Persuasive Speeches — Types, Topics, and Examples

Daniel Bal

What is a persuasive speech?

In a persuasive speech, the speaker aims to convince the audience to accept a particular perspective on a person, place, object, idea, etc. The speaker strives to cause the audience to accept the point of view presented in the speech.

The success of a persuasive speech often relies on the speaker’s use of ethos, pathos, and logos.

Success of a persuasive speech

Ethos is the speaker’s credibility. Audiences are more likely to accept an argument if they find the speaker trustworthy. To establish credibility during a persuasive speech, speakers can do the following:

Use familiar language.

Select examples that connect to the specific audience.

Utilize credible and well-known sources.

Logically structure the speech in an audience-friendly way.

Use appropriate eye contact, volume, pacing, and inflection.

Pathos appeals to the audience’s emotions. Speakers who create an emotional bond with their audience are typically more convincing. Tapping into the audience’s emotions can be accomplished through the following:

Select evidence that can elicit an emotional response.

Use emotionally-charged words. (The city has a problem … vs. The city has a disease …)

Incorporate analogies and metaphors that connect to a specific emotion to draw a parallel between the reference and topic.

Utilize vivid imagery and sensory words, allowing the audience to visualize the information.

Employ an appropriate tone, inflection, and pace to reflect the emotion.

Logos appeals to the audience’s logic by offering supporting evidence. Speakers can improve their logical appeal in the following ways:

Use comprehensive evidence the audience can understand.

Confirm the evidence logically supports the argument’s claims and stems from credible sources.

Ensure that evidence is specific and avoid any vague or questionable information.

Types of persuasive speeches

The three main types of persuasive speeches are factual, value, and policy.

Types of persuasive speeches

A factual persuasive speech focuses solely on factual information to prove the existence or absence of something through substantial proof. This is the only type of persuasive speech that exclusively uses objective information rather than subjective. As such, the argument does not rely on the speaker’s interpretation of the information. Essentially, a factual persuasive speech includes historical controversy, a question of current existence, or a prediction:

Historical controversy concerns whether an event happened or whether an object actually existed.

Questions of current existence involve the knowledge that something is currently happening.

Predictions incorporate the analysis of patterns to convince the audience that an event will happen again.

A value persuasive speech concerns the morality of a certain topic. Speakers incorporate facts within these speeches; however, the speaker’s interpretation of those facts creates the argument. These speeches are highly subjective, so the argument cannot be proven to be absolutely true or false.

A policy persuasive speech centers around the speaker’s support or rejection of a public policy, rule, or law. Much like a value speech, speakers provide evidence supporting their viewpoint; however, they provide subjective conclusions based on the facts they provide.

How to write a persuasive speech

Incorporate the following steps when writing a persuasive speech:

Step 1 – Identify the type of persuasive speech (factual, value, or policy) that will help accomplish the goal of the presentation.

Step 2 – Select a good persuasive speech topic to accomplish the goal and choose a position .

How to write a persuasive speech

Step 3 – Locate credible and reliable sources and identify evidence in support of the topic/position. Revisit Step 2 if there is a lack of relevant resources.

Step 4 – Identify the audience and understand their baseline attitude about the topic.

Step 5 – When constructing an introduction , keep the following questions in mind:

What’s the topic of the speech?

What’s the occasion?

Who’s the audience?

What’s the purpose of the speech?

Step 6 – Utilize the evidence within the previously identified sources to construct the body of the speech. Keeping the audience in mind, determine which pieces of evidence can best help develop the argument. Discuss each point in detail, allowing the audience to understand how the facts support the perspective.

Step 7 – Addressing counterarguments can help speakers build their credibility, as it highlights their breadth of knowledge.

Step 8 – Conclude the speech with an overview of the central purpose and how the main ideas identified in the body support the overall argument.

How to write a persuasive speech

Persuasive speech outline

One of the best ways to prepare a great persuasive speech is by using an outline. When structuring an outline, include an introduction, body, and conclusion:


Attention Grabbers

Ask a question that allows the audience to respond in a non-verbal way; ask a rhetorical question that makes the audience think of the topic without requiring a response.

Incorporate a well-known quote that introduces the topic. Using the words of a celebrated individual gives credibility and authority to the information in the speech.

Offer a startling statement or information about the topic, typically done using data or statistics.

Provide a brief anecdote or story that relates to the topic.

Starting a speech with a humorous statement often makes the audience more comfortable with the speaker.

Provide information on how the selected topic may impact the audience .

