types of Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence encompasses a spectrum of capabilities, from specialized task-oriented systems to intelligence that mirrors human cognitive functions. At the core of this distinction lies the difference between Narrow AI, also known as Weak AI, and General AI, also known as Strong AI or Artificial General Intelligence (AGI).

Narrow AI refers to systems tailored for specific, well-defined tasks within a limited scope. Examples of narrow AI models are common in our daily lives, from voice recognition tools like Siri or Alexa to recommendation algorithms powering platforms like Netflix and Spotify. Chatbots assisting with customer service on websites and specialized image recognition software in facial recognition or medical imaging analysis are also instances of narrow AI. Its defining characteristic is its lack of capacity to generalize knowledge beyond its designated domain.

On the other end of the spectrum is General AI, an advanced form capable of comprehending, learning, and applying knowledge across various tasks—mimicking the breadth of human intelligence. Unlike narrow AI, AGI can reason, problem-solve, adapt, and exhibit self-awareness. The ultimate goal of AGI is to perform any intellectual task that humans can, seamlessly transfer knowledge between domains, and autonomously improve over time.

While narrow AI excels in specific functions, AGI is the pinnacle of AI development. Currently, however, most AI systems are narrow, designed for specialized tasks and lacking the broad adaptability of AGI. Achieving AGI remains the significant and ambitious objective of AI research and development.

An illustration that represents Narrow AI also known as Weak AI vs General AI or Strong AI. The image includes text descriptions, examples and an illustration of a brain.

The AI Revolution: Generative AI

On the spectrum of AI, generative AI is positioned between narrow and general AI. It’s a category of artificial intelligence that focuses on creating new content, data, or artifacts rather than performing specific predefined tasks. It involves machines that can produce outputs, such as images, text, or other forms of content, that weren't explicitly programmed into them. Generative AI often employs deep learning and neural networks to learn patterns from large datasets to generate novel outputs. Outputs are created in response to AI prompts. Effective prompts, or prompt engineering, are an essential part of human-ai interaction.

ChatGPT, a generative language model by OpenAI, was released in 2022. Within five days, over a million people had signed up for it. Unlike traditional programs with fixed responses, ChatGPT can dynamically generate answers based on the patterns it learned from vast amounts of text data. This ability makes it versatile—you can ask it questions, request information, or even use it for creative writing. This type of AI is valuable for various tasks, from aiding in research to helping with creative projects.

DALL-E, another application from open AI, generates images. Similar to ChatGPT, it creates a unique output from text inputs or prompts. For instance, you can ask DALL-E to generate an image of a "giant rubber duck" or a "surreal cityscape with floating buildings," and it will produce an original image matching that description. This kind of AI is part of the broader category of generative models designed to create new content. DALL-E showcases how AI can be used for artistic and creative endeavors, offering users a new way to generate visual content.

AI-Generated Art

AI-generated art refers to artworks that are created with the assistance or direct involvement of artificial intelligence. In this process, artists or an individual collaborate with AI systems, which can include machine learning models and generative algorithms. These AI tools analyze vast datasets and learn patterns to generate new artistic outputs. AI-generated art spans various forms, including visual arts, music, literature, and more. The unique aspect of AI-generated art lies in the fusion of human creativity with the computational capabilities of AI, challenging traditional ideas of the arts and opening up new possibilities for artistic expression.

Unsupervised from Refik Anadol's Machine Hallucinations project, is a fascinating example of AI-generated art. It exemplifies the intersection of technology and creativity. Unsupervised , a product of deep learning algorithms processing vast datasets from the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), generates abstract images guided by intricate patterns and associations within the museum's collection. This artwork is a testament to the capabilities of generative AI—its potential to create unique and unexpected outputs beyond explicit programming.

Learn more about AI-generated art, its challenges and opportunities in this video. 

Transparency becomes a crucial concern as the origin of information and the decision-making process of these AI systems can be obscured. The potential for bias, privacy implications, and the need for explainability in AI-generated content underscore the intricate landscape that artists and technologists navigate. 

UX design pioneer Don Norman warns that these programs are not truly intelligent yet. They don't have wants, needs or a sense of self as humans do. Instead, they make decisions based on patterns in data too large for humans to process.

AI follows a complex set of logical rules called algorithms. Multiple algorithms connect in a way that mimics the human brain, called a neural network. This network can learn and improve its process over time. We call this "machine learning."

Artificial intelligence has already improved technologies like voice recognition and language translation. Even still, AI has shown even more potential and some surprising new applications.

For example, AI can create art and literature in the style of human authors and artists. Yet, they don't express emotions or create their own artistic style without human help.

This emerging technology has a variety of exciting and frightening uses. AI programs make it easy to pretend to be someone else or pass off AI content as your own. On top of that, the ethics of sentient AI will be a hot topic in various fields as the technology advances.

What Programs Use AI?

Text Generators

ChatGPT: This program can write new text by comparing itself to similar works on the subject.

Bard: A chatbot by Google used to create a more intelligent and conversational search algorithm.

Image Generators

Midjourney: An image generator that uses subject and style prompts to create new works of art.

Dalle-2: Similar to Midjourney but specializes in realistic images.

Video and Speech

Gen-1 Video editor: A video editor that shifts a video into a different style. For example, making a live-action video into an animation.

DeepFaceLab: One of many programs that make "deep fakes." Deep-fakes are videos that change faces and voices to impersonate other people. The most famous example is Jordan Peele’s Obama deep fake video from 2018.

Dragon Speech recognition: This program learns speech patterns to turn speech into text. It was the basis of most modern speech recognition software.

Galileo AI: Entire user interfaces can be generated based on text prompts.

Genius: The AI design companion for Figma that fleshes out a full layout from a few design elements.

Artificial Intelligence in Design

Interaction designers use AI technologies in a variety of ways. Artificial intelligence improves search algorithms for web searches, streaming services and other platforms. They can analyze terabytes of data to find patterns a human brain couldn't.

There is no doubt that AI will change how users interact with products and services. AI voice assistants and chatbots are examples of interfaces that adapt to user inputs in real-time. UX designers design the voice and the functions of voice assistants to appeal to users. Even though chatbots are text, they still need to make sense in the product's context of use. Like any interface, designers want to make a user experience that users trust and enjoy using.

“There’s a very simple formula, perceived trustworthiness plus perceived expertise will lead to perceived credibility. Since AI is in service to human beings, I can't imagine a case where UX isn’t relevant…If you blow the UX design, it doesn't matter how good the AI is.” -Dan Rosenberg, UX Professor at San Jose University.

The goal of artificial intelligence today is to be credible. They should be reliable tools and assistants for humans performing specific tasks. This credibility comes partly from a well-designed user experience and intuitive user interface.

Will AI Replace Designers?

The potential for AI to replace human workers is possible. But, it is more likely to be used to assist humans in making decisions. For example, AI could assist in usability tests or find patterns in user feedback or other user research tasks. AI has the potential to transform the essential tasks of a UX researcher.

“When it comes to [user] research, it is such a strategic discipline I can't think that we will ever automate it. If we are talking about general usability testing, that is going to be something where AI is going to play a big role. AI does something extremely well and that’s pattern recognition.” -Greg Nudelman, Head of Design at LogicMonitor and Author on UX for AI

The Future of Artificial Intelligence

Many experts see the potential for AI to change human-computer interaction but also have doubts. AI systems can improve data analysis, assist translation, and help creatives bring ideas to life.

Yet, all this brings up deep ethical questions. Creatives of all types are forced to compete with AI, which can plagiarize their work in minutes. The question of who owns that AI content is also unclear.

Some communities have banned AI art entirely, even as the ability to tell them apart from human work diminishes. Even if AI does not fully replace humans, what will our economy or workplace look like if AI replaces daily tasks or even jobs?

In the future, “Strong AI” would learn, think, and generally function on the same level as humans. As fully sentient beings, there are moral questions of ownership and legal definitions of autonomy to grapple with.

Despite these challenges, tech companies are investing heavily in AI to explore the possibilities.

Learn More about Artificial Intelligence

Discover how to design for AI and how you can incorporate AI tools into your design process in our course, AI for Designers .

For more on the role of AI and other technologies on design, take our course: Design for a Better World with Don Norman .

Norman, Donald A. Design for a Better World: Meaningful, Sustainable, Humanity Centered . Cambridge, MA, MA: The MIT Press, 2023.

Read more articles and essays by Don Norman on JND.org .

Watch our Master Class: AI-Powered UX Design: How to Elevate Your UX Career with Ioana Teleanu.

Watch our Master Class: How To Design for and With Artificial Intelligence with Dan Rosenberg.

Watch our Master Class: How To Design Experiences for AI with Greg Nudelman.

Further Reading

To learn more about the differences between AI, machine learning, deep learning and neural networks, read AI vs. Machine Learning vs. Deep Learning vs. Neural Networks: What’s the difference? .

Read more about AI and its various applications in the Investopedia article, Artificial Intelligence: What It Is and How It Is Used .

AI Versus Machine Learning

Everything About Usability Testing Through Al-Powered Software

What is Strong AI?

Literature on Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Here’s the entire UX literature on Artificial Intelligence (AI) by the Interaction Design Foundation, collated in one place:

Learn more about Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Take a deep dive into Artificial Intelligence (AI) with our course AI for Designers .

In an era where technology is rapidly reshaping the way we interact with the world, understanding the intricacies of AI is not just a skill, but a necessity for designers . The AI for Designers course delves into the heart of this game-changing field, empowering you to navigate the complexities of designing in the age of AI. Why is this knowledge vital? AI is not just a tool; it's a paradigm shift, revolutionizing the design landscape. As a designer, make sure that you not only keep pace with the ever-evolving tech landscape but also lead the way in creating user experiences that are intuitive, intelligent, and ethical.

AI for Designers is taught by Ioana Teleanu, a seasoned AI Product Designer and Design Educator who has established a community of over 250,000 UX enthusiasts through her social channel UX Goodies. She imparts her extensive expertise to this course from her experience at renowned companies like UiPath and ING Bank, and now works on pioneering AI projects at Miro.

In this course, you’ll explore how to work with AI in harmony and incorporate it into your design process to elevate your career to new heights. Welcome to a course that doesn’t just teach design; it shapes the future of design innovation.

In lesson 1, you’ll explore AI's significance, understand key terms like Machine Learning, Deep Learning, and Generative AI, discover AI's impact on design, and master the art of creating effective text prompts for design.

In lesson 2, you’ll learn how to enhance your design workflow using AI tools for UX research, including market analysis, persona interviews, and data processing. You’ll dive into problem-solving with AI, mastering problem definition and production ideation.

In lesson 3, you’ll discover how to incorporate AI tools for prototyping, wireframing, visual design, and UX writing into your design process. You’ll learn how AI can assist to evaluate your designs and automate tasks, and ensure your product is launch-ready.

In lesson 4, you’ll explore the designer's role in AI-driven solutions, how to address challenges, analyze concerns, and deliver ethical solutions for real-world design applications.

Throughout the course, you'll receive practical tips for real-life projects. In the Build Your Portfolio exercises, you’ll practise how to  integrate AI tools into your workflow and design for AI products, enabling you to create a compelling portfolio case study to attract potential employers or collaborators.

All open-source articles on Artificial Intelligence (AI)

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Principles of Creative Problem Solving in AI Systems

Ana-Maria Oltețeanu: Cognition and Creative Machine: Cognitive AI for Creative Problem Solving. Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany, Springer, Cham, 2020 (Online ISBN: 978–3-030–30322-8), 282 pages, price: €117.69 (eBook), DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978–3-030–30322-8

  • Book Review
  • Published: 24 August 2021
  • Volume 31 , pages 555–557, ( 2022 )

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The utilization of Artificial Intelligence (AI) is springing up through all spheres of human activities due to the current global pandemic (COVID-19), which has limited human interactions in our societies and the corporate world. Undoubtedly, AI has innovatively transformed our ways of living and understanding how mechanical systems work on problem solving as or even beyond human beings. The core issues of this book include the following issues: (1) understanding the working mechanism of the human mind on problem solving, and (2) exploring what it means to be computationally creative and how it can be evaluated. By having an overview of the development of AI and Cognitive Science and rebranding the strands of creativity and problem solving, Dr. Ana-Maria Oltețeanu attempts to build cognitive systems, which propose a type of knowledge organization and a small set of processes aimed at solving a diverse number of creative problems. Furthermore, with the help of the defined framework, the relevant computational system is implemented and evaluated by investigating the classical and insight problem solving performance.

Part I of this book includes the previous four chapters, which introduces a series of theories such as creativity (p.11), insight (p.16), and visuospatial intelligence (p.20) to illustrate the necessary process and structure of creative problem solving. The author concludes from the relevant literature that the interplay between knowledge representations and organization processes would play an important role in searching for solutions. For better illustration and understanding, a selection of computational creativity systems is presented, such as AM, HR, Aaron, the Painting fool, Poetry systems, and BACON (p.34–37). Subsequently, from a methodological perspective, Dr. Oltețeanu introduces two different creativity evaluations for human beings and computational machines respectively. On the one hand, when measuring creativity of human, the thinking characteristics of the participants such as divergent thinking (the ability to diverge from subjectively familiar uses and think of other uses) and creative thinking are the primary objective for measurement in some of the most important empirical models. On the other hand, when assessing the creativity in the computational systems, various models of evaluating the behaviors or programs of creative systems are proposed mainly in terms of typicality, quality, and novelty.

In the second part, which comprises chapter 5 th to 8 th , the author develops a cognitive framework to explore how a diverse set of creative problem solving tasks can be solved computationally using a unified set of principles. To facilitate the understanding of insight and creative problem solving, Dr. Oltețeanu puts forward a metaphor, in which representations are seen as cogs in a creative machine and problem solving processes are regarded as clockwork, to view the relationship between creative processes and knowledge (p.69). Building on this idea, a theoretical framework (named as CreaCogs) is proposed based on encoding knowledge, which permits processes of fast and informed search and construction, for creative problem solving. These processes take place conceptually at three levels involving Feature Spaces, Concepts, and Problem Templates (p.91–94). Firstly, whenever an object encoded symbolically is observed, its sensors will be enrolled in the sub-symbolical level of feature maps and spaces. Then, in the following level, various known concepts are grounded in a distributed manner in organized feature spaces, and their names are encoded in a different name tag mapped for functionally constituting another feature. Lastly in the highest level, problem templates are structured representations, which are encoded over multiple concepts, their relations, and the affordance they provide. On the basis of the steps above, an integration of a wide set of principles in the framework would be accessible.

Part III, which forms chapter 9 th to 12 th , mainly focuses on applying the CreaCogs in a set of practical cognitive system cases, and developing a set of tools through which the performance of such systems could be evaluated. It is worth noticing that several evaluation tests of creativity are introduced to illustrate about how to apply implementation of the framework built above. In the preamble of this part, the CreaCogs mechanism of Remote Associates creativity Test (RAT) and Alternative Uses Test (AUT) are explored to develop the corresponding computational systems to solve these test tasks. Based on the practice of implementation and investigation, Dr. Oltețeanu analyzes how to evaluate the performance of the artificial cognitive prototype systems by solving different creativity tasks via inference mechanism or matching algorithm from CreaCogs. The book ends with an overview of the journey of exploring the creative problem solving and an outlook of the relevant experimental work.

Overall, the author provides a revolutionary academic framework to understand the theoretical and empirical cognitive processes involved in creative problem solving by computational systems. Various evaluation of creativity tests and tasks are drawn to illustrate how the cognitive framework works to find solutions of classical or even insight problems, which are stressed in the 2012 paper by Batchelder and Alexander (Insight problem solving: A critical examination of the possibility of formal theory, in The Journal of Problem Solving ), as the alternative productive representations are necessary to overcome the failures of discovering solutions. Besides, it is deep insight when the author describes the cognitive models of creativity through using a variety of schematic diagrams and pictures in this book. That is rather helpful to illustrate how insight and creative problem solving can be viewed as processes of memory management, with both associationist and gestaltic (template pattern-filling) underpinnings, and with processes of recasting and restructuring using from the memory and the environment. From the theoretical matters to the variate practical domains, Dr. Oltețeanu constructs the cognitive systems on the basis of the CreaCogs and develops a set of tools through which the performance of such systems can be evaluated similarly to that of human participants. In short, the theoretical framework and empirical computational exploration contribute to creating the imagination of the efficacy of AI in the area of creative problem solving.

However, the critical issue of the possibility of developing self-adaptive learning by the creative systems has not been further discussed yet. To quote the annotation in the fields of behavioral psychology and cognitive psychology, self-adaptive learning in AI refers to human’s self-adapted learning methods and the habitual condition information processing systems, which forms a method that AI can solve theories and problems independently through discovering and summarizing in operations. Due to emphasizing to develop a framework for analyzing the creative problem solving, the author focuses on introducing the value, mechanism, application, and evaluation of the computational system based on the CreaCogs that is why the issue of self-adaptive learning has rarely been taken into account for now. In summary, this book enhances our understanding of the principles of problem solving in the epoch of AI and deserves to be widely read in this age of intelligent machines. The CreaCogs cognitive framework proposed here could be served as an applicable guide for graduate students and researchers in the sphere of Cognitive Science, AI, and Education.