Include any background information pertinent to the topic that the audience needs to know to understand the speech in its entirety.

Give the thesis statement in connection to the main topic and identify the main ideas that will help accomplish the central purpose.

Identify evidence

Summarize its meaning

Explain how it helps prove the support/main claim

Evidence 3 (Continue as needed)

Support 3 (Continue as needed)

Restate thesis

Review main supports

Concluding statement

Give the audience a call to action to do something specific.

Identify the overall importan ce of the topic and position.

Persuasive speech topics

The following table identifies some common or interesting persuasive speech topics for high school and college students:

Persuasive speech examples

The following list identifies some of history’s most famous persuasive speeches:

John F. Kennedy’s Inaugural Address: “Ask Not What Your Country Can Do for You”

Lyndon B. Johnson: “We Shall Overcome”

Marc Antony: “Friends, Romans, Countrymen…” in William Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar

Ronald Reagan: “Tear Down this Wall”

Sojourner Truth: “Ain’t I a Woman?”

persuasive speech mean

  • Self Confidence
  • Public Speaking
  • Communication
  • Communication Skills


  • Kanhaiya Sharma
  • Ashfaq Sorathia
  • Prateek Chawla


  • Comparative Analysis

></center></p><p>Book my 1:1 session</p><h2>What Is Persuasive Speech: Meaning, Skills and Examples</h2><p><center><img style=

On This Page

Imagine standing before an audience, your heart pounding like a drum, and a critical decision hanging in the balance. Your ability to make a persuasive speech and to communicate effectively has never been more critical. From the hallowed halls of historic speeches to the humble corridors of everyday conversations, persuasive communication is the unspoken power behind change, influence, and success.

In this blog post, we’re embarking on a journey to uncover the art of persuasive speech. Are you ready to discover the secrets that have inspired leaders, swayed opinions, and changed lives throughout history? Let’s begin by demystifying persuasive speech and unlocking its transformative potential, one word at a time.

Understanding Persuasion

Persuasion is the subtle art of influencing the audience to thoughts, decisions, and actions through effective communication. It’s the skill that allows you to win hearts, change minds, and motivate others to your cause.

Whether you’re delivering a persuasive speech in front of a packed auditorium or crafting a persuasive email to your boss, this ability to persuade is a potent tool that can help you navigate life’s challenges with finesse.

Persuasive speech matters because it’s not just about convincing others; it’s about building trust and credibility. When you communicate persuasively, you demonstrate your expertise, sincerity, and empathy. This, in turn, fosters trust and credibility with your audience. People are more likely to listen to, respect, and follow those they trust.

While persuasive speeches often come to mind when we think of persuasion, this skill extends far beyond formal presentations. It’s embedded in conversations, negotiations, marketing messages, and social media posts.

Mastering your persuasive speech means becoming a more effective communicator in all aspects of life, from convincing a friend to join a new adventure to negotiating a critical business deal.

Persuasive communication isn’t something you either have or don’t have; it’s a skill that can be learned, honed, and improved throughout your life. Whether you’re a seasoned professional or just starting your career, the audience to whom you’re communicating is always key. There’s always room for growth. Becoming a persuasive communicator is an ongoing process that involves continually honing your skills to engage the audience to convey your message effectively.

In the upcoming sections, we’ll dive into the essential elements of a persuasive speech topic to enhance your skills as a speaker and writer in any situation. Let’s get started in uncovering these secrets.

Elements Of Persuasive Speech

These elements serve as the foundation upon which your persuasive speech skills are built, whether you’re speaking or writing. Let’s uncover the secrets that will empower you to craft your speech and sway hearts and minds effectively.

Elements Of Persuasive Speech 2

1. Building Credibility

Credibility is the cornerstone of a persuasive speech, representing the trust your audience invests in you as a communicator. Without it, your words may lack impact. To build credibility, authenticity is key; by sharing your genuine thoughts, emotions, and intentions, you establish trust rapidly.

Additionally, positioning yourself as an authority on the subject through your speech knowledge, experience, and qualifications enhances your persuasiveness. Moreover, recognizing and managing emotions, a trait linked to emotional intelligence is vital for effective persuasive communication.

2. Understanding Your Audience

Understanding your audience is a fundamental component of a persuasive speech, emphasizing the importance of tailoring your message to address their specific needs, desires, and pain points. Demonstrating your consideration of their perspective and showing empathy, by understanding their emotions and feelings, paves the way for a deeper connection with your audience.

Furthermore, adaptability in your communication style is key; recognizing that different individuals may respond better to various approaches, some driven by logic and data, while emotional stories sway others, ensures a more successful and resonant persuasive speech.

3. Communicating Effectively

Effective communication is the linchpin of a persuasive speech topic , demanding a harmonious blend of clarity, engagement, and active listening to create a deeply resonating message. Clarity is of utmost importance; your message must be free from diluting ambiguity. Use straightforward language and logical arguments to eliminate doubts in your audience . 

Beyond words, effective communication thrives on constant audience engagement for your audience , using anecdotes, examples, and rhetorical questions to sustain their interest and heighten receptivity. Active listening is equally vital, enabling real-time message adjustments by keenly observing your audience responses and non-verbal cues, ensuring your words continually align with their needs and concerns. Your persuasive speech hinges on this interplay, fostering a connection that resonates and influences the audience.

In the following sections, we’ll apply these elements to your persuasive speech , offering practical tips to enhance your persuasive communication skills in different contexts. Let’s continue our journey to unveil the secrets of persuasion.

Developing Persuasive Speaking

In this subsection, we journey into persuasive speaking, uncovering the techniques and strategies that empower you to speak with confidence, clarity, and persuasiveness. Let’s embark on the path to mastering the art of spoken persuasion.

Developing Persuasive Speaking 1

1. Crafting A Compelling Narrative

Imagine you’re about to give a speech on environmental conservation. To start strong, you might begin with a vivid example of the devastating effects of climate change. Perhaps you paint a picture of a future where our children won’t be able to enjoy the beauty of a lush, green Earth. That’s the power of crafting a compelling narrative – it grips the audience right from the beginning.

As you continue, you structure your speech with clear signposts, guiding the audience through your message, and conclude with a memorable call to action. It’s like weaving a story that takes your listeners on a journey.

2. Mastering Persuasive Techniques

Persuasive speaking is all about using the right tools. Think of it like a master craftsman wielding various instruments to create a masterpiece. In your speech, you can employ rhetorical devices, such as using parallelism to emphasize your points, just like Martin Luther King Jr. did in his iconic “I Have a Dream” speech.

Or, you might use persuasive language that taps into your audience emotions. For instance, if you’re advocating for animal welfare, you could describe the suffering of a specific animal, making the audience feel a personal connection. It’s like using different brushes and colors to paint a compelling picture.

3. Use Of Visual Aids in the Persuasive Speech

In the digital age, persuasive speaking should be integrated with visual aids and technology. Imagine you’re giving a speech on the latest technological innovations. To engage the audience , you could incorporate dynamic visuals, like charts, videos, or interactive graphics, that illustrate the impact of these innovations.

You should be using real-time data to support your points. Consider Steve Jobs’ iconic iPhone launch presentations – he used visuals and technology to make complex ideas simple and captivating.

This is about using the power of visuals and tech to enhance your speech , making it more impactful and memorable.

Impact Of Persuasive Speech

In this section, we delve into your speech , witnessing the real-world impact of persuasive communication—how it transforms lives, shapes careers, and influences societies. Here, we explore compelling examples and delve into the personal and societal growth that comes with mastering the art of persuasion.

1. Professional Advancement

Mastering persuasive communication skills should be considered like having a Swiss Army knife for your career. It’s not just about crafting fancy words; it’s about being the captain of your professional ship.

Imagine you’re leading a team, and you want them to tackle a challenging project. With persuasive communication, your speech can inspire and guide them to collaborate effectively, resulting in outstanding results.

But it’s not just about leadership; it also should be your secret weapon for navigating those tricky workplace conflicts and sealing the deal in negotiations. For instance, picture a scenario where you’re resolving an issue with a colleague.

Instead of just fixing the problem, you both end up with a win-win solution that advances your careers.

That’s the magic of persuasive speech – it unlocks your career’s full potential, making your goals achievable and your journey fulfilling.

2. Personal Empowerment

Now, let’s talk about how persuasive thinking and communication should be able to empower you personally. It’s like having your point of view as your superpower, boosting your self-confidence and enriching your relationships.

When you can articulate your speech effectively, you don’t just talk the talk; you walk the walk with confidence.

Picture this: You’re in a group, and you have an idea to share. With a persuasive speech , you express it so well that everyone listens, and you leave a lasting impression. It’s not just about talking to others; it’s also about connecting with them on a deeper level.