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Chen, Z., Ye, R. Principles of Creative Problem Solving in AI Systems. Sci & Educ 31 , 555–557 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11191-021-00270-7

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DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s11191-021-00270-7

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The Role of Problem Definition in Shaping Effective AI Solutions

  • January 8, 2024
  • AI , Artificial Intelligence

problem solving definition in ai

In the ever-evolving realm of technology, Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a potent tool for addressing diverse challenges. Dispelling a prevalent myth is crucial — the notion that AI possesses an inherent, almost magical ability to comprehend and solve any problem without understanding the problem itself. The reality is more pragmatic: AI systems are meticulously designed solutions tailored to specific issues, with human guidance intricately woven into their foundations.

It’s imperative to recognize the pivotal role played by problem definition in shaping an effective AI solution. Contrary to the misconception that AI can autonomously grasp the complexities of a situation, success hinges on a precise delineation of the problem at hand. AI systems operate not through innate understanding but through explicit instructions crafted to address predefined problems.

This critical aspect underscores the significance of companies like Quantilus crafting a proper solution. The effectiveness of an AI solution is contingent on marrying a well-defined problem with the appropriate programming technique. Exploring problem-solving in AI often reveals three prevalent methods: harnessing algorithms, rules-based systems, and embracing machine learning. However, it’s crucial to remember that these represent only a subset of the available tools to achieve the solution.

Algorithms: The Step-by-Step Guide

Algorithms serve as crucial guides for artificial intelligence. Akin to a chef’s recipe, they are meticulously crafted steps that navigate the AI system through problem-solving. Successful algorithmic problem-solving starts with a clear understanding of the issue, much like a chef’s grasp of flavors and techniques for a delectable dish. Simply put, an AI algorithm is like a smart recipe that tells a computer how to learn and make decisions. Just like a recipe guides you through the steps to make a dish, an AI algorithm directs a computer on how to process information to meet a specified result.

Algorithms offer a step-by-step approach for AI systems to navigate problem-solving. Each step is carefully articulated, ensuring a coherent and effective progression towards the desired outcome. However, unlike mere instructions, algorithms intricately craft an AI system’s path to address a specific issue. Effective algorithmic problem-solving begins with a clear understanding of the problem at hand. This understanding serves as a foundation, enabling the algorithm to tailor its approach to the unique nuances of the situation.

Algorithms are the backbone of many traditional programming methods, guiding a computer through a predefined set of logical operations. Each of us likely encounters an algorithm every day. Social media feeds are a product of algorithms that are working to solve the problem of information overload and user engagement. To solve these problems, the algorithm’s instructions are to collect what users like and do. Collecting this data helps to understand a user’s preference. The algorithm can then predict what a user will enjoy using this information. It looks at things like hashtags and keywords to make decisions. Then, it ranks and shows content in the user’s feed in real-time, always learning and adapting to what the user likes and does. As a result, social media feels personalized when you’re scrolling down your feed. Tapped on multiple Taylor Swift posts on Instagram? Well, get ready to see more the next time you refresh or log on.

Rule-Based Systems: Setting the Boundaries

Unlike algorithms, rule-based systems rely on explicit, pre-established rules and conditions to make decisions. Think of AI as a well-trained dog navigating commands learned from training. Much like a devoted and disciplined dog adhering to specific commands, AI under rule-based systems operates within the confines of pre-established guidelines, ensuring a structured and controlled approach to problem-solving. These rules are often expressed in conditional language, such as “if X, then Y,” making the decision-making process straightforward. There is no flexibility or adaptation once these rules and conditions are programmed. The system will do as it is instructed based on said rules.

Because a rule-based system in AI relies on a predefined set of rules to determine its next course of action, the data it uses is typically rooted in facts and is indisputable. Some key traits of rule-based systems include simplicity in human comprehension, predictability (determinism), transparency due to clear and open standards, scalability to handle large datasets, and ease of modification or updating. Notable applications include expert systems, decision support systems, and chatbots.

A rule-based system in AI generates outputs by applying a set of rules to given inputs. The system identifies applicable rules and executes corresponding actions to produce outputs. If no rules apply, the system may generate a default output or request additional information from the user. These systems do not handle unexpected events or situations effectively as they operate under specific constraints. Human intervention may be required to resolve and/or update the rules and conditions in these situations.

In business, rules-based systems are often leveraged in automating document processing. A rules-based AI system for document processing is like a digital assistant with specific instructions for reading and comprehending documents. Upon uploading a document, the system utilizes OCR (Optical Character Recognition) technology to convert images or scans into machine-readable text, akin to transforming a picture into readable text. Following this, the system adheres to predefined rules (these are the instructions) to identify and extract significant information, such as dates or amounts. For instance, here’s a very simple, real-world application for accounting functions:

A rule instructs the system to locate and extract the total invoice amount and reconcile it with the sum of the line items in an invoice. If the total invoice amount matches the sum, the system is instructed to move the invoice forward to the next step, such as issuance to the customer. If the amounts do not match, then the system is instructed to flag the discrepancy and notify a human resource to review and resolve.

While the example provided is straightforward, it’s important to acknowledge that rules-based AI systems can handle many complex problems in document processing. These systems can be designed with intricate rules to extract and analyze diverse sets of information from various document types. However, it’s essential to be aware of certain considerations. Rules-based systems may face challenges when dealing with highly unstructured or variable data formats, as creating rules for every possible scenario can become impractical. Additionally, they heavily rely on predefined instructions, which might make them less adaptive to novel situations. In cases where understanding context or grasping natural language nuances is crucial, more advanced techniques such as machine learning and natural language processing may offer more versatile solutions. Therefore, while rules-based AI systems excel in structured environments, their effectiveness may vary in scenarios with greater complexity and variability.

Machine Learning: Learning from Experience

Machine Learning (ML) is a transformative field within artificial intelligence, enabling computers to learn and improve from experience without explicit programming. The computer’s ability to learn parallels how humans learn, making ML a dynamic and influential tool in various industries. ML encompasses supervised and unsupervised learning. In supervised learning, models map inputs to outputs based on labeled data, while unsupervised learning identifies patterns in unlabeled data. Both paradigms involve learning from experience to improve performance.

The heart of ML lies in iterative learning:

  • Data Collection: Gather quality data to train the model.
  • Training: Expose the model to labeled data to learn patterns.
  • Evaluation: Assess model performance on new, unseen data.
  • Feedback and Adjustment: Refine the model based on evaluation results, repeating until desired accuracy is achieved.

To put this in context, imagine running a business with diverse customers, each with unique preferences. In this scenario, think of a virtual assistant as a consultant who closely observes how each customer interacts with your products or services. This virtual assistant is like a problem-solving guru—it doesn’t just watch; it learns.

Now, when you want to offer personalized deals or recommendations, this virtual assistant uses what it learned about each customer. It’s not just making guesses; it’s applying a powerful tool called machine learning. This tool analyzes patterns and data to understand customer behavior better, which is a bit different from a traditional algorithm. An algorithm is like a set of fixed rules, while machine learning can adapt and improve itself over time, making it more like a learning and evolving guide for solving complex problems in your business. So, when you need to figure out what a specific customer might like or need, the machine learning model guides you by providing tailored instructions. It’s like having a wise advisor whispering in your ear, suggesting the perfect deal or product based on what it has learned about that customer. This way, businesses can solve the problem of reaching customers more effectively, offering them exactly what they want. ML, by learning from experience, is shaping the future of technology. Its ability to mimic human learning processes makes it a powerful and versatile tool, unlocking innovation across various domains. As research continues, ML is poised to usher in a new era of intelligent systems that continually adapt and learn from their experiences, paving the way for unprecedented advancements in AI.

Your Role in the AI Ecosystem

Your role in the vast and intricate AI ecosystem is akin to that of a conductor orchestrating a symphony. It’s not merely a spectator’s position but a pivotal role that shapes the harmonious interplay of elements within the AI framework. The crucial takeaway here is that AI doesn’t operate in isolation; instead, it functions as a responsive instrument, finely tuned to the nuances of your input and guidance.

As a client, you’ll play a pivotal role in articulating the problem you’d like to solve, providing the essential data for its training, establishing the rules governing its behavior, and meticulously assessing the outputs it generates. Unlike conventional projects such as website or mobile application development, AI endeavors demand an elevated level of collaboration with your development partner. Your insights into the intricacies of the problem, the quality of the provided data, and the formulation of rules that steer the AI’s actions are not just welcomed – they are indispensable. This collaboration transforms the AI development process into a partnership, where your active involvement becomes not only encouraged but a prerequisite for achieving the pinnacle of success in artificial intelligence.

Final Thoughts

Understanding the intricate programming techniques deployed in this process is akin to deciphering the code of a new language; it empowers you to navigate and influence the trajectory of AI’s problem-solving prowess. Recognizing your indispensable role in this dynamic process transforms you from a mere observer to a strategic navigator, wielding the potential of AI as a powerful tool for addressing multifaceted challenges. As you delve deeper into the complexities of AI, you unravel its true nature and your capacity to shape its impact through a collaborative and informed approach.

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May 21, 2023 AI technology has revolutionized the way organizations do business; now, with proper guardrails in place, generative AI promises to not only unlock novel use cases for businesses but also speed up, scale, or otherwise improve existing ones. “Companies across sectors, from pharmaceuticals to banking to retail, are already standing up a range of use cases to capture value creation potential,” write Michael Chui , Roger Roberts , Tanya Rodchenko, Alex Singla , Alex Sukharevsky , Lareina Yee , and Delphine Zurkiya  in a new article . Generative AI is nascent, but as it develops and becomes increasingly, and more seamlessly, incorporated into business, its problem-solving potential will intensify. Check out these insights to understand how both AI and generative AI can help your organization solve complex problems, transform operations, improve products, and realize new revenue streams.

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Artificial intelligence, or AI, is technology that enables computers and machines to simulate human intelligence and problem-solving capabilities.

On its own or combined with other technologies (e.g., sensors, geolocation, robotics) AI can perform tasks that would otherwise require human intelligence or intervention. Digital assistants, GPS guidance, autonomous vehicles, and generative AI tools (like Open AI's Chat GPT) are just a few examples of AI in the daily news and our daily lives.

As a field of computer science, artificial intelligence encompasses (and is often mentioned together with) machine learning and deep learning . These disciplines involve the development of AI algorithms, modeled after the decision-making processes of the human brain, that can ‘learn’ from available data and make increasingly more accurate classifications or predictions over time.

Artificial intelligence has gone through many cycles of hype, but even to skeptics, the release of ChatGPT seems to mark a turning point. The last time generative AI loomed this large, the breakthroughs were in computer vision, but now the leap forward is in natural language processing (NLP). Today, generative AI can learn and synthesize not just human language but other data types including images, video, software code, and even molecular structures.

Applications for AI are growing every day. But as the hype around the use of AI tools in business takes off, conversations around ai ethics and responsible ai become critically important. For more on where IBM stands on these issues, please read  Building trust in AI .

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Weak AI—also known as narrow AI or artificial narrow intelligence (ANI)—is AI trained and focused to perform specific tasks. Weak AI drives most of the AI that surrounds us today. "Narrow" might be a more apt descriptor for this type of AI as it is anything but weak: it enables some very robust applications, such as Apple's Siri, Amazon's Alexa, IBM watsonx™, and self-driving vehicles.

Strong AI is made up of artificial general intelligence (AGI) and artificial super intelligence (ASI). AGI, or general AI, is a theoretical form of AI where a machine would have an intelligence equal to humans; it would be self-aware with a consciousness that would have the ability to solve problems, learn, and plan for the future. ASI—also known as superintelligence—would surpass the intelligence and ability of the human brain. While strong AI is still entirely theoretical with no practical examples in use today, that doesn't mean AI researchers aren't also exploring its development. In the meantime, the best examples of ASI might be from science fiction, such as HAL, the superhuman and rogue computer assistant in  2001: A Space Odyssey.

Machine learning and deep learning are sub-disciplines of AI, and deep learning is a sub-discipline of machine learning.

Both machine learning and deep learning algorithms use neural networks to ‘learn’ from huge amounts of data. These neural networks are programmatic structures modeled after the decision-making processes of the human brain. They consist of layers of interconnected nodes that extract features from the data and make predictions about what the data represents.

Machine learning and deep learning differ in the types of neural networks they use, and the amount of human intervention involved. Classic machine learning algorithms use neural networks with an input layer, one or two ‘hidden’ layers, and an output layer. Typically, these algorithms are limited to supervised learning : the data needs to be structured or labeled by human experts to enable the algorithm to extract features from the data.

Deep learning algorithms use deep neural networks—networks composed of an input layer, three or more (but usually hundreds) of hidden layers, and an output layout. These multiple layers enable unsupervised learning : they automate extraction of features from large, unlabeled and unstructured data sets. Because it doesn’t require human intervention, deep learning essentially enables machine learning at scale.

Generative AI refers to deep-learning models that can take raw data—say, all of Wikipedia or the collected works of Rembrandt—and “learn” to generate statistically probable outputs when prompted. At a high level, generative models encode a simplified representation of their training data and draw from it to create a new work that’s similar, but not identical, to the original data.

Generative models have been used for years in statistics to analyze numerical data. The rise of deep learning, however, made it possible to extend them to images, speech, and other complex data types. Among the first class of AI models to achieve this cross-over feat were variational autoencoders, or VAEs, introduced in 2013. VAEs were the first deep-learning models to be widely used for generating realistic images and speech.

“VAEs opened the floodgates to deep generative modeling by making models easier to scale,” said Akash Srivastava , an expert on generative AI at the MIT-IBM Watson AI Lab. “Much of what we think of today as generative AI started here.”

Early examples of models, including GPT-3, BERT, or DALL-E 2, have shown what’s possible. In the future, models will be trained on a broad set of unlabeled data that can be used for different tasks, with minimal fine-tuning. Systems that execute specific tasks in a single domain are giving way to broad AI systems that learn more generally and work across domains and problems. Foundation models, trained on large, unlabeled datasets and fine-tuned for an array of applications, are driving this shift.

As to the future of AI, when it comes to generative AI, it is predicted that foundation models will dramatically accelerate AI adoption in enterprise. Reducing labeling requirements will make it much easier for businesses to dive in, and the highly accurate, efficient AI-driven automation they enable will mean that far more companies will be able to deploy AI in a wider range of mission-critical situations. For IBM, the hope is that the computing power of foundation models can eventually be brought to every enterprise in a frictionless hybrid-cloud environment.

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There are numerous, real-world applications for AI systems today. Below are some of the most common use cases:

Also known as automatic speech recognition (ASR), computer speech recognition, or speech-to-text, speech recognition uses NLP to process human speech into a written format. Many mobile devices incorporate speech recognition into their systems to conduct voice search—Siri, for example—or provide more accessibility around texting in English or many widely-used languages.  See how Don Johnston used IBM Watson Text to Speech to improve accessibility in the classroom with our case study .

Online  virtual agents  and chatbots are replacing human agents along the customer journey. They answer frequently asked questions (FAQ) around topics, like shipping, or provide personalized advice, cross-selling products or suggesting sizes for users, changing the way we think about customer engagement across websites and social media platforms. Examples include messaging bots on e-commerce sites with virtual agents , messaging apps, such as Slack and Facebook Messenger, and tasks usually done by virtual assistants and  voice assistants .  See how Autodesk Inc. used IBM watsonx Assistant to speed up customer response times by 99% with our case study .

This AI technology enables computers and systems to derive meaningful information from digital images, videos and other visual inputs, and based on those inputs, it can take action. This ability to provide recommendations distinguishes it from image recognition tasks. Powered by convolutional neural networks, computer vision has applications within photo tagging in social media, radiology imaging in healthcare, and self-driving cars within the automotive industry.  See how ProMare used IBM Maximo to set a new course for ocean research with our case study .

Adaptive robotics act on Internet of Things (IoT) device information, and structured and unstructured data to make autonomous decisions. NLP tools can understand human speech and react to what they are being told. Predictive analytics are applied to demand responsiveness, inventory and network optimization, preventative maintenance and digital manufacturing. Search and pattern recognition algorithms—which are no longer just predictive, but hierarchical—analyze real-time data, helping supply chains to react to machine-generated, augmented intelligence, while providing instant visibility and transparency. See how Hendrickson used IBM Sterling to fuel real-time transactions with our case study .

The weather models broadcasters rely on to make accurate forecasts consist of complex algorithms run on supercomputers. Machine-learning techniques enhance these models by making them more applicable and precise. See how Emnotion used IBM Cloud to empower weather-sensitive enterprises to make more proactive, data-driven decisions with our case study .

AI models can comb through large amounts of data and discover atypical data points within a dataset. These anomalies can raise awareness around faulty equipment, human error, or breaches in security.  See how Netox used IBM QRadar to protect digital businesses from cyberthreats with our case study .

The idea of "a machine that thinks" dates back to ancient Greece. But since the advent of electronic computing (and relative to some of the topics discussed in this article) important events and milestones in the evolution of artificial intelligence include the following:

  • 1950:  Alan Turing publishes Computing Machinery and Intelligence  (link resides outside ibm.com) .  In this paper, Turing—famous for breaking the German ENIGMA code during WWII and often referred to as the "father of computer science"— asks the following question: "Can machines think?"  From there, he offers a test, now famously known as the "Turing Test," where a human interrogator would try to distinguish between a computer and human text response. While this test has undergone much scrutiny since it was published, it remains an important part of the history of AI, as well as an ongoing concept within philosophy as it utilizes ideas around linguistics.
  • 1956:  John McCarthy coins the term "artificial intelligence" at the first-ever AI conference at Dartmouth College. (McCarthy would go on to invent the Lisp language.) Later that year, Allen Newell, J.C. Shaw, and Herbert Simon create the Logic Theorist, the first-ever running AI software program.
  • 1967:  Frank Rosenblatt builds the Mark 1 Perceptron, the first computer based on a neural network that "learned" though trial and error. Just a year later, Marvin Minsky and Seymour Papert publish a book titled  Perceptrons , which becomes both the landmark work on neural networks and, at least for a while, an argument against future neural network research projects.
  • 1980s:  Neural networks which use a backpropagation algorithm to train itself become widely used in AI applications.
  • 1995 : Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig publish  Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach  (link resides outside ibm.com), which becomes one of the leading textbooks in the study of AI. In it, they delve into four potential goals or definitions of AI, which differentiates computer systems on the basis of rationality and thinking vs. acting.
  • 1997:  IBM's Deep Blue beats then world chess champion Garry Kasparov, in a chess match (and rematch).
  • 2004 : John McCarthy writes a paper, What Is Artificial Intelligence?  (link resides outside ibm.com), and proposes an often-cited definition of AI.
  • 2011:  IBM Watson beats champions Ken Jennings and Brad Rutter at  Jeopardy!
  • 2015:  Baidu's Minwa supercomputer uses a special kind of deep neural network called a convolutional neural network to identify and categorize images with a higher rate of accuracy than the average human.
  • 2016:  DeepMind's AlphaGo program, powered by a deep neural network, beats Lee Sodol, the world champion Go player, in a five-game match. The victory is significant given the huge number of possible moves as the game progresses (over 14.5 trillion after just four moves!). Later, Google purchased DeepMind for a reported USD 400 million.
  • 2023 : A rise in large language models, or LLMs, such as ChatGPT, create an enormous change in performance of AI and its potential to drive enterprise value. With these new generative AI practices, deep-learning models can be pre-trained on vast amounts of raw, unlabeled data.

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Characteristics and Key Aspects of an AI Problem

  • Post author By aqua
  • Post date 01.12.2023
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Artificial Intelligence (AI) has become an integral part of our lives, revolutionizing industries and transforming the way we live and work. AI systems are designed to solve complex problems and perform tasks that traditionally require human intelligence. However, not all problems can be effectively solved using AI, and it is important to understand the key characteristics of an AI problem.

A key characteristic of an AI problem is the need for a solution that goes beyond simple rule-based approaches. AI problems are typically characterized by their complexity and ambiguity, requiring a more sophisticated approach. This is where AI models come into play.

An AI solution involves creating a model that can learn from data and make intelligent decisions. The model is trained using algorithms that enable it to recognize patterns, make predictions, and provide solutions to the given problem. The efficiency and accuracy of the AI solution depend on the quality of the data used to train the model and the algorithms employed.

An AI problem can be defined as a task that requires intelligent behavior from a machine. This can include tasks such as image classification, natural language processing, speech recognition, and decision-making. AI problems are often open-ended and do not have a single correct solution. They require the ability to understand and interpret complex data, adapt to new information, and make decisions based on uncertain or incomplete information.

Efficiency and accuracy are important considerations when solving an AI problem. An AI system should be able to produce results in a reasonable amount of time and with a high level of accuracy. The choice of algorithms and the computational resources available play a crucial role in determining the efficiency and accuracy of the solution.

In conclusion, understanding the key characteristics of an AI problem is essential for designing effective solutions. AI problems require sophisticated models, algorithms, and data to produce efficient and accurate results. By harnessing the power of AI, we can tackle complex problems and achieve new levels of intelligence and automation.

Understanding AI Problem

In order to effectively solve an AI problem, it is essential to have a deep understanding of its key characteristics. These characteristics encompass various aspects such as data, efficiency, model, solution, algorithm, and accuracy.

Data: AI problems heavily rely on large amounts of data. The availability and quality of data play a vital role in training models and achieving accurate results. It is crucial to have a comprehensive understanding of the data that is being used and its relevance to the problem at hand.

Efficiency: AI problems often deal with complex computations and require efficient algorithms to process large datasets. Efficient algorithms can significantly impact the performance and speed of AI systems, enabling them to provide quick and accurate solutions.

Model: AI problems involve the creation and training of models. The choice of the model architecture and its design have a direct impact on the accuracy and effectiveness of the AI system. Understanding the strengths and limitations of different models is essential in selecting the most appropriate one for a given problem.

Solution: AI problems aim to find solutions to complex tasks. Understanding the problem domain and the desired outcome is crucial in formulating the problem in a way that can be solved using AI techniques. This involves identifying the key components and constraints of the problem and formulating it as a well-defined task for the AI system.

Algorithm: AI problems require the development and implementation of algorithms that can process data and generate meaningful insights. Developing efficient and accurate algorithms is essential for solving AI problems effectively.

Accuracy: AI problems strive to generate accurate predictions, classifications, or recommendations. Ensuring the accuracy of AI systems involves carefully evaluating and validating the models and algorithms against high-quality data and benchmarking them against existing state-of-the-art solutions.

In conclusion, understanding the key characteristics of an AI problem is crucial for developing effective AI solutions. By considering factors such as data, efficiency, model, solution, algorithm, and accuracy, AI practitioners can tackle complex problems and deliver accurate and efficient AI systems.

Definition of AI problem

AI problems are specific challenges that require the implementation of artificial intelligence techniques to find a solution. These problems can vary in nature and complexity, but they all share the goal of using AI to improve accuracy, efficiency, or both in solving a particular task.

At the core of an AI problem is the need to develop a model or algorithm that can make predictions, decisions, or perform tasks based on input data. The accuracy of the AI system’s output is a crucial aspect of the problem, as it determines the reliability and usefulness of the solution.

Furthermore, AI problems often involve large volumes of data, which need to be processed and analyzed efficiently. The efficiency of the AI solution is another key characteristic that affects its practicality and applicability.

To tackle an AI problem, it is essential to identify the specific challenge, define the desired outcome, and gather relevant data. The problem-solving process typically involves developing and training an AI model or designing an algorithm that can effectively process the input data and produce the desired output.

In summary, an AI problem is a challenge that requires the application of AI techniques to achieve accurate and efficient solutions. It involves developing models or algorithms, analyzing relevant data, and optimizing the AI system’s performance.

Scope of AI Problem

The scope of an AI problem refers to the extent and complexity of the problem that AI seeks to address. This includes the amount of data involved, the characteristics of the problem, and the desired efficiency and accuracy of the solution.

AI problems often deal with large and complex datasets. These datasets can come from various sources such as sensor data, social media, or collected data from previous interactions. The size and quality of the data can greatly impact the AI model’s ability to accurately understand and solve the problem.

Another important aspect of the scope is the characteristics of the problem itself. AI can be applied to different types of problems, ranging from image recognition and natural language processing to forecasting and recommendation systems. Each problem has its own unique challenges and requirements, and the scope of the AI problem should take into account these specific characteristics.

Efficiency is another key consideration in determining the scope of an AI problem. AI solutions are expected to provide results in a timely manner, especially in real-time applications. Therefore, the scope should consider the computational resources required and the time it takes to process the data and deliver the solution.

Finally, accuracy is a crucial factor in the scope of an AI problem. The desired level of accuracy will depend on the specific problem and its application. For example, medical diagnosis systems require a high level of accuracy, while recommendation systems may tolerate a certain degree of error.

In conclusion, the scope of an AI problem encompasses various aspects such as data, problem characteristics, efficiency, and accuracy. Understanding the scope of the problem is essential in designing and developing effective AI solutions.

Key challenges in solving AI problems

Solving AI problems involves dealing with several challenges that arise due to the unique characteristics of AI models and algorithms.

  • Accuracy: Achieving high accuracy in AI systems is one of the major challenges. The models need to be trained with large and diverse datasets to ensure accurate predictions and classifications.
  • Efficiency: Developing AI solutions that can perform tasks efficiently is another challenge. The algorithms need to be optimized to handle large amounts of data and deliver results within an acceptable timeframe.
  • Complexity: AI problems can be highly complex, requiring advanced algorithms and techniques to solve them. Understanding and implementing these complex solutions can be challenging for AI developers.
  • Data availability: The performance of AI models heavily relies on the availability of relevant and high-quality data. However, obtaining such data can be a challenge in certain domains.
  • Interpretability: AI models often make decisions based on complex patterns that are difficult to interpret. Ensuring transparency and interpretability of AI systems is a challenge, especially in applications where decisions may have significant impacts.
  • Generalization: AI systems should be able to generalize their knowledge and apply it to new, unseen data. Developing models that can generalize well is a challenge, as it requires capturing the underlying patterns and concepts in a dataset.

Addressing these challenges requires continuous research and development in the field of AI, as well as collaboration between experts from various disciplines.

Importance of defining AI problem characteristics

Defining the key characteristics of an AI problem is crucial for the successful implementation and deployment of AI solutions. These characteristics provide essential information that helps in determining the most efficient and accurate algorithms and models to address the problem at hand.

One of the primary reasons for defining the characteristics of an AI problem is to ensure efficiency in solving it. Understanding the specific requirements and constraints of the problem allows AI engineers to choose algorithms and models that can solve the problem within the desired time frame and computational resources.

Another important aspect of defining problem characteristics is to achieve the desired level of accuracy in AI solutions. Different AI algorithms and models have varying degrees of accuracy, and by understanding the problem requirements, AI engineers can select the most appropriate solution that meets the desired accuracy level.

The accuracy of an AI solution is crucial, especially when it comes to solving complex problems or making critical decisions based on the AI’s output.

By defining the AI problem characteristics upfront, AI engineers can optimize the accuracy of the solution and ensure its reliability in real-world scenarios.

Additionally, defining problem characteristics helps in evaluating the performance of AI systems and comparing different algorithms and models to identify the most accurate and reliable solution.

Algorithm and Model Selection

Defining the characteristics of an AI problem also aids in selecting the most suitable algorithms and models. Various AI algorithms and models excel in different problem domains, and understanding the problem characteristics allows AI engineers to narrow down the choices and select the ones that are most likely to yield the desired results.

By choosing appropriate algorithms and models, AI engineers can streamline the development process and reduce the time and effort required to find a viable solution.

Moreover, understanding the problem characteristics helps in avoiding unnecessary complexities and over-engineering, ensuring a more efficient and effective AI solution.

Overall Solution Deployment

Defining the characteristics of an AI problem is not only critical for developing a successful AI solution but also for its effective deployment. Understanding the problem characteristics helps in determining the requirements for input data, performance expectations, and integration with other systems or processes.

By defining the problem characteristics, AI engineers can ensure a smoother deployment process, minimize the chances of unexpected issues, and maximize the value generated by the AI solution.

  • In summary, defining the key characteristics of an AI problem is crucial for:
  • Ensuring efficient solution
  • Achieving desired accuracy
  • Selecting appropriate algorithms and models
  • Streamlining development process
  • Ensuring effective solution deployment

By understanding and defining the problem characteristics, AI engineers can set a strong foundation for developing and deploying successful AI solutions that address real-world problems accurately and efficiently.

Characteristics of a well-defined AI problem

A well-defined AI problem possesses several key characteristics that contribute to its successful solution. These characteristics include:

A well-defined AI problem is clear and unambiguous, with a clear understanding of what the problem is and what needs to be solved.


The problem should be specific and focused, clearly defining the scope and boundaries of what needs to be achieved.

Data Availability

For an AI problem to be well-defined, it is important to have access to the necessary data required for training and evaluation. This includes both the quantity and quality of the data.

Model Selection

Choosing the right AI model is crucial for solving a problem. A well-defined AI problem requires careful consideration of different models and selecting the most appropriate one based on the problem’s requirements.

Algorithm Design

The design of an algorithm plays a vital role in solving an AI problem efficiently and accurately. A well-defined problem requires the development or selection of an algorithm that can effectively process the data and produce the desired solution.

Accuracy Evaluation

A well-defined AI problem requires a clear methodology for evaluating the accuracy of the solution. This involves defining appropriate metrics and evaluation criteria to measure the performance of the AI system against the problem’s objectives.

Overall, a well-defined AI problem encompasses clarity, specificity, data availability, model selection, algorithm design, and accuracy evaluation. These characteristics help ensure that the problem is precisely defined, the data and models are appropriate, and the solution is accurate and effective.

Role of data in solving AI problems

In solving AI problems, data plays a crucial role. Without accurate and relevant data, it would be impossible to develop effective AI algorithms and models. The characteristics of the data used directly affect the accuracy and efficiency of the AI system.

When solving an AI problem, it is essential to gather high-quality and diverse data. This data should cover various scenarios and situations that the AI system may encounter in real-world applications. The more comprehensive and diverse the data, the better the AI system will be able to handle different situations.

The accuracy of an AI system is heavily dependent on the quality of the data used to train it. If the training data is inaccurate or incomplete, it can lead to biased or unreliable AI models. Therefore, it is essential to ensure that the data used is accurate, up-to-date, and representative of the problem domain.

Efficiency is another critical characteristic that is influenced by the data used in solving AI problems. The size and complexity of the data can impact the computational resources required to train and deploy the AI system. Therefore, it is crucial to carefully analyze and preprocess the data to enhance the efficiency of the AI algorithms.

To solve AI problems effectively, it is necessary to develop models that can understand and interpret the data correctly. This requires a deep understanding of the problem domain and the ability to design algorithms that can learn from the data. The models should be able to extract meaningful patterns and insights from the data to make accurate predictions or decisions.

In conclusion, data is a fundamental component in solving AI problems. The accuracy, efficiency, and effectiveness of the AI system are greatly influenced by the quality and characteristics of the data used. Therefore, it is crucial to gather diverse and accurate data to develop robust AI algorithms and models.

Key stakeholders involved in AI problem-solving

In the field of AI problem-solving, there are several key stakeholders who play a crucial role in ensuring the accuracy, efficiency, and effectiveness of the AI solutions. These stakeholders include:

Data providers

Data providers are individuals or organizations that supply the necessary data for AI models and algorithms. They are responsible for collecting, cleaning, and organizing large amounts of data, ensuring its accuracy and relevance. High-quality data is essential for AI systems to make accurate predictions and decisions.

AI researchers and engineers

AI researchers and engineers are the experts who develop and improve the AI models, algorithms, and systems. They constantly work on enhancing the characteristics of AI, such as accuracy, efficiency, and scalability. They are responsible for creating models that can effectively interpret and learn from the data provided, enhancing the overall performance of the AI system.

Domain experts

Domain experts are individuals with deep knowledge and understanding of the specific field or problem that the AI system aims to solve. They provide crucial insights and guidance to ensure that the AI system is designed to address the unique challenges and requirements of the problem at hand. Domain experts work closely with AI researchers and engineers, providing domain-specific knowledge and validation of the solutions.

End-users are the individuals or organizations that will directly interact with and benefit from the AI solutions. They provide valuable feedback on the usability and effectiveness of the AI system and its solutions. End-users’ experiences and insights help guide the refinement and improvement of the AI system, ensuring that it aligns with the needs and expectations of the real-world users.

By involving these key stakeholders in the AI problem-solving process, organizations can create effective AI solutions that meet the needs of the users and contribute to improved accuracy, efficiency, and overall performance.

Ethical considerations in AI problem-solving

When it comes to AI problem-solving, there are several ethical considerations that need to be taken into account. These considerations revolve around the use of data, algorithms, and models in developing AI solutions.

Data Privacy and Security

One of the key ethical concerns in AI problem-solving is the protection of data privacy and security. AI systems often require access to large amounts of data to train algorithms and build accurate models. However, this data may contain sensitive information about individuals. It is important to ensure that data is collected and used in a responsible manner, with appropriate consent and safeguards in place to protect the privacy and security of individuals.

Another important ethical consideration in AI problem-solving is the potential for bias and unfairness in the algorithms and models used. AI systems are trained on historical data, which may contain biases, stereotypes, and unfair practices. If these biases are not addressed, they can be perpetuated and amplified by AI systems, leading to discriminatory outcomes. It is crucial to ensure that AI algorithms and models are designed in a way that is fair and unbiased, taking into account the potential impact on different population groups.

Additionally, transparency and explainability are important aspects of ensuring fairness in AI problem-solving. AI solutions should be designed in a way that allows users and stakeholders to understand how decisions are made and to detect and rectify any biases or unfairness.

AI problem-solving also raises questions of accountability and responsibility. While AI algorithms and models are developed by humans, they can sometimes make decisions that are difficult to understand or predict. In cases where AI systems are used to make decisions that have a significant impact on individuals or society, it is important to establish accountability and define clear responsibilities.

Furthermore, the use of AI in problem-solving should not absolve humans of their ethical obligations. Human oversight and intervention should be maintained to ensure that AI systems are used in a responsible and ethical manner.

In conclusion, considering the ethical implications of AI problem-solving is crucial to ensure that AI systems are developed and used in a responsible and fair manner. Addressing issues such as data privacy, bias and fairness, and accountability will help to build AI systems that benefit society while minimizing potential harm.

Key methods and algorithms used for solving AI problems

When it comes to solving AI problems, there are several key methods and algorithms that are commonly used. These methods and algorithms are designed to address the characteristics and challenges of AI problems, such as accuracy, efficiency, and the handling of large amounts of data.