Think about how understanding and persuading with empathy should be utilized to create trust and make your personal relationships more fulfilling.

Moreover, in everyday life, persuasive thinking should be a tool that helps you make clear decisions and solve problems with finesse and purpose. It’s like having a guiding light in your pocket for navigating life’s twists and turns.

3. Societal Influence and Change

Now, let’s journey into the world of persuasive speeches and their incredible impact on society. Think about history – about how a persuasive speech is litting the flames of transformative movements across the globe.

Whether it’s the words of influential leaders rallying for change and justice or persuasive communication fueling social activism, their influence is undeniable.

Imagine standing in a crowd, listening to a speech that stirs your soul and inspires you to take action for a cause you deeply believe in. That’s the power of persuasive advocacy. And that leads to the question: What are the key elements that make advocacy truly compelling and influential?

These speeches aren’t just words; they’re catalysts for action and beacons of hope, uniting people and driving positive change on a societal scale from your point of view .

Corporate Influence

In the corporate world, a persuasive speech is not just a tool; it’s the dynamo that powers business growth and innovation. Imagine you’re a corporate leader addressing your team. Your persuasive speech aligns them with a shared vision, igniting their motivation and driving remarkable results.

But it’s not just about the employees; it’s also about stakeholders, investors, and partners. With your point of view on persuasive communication, you can build trust, inspire confidence, and secure vital partnerships that shape corporate influence.

It’s like painting a masterpiece with words, creating a narrative that captivates and influences everyone in your business ecosystem.

Civic Engagement

The impact of a persuasive speech on civic engagement is like a rallying cry for community betterment and democratic participation. Imagine you’re listening to a speech that should be compelling you to vote, engage in public discourse, and address critical social and political issues.

It’s not just words; it’s a call to action in your speech.

Historically, persuasive speeches have ignited social movements, united people in shared causes, and inspired civic action. They nurture collective responsibility, foster civic-mindedness, and empower individuals to advocate for your point of view on positive community change.

Your speech acts like a wave of change, driven by persuasive messages, enhancing democracy and pursuing a more equitable and just society.

In the upcoming sections, we’ll uncover how these facets of personal and societal impact intersect, showcasing the transformative potential of a persuasive speech . 

Famous Examples of the Persuasive Speech

Here, we’ll explore five iconic and influential persuasive speeches throughout history that have demonstrated the power of persuasive speech . By analysing these famous examples, you should be able to gain valuable insights into the art of compelling persuasion.

Famous Examples of Persuasive Speech 1

1. Martin Luther King Jr.’s “I Have a Dream”

Martin Luther King Jr.’s “ I Have a Dream ” speech epitomizes persuasive speech with its rhetorical brilliance, emotional depth, and historical significance.

Dr. King’s power lay in his vision, as he painted a vivid picture of a world where racial equality should be not a mere dream but a shared reality, instilling hope and motivation.

He harnessed rhetorical devices such as repeating phrases like “I have a dream” and “Let freedom ring,” creating a rhythmic, memorable quality reinforcing key messages.

Furthermore, his words tapped into the deep-seated emotions of the audience , stirring a profound sense of urgency and a shared mission, making this speech an enduring testament to the art of your persuasive speech .

2. Winston Churchill’s “We Shall Fight on the Beaches”

Winston Churchill’s “ We Shall Fight on the Beaches ” is a testament to his unwavering resolve and powerful rhetoric, which rallied a nation during a critical historical moment.

Churchill’s words conveyed a spirit of defiance that deeply resonated with a nation facing formidable challenges, highlighting mental health . His speech left no room for ambiguity, articulating a clear path forward and the unwavering commitment required.

Through mobilizing language, Churchill should be galvanizing citizens to come together, confront adversity head-on, and work collectively toward a common objective, making this speech a remarkable example of persuasive leadership.

3. John F. Kennedy’s “Ich bin ein Berliner”

John F. Kennedy’s “ Ich bin ein Berliner ” speech went beyond political boundaries to convey a powerful message of unity. Kennedy’s words expressed unwavering support and a sense of shared identity with the people of Berlin, fostering solidarity.

Through symbolic gestures and a choice of language that demonstrated a deep understanding of the local context, he effectively connected with the audience .

Furthermore, his words resonated with Berliners by highlighting the shared values and ideals they held dear, making this speech a poignant example of international persuasive speech and solidarity.

4. Malala Yousafzai’s United Nations Address

Malala Yousafzai’s United Nations Address established her as a global symbol for education and girls’ rights through her courage and eloquence. Her remarkable courage in the face of adversity should be highlighted as a powerful testament to her unwavering commitment to the girls’ education.