Supervised learning

One of the most commonly used methods for solving AI problems is supervised learning. In this approach, a model is trained using labeled data, where the desired output is already known. The model learns from this labeled data and can then make accurate predictions or classifications on new, unlabeled data.

Unsupervised learning

Another popular method is unsupervised learning, which involves training a model on unlabeled data. Unlike supervised learning, the model does not have access to any predefined output. Instead, it is tasked with discovering hidden patterns or structures in the data. Unsupervised learning can be useful for tasks such as clustering or dimensionality reduction.

In addition to these methods, there are also various algorithms that can be used to solve AI problems, depending on the specific task at hand. Some common algorithms include decision trees, neural networks, Bayesian networks, and genetic algorithms.

Each algorithm has its own characteristics and trade-offs. For example, decision trees are simple and interpretable, but they can be prone to overfitting. Neural networks, on the other hand, are powerful and flexible, but they can be computationally expensive. Bayesian networks are useful for modeling uncertainty and causality, but they typically require prior knowledge. Genetic algorithms can evolve solutions based on natural selection principles, but they can be slow.

In conclusion, the key methods and algorithms used for solving AI problems are diverse and tailored to address the specific characteristics and challenges of each problem. By understanding the strengths and limitations of different methods and algorithms, AI practitioners can effectively tackle a wide range of AI problems with accuracy and efficiency.

Common misconceptions about AI problem-solving

Artificial Intelligence (AI) problem-solving is a complex and rapidly evolving field that requires a deep understanding of its key characteristics. However, there are several common misconceptions that can hinder the development and implementation of effective AI solutions.

1. AI models can solve any problem accurately.

One common misconception is that AI models can solve any problem with complete accuracy. While AI has shown remarkable capabilities in various domains, it is important to recognize that AI models are only as good as the data they are trained on. If the data is incomplete, biased, or of poor quality, the accuracy of the AI model’s predictions will be compromised.

2. AI solutions are always efficient.

Another misconception is that AI solutions are always efficient and can provide instant solutions to complex problems. While AI can automate certain tasks and improve efficiency in many cases, it is essential to consider the computational resources and time required for training and running AI models. Additionally, complex problems may require iterative and resource-intensive AI algorithms, which can impact the overall efficiency of the solution.

3. AI does not require human involvement.

Contrary to popular belief, AI problem-solving often requires human involvement and expertise. While AI models can process and analyze large amounts of data, they still rely on human input for tasks such as data preprocessing, feature engineering, and validating the results. Human experts play a critical role in the design, training, and evaluation of AI models to ensure their accuracy and applicability to real-world problems.

4. AI solves problems without the need for data.

An erroneous assumption is that AI can solve problems without the need for data. In reality, AI models heavily rely on data for training and making accurate predictions. Without sufficient and relevant data, AI models may struggle to generalize and provide meaningful solutions. Moreover, the quality and diversity of the data can greatly impact the effectiveness of the AI solution.

5. AI provides one-size-fits-all solutions.

Lastly, it is important to dispel the notion that AI provides one-size-fits-all solutions that can address any problem. AI models are highly specialized and require tailored approaches for each problem domain. The characteristics of the problem, including its complexity, context, and available resources, must be carefully considered when developing an AI solution.

In conclusion, understanding the key characteristics of AI problem-solving is crucial for avoiding common misconceptions. By recognizing the limitations and requirements of AI models, we can better harness their power to develop accurate, efficient, and impactful solutions.

Real-world examples of AI problems

In today’s world, AI is being applied to solve a wide range of problems across various industries. Some key real-world examples of AI problems include:

Image recognition

One common AI problem is image recognition, where an algorithm or model is trained to identify and classify objects or patterns within images. This can be used in applications such as facial recognition, object detection, and self-driving cars.

Natural language processing

Another AI problem is natural language processing, which involves the ability of a computer to understand and analyze human language. This can be used in chatbots, speech-to-text conversion, and sentiment analysis on social media.

Efficiency and accuracy are crucial characteristics of AI systems when solving these problems. The algorithms or models used should be able to process large amounts of data quickly and provide accurate results. This requires training the AI system with high-quality data and continuously improving its performance.

AI problems require the intelligent processing of data to provide meaningful insights or actions. By utilizing AI, various industries can automate processes, make better decisions, and improve overall efficiency.

AI problem-solving in different industries

AI technology has revolutionized problem-solving in various industries, providing efficient solutions that were not possible before. The use of AI models and algorithms enables businesses to tackle complex problems by leveraging the power of data and automation. Let’s explore some key characteristics of AI problem-solving in different industries:

  • Accuracy: AI algorithms can analyze large datasets and make accurate predictions or recommendations. This accuracy is crucial in industries such as finance or healthcare, where precision is of utmost importance.
  • Data-driven approach: AI problem-solving relies on the availability of relevant data. Industries that have abundant data sources, such as e-commerce or social media, can leverage AI to uncover valuable insights and improve decision-making processes.
  • Adaptive algorithms: AI models can adapt and learn from new data inputs, allowing businesses to continuously improve their problem-solving capabilities. This adaptability is particularly useful in industries that experience rapid changes, like technology or manufacturing.
  • Automation: AI solutions automate repetitive tasks, freeing up human resources to focus on more strategic and creative endeavors. Industries that heavily rely on manual processes, such as logistics or customer service, can benefit greatly from AI-powered automation.
  • Efficiency: AI problem-solving can streamline operations and optimize resource allocation. Industries with complex supply chains, like retail or transportation, can use AI models to improve efficiency and reduce costs.
  • Predictive capabilities: AI algorithms can analyze historical data and make predictions about future events or trends. This predictive power is valuable in industries like marketing or energy, where accurate forecasting can drive business success.
  • Customization: AI solutions can be tailored to specific industry needs and requirements. Industries with unique challenges, such as agriculture or healthcare, can develop AI models that address their specific problems and provide innovative solutions.

In summary, AI problem-solving brings numerous advantages across industries, from improved accuracy and efficiency to enhanced predictive capabilities and automation. By leveraging the power of data and algorithms, businesses can tackle complex problems and drive innovation in their respective fields.

AI problem-solving for business optimization

AI, or artificial intelligence, plays a crucial role in problem-solving for business optimization. By employing AI technologies, businesses can effectively identify and tackle complex issues, leading to improved efficiency, accuracy, and overall success.

One of the key characteristics of an AI problem is the need for accurate and reliable solutions. AI models are designed to analyze vast amounts of data and extract meaningful insights, making it possible to develop precise solutions to business challenges. Whether it’s predicting customer behavior, optimizing supply chain operations, or automating business processes, AI enables businesses to make data-driven decisions and achieve better results.

Data is a fundamental aspect of AI problem-solving. AI systems require large sets of high-quality data to train and improve their models. By feeding relevant data into AI algorithms, businesses can enhance their problem-solving capabilities and achieve more accurate and actionable outcomes. Proper data management, including data collection, cleaning, and preprocessing, is essential for ensuring the effectiveness of AI solutions.

Efficiency is another crucial characteristic of AI problem-solving. AI algorithms are capable of processing vast amounts of data and performing complex calculations within seconds, allowing businesses to analyze and respond to challenges in real-time. This speed and efficiency enable businesses to optimize their operations, streamline processes, and reduce costs. As a result, business decisions can be made more quickly and accurately, leading to improved overall efficiency.

In summary, AI problem-solving for business optimization requires accurate and reliable solutions, powered by the analysis of large sets of data. By harnessing the power of AI, businesses can achieve greater efficiency, accuracy, and success in addressing complex challenges and driving overall optimization.

AI problem-solving for healthcare

The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in healthcare has the potential to revolutionize the industry by improving efficiency, accuracy, and patient outcomes. AI algorithms and models can analyze large amounts of data to identify patterns and make predictions, providing valuable insights to healthcare professionals.

Key characteristics of an AI problem in healthcare

  • Data-driven: AI problem-solving in healthcare relies on the availability of high-quality and diverse data. This data can include patient records, medical images, genomic data, and real-time monitoring data.
  • Solution-oriented: AI is used in healthcare to solve specific problems, such as diagnosing diseases, detecting anomalies in medical images, predicting patient outcomes, and optimizing treatment plans.
  • Complexity: Healthcare problems are often multifaceted and require advanced algorithms and models to capture the complexities of human biology, disease progression, and treatment options.

The goal of AI problem-solving in healthcare is to provide healthcare professionals with tools and insights that can augment their decision-making process and improve patient care. By leveraging AI technologies, healthcare organizations can unlock the full potential of their data and make more informed and personalized treatment decisions.

AI problem-solving for transportation

The field of transportation presents several unique challenges that can benefit from the application of AI problem-solving techniques. These challenges include the need for accuracy, efficiency, and effective solutions.

One of the key characteristics of transportation problems is the vast amount of data involved. AI algorithms can analyze this data to identify patterns and make predictions, helping improve the accuracy of various transportation tasks, such as traffic flow optimization or route planning.

Additionally, AI problem-solving in transportation can improve efficiency. By analyzing real-time data, AI systems can make instant decisions, leading to improved traffic management, reduced congestion, and shorter travel times for commuters.

Another important characteristic of transportation problems is the need for effective solutions. AI algorithms can optimize various aspects of transportation, such as fleet management or logistics planning, to find the most efficient and cost-effective solutions.

Overall, the application of AI problem-solving in transportation holds great potential for improving accuracy, efficiency, and finding effective solutions to the challenges faced in the field. By leveraging the power of AI, transportation systems can become smarter, more reliable, and better equipped to handle the demands of modern society.

AI problem-solving for finance

AI has become an invaluable tool for the finance industry, offering efficient solutions to complex problems. By leveraging AI algorithms, financial institutions are able to analyze large amounts of data and generate valuable insights.

One of the key characteristics of an AI problem in finance is the need for efficiency. Financial transactions happen in real-time, and any delay in processing can have significant consequences. AI models are designed to quickly process vast amounts of data and provide timely solutions.

Another important characteristic of an AI problem in finance is the need to build an accurate model. Financial markets are inherently complex and volatile, and AI algorithms must be able to capture these complexities. By training the AI models on historical data, financial institutions can create models that accurately predict market trends and make informed decisions.

A common AI problem in finance is the identification and mitigation of fraud. Financial institutions deal with a large number of transactions every day, and detecting fraudulent activities can be challenging. AI algorithms can be trained to identify patterns and anomalies in financial data, enabling institutions to detect and prevent fraud.

Furthermore, AI can be used to optimize portfolio management. Financial institutions can use AI algorithms to analyze market trends, predict asset performance, and recommend investment strategies. This can help financial advisors make informed decisions and improve the performance of their portfolios.

In conclusion, AI problem-solving for finance involves the efficient analysis of vast amounts of data, building accurate models, identifying and mitigating fraud, and optimizing portfolio management. AI algorithms offer valuable solutions to complex financial problems and have revolutionized the way the finance industry operates.

AI problem-solving for education

AI problem-solving can greatly benefit the field of education by offering solutions to various educational challenges. By utilizing AI technologies, educational institutions can improve the learning experience, tailor education to individual needs, and enhance overall efficiency.

Characteristics of AI problem-solving in education

  • Data-driven: AI problem-solving in education relies on the collection and analysis of large amounts of data, including student performance, demographics, and learning styles. This data is used to develop models and algorithms that can predict and improve educational outcomes.
  • Efficiency: AI algorithms can quickly analyze and process large volumes of educational data, allowing educators to identify areas of improvement and implement targeted interventions. This improves efficiency in identifying and addressing student needs, saving time and resources.
  • Personalization: AI can create personalized learning experiences by adapting educational content to individual students’ needs and preferences. By analyzing data on student performance and behaviors, AI can tailor lesson plans, activities, and assessments to maximize learning outcomes for each student.
  • Model development: AI problem-solving in education involves the development and deployment of models that can predict student performance, identify at-risk students, and recommend interventions. These models are constantly refined and updated using new data to improve their accuracy and effectiveness.
  • Collaboration: AI problem-solving solutions in education often involve collaboration between educators, data scientists, and AI experts. This interdisciplinary approach ensures that the solutions are well-designed and effectively address the specific needs of the education sector.

Solution application in education

The application of AI problem-solving in education can address various challenges, such as identifying struggling students who may benefit from additional support, optimizing curriculum design to accommodate individual learning styles, and automating administrative tasks to free up educators’ time for more meaningful interactions with students.

By leveraging AI technologies, educational institutions have the potential to revolutionize the way education is delivered and personalized, ultimately improving learning outcomes for students and enhancing the overall educational experience.

AI problem-solving for agriculture

AI problem-solving in the field of agriculture involves the application of artificial intelligence techniques to address various challenges and improve efficiency and accuracy in agricultural practices.

One key characteristic of AI problem-solving in agriculture is the development of innovative solutions that leverage the power of AI technology. These solutions can range from automated monitoring systems for crop growth to intelligent pest detection and control mechanisms.

Data plays a crucial role in AI problem-solving for agriculture. It involves collecting and analyzing vast amounts of data related to various aspects of agricultural processes, including weather patterns, soil quality, crop health, and pest infestations. AI algorithms rely on this data to learn and make informed decisions.

The algorithm is the heart of AI problem-solving in agriculture. It defines the logic and calculations used to process the data and generate predictions or recommendations. The algorithm needs to be carefully designed to ensure it can handle the complexity and specific requirements of agricultural systems.

AI problem-solving in agriculture often involves building models that represent the relationships and patterns within the collected data. These models can be based on machine learning algorithms, such as decision trees or neural networks, and serve as a basis for making predictions or prescribing actions.


The characteristics of AI problem-solving in agriculture include scalability, adaptability, and real-time capabilities. These characteristics enable the system to handle large amounts of data, adjust to changing agricultural conditions, and provide timely insights and recommendations to farmers.

Efficiency is a crucial factor in AI problem-solving for agriculture. By automating and optimizing various tasks, such as crop monitoring, irrigation scheduling, and fertilizer management, AI systems can help farmers improve resource allocation, minimize waste, and increase overall productivity.

Accuracy is another fundamental requirement for AI problem-solving in agriculture. It is essential to ensure that the predictions, recommendations, and decisions made by AI systems are reliable and reflect the actual conditions and needs of the agricultural environment. High accuracy ensures that farmers can trust and rely on the AI solutions.

AI problem-solving for energy

AI problem-solving for energy involves the application of AI techniques, models, algorithms, and data analysis to efficiently address energy-related challenges.

One of the key characteristics of an AI problem in the energy domain is the need for optimization. Energy systems often involve complex decision-making processes and require finding the best possible solution to maximize efficiency and minimize resource consumption.

Data-driven approach

In order to solve AI problems in the energy sector, a data-driven approach is essential. This involves collecting and analyzing vast amounts of data from various sources such as sensors, meters, and historical records. AI algorithms can then process this data to identify patterns, correlations, and optimize energy usage.

Integration of renewable energy

Another important aspect of AI problem-solving for energy is the integration of renewable energy sources. With the increasing adoption of solar panels, wind turbines, and other renewable technologies, AI can help optimize the generation, storage, and distribution of renewable energy to meet the demands of consumers efficiently.

In conclusion, AI problem-solving for energy requires a data-driven approach and the integration of renewable energy sources to optimize efficiency and address the challenges in the energy sector.

AI problem-solving for environment

Advancements in artificial intelligence (AI) technology are increasingly being used to address environmental issues and solve complex problems related to the environment. AI problem-solving for the environment involves applying AI algorithms and models to analyze large amounts of data and generate solutions to environmental challenges.

Solution Generation

AI problem-solving for the environment focuses on generating innovative solutions to address environmental issues. By utilizing AI algorithms, models, and data analysis techniques, AI systems can identify patterns and correlations within environmental data sets to suggest effective solutions. These solutions can help in areas such as pollution management, climate change mitigation, and biodiversity conservation.

Data Accuracy and Efficiency

Data accuracy plays a crucial role in AI problem-solving for the environment. High-quality and reliable data is essential for training AI models and algorithms to generate accurate solutions. Additionally, AI systems need to be efficient in processing and analyzing large amounts of environmental data in order to provide timely and effective solutions. Improved efficiency enables faster decision-making and implementation of solutions.

Overall, AI problem-solving for the environment utilizes AI algorithms, data analysis, and modeling techniques to generate accurate and efficient solutions to address complex environmental challenges. By leveraging the power of AI, we can make significant progress in protecting and preserving our environment for future generations.

AI problem-solving for security

AI problem-solving for security is a process that utilizes artificial intelligence algorithms to address security concerns efficiently and accurately. It takes advantage of the key characteristics of AI, such as its ability to analyze large amounts of data and learn from it.

One of the main challenges in security is the vast amount of data that needs to be processed and analyzed to identify potential threats. AI problem-solving solutions can handle this task by using sophisticated algorithms that can quickly sift through large volumes of data, making the process more efficient.

The accuracy of AI problem-solving for security is another important characteristic. Machine learning algorithms can be trained using vast amounts of historical data, enabling them to detect patterns and anomalies that might go unnoticed by human analysts. This results in more accurate identification of security threats and faster response times.

Another essential characteristic is the adaptability of AI problem-solving solutions. Security threats are constantly evolving, and traditional security measures may not be sufficient to address emerging risks. AI-based solutions can quickly adapt to new threats by continuously analyzing new data and updating their algorithms.

AI problem-solving for security also benefits from the ability to automate certain tasks. This reduces the burden on human analysts, allowing them to focus on more complex and critical security issues. Automated AI solutions can handle routine tasks, analyze data in real-time, and provide alerts when anomalies or potential threats are detected.

AI problem-solving for customer service

AI problem-solving for customer service has become an integral part of many businesses today. With the rise in customer demands and the need for efficient and effective support, AI technology provides a solution that is both accurate and efficient.

One of the key characteristics of AI problem-solving for customer service is its ability to analyze vast amounts of data. By gathering and analyzing customer data, AI algorithms can identify patterns and trends that can help improve the quality of customer support.

Another important characteristic of AI problem-solving is its accuracy. AI algorithms are designed to learn from past customer interactions and provide accurate solutions to customer problems. This not only improves customer satisfaction but also saves time and effort for both customers and support agents.

Efficiency is also a crucial aspect of AI problem-solving for customer service. By automating repetitive tasks and providing quick and accurate answers, AI technology can significantly reduce response times and improve overall efficiency in customer support.

In conclusion, AI problem-solving for customer service offers a range of benefits including improved accuracy, efficiency, and the ability to analyze vast amounts of customer data. By leveraging AI technology, businesses can provide better support to their customers and enhance overall customer satisfaction.

AI problem-solving for manufacturing

In the field of manufacturing, AI problem-solving involves utilizing artificial intelligence techniques and algorithms to address various challenges and improve efficiency. By analyzing data and patterns, AI models can help optimize production processes, enhance accuracy, and drive innovation.

The problem

Manufacturing often faces numerous complex problems, such as optimizing production schedules, reducing waste, minimizing downtime, and improving product quality. These problems require analyzing large amounts of data and making decisions in real-time, which can be challenging for traditional methods.

Key characteristics

  • Data-driven: AI problem-solving in manufacturing relies on collecting and analyzing vast amounts of data from different sources, such as machine sensors, production records, and quality control systems.
  • Efficiency: AI algorithms can help identify bottlenecks in the production process and suggest optimizations to improve overall efficiency and maximize output.
  • Model-based: AI models are built based on mathematical and statistical models that represent the manufacturing process. These models enable accurate predictions and simulations.
  • Accuracy: By leveraging advanced machine learning techniques, AI can achieve high levels of accuracy in predicting failures, detecting anomalies, and optimizing various manufacturing parameters.

Overall, AI problem-solving plays a crucial role in the manufacturing industry by leveraging data and algorithms to address complex challenges, improve efficiency, and enhance decision-making processes.

AI problem-solving for logistics

Logistics is a complex and dynamic field that involves the efficient and accurate movement of goods from one location to another. AI problem-solving can greatly enhance the efficiency and accuracy of logistics operations.

One of the key characteristics of an AI problem-solving solution for logistics is its ability to process large amounts of data. Logistics involves managing various aspects such as inventory, transportation, and supply chain, which generate vast volumes of data. AI models can analyze this data and identify patterns and trends that humans might overlook, enabling better decision-making and optimization of logistics processes.

Another important characteristic of AI problem-solving in logistics is its ability to handle real-time data. Logistics operations often deal with time-sensitive information, such as tracking shipments, monitoring inventory levels, and optimizing routes. AI algorithms can process this data quickly and provide real-time insights, allowing logistics professionals to make timely and informed decisions.

AI problem-solving solutions for logistics also excel in their accuracy. Human error can be costly in logistics, leading to delays, inefficiencies, and increased costs. AI models are designed to minimize errors and make accurate predictions, enabling better planning and optimization of logistics processes.

Furthermore, AI problem-solving models can adapt and learn from new data and experiences. They can continuously improve their performance over time, learning from their mistakes and optimizing their solutions. This adaptability is particularly valuable in the dynamic and evolving field of logistics.

In conclusion, AI problem-solving offers significant advantages for logistics operations, including its ability to process large amounts of data, handle real-time information, deliver accurate predictions, and continuously learn and improve. By leveraging AI, logistics professionals can optimize their operations, improve efficiency, and drive better outcomes.


What are the key characteristics of an ai problem.

The key characteristics of an AI problem include complexity, uncertainty, and the need for learning and adaptation. AI problems often involve large amounts of data, multiple variables, and complex relationships between variables. Additionally, AI problems often deal with uncertain or incomplete information, and the solutions may need to be constantly updated and adapted based on new information or changing conditions.

Why are complexity and uncertainty important characteristics of AI problems?

Complexity and uncertainty are important characteristics of AI problems because they often deal with large amounts of data and complex relationships between variables. AI systems need to be able to handle and process this complexity in order to make accurate predictions or decisions. Additionally, uncertainty is inherent in many real-world problems, and AI systems need to be able to handle and adapt to uncertain or incomplete information.

What is the role of learning and adaptation in AI problems?

Learning and adaptation are key characteristics of AI problems because they allow AI systems to improve and update their knowledge and performance. AI systems can learn from data and past experiences to make more accurate predictions or decisions in the future. They can also adapt their behavior based on new information or changing conditions, allowing them to continuously improve and adjust their solutions.

How do AI problems deal with large amounts of data and multiple variables?

AI problems use techniques such as data mining and machine learning to handle large amounts of data and multiple variables. Data mining involves extracting useful information or patterns from large datasets, while machine learning algorithms can automatically learn and discover relationships between variables. These techniques allow AI systems to process and analyze large amounts of data to make predictions or decisions.

Why do AI problems often require constantly updated and adapted solutions?

AI problems often require constantly updated and adapted solutions because they deal with uncertain or incomplete information, and the conditions or variables involved may change over time. As new information becomes available, AI systems need to be able to update their knowledge and predictions accordingly. Additionally, as conditions or variables change, AI systems may need to adapt their behavior or solutions to ensure optimal performance.

Key characteristics of an AI problem include complexity, ambiguity, and the need for learning and adaptation.

Why are complexity and ambiguity important in AI problems?

Complexity and ambiguity in AI problems reflect the real-world challenges that AI systems often face. AI problems often involve large amounts of data, uncertain information, and diverse variables that need to be analyzed and processed.

How does the need for learning and adaptation affect AI problems?

The need for learning and adaptation in AI problems stems from the fact that AI systems need to be able to improve their performance over time. They need to learn from new data and adjust their algorithms or models accordingly to make better predictions or decisions.

Can you give an example of an AI problem?

Sure! One example of an AI problem is computer vision, where the goal is to develop algorithms that can perceive and understand images or videos. This involves tasks such as object recognition, image segmentation, and scene understanding, which require complex analysis and interpretation of visual data.

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Artificial Intelligence .

What is artificial intelligence (ai).

problem solving definition in ai

Artificial Intelligence Definition

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a wide-ranging branch of computer science that aims to build machines capable of performing tasks that typically require human intelligence. While AI is an interdisciplinary science with multiple approaches, advancements in machine learning and deep learning, in particular, are creating a paradigm shift in virtually every industry.

Artificial intelligence allows machines to match, or even improve upon, the capabilities of the human mind. From the development of self-driving cars to the proliferation of generative AI tools, AI is increasingly becoming part of everyday life.

an eye made up of ones and zeroes

What Is Artificial Intelligence?

Artificial intelligence refers to computer systems that are capable of performing tasks traditionally associated with human intelligence — such as making predictions, identifying objects, interpreting speech and generating natural language. AI systems learn how to do so by processing massive amounts of data and looking for patterns to model in their own decision-making. In many cases, humans will supervise an AI’s learning process, reinforcing good decisions and discouraging bad ones, but some AI systems are designed to learn without supervision.

Over time, AI systems improve on their performance of specific tasks, allowing them to adapt to new inputs and make decisions without being explicitly programmed to do so. In essence, artificial intelligence is about teaching machines to think and learn like humans, with the goal of automating work and solving problems more efficiently.

Why Is Artificial Intelligence Important?

Artificial intelligence aims to provide machines with similar processing and analysis capabilities as humans, making AI a useful counterpart to people in everyday life. AI is able to interpret and sort data at scale, solve complicated problems and automate various tasks simultaneously, which can save time and fill in operational gaps missed by humans.

AI serves as the foundation for computer learning and is used in almost every industry — from healthcare and finance to manufacturing and education — helping to make data-driven decisions and carry out repetitive or computationally intensive tasks.

Many existing technologies use artificial intelligence to enhance capabilities. We see it in smartphones with AI assistants, e-commerce platforms with recommendation systems and vehicles with autonomous driving abilities. AI also helps protect people by piloting fraud detection systems online and robots for dangerous jobs, as well as leading research in healthcare and climate initiatives.

How Does AI Work?

Artificial intelligence systems work by using algorithms and data. First, a massive amount of data is collected and applied to mathematical models, or algorithms, which use the information to recognize patterns and make predictions in a process known as training. Once algorithms have been trained, they are deployed within various applications, where they continuously learn from and adapt to new data. This allows AI systems to perform complex tasks like image recognition, language processing and data analysis with greater accuracy and efficiency over time.

Machine Learning

The primary approach to building AI systems is through machine learning (ML), where computers learn from large datasets by identifying patterns and relationships within the data. A machine learning algorithm uses statistical techniques to help it “learn” how to get progressively better at a task, without necessarily having been programmed for that certain task. It uses historical data as input to predict new output values. Machine learning consists of both supervised learning (where the expected output for the input is known thanks to labeled data sets) and unsupervised learning (where the expected outputs are unknown due to the use of unlabeled data sets).

Neural Networks

Machine learning is typically done using neural networks , a series of algorithms that process data by mimicking the structure of the human brain. These networks consist of layers of interconnected nodes, or “neurons,” that process information and pass it between each other. By adjusting the strength of connections between these neurons, the network can learn to recognize complex patterns within data, make predictions based on new inputs and even learn from mistakes. This makes neural networks useful for recognizing images, understanding human speech and translating words between languages.

Deep Learning

Deep learning is an important subset of machine learning. It uses a type of artificial neural network known as deep neural networks, which contain a number of hidden layers through which data is processed, allowing a machine to go “deep” in its learning and recognize increasingly complex patterns, making connections and weighting input for the best results. Deep learning is particularly effective at tasks like image and speech recognition and natural language processing, making it a crucial component in the development and advancement of AI systems.

Natural Language Processing 

Natural language processing (NLP) involves teaching computers to understand and produce written and spoken language in a similar manner as humans. NLP combines computer science, linguistics, machine learning and deep learning concepts to help computers analyze unstructured text or voice data and extract relevant information from it. NLP mainly tackles speech recognition and natural language generation , and it’s leveraged for use cases like spam detection and virtual assistants .

Computer Vision

Computer vision is another prevalent application of machine learning techniques, where machines process raw images, videos and visual media, and extract useful insights from them. Deep learning and convolutional neural networks are used to break down images into pixels and tag them accordingly, which helps computers discern the difference between visual shapes and patterns. Computer vision is used for image recognition , image classification and object detection, and completes tasks like facial recognition and detection in self-driving cars and robots.

Types of Artificial Intelligence 

Artificial intelligence can be classified in several different ways. 

Strong AI vs. Weak AI

AI can be organized into two broad categories: weak AI and strong AI .

Weak AI (or narrow AI) refers to AI that automates specific tasks. It typically outperforms humans, but it operates within a limited context and is applied to a narrowly defined problem. For now, all AI systems are examples of weak AI, ranging from email inbox spam filters to recommendation engines to chatbots .

Strong AI , often referred to as artificial general intelligence (AGI) , is a hypothetical benchmark at which AI could possess human-like intelligence and adaptability, solving problems it’s never been trained to work on. AGI does not actually exist yet, and it is unclear whether it ever will.

The 4 Kinds of AI

AI can then be further categorized into four main types : reactive machines, limited memory, theory of mind and self-awareness.

Reactive machines perceive the world in front of them and react. They can carry out specific commands and requests, but they cannot store memory or rely on past experiences to inform their decision making in real time. This makes reactive machines useful for completing a limited number of specialized duties. Examples include Netflix’s recommendation engine and IBM’s Deep Blue (used to play chess).

Limited memory AI has the ability to store previous data and predictions when gathering information and making decisions. Essentially, it looks into the past for clues to predict what may come next. Limited memory AI is created when a team continuously trains a model in how to analyze and utilize new data, or an AI environment is built so models can be automatically trained and renewed. Examples include ChatGPT and self-driving cars .

Theory of mind is a type of AI that does not actually exist yet, but it describes the idea of an AI system that can perceive and understand human emotions , and then use that information to predict future actions and make decisions on its own.

Self-aware AI refers to artificial intelligence that has self-awareness , or a sense of self. This type of AI does not currently exist. In theory, though, self-aware AI possesses human-like consciousness and understands its own existence in the world, as well as the emotional state of others.

factory workers using AI on computer

Benefits of AI

AI is beneficial for automating repetitive tasks, solving complex problems, reducing human error and much more.

Automating Repetitive Tasks

Repetitive tasks such as data entry and factory work , as well as customer service conversations, can all be automated using AI technology. This lets humans focus on other priorities.

Solving Complex Problems

AI’s ability to process large amounts of data at once allows it to quickly find patterns and solve complex problems that may be too difficult for humans, such as predicting financial outlooks or optimizing energy solutions.

Improving Customer Experience

AI can be applied through user personalization, chatbots and automated self-service technologies, making the customer experience more seamless and increasing customer retention for businesses.

Advancing Healthcare and Medicine

AI works to advance healthcare by accelerating medical diagnoses, drug discovery and development and medical robot implementation throughout hospitals and care centers.

Reducing Human Error

The ability to quickly identify relationships in data makes AI effective for catching mistakes or anomalies among mounds of digital information, overall reducing human error and ensuring accuracy.

Disadvantages of AI

While artificial intelligence has its benefits, the technology also comes with risks and potential dangers to consider.

Job Displacement

AI’s abilities to automate processes, generate rapid content and work for long periods of time can mean job displacement for human workers.

Bias and Discrimination

AI models may be trained on data that reflects biased human decisions, leading to outputs that are biased or discriminatory against certain demographics. 


AI systems may inadvertently “ hallucinate ” or produce inaccurate outputs when trained on insufficient or biased data, leading to the generation of false information. 

Privacy Concerns

The data collected and stored by AI systems may be done so without user consent or knowledge, and may even be accessed by unauthorized individuals in the case of a data breach.

Ethical Concerns

AI systems may be developed in a manner that isn’t transparent, inclusive or sustainable , resulting in a lack of explanation for potentially harmful AI decisions as well as a negative impact on users and businesses.

Environmental Costs

Large-scale AI systems can require a substantial amount of energy to operate and process data, which increases carbon emissions and water consumption.

Artificial Intelligence Applications

Artificial intelligence has applications across multiple industries, ultimately helping to streamline processes and boost business efficiency.

AI is used in healthcare to improve the accuracy of medical diagnoses, facilitate drug research and development, manage sensitive healthcare data and automate online patient experiences. It is also a driving factor behind medical robots, which work to provide assisted therapy or guide surgeons during surgical procedures.

AI in retail amplifies the customer experience by powering user personalization, product recommendations, shopping assistants and facial recognition for payments. For retailers and suppliers, AI helps automate retail marketing, identify counterfeit products on marketplaces, manage product inventories and pull online data to identify product trends.

Customer Service

In the customer service industry , AI enables faster and more personalized support. AI-powered chatbots and virtual assistants can handle routine customer inquiries, provide product recommendations and troubleshoot common issues in real-time. And through NLP, AI systems can understand and respond to customer inquiries in a more human-like way, improving overall satisfaction and reducing response times. 


AI in manufacturing can reduce assembly errors and production times while increasing worker safety. Factory floors may be monitored by AI systems to help identify incidents, track quality control and predict potential equipment failure. AI also drives factory and warehouse robots, which can automate manufacturing workflows and handle dangerous tasks. 

The finance industry utilizes AI to detect fraud in banking activities, assess financial credit standings, predict financial risk for businesses plus manage stock and bond trading based on market patterns. AI is also implemented across fintech and banking apps, working to personalize banking and provide 24/7 customer service support.

In the marketing industry , AI plays a crucial role in enhancing customer engagement and driving more targeted advertising campaigns. Advanced data analytics allows marketers to gain deeper insights into customer behavior, preferences and trends, while AI content generators help them create more personalized content and recommendations at scale. AI can also be used to automate repetitive tasks such as email marketing and social media management.

Video game developers apply AI to make gaming experiences more immersive . Non-playable characters (NPCs) in video games use AI to respond accordingly to player interactions and the surrounding environment, creating game scenarios that can be more realistic, enjoyable and unique to each player. 

AI assists militaries on and off the battlefield, whether it's to help process military intelligence data faster, detect cyberwarfare attacks or automate military weaponry, defense systems and vehicles. Drones and robots in particular may be imbued with AI , making them applicable for autonomous combat or search and rescue operations.

Artificial Intelligence Examples

Specific examples of AI include:

Generative AI Tools

Generative AI tools, sometimes referred to as AI chatbots — including ChatGPT , Gemini , Claude and Grok — use artificial intelligence to produce written content in a range of formats, from essays to code and answers to simple questions.

Smart Assistants

Personal AI assistants , like Alexa and Siri, use natural language processing to receive instructions from users to perform a variety of “ smart tasks .” They can carry out commands like setting reminders, searching for online information or turning off your kitchen lights.

Self-Driving Cars

Self-driving cars are a recognizable example of deep learning, since they use deep neural networks to detect objects around them, determine their distance from other cars, identify traffic signals and much more.

Many wearable sensors and devices used in the healthcare industry apply deep learning to assess the health condition of patients, including their blood sugar levels, blood pressure and heart rate. They can also derive patterns from a patient’s prior medical data and use that to anticipate any future health conditions.

Visual Filters

Filters used on social media platforms like TikTok and Snapchat rely on algorithms to distinguish between an image’s subject and the background, track facial movements and adjust the image on the screen based on what the user is doing.

generative ai

The Rise of Generative AI

Generative AI describes artificial intelligence systems that can create new content — such as text, images, video or audio — based on a given user prompt. To work, a generative AI model is fed massive data sets and trained to identify patterns within them, then subsequently generates outputs that resemble this training data.

Generative AI has gained massive popularity in the past few years, especially with chatbots and image generators arriving on the scene. These kinds of tools are often used to create written copy, code, digital art and object designs, and they are leveraged in industries like entertainment, marketing, consumer goods and manufacturing.

Generative AI comes with challenges though. For instance, it can be used to create fake content and deepfakes , which could spread disinformation and erode social trust. And some AI-generated material could potentially infringe on people’s copyright and intellectual property rights.

AI Regulation

As AI grows more complex and powerful, lawmakers around the world are seeking to regulate its use and development.

The first major step to regulate AI occurred in 2024 in the European Union with the passing of its sweeping Artificial Intelligence Act , which aims to ensure that AI systems deployed there are “safe, transparent, traceable, non-discriminatory and environmentally friendly.” Countries like China and Brazil have also taken steps to govern artificial intelligence.

Meanwhile, AI regulation in the United States is still a work in progress. The Biden-Harris administration introduced a non-enforceable AI Bill of Rights in 2022, and then The Executive Order on Safe, Secure and Trustworthy AI in 2023, which aims to regulate the AI industry while maintaining the country’s status as a leader in the industry. Congress has made several attempts to establish more robust legislation, but it has largely failed, leaving no laws in place that specifically limit the use of AI or regulate its risks. For now, all AI legislation in the United States exists only on the state level.  

Future of Artificial Intelligence 

The future of artificial intelligence holds immense promise, with the potential to revolutionize industries, enhance human capabilities and solve complex challenges. It can be used to develop new drugs, optimize global supply chains and create exciting new art — transforming the way we live and work.

Looking ahead, one of the next big steps for artificial intelligence is to progress beyond weak or narrow AI and achieve artificial general intelligence (AGI). With AGI, machines will be able to think, learn and act the same way as humans do, blurring the line between organic and machine intelligence. This could pave the way for increased automation and problem-solving capabilities in medicine, transportation and more — as well as sentient AI down the line.

On the other hand, the increasing sophistication of AI also raises concerns about heightened job loss, widespread disinformation and loss of privacy. And questions persist about the potential for AI to outpace human understanding and intelligence — a phenomenon known as technological singularity that could lead to unforeseeable risks and possible moral dilemmas.

For now, society is largely looking toward federal and business-level AI regulations to help guide the technology’s future.

history of AI

History of AI

Artificial intelligence as a concept began to take off in the 1950s when computer scientist Alan Turing released the paper “ Computing Machinery and Intelligence ,” which questioned if machines could think and how one would test a machine’s intelligence. This paper set the stage for AI research and development, and was the first proposal of the Turing test , a method used to assess machine intelligence. The term “artificial intelligence” was coined in 1956 by computer scientist John McCartchy in an academic conference at Dartmouth College.

Following McCarthy’s conference and throughout the 1970s, interest in AI research grew from academic institutions and U.S. government funding. Innovations in computing allowed several AI foundations to be established during this time, including machine learning, neural networks and natural language processing. Despite its advances, AI technologies eventually became more difficult to scale than expected and declined in interest and funding, resulting in the first AI winter until the 1980s.

In the mid-1980s, AI interest reawakened as computers became more powerful, deep learning became popularized and AI-powered “expert systems” were introduced. However, due to the complication of new systems and an inability of existing technologies to keep up, the second AI winter occurred and lasted until the mid-1990s.

By the mid-2000s, innovations in processing power, big data and advanced deep learning techniques resolved AI’s previous roadblocks, allowing further AI breakthroughs. Modern AI technologies like virtual assistants, driverless cars and generative AI began entering the mainstream in the 2010s, making AI what it is today.

Artificial Intelligence Timeline

(1943) Warren McCullough and Walter Pitts publish the paper “ A Logical Calculus of Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity ,” which proposes the first mathematical model for building a neural network.

(1949) In his book The Organization of Behavior: A Neuropsychological Theory , Donald Hebb proposes the theory that neural pathways are created from experiences and that connections between neurons become stronger the more frequently they’re used. Hebbian learning continues to be an important model in AI.

(1950) Alan Turing publishes the paper “Computing Machinery and Intelligence,” proposing what is now known as the Turing Test, a method for determining if a machine is intelligent.

(1950) Harvard undergraduates Marvin Minsky and Dean Edmonds build SNARC , the first neural network computer.

(1956) The phrase “artificial intelligence” is coined at the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence. Led by John McCarthy, the conference is widely considered to be the birthplace of AI.

(1958) John McCarthy develops the AI programming language Lisp and publishes “ Programs with Common Sense ,” a paper proposing the hypothetical Advice Taker, a complete AI system with the ability to learn from experience as effectively as humans.

(1959) Arthur Samuel coins the term “machine learning” while at IBM.

(1964) Daniel Bobrow develops STUDENT, an early natural language processing program designed to solve algebra word problems, as a doctoral candidate at MIT.

(1966) MIT professor Joseph Weizenbaum creates Eliza, one of the first chatbots to successfully mimic the conversational patterns of users, creating the illusion that it understood more than it did. This introduced the Eliza effect , a common phenomenon where people falsely attribute humanlike thought processes and emotions to AI systems.

(1969) The first successful expert systems, DENDRAL and MYCIN, are created at the AI Lab at Stanford University.

(1972) The logic programming language PROLOG is created.

(1973) The Lighthill Report, detailing the disappointments in AI research, is released by the British government and leads to severe cuts in funding for AI projects.

(1974-1980) Frustration with the progress of AI development leads to major DARPA cutbacks in academic grants. Combined with the earlier ALPAC report and the previous year’s Lighthill Report, AI funding dries up and research stalls. This period is known as the “ First AI Winter .”

(1980) Digital Equipment Corporations develops R1 (also known as XCON), the first successful commercial expert system. Designed to configure orders for new computer systems, R1 kicks off an investment boom in expert systems that will last for much of the decade, effectively ending the first AI winter.

(1985) Companies are spending more than a billion dollars a year on expert systems and an entire industry known as the Lisp machine market springs up to support them. Companies like Symbolics and Lisp Machines Inc. build specialized computers to run on the AI programming language Lisp.

(1987-1993) As computing technology improved, cheaper alternatives emerged and the Lisp machine market collapsed in 1987, ushering in the “ Second AI Winter .” During this period, expert systems proved too expensive to maintain and update, eventually falling out of favor.

(1997) IBM’s Deep Blue beats world chess champion Gary Kasparov.

(2006) Fei-Fei Li starts working on the ImageNet visual database, introduced in 2009. This became the catalyst for the AI boom, and the basis on which image recognition grew.

(2008) Google makes breakthroughs in speech recognition and introduces the feature in its iPhone app.

(2011) IBM’s Watson handily defeats the competition on Jeopardy!.

(2011) Apple releases Siri, an AI-powered virtual assistant through its iOS operating system.

(2012) Andrew Ng, founder of the Google Brain Deep Learning project, feeds a neural network using deep learning algorithms 10 million YouTube videos as a training set. The neural network learned to recognize a cat without being told what a cat is, ushering in the breakthrough era for neural networks and deep learning funding.

(2014) Amazon’s Alexa, a virtual home smart device , is released.

(2016) Google DeepMind’s AlphaGo defeats world champion Go player Lee Sedol. The complexity of the ancient Chinese game was seen as a major hurdle to clear in AI.

(2018) Google releases natural language processing engine BERT , reducing barriers in translation and understanding by ML applications.

(2020) Baidu releases its LinearFold AI algorithm to scientific and medical teams working to develop a vaccine during the early stages of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The algorithm is able to predict the RNA sequence of the virus in just 27 seconds, 120 times faster than other methods.

(2020) OpenAI releases natural language processing model GPT-3 , which is able to produce text modeled after the way people speak and write.

(2021) OpenAI builds on GPT-3 to develop DALL-E , which is able to create images from text prompts.

(2022) The National Institute of Standards and Technology releases the first draft of its AI Risk Management Framework , voluntary U.S. guidance “to better manage risks to individuals, organizations, and society associated with artificial intelligence.”

(2022) OpenAI launches ChatGPT, a chatbot powered by a large language model that gains more than 100 million users in just a few months.

(2022) The White House introduces an AI Bill of Rights outlining principles for the responsible development and use of AI.

(2023) Microsoft launches an AI-powered version of Bing, its search engine, built on the same technology that powers ChatGPT.

(2023) Google announces Bard, a competing conversational AI. This would later become Gemini.

(2023) OpenAI Launches GPT-4 , its most sophisticated language model yet.

(2023) The Biden-Harris administration issues The Executive Order on Safe, Secure and Trustworthy AI , calling for safety testing, labeling of AI-generated content and increased efforts to create international standards for the development and use of AI. The order also stresses the importance of ensuring that artificial intelligence is not used to circumvent privacy protections, exacerbate discrimination or violate civil rights or the rights of consumers.

(2023) The chatbot Grok is released by Elon Musk’s AI company xAI.

(2024) The European Union passes the Artificial Intelligence Act, which aims to ensure that AI systems deployed within the EU are “safe, transparent, traceable, non-discriminatory and environmentally friendly.

(2024) Claude 3 Opus, a large language model developed by AI company Anthropic, outperforms GPT-4 — the first LLM to do so.

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What Is Artificial Intelligence? Definition, Uses, and Types

Learn what artificial intelligence actually is, how it’s used today, and what it may do in the future.

[Featured Image] Waves of 0 and 1 digits on a blue background.

Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to computer systems capable of performing complex tasks that historically only a human could do, such as reasoning, making decisions, or solving problems. 

Today, the term “AI” describes a wide range of technologies that power many of the services and goods we use every day – from apps that recommend tv shows to chatbots that provide customer support in real time. But do all of these really constitute artificial intelligence as most of us envision it? And if not, then why do we use the term so often? 

In this article, you’ll learn more about artificial intelligence, what it actually does, and different types of it. In the end, you’ll also learn about some of its benefits and dangers and explore flexible courses that can help you expand your knowledge of AI even further.  

Want to try out your AI skills? Enroll in AI for Everyone, an online program offered by DeepLearning.AI. In just 6 hours , you'll gain foundational knowledge about AI terminology , strategy , and the workflow of machine learning projects . Your first week is free .

What is artificial intelligence?

Artificial intelligence (AI) is the theory and development of computer systems capable of performing tasks that historically required human intelligence, such as recognizing speech, making decisions, and identifying patterns. AI is an umbrella term that encompasses a wide variety of technologies, including machine learning , deep learning , and natural language processing (NLP) . 

Although the term is commonly used to describe a range of different technologies in use today, many disagree on whether these actually constitute artificial intelligence. Instead, some argue that much of the technology used in the real world today actually constitutes highly advanced machine learning that is simply a first step towards true artificial intelligence, or “general artificial intelligence” (GAI).

Yet, despite the many philosophical disagreements over whether “true” intelligent machines actually exist, when most people use the term AI today, they’re referring to a suite of machine learning-powered technologies, such as Chat GPT or computer vision, that enable machines to perform tasks that previously only humans can do like generating written content, steering a car, or analyzing data. 

Artificial intelligence examples 

Though the humanoid robots often associated with AI (think Star Trek: The Next Generation’s Data or Terminator’s   T-800) don’t exist yet, you’ve likely interacted with machine learning-powered services or devices many times before. 

At the simplest level, machine learning uses algorithms trained on data sets to create machine learning models that allow computer systems to perform tasks like making song recommendations, identifying the fastest way to travel to a destination, or translating text from one language to another. Some of the most common examples of AI in use today include: 

ChatGPT : Uses large language models (LLMs) to generate text in response to questions or comments posed to it. 

Google Translate: Uses deep learning algorithms to translate text from one language to another. 

Netflix: Uses machine learning algorithms to create personalized recommendation engines for users based on their previous viewing history. 

Tesla: Uses computer vision to power self-driving features on their cars. 

Read more: Deep Learning vs. Machine Learning: Beginner’s Guide

The increasing accessibility of generative AI tools has made it an in-demand skill for many tech roles . If you're interested in learning to work with AI for your career, you might consider a free, beginner-friendly online program like Google's Introduction to Generative AI .

AI in the workforce

Artificial intelligence is prevalent across many industries. Automating tasks that don't require human intervention saves money and time, and can reduce the risk of human error. Here are a couple of ways AI could be employed in different industries:

Finance industry. Fraud detection is a notable use case for AI in the finance industry. AI's capability to analyze large amounts of data enables it to detect anomalies or patterns that signal fraudulent behavior.

Health care industry. AI-powered robotics could support surgeries close to highly delicate organs or tissue to mitigate blood loss or risk of infection.

Not ready to take classes or jump into a project yet? Consider subscribing to our weekly newsletter, Career Chat . It's a low-commitment way to stay current with industry trends and skills you can use to guide your career path.

What is artificial general intelligence (AGI)? 

Artificial general intelligence (AGI) refers to a theoretical state in which computer systems will be able to achieve or exceed human intelligence. In other words, AGI is “true” artificial intelligence as depicted in countless science fiction novels, television shows, movies, and comics. 

As for the precise meaning of “AI” itself, researchers don’t quite agree on how we would recognize “true” artificial general intelligence when it appears. However, the most famous approach to identifying whether a machine is intelligent or not is known as the Turing Test or Imitation Game, an experiment that was first outlined by influential mathematician, computer scientist, and cryptanalyst Alan Turing in a 1950 paper on computer intelligence. There, Turing described a three-player game in which a human “interrogator” is asked to communicate via text with another human and a machine and judge who composed each response. If the interrogator cannot reliably identify the human, then Turing says the machine can be said to be intelligent [ 1 ]. 

To complicate matters, researchers and philosophers also can’t quite agree whether we’re beginning to achieve AGI, if it’s still far off, or just totally impossible. For example, while a recent paper from Microsoft Research and OpenAI argues that Chat GPT-4 is an early form of AGI, many other researchers are skeptical of these claims and argue that they were just made for publicity [ 2 , 3 ].

Regardless of how far we are from achieving AGI, you can assume that when someone uses the term artificial general intelligence, they’re referring to the kind of sentient computer programs and machines that are commonly found in popular science fiction. 

Strong AI vs. Weak AI

When researching artificial intelligence, you might have come across the terms “strong” and “weak” AI. Though these terms might seem confusing, you likely already have a sense of what they mean. 

Strong AI is essentially AI that is capable of human-level, general intelligence. In other words, it’s just another way to say “artificial general intelligence.” 

Weak AI , meanwhile, refers to the narrow use of widely available AI technology, like machine learning or deep learning, to perform very specific tasks, such as playing chess, recommending songs, or steering cars. Also known as Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI), weak AI is essentially the kind of AI we use daily.

Read more: Machine Learning vs. AI: Differences, Uses, and Benefits

The 4 Types of AI 

As researchers attempt to build more advanced forms of artificial intelligence, they must also begin to formulate more nuanced understandings of what intelligence or even consciousness precisely mean. In their attempt to clarify these concepts, researchers have outlined four types of artificial intelligence .

Here’s a summary of each AI type, according to Professor Arend Hintze of the University of Michigan [ 4 ]: 

1. Reactive machines

Reactive machines are the most basic type of artificial intelligence. Machines built in this way don’t possess any knowledge of previous events but instead only “react” to what is before them in a given moment. As a result, they can only perform certain advanced tasks within a very narrow scope, such as playing chess, and are incapable of performing tasks outside of their limited context. 

2. Limited memory machines

Machines with limited memory possess a limited understanding of past events. They can interact more with the world around them than reactive machines can. For example, self-driving cars use a form of limited memory to make turns, observe approaching vehicles, and adjust their speed. However, machines with only limited memory cannot form a complete understanding of the world because their recall of past events is limited and only used in a narrow band of time. 

3. Theory of mind machines

Machines that possess a “theory of mind” represent an early form of artificial general intelligence. In addition to being able to create representations of the world, machines of this type would also have an understanding of other entities that exist within the world. As of this moment, this reality has still not materialized. 

4. Self-aware machines

Machines with self-awareness are the theoretically most advanced type of AI and would possess an understanding of the world, others, and itself. This is what most people mean when they talk about achieving AGI. Currently, this is a far-off reality. 

AI benefits and dangers

AI has a range of applications with the potential to transform how we work and our daily lives. While many of these transformations are exciting, like self-driving cars, virtual assistants, or wearable devices in the healthcare industry, they also pose many challenges.

It’s a complicated picture that often summons competing images: a utopia for some, a dystopia for others. The reality is likely to be much more complex. Here are a few of the possible benefits and dangers AI may pose: 

These are just some of the ways that AI provides benefits and dangers to society. When using new technologies like AI, it’s best to keep a clear mind about what it is and isn’t. With great power comes great responsibility, after all. 

Read more: AI Ethics: What It Is and Why It Matters

Build AI skills on Coursera

Artificial Intelligence is quickly changing the world we live in. If you’re interested in learning more about AI and how you can use it at work or in your own life, consider taking a relevant course on Coursera today. 

In DeepLearning.AI’s AI For Everyone course , you’ll learn what AI can realistically do and not do, how to spot opportunities to apply AI to problems in your own organization, and what it feels like to build machine learning and data science projects. 

In DeepLearning.AI’s AI For Good Specialization , meanwhile, you’ll build skills combining human and machine intelligence for positive real-world impact using AI in a beginner-friendly, three-course program. 

Article sources

UMBC. “ Computing Machinery and Intelligence by A. M. Turing , https://redirect.cs.umbc.edu/courses/471/papers/turing.pdf.” Accessed March 30, 2024.

ArXiv. “ Sparks of Artificial General Intelligence: Early experiments with GPT-4 , https://arxiv.org/abs/2303.12712.” Accessed March 30, 2024.

Wired. “ What’s AGI, and Why Are AI Experts Skeptical? , https://www.wired.com/story/what-is-artificial-general-intelligence-agi-explained/.” Accessed March 30, 2024.

GovTech. “ Understanding the Four Types of Artificial Intelligence , https://www.govtech.com/computing/understanding-the-four-types-of-artificial-intelligence.html.” Accessed March 30, 2024.

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What Is Problem Solving? How Software Engineers Approach Complex Challenges

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From debugging an existing system to designing an entirely new software application, a day in the life of a software engineer is filled with various challenges and complexities. The one skill that glues these disparate tasks together and makes them manageable? Problem solving . 

Throughout this blog post, we’ll explore why problem-solving skills are so critical for software engineers, delve into the techniques they use to address complex challenges, and discuss how hiring managers can identify these skills during the hiring process. 

What Is Problem Solving?

But what exactly is problem solving in the context of software engineering? How does it work, and why is it so important?

Problem solving, in the simplest terms, is the process of identifying a problem, analyzing it, and finding the most effective solution to overcome it. For software engineers, this process is deeply embedded in their daily workflow. It could be something as simple as figuring out why a piece of code isn’t working as expected, or something as complex as designing the architecture for a new software system. 

In a world where technology is evolving at a blistering pace, the complexity and volume of problems that software engineers face are also growing. As such, the ability to tackle these issues head-on and find innovative solutions is not only a handy skill — it’s a necessity. 

The Importance of Problem-Solving Skills for Software Engineers

Problem-solving isn’t just another ability that software engineers pull out of their toolkits when they encounter a bug or a system failure. It’s a constant, ongoing process that’s intrinsic to every aspect of their work. Let’s break down why this skill is so critical.

Driving Development Forward

Without problem solving, software development would hit a standstill. Every new feature, every optimization, and every bug fix is a problem that needs solving. Whether it’s a performance issue that needs diagnosing or a user interface that needs improving, the capacity to tackle and solve these problems is what keeps the wheels of development turning.

It’s estimated that 60% of software development lifecycle costs are related to maintenance tasks, including debugging and problem solving. This highlights how pivotal this skill is to the everyday functioning and advancement of software systems.

Innovation and Optimization

The importance of problem solving isn’t confined to reactive scenarios; it also plays a major role in proactive, innovative initiatives . Software engineers often need to think outside the box to come up with creative solutions, whether it’s optimizing an algorithm to run faster or designing a new feature to meet customer needs. These are all forms of problem solving.

Consider the development of the modern smartphone. It wasn’t born out of a pre-existing issue but was a solution to a problem people didn’t realize they had — a device that combined communication, entertainment, and productivity into one handheld tool.

Increasing Efficiency and Productivity

Good problem-solving skills can save a lot of time and resources. Effective problem-solvers are adept at dissecting an issue to understand its root cause, thus reducing the time spent on trial and error. This efficiency means projects move faster, releases happen sooner, and businesses stay ahead of their competition.

Improving Software Quality

Problem solving also plays a significant role in enhancing the quality of the end product. By tackling the root causes of bugs and system failures, software engineers can deliver reliable, high-performing software. This is critical because, according to the Consortium for Information and Software Quality, poor quality software in the U.S. in 2022 cost at least $2.41 trillion in operational issues, wasted developer time, and other related problems.

Problem-Solving Techniques in Software Engineering

So how do software engineers go about tackling these complex challenges? Let’s explore some of the key problem-solving techniques, theories, and processes they commonly use.


Breaking down a problem into smaller, manageable parts is one of the first steps in the problem-solving process. It’s like dealing with a complicated puzzle. You don’t try to solve it all at once. Instead, you separate the pieces, group them based on similarities, and then start working on the smaller sets. This method allows software engineers to handle complex issues without being overwhelmed and makes it easier to identify where things might be going wrong.


In the realm of software engineering, abstraction means focusing on the necessary information only and ignoring irrelevant details. It is a way of simplifying complex systems to make them easier to understand and manage. For instance, a software engineer might ignore the details of how a database works to focus on the information it holds and how to retrieve or modify that information.

Algorithmic Thinking

At its core, software engineering is about creating algorithms — step-by-step procedures to solve a problem or accomplish a goal. Algorithmic thinking involves conceiving and expressing these procedures clearly and accurately and viewing every problem through an algorithmic lens. A well-designed algorithm not only solves the problem at hand but also does so efficiently, saving computational resources.

Parallel Thinking

Parallel thinking is a structured process where team members think in the same direction at the same time, allowing for more organized discussion and collaboration. It’s an approach popularized by Edward de Bono with the “ Six Thinking Hats ” technique, where each “hat” represents a different style of thinking.

In the context of software engineering, parallel thinking can be highly effective for problem solving. For instance, when dealing with a complex issue, the team can use the “White Hat” to focus solely on the data and facts about the problem, then the “Black Hat” to consider potential problems with a proposed solution, and so on. This structured approach can lead to more comprehensive analysis and more effective solutions, and it ensures that everyone’s perspectives are considered.

This is the process of identifying and fixing errors in code . Debugging involves carefully reviewing the code, reproducing and analyzing the error, and then making necessary modifications to rectify the problem. It’s a key part of maintaining and improving software quality.

Testing and Validation

Testing is an essential part of problem solving in software engineering. Engineers use a variety of tests to verify that their code works as expected and to uncover any potential issues. These range from unit tests that check individual components of the code to integration tests that ensure the pieces work well together. Validation, on the other hand, ensures that the solution not only works but also fulfills the intended requirements and objectives.

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Evaluating Problem-Solving Skills

We’ve examined the importance of problem-solving in the work of a software engineer and explored various techniques software engineers employ to approach complex challenges. Now, let’s delve into how hiring teams can identify and evaluate problem-solving skills during the hiring process.

Recognizing Problem-Solving Skills in Candidates

How can you tell if a candidate is a good problem solver? Look for these indicators:

  • Previous Experience: A history of dealing with complex, challenging projects is often a good sign. Ask the candidate to discuss a difficult problem they faced in a previous role and how they solved it.
  • Problem-Solving Questions: During interviews, pose hypothetical scenarios or present real problems your company has faced. Ask candidates to explain how they would tackle these issues. You’re not just looking for a correct solution but the thought process that led them there.
  • Technical Tests: Coding challenges and other technical tests can provide insight into a candidate’s problem-solving abilities. Consider leveraging a platform for assessing these skills in a realistic, job-related context.

Assessing Problem-Solving Skills

Once you’ve identified potential problem solvers, here are a few ways you can assess their skills:

  • Solution Effectiveness: Did the candidate solve the problem? How efficient and effective is their solution?
  • Approach and Process: Go beyond whether or not they solved the problem and examine how they arrived at their solution. Did they break the problem down into manageable parts? Did they consider different perspectives and possibilities?
  • Communication: A good problem solver can explain their thought process clearly. Can the candidate effectively communicate how they arrived at their solution and why they chose it?
  • Adaptability: Problem-solving often involves a degree of trial and error. How does the candidate handle roadblocks? Do they adapt their approach based on new information or feedback?

Hiring managers play a crucial role in identifying and fostering problem-solving skills within their teams. By focusing on these abilities during the hiring process, companies can build teams that are more capable, innovative, and resilient.

Key Takeaways

As you can see, problem solving plays a pivotal role in software engineering. Far from being an occasional requirement, it is the lifeblood that drives development forward, catalyzes innovation, and delivers of quality software. 

By leveraging problem-solving techniques, software engineers employ a powerful suite of strategies to overcome complex challenges. But mastering these techniques isn’t simple feat. It requires a learning mindset, regular practice, collaboration, reflective thinking, resilience, and a commitment to staying updated with industry trends. 

For hiring managers and team leads, recognizing these skills and fostering a culture that values and nurtures problem solving is key. It’s this emphasis on problem solving that can differentiate an average team from a high-performing one and an ordinary product from an industry-leading one.

At the end of the day, software engineering is fundamentally about solving problems — problems that matter to businesses, to users, and to the wider society. And it’s the proficient problem solvers who stand at the forefront of this dynamic field, turning challenges into opportunities, and ideas into reality.

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AI Prompt Engineering Isn’t the Future

  • Oguz A. Acar

problem solving definition in ai

Asking the perfect question is less important than really understanding the problem you’re trying to solve.

Despite the buzz surrounding it, the prominence of prompt engineering may be fleeting. A more enduring and adaptable skill will keep enabling us to harness the potential of generative AI? It is called problem formulation — the ability to identify, analyze, and delineate problems.

Prompt engineering has taken the generative AI world by storm. The job, which entails optimizing textual input to effectively communicate with large language models, has been hailed by World Economic Forum as the number one “job of the future” while Open AI CEO Sam Altman characterized it as an “amazingly high-leveraged skill.” Social media brims with a new wave of influencers showcasing “magic prompts” and pledging amazing outcomes.

problem solving definition in ai

  • Oguz A. Acar is a Chair in Marketing at King’s Business School, King’s College London.

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How AI mathematicians might finally deliver human-level reasoning

Artificial intelligence is taking on some of the hardest problems in pure maths, arguably demonstrating sophisticated reasoning and creativity – and a big step forward for AI

By Alex Wilkins

10 April 2024

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Simon Danaher

In pure mathematics, very occasionally, breakthroughs arrive like bolts from the blue – the result of such inspired feats of reasoning and creativity that they seem to push the very bounds of intelligence . In 2016, for instance, mathematician Timothy Gowers marvelled at a solution to the cap set problem , which has to do with finding the largest pattern of points in space where no three points form a straight line. The proof “has a magic quality that leaves one wondering how on Earth anybody thought of it”, he wrote.

You might think that such feats are unique to humans. But you might be wrong. Because last year, artificial intelligence company Google DeepMind announced that its AI had discovered a better solution to the cap set problem than any human had . And that was just the latest demonstration of AI’s growing mathematical prowess. Having long struggled with this kind of sophisticated reasoning, today’s AIs are proving themselves remarkably capable – solving complex geometry problems, assisting with proofs and generating fresh avenues of attack for long-standing problems.

Can AI ever become conscious and how would we know if that happens?

All of which has prompted mathematicians to ask if their field is entering a new era. But it has also emboldened some computer scientists to suggest we are pushing the bounds of machine intelligence, edging ever closer to AI capable of genuinely human-like reasoning – and maybe even artificial general intelligence, AI that can perform as well as or better than humans on a wide range of tasks. “Mathematics is the language of reasoning,” says Alex Davies at DeepMind. “If models can…

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To build a better AI helper, start by modeling the irrational behavior of humans

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To build AI systems that can collaborate effectively with humans, it helps to have a good model of human behavior to start with. But humans tend to behave suboptimally when making decisions.

This irrationality, which is especially difficult to model, often boils down to computational constraints. A human can’t spend decades thinking about the ideal solution to a single problem.

Researchers at MIT and the University of Washington developed a way to model the behavior of an agent, whether human or machine, that accounts for the unknown computational constraints that may hamper the agent’s problem-solving abilities.

Their model can automatically infer an agent’s computational constraints by seeing just a few traces of their previous actions. The result, an agent’s so-called “inference budget,” can be used to predict that agent’s future behavior.

In a new paper, the researchers demonstrate how their method can be used to infer someone’s navigation goals from prior routes and to predict players’ subsequent moves in chess matches. Their technique matches or outperforms another popular method for modeling this type of decision-making.

Ultimately, this work could help scientists teach AI systems how humans behave, which could enable these systems to respond better to their human collaborators. Being able to understand a human’s behavior, and then to infer their goals from that behavior, could make an AI assistant much more useful, says Athul Paul Jacob, an electrical engineering and computer science (EECS) graduate student and lead author of a paper on this technique .

“If we know that a human is about to make a mistake, having seen how they have behaved before, the AI agent could step in and offer a better way to do it. Or the agent could adapt to the weaknesses that its human collaborators have. Being able to model human behavior is an important step toward building an AI agent that can actually help that human,” he says.

Jacob wrote the paper with Abhishek Gupta, assistant professor at the University of Washington, and senior author Jacob Andreas, associate professor in EECS and a member of the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL). The research will be presented at the International Conference on Learning Representations.

Modeling behavior

Researchers have been building computational models of human behavior for decades. Many prior approaches try to account for suboptimal decision-making by adding noise to the model. Instead of the agent always choosing the correct option, the model might have that agent make the correct choice 95 percent of the time.

However, these methods can fail to capture the fact that humans do not always behave suboptimally in the same way.

Others at MIT have also studied more effective ways to plan and infer goals in the face of suboptimal decision-making.

To build their model, Jacob and his collaborators drew inspiration from prior studies of chess players. They noticed that players took less time to think before acting when making simple moves and that stronger players tended to spend more time planning than weaker ones in challenging matches.

“At the end of the day, we saw that the depth of the planning, or how long someone thinks about the problem, is a really good proxy of how humans behave,” Jacob says.

They built a framework that could infer an agent’s depth of planning from prior actions and use that information to model the agent’s decision-making process.

The first step in their method involves running an algorithm for a set amount of time to solve the problem being studied. For instance, if they are studying a chess match, they might let the chess-playing algorithm run for a certain number of steps. At the end, the researchers can see the decisions the algorithm made at each step.

Their model compares these decisions to the behaviors of an agent solving the same problem. It will align the agent’s decisions with the algorithm’s decisions and identify the step where the agent stopped planning.

From this, the model can determine the agent’s inference budget, or how long that agent will plan for this problem. It can use the inference budget to predict how that agent would react when solving a similar problem.

An interpretable solution

This method can be very efficient because the researchers can access the full set of decisions made by the problem-solving algorithm without doing any extra work. This framework could also be applied to any problem that can be solved with a particular class of algorithms.

“For me, the most striking thing was the fact that this inference budget is very interpretable. It is saying tougher problems require more planning or being a strong player means planning for longer. When we first set out to do this, we didn’t think that our algorithm would be able to pick up on those behaviors naturally,” Jacob says.

The researchers tested their approach in three different modeling tasks: inferring navigation goals from previous routes, guessing someone’s communicative intent from their verbal cues, and predicting subsequent moves in human-human chess matches.

Their method either matched or outperformed a popular alternative in each experiment. Moreover, the researchers saw that their model of human behavior matched up well with measures of player skill (in chess matches) and task difficulty.

Moving forward, the researchers want to use this approach to model the planning process in other domains, such as reinforcement learning (a trial-and-error method commonly used in robotics). In the long run, they intend to keep building on this work toward the larger goal of developing more effective AI collaborators.

This work was supported, in part, by the MIT Schwarzman College of Computing Artificial Intelligence for Augmentation and Productivity program and the National Science Foundation.

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Problem Characteristics in Artificial Intelligence

Download final year projects, what is artificial intelligence problem characteristics in artificial intelligence.


Artificial Intelligence is a  “way of making a computer, a computer-controlled robot, or software think intelligently, in the similar manner the intelligent humans think” .

Since artificial intelligence (AI) is mainly related to the search process , it is important to have some methodology to choose the best possible solution.

To choose an appropriate method for a particular problem first we need to categorize the problem based on the following characteristics.

  • Is the problem decomposable into small sub-problems which are easy to solve?
  • Can solution steps be ignored or undone?
  • Is the universe of the problem is predictable?
  • Is a good solution to the problem is absolute or relative?
  • Is the solution to the problem a state or a path?
  • What is the role of knowledge in solving a problem using artificial intelligence?
  • Does the task of solving a problem require human interaction?

1. Is the problem decomposable into small sub-problems which are easy to solve?

Can the problem be broken down into smaller problems to be solved independently?

The decomposable problem can be solved easily.

Example: In this case, the problem is divided into smaller problems. The smaller problems are solved independently. Finally, the result is merged to get the final result.

Is the problem decomposable

2. Can solution steps be ignored or undone?

In the Theorem Proving problem, a lemma that has been proved can be ignored for the next steps.

Such problems are called Ignorable problems.

In the 8-Puzzle, Moves can be undone and backtracked.

Such problems are called Recoverable problems.

problem solving definition in ai

In Playing Chess, moves can be retracted.

Such problems are called Irrecoverable problems.

Ignorable problems can be solved using a simple control structure that never backtracks. Recoverable problems can be solved using backtracking. Irrecoverable problems can be solved by recoverable style methods via planning.

3. Is the universe of the problem is predictable?

In Playing Bridge, We cannot know exactly where all the cards are or what the other players will do on their turns.

Uncertain outcome!

For certain-outcome problems , planning can be used to generate a sequence of operators that is guaranteed to lead to a solution.

For uncertain-outcome problems , a sequence of generated operators can only have a good probability of leading to a solution. Plan revision is made as the plan is carried out and the necessary feedback is provided.

4. Is a good solution to the problem is absolute or relative?

The Travelling Salesman Problem, we have to try all paths to find the shortest one.

Any path problem can be solved using heuristics that suggest good paths to explore.

For best-path problems, a much more exhaustive search will be performed.

5. Is the solution to the problem a state or a path

The Water Jug Problem, the path that leads to the goal must be reported.

A path-solution problem can be reformulated as a state-solution problem by describing a state as a partial path to a solution. The question is whether that is natural or not.

6. What is the role of knowledge in solving a problem using artificial intelligence?

Playing Chess

Consider again the problem of playing chess. Suppose you had unlimited computing power available. How much knowledge would be required by a perfect program? The answer to this question is very little—just the rules for determining legal moves and some simple control mechanism that implements an appropriate search procedure. Additional knowledge about such things as good strategy and tactics could of course help considerably to constrain the search and speed up the execution of the program. Knowledge is important only to constrain the search for a solution.

Reading Newspaper

Now consider the problem of scanning daily newspapers to decide which are supporting the Democrats and which are supporting the Republicans in some upcoming election. Again assuming unlimited computing power, how much knowledge would be required by a computer trying to solve this problem? This time the answer is a great deal.

It would have to know such things as:

  • The names of the candidates in each party.
  • The fact that if the major thing you want to see done is have taxes lowered, you are probably supporting the Republicans.
  • The fact that if the major thing you want to see done is improved education for minority students, you are probably supporting the Democrats.
  • The fact that if you are opposed to big government, you are probably supporting the Republicans.
  • And so on …

Knowledge is required even to be able to recognize a solution.

7. Does the task of solving a problem require human interaction?

Sometimes it is useful to program computers to solve problems in ways that the majority of people would not be able to understand.

This is fine if the level of the interaction between the computer and its human users is problem-in solution-out.

But increasingly we are building programs that require intermediate interaction with people, both to provide additional input to the program and to provide additional reassurance to the user.

The solitary problem , in which there is no intermediate communication and no demand for an explanation of the reasoning process.

The conversational problem, in which intermediate communication is to provide either additional assistance to the computer or additional information to the user.

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Moving AI governance from principles to practice

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By ITU News

How can we ensure artificial intelligence (AI) is really used for good?

This was the central question of a virtual media roundtable hosted by the International Telecommunication (ITU) ahead of the annual AI for Good Global Summit , happening from 29 to 31 May with an expected 3,000+ participants.

The hope for this year’s summit, explained ITU Secretary-General Doreen Bogdan-Martin, is to shift the global AI conversation from principles to implementation.

This is the idea driving ITU’s dedicated “ Governance Day” on 29 May – a first for the United Nations AI summit convened since 2017.

Over the years, AI for Good has grown into the world’s largest UN-led multi-stakeholder platform on artificial intelligence.

Organized with over 40 UN sister agencies, AI for Good brings together a community of around 28,000 stakeholders from more than 180 countries.

Governance challenges

Even before the release of generative AI applications like ChatGPT in 2022, a bevy of governance efforts had emerged – and have ramped up steadily over the past year.

This proactive response, Bogdan-Martin reminded participating journalists, challenges the oft-heard argument that “governments lack initiative” when it comes to tech regulation.

But enforceable ways to prevent people from building unsafe AI systems are severely lacking, contended Stuart Russell, Professor of Computer Science at the University of California, Berkeley.

The status quo where private entities play “Russian roulette with the entire human race for private gain” is simply unacceptable, he continued.

Governance approaches must also be coordinated, said Robert Trager, International Governance Lead at the Centre for the Governance of AI based at the University of Oxford.

Governments have already begun implementing requirements for training AI models, such as explainability, transparency and accountability, as well as compliance with local data protection and privacy laws.

But as training becomes increasingly distributed – where part of an AI model’s training happens in one jurisdiction, and the next in another – enforcement becomes trickier.

“We need to make sure no actor is avoiding regulation by simply changing jurisdictions,” said Trager. “At the summit, we’ll examine how to govern AI in a coordinated way that is effective and inclusive.”

Collective problem solving

For Emilia Javorsky, Director of the Futures Program at the Future of Life Institute, an important governance priority lies in ensuring institutions are up to the task of mitigating myriad AI risks, which range from the ethical to the physical, military, and economic, even extending to epistemic collapse, “when we can no longer tell what’s real.”

This requires not only robust governance and safety engineering in practice, but also setting the right incentive structures for institutions and companies, said Javorsky.

In healthcare, for example, many steps unrelated to AI development are needed to unlock the technology’s full potential, such as higher quality data sets, better information sharing practices, and regulatory reform.

While panellists agreed that AI governance must be a collective effort, some felt “we are nowhere near” the collaboration needed to demonstrably improve safety.

Dr. Ebtesam Almazrouei of the UAE Council for Al and Blockchain cited UN Sustainable Development Goal 17 – Partnerships for the Goals – as particularly important when it comes to moving beyond dialogue.

“No single entity should hold the key to the vast potential of AI,” Almazrouei added.

The role of standards

Governance efforts that have emerged so far share a common belief in technical standards, observed Bogdan-Martin.

Standardization is core to the work of the ITU, which has over 220 AI-related standards published or in development.

Standards should require mathematical proof that an AI system won’t cross so-called “red lines,” Russell pointed out.

Red lines are behaviours that would be considered unacceptable if machines were to exhibit them, he explained, such as replicating themselves without permission, hacking into critical infrastructure systems, advising terrorists on deploying bioweapons, disclosing classified information, or defaming people.

One of the hotly anticipated summit outcomes is ITU work on watermarking, a method aimed at helping to counter AI-generated misinformation and disinformation.

In addition to serving as a prerequisite for guardrails, standards can also help level the playing field for developing countries at different stages of their AI journey, said Bogdan-Martin.

Capacity building support and policy assistance for those countries is another major part of ITU’s work on AI, she noted.

Another UN agency, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), is also guiding policymakers and innovators in developing countries. Issues related to intellectual property (IP) are a crucial aspect of equitable AI development.

Common denominators

Asked about WIPO’s post-ChatGPT learnings, Kenichiro Natsume, Assistant Director General at WIPO, described navigating tensions between AI developers who want to use as much data as possible – including copyrighted material scraped from the Internet – and creators who want to protect and profit from their own IP.

“The AI for Good Global Summit is the perfect opportunity for us to identify common denominators among different stakeholders to find a way forward,” said Natsume.

Bogdan-Martin highlighted the UN’s role in achieving “effective multilateralism” and leading multi-stakeholder collaboration towards trusted, safe, ethical, inclusive AI development while leaving no one behind.

“The fact that 2.6 billion [unconnected] people are not part of the digital world means they are not part of the AI world,” she said.

“Global governance discussions must bring all stakeholders to the table, including the Global South.”

Register for the AI for Good Global Summit here .

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Definition : Intelligence, Artificial Intelligence

This essay about the intricate nature of intelligence, both human and artificial. It explores the complexities surrounding the definition of intelligence and the evolution of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology. Highlighting the capacity of AI to process vast amounts of data and its implications for various industries, the essay delves into the ethical considerations and societal impacts of AI. It emphasizes the importance of responsible AI development and deployment, advocating for transparency, accountability, and fairness. Ultimately, the essay underscores the need for interdisciplinary dialogue and ethical reflection to navigate the evolving landscape of intelligence and AI.

How it works

Intelligence, a concept as elusive as it is captivating, has been a subject of fascination for scholars and thinkers across epochs. Its essence encompasses a myriad of cognitive faculties, from problem-solving to comprehension, yet its essence remains shrouded in ambiguity, evading a definitive description. At its essence, intelligence embodies the capacity to adapt, understand, and apply knowledge, weaving a tapestry of complexity that transcends mere cognition and touches upon the essence of what it means to be human.

Parallel to this exploration of human intelligence, the realm of Artificial Intelligence (AI) emerges as a testament to humanity’s ingenuity and ambition.

AI, the culmination of our endeavor to replicate and perhaps transcend human intelligence through machinery and algorithms, represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of cognition and computation. From rudimentary rule-based systems to sophisticated neural networks, AI encompasses a spectrum of technologies aimed at mimicking and, in some cases, surpassing human cognitive abilities.

One of the hallmarks of AI lies in its capacity to process and interpret vast troves of data, unveiling insights and correlations that elude human perception. Through machine learning algorithms, AI systems can refine their performance over time, adapting and evolving in response to experience. This capacity has propelled AI into diverse domains, from healthcare to finance, revolutionizing industries and reshaping the fabric of society.

Yet, for all its promise and potential, AI is not without its caveats and ethical quandaries. Concerns about privacy, bias, and the displacement of human labor loom large in discussions surrounding AI’s proliferation. Safeguarding against these pitfalls requires a concerted effort to ensure transparency, accountability, and fairness in AI development and deployment. Moreover, as AI continues to evolve, questions about its societal impact and ethical implications become increasingly pertinent, underscoring the need for interdisciplinary dialogue and ethical reflection.

In summation, the exploration of intelligence, both human and artificial, is a journey marked by curiosity, innovation, and ethical inquiry. While human intelligence remains an enigma, AI represents our ongoing quest to unravel its mysteries and harness its potential for the betterment of humanity. By navigating the complexities of AI with prudence and foresight, we can steer towards a future where intelligence, whether human or artificial, serves as a catalyst for progress and prosperity.


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problem solving definition in ai

A.I. Has a Measurement Problem

Which A.I. system writes the best computer code or generates the most realistic image? Right now, there’s no easy way to answer those questions.

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Kevin Roose

By Kevin Roose

Reporting from San Francisco

  • April 15, 2024

There’s a problem with leading artificial intelligence tools like ChatGPT, Gemini and Claude: We don’t really know how smart they are.

That’s because, unlike companies that make cars or drugs or baby formula, A.I. companies aren’t required to submit their products for testing before releasing them to the public. There’s no Good Housekeeping seal for A.I. chatbots, and few independent groups are putting these tools through their paces in a rigorous way.

Instead, we’re left to rely on the claims of A.I. companies, which often use vague, fuzzy phrases like “ improved capabilities ” to describe how their models differ from one version to the next. And while there are some standard tests given to A.I. models to assess how good they are at, say, math or logical reasoning, many experts have doubts about how reliable those tests really are.

This might sound like a petty gripe. But I’ve become convinced that a lack of good measurement and evaluation for A.I. systems is a major problem.

For starters, without reliable information about A.I. products, how are people supposed to know what to do with them?

I can’t count the number of times I’ve been asked in the past year, by a friend or a colleague, which A.I. tool they should use for a certain task. Does ChatGPT or Gemini write better Python code? Is DALL-E 3 or Midjourney better at generating realistic images of people?

I usually just shrug in response. Even as someone who writes about A.I. for a living and tests new tools constantly, I’ve found it maddeningly hard to keep track of the relative strengths and weaknesses of various A.I. products. Most tech companies don’t publish user manuals or detailed release notes for their A.I. products. And the models are updated so frequently that a chatbot that struggles with a task one day might mysteriously excel at it the next.

Shoddy measurement also creates a safety risk. Without better tests for A.I. models, it’s hard to know which capabilities are improving faster than expected, or which products might pose real threats of harm.

In this year’s A.I. Index — a big annual report put out by Stanford University’s Institute for Human-Centered Artificial Intelligence — the authors describe poor measurement as one of the biggest challenges facing A.I. researchers.

“The lack of standardized evaluation makes it extremely challenging to systematically compare the limitations and risks of various A.I. models,” the report’s editor in chief, Nestor Maslej, told me.

For years, the most popular method for measuring artificial intelligence was the so-called Turing Test — an exercise proposed in 1950 by the mathematician Alan Turing, which tests whether a computer program can fool a person into mistaking its responses for a human’s.

But today’s A.I. systems can pass the Turing Test with flying colors, and researchers have had to come up with new, harder evaluations.

One of the most common tests given to A.I. models today — the SAT for chatbots, essentially — is a test known as Massive Multitask Language Understanding, or MMLU.

The MMLU, which was released in 2020, consists of a collection of roughly 16,000 multiple-choice questions covering dozens of academic subjects, ranging from abstract algebra to law and medicine. It’s supposed to be a kind of general intelligence test — the more of these questions a chatbot answers correctly, the smarter it is.

It has become the gold standard for A.I. companies competing for dominance. (When Google released its most advanced A.I. model, Gemini Ultra, earlier this year, it boasted that it had scored 90 percent on the MMLU — the highest score ever recorded.)

Dan Hendrycks, an A.I. safety researcher who helped develop the MMLU while in graduate school at the University of California, Berkeley, told me that the test was never supposed to be used for bragging rights. He was alarmed by how quickly A.I. systems were improving, and wanted to encourage researchers to take it more seriously.

Mr. Hendrycks said that while he thought MMLU “probably has another year or two of shelf life,” it will soon need to be replaced by different, harder tests. A.I. systems are getting too smart for the tests we have now, and it’s getting more difficult to design new ones.

“All of these benchmarks are wrong, but some are useful,” he said. “Some of them can serve some utility for a fixed amount of time, but at some point, there’s so much pressure put on it that it reaches its breaking point.”

There are dozens of other tests out there — with names like TruthfulQA and HellaSwag — that are meant to capture other facets of A.I. performance. But just as the SAT captures only part of a student’s intellect and ability, these tests are capable of measuring only a narrow slice of an A.I. system’s power.

And none of them are designed to answer the more subjective questions many users have, such as: Is this chatbot fun to talk to? Is it better for automating routine office work, or creative brainstorming? How strict are its safety guardrails?

(The New York Times has sued OpenAI, the maker of ChatGPT, and its partner, Microsoft, on claims of copyright infringement involving artificial intelligence systems that generate text.)

There may also be problems with the tests themselves. Several researchers I spoke to warned that the process for administering benchmark tests like MMLU varies slightly from company to company, and that various models’ scores might not be directly comparable.

There is a problem known as “data contamination,” when the questions and answers for benchmark tests are included in an A.I. model’s training data, essentially allowing it to cheat. And there is no independent testing or auditing process for these models, meaning that A.I. companies are essentially grading their own homework.

In short, A.I. measurement is a mess — a tangle of sloppy tests, apples-to-oranges comparisons and self-serving hype that has left users, regulators and A.I. developers themselves grasping in the dark.

“Despite the appearance of science, most developers really judge models based on vibes or instinct,” said Nathan Benaich, an A.I. investor with Air Street Capital. “That might be fine for the moment, but as these models grow in power and social relevance, it won’t suffice.”

The solution here is likely a combination of public and private efforts.

Governments can, and should, come up with robust testing programs that measure both the raw capabilities and the safety risks of A.I. models, and they should fund grants and research projects aimed at coming up with new, high-quality evaluations. (In its executive order on A.I. last year, the White House directed several federal agencies, including the National Institute of Standards and Technology, to create and oversee new ways of evaluating A.I. systems.)

Some progress is also emerging out of academia. Last year, Stanford researchers introduced a new test for A.I. image models that uses human evaluators, rather than automated tests, to determine how capable a model is. And a group of researchers from the University of California, Berkeley, recently started Chatbot Arena , a popular leaderboard that pits anonymous, randomized A.I. models against one another and asks users to vote on the best model.

A.I. companies can also help by committing to work with third-party evaluators and auditors to test their models, by making new models more widely available to researchers and by being more transparent when their models are updated. And in the media, I hope some kind of Wirecutter-style publication will eventually emerge to take on the task of reviewing new A.I. products in a rigorous and trustworthy way.

Researchers at Anthropic, the A.I. company, wrote in a blog post last year that “effective A.I. governance depends on our ability to meaningfully evaluate A.I. systems.”

I agree. Artificial intelligence is too important a technology to be evaluated on the basis of vibes. Until we get better ways of measuring these tools, we won’t know how to use them, or whether their progress should be celebrated or feared.

Kevin Roose is a Times technology columnist and a host of the podcast " Hard Fork ." More about Kevin Roose

Explore Our Coverage of Artificial Intelligence

News  and Analysis

A new flood of child sexual abuse material created by A.I. is threatening to overwhelm the authorities  already held back by antiquated technology and laws. As a result, legislators are working on bills  to combat A.I.-generated sexually explicit images of minors.

Users of Instagram, Facebook, WhatsApp and Messenger will soon be able to use newly added smart assistants , powered by Meta’s latest artificial intelligence model, to obtain information and complete tasks.

Microsoft said that it would make a $1.5 billion investment in G42 , an A.I. giant in the United Arab Emirates, in a deal largely orchestrated by the Biden administration to box out China.

The Age of A.I.

Much as ChatGPT generates poetry, a new A.I. system devises blueprints for microscopic mechanisms  that can edit your DNA.

Could A.I. change India’s elections? Avatars are addressing voters by name, in whichever of India’s many languages they speak. Experts see potential for misuse  in a country already rife with disinformation.

Which A.I. system writes the best computer code or generates the most realistic image? Right now, there’s no easy way to answer those questions, our technology columnist writes .

U.S. clinics are starting to offer patients a new service: having their mammograms read not just by a radiologist, but also by an A.I. model .

A.I. tools can replace much of Wall Street’s entry-level white-collar work , raising tough questions about the future of finance.



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