Malala’s youthful perspective and unwavering determination captured the hearts of people worldwide, underscoring the urgency of her message.

Her speech not only inspired but also catalyzed a global movement dedicated to addressing the barriers to the education that girls face worldwide, making her a remarkable advocate for change and the power of a persuasive speech .

5. Ronald Reagan’s “Tear Down This Wall!”

Ronald Reagan’s “ Tear Down This Wall! ” speech became synonymous with the fall of the Berlin Wall and the end of the Cold War. His words conveyed a powerful and symbolic demand, boldly challenging the division of the city and offering a vision of a united, free Berlin.

Reagan’s clarity of message resonated deeply with those yearning for liberty behind the Iron Curtain, addressing not only political freedom but also impacting the mental health of those living in oppressive circumstances.

The historical significance of his speech should be undeniable, as it played a pivotal role in shaping the course of history and ushering in a new era of freedom and cooperation, making it a prime example of persuasive speech with profound global implications.

Persuasive Speech Topics

In this section, we delve into various persuasive speech topics, each carefully curated to captivate the audience , stimulate critical thinking, and drive discussions that matter.

1. Good Persuasive Speech Topics in Arts

The Role of Art in Promoting Mental Health and Well-being

The Impact of Digital Art on Traditional Art Forms

Censorship in the Arts: Balancing Creative Freedom and Societal Values

Art as a Tool for Social Change and Activism

The Importance of Arts Education in K-12 Schools

2. Best Persuasive Speech Topics for High School Students

The Benefits of Mandatory Volunteering for High School Students

Social Media and its Impact on Teen Mental Health

The Importance of Financial Literacy Education in High Schools

Should High School Students Have a Say in Curriculum Development?

The Pros and Cons of Standardised Testing in High Schools

3. Best Persuasive Speech Topics for College Students

Addressing Student Loan Debt: Strategies for College Affordability

The Role of Technology in Modern Education

Campus Free Speech and its Limits: Balancing Freedom and Inclusivity

Promoting Mental Health Awareness and Support on College Campuses

The Impact of Climate Change: What Can College Students Do?

4. Good Persuasive Speech Topics on Academics

The Future of Remote Learning and its Impact on Academic Achievement

Reevaluating Grading Systems: Is Pass/Fail a Better Option?

The Role of Critical Thinking in Modern Education

Promoting Multilingual Education for a Globalised World

The Ethics of AI and Automation in Education

5. Good Persuasive Speech Topics on the Economy

Universal Basic Income: A Solution to the Economic Inequality?

Green Jobs and the Transition to a Sustainable Economy

The Gig Economy: Flexibility vs. Workers’ Rights

The Pros and Cons of Cryptocurrency and Digital Money

Economic Impacts of the Aging Population: Preparing for the Silver Tsunami

6. Good Persuasive Speech Topics on Entertainment

The Influence of Streaming Services on Traditional Television and Film

Celebrity Culture and its Effects on Society

The Ethics of Cancel Culture in the Entertainment Industry

The Representation of Diversity in Media and Entertainment

The Future of Live Events and Performances in a Post-Pandemic World

7. Interesting Persuasive Speech Topics on Politics and Government

The Role of Social Media in Shaping Political Discourse

Campaign Finance Reform: Reducing the Influence of Big Money in Politics

Voting Rights and Access: Ensuring a Fair and Inclusive Democracy

The Pros and Cons of Term Limits for Elected Officials

Addressing Cybersecurity Threats to the Election Integrity

8. Good Persuasive Speech Topics on Sports

The Impact of Athletes’ Activism on Social and Political Issues

Gender Equality in Sports: Closing the Pay Gap

The Ethics of Performance-Enhancing Drugs in Professional Sports

Should College Athletes Be Paid for Their Performance?

The Environmental Impact of Major Sporting Events

9. Good Persuasive Speech Topics on Education

The Digital Divide: Bridging the Gap in Access to the Education

Inclusive Education: Supporting Students with Disabilities

The Importance of the Arts and Physical Education in Schools

Homeschooling vs. Traditional Schooling: Pros and Cons

Reimagining Teacher Training and Professional Development

10. Good Persuasive Speech Topics for Social Media

Online Privacy and Data Security: Protecting Your Digital Identity

Social Media Addiction: Recognising the Signs and Finding Balance

The Impact of Social Media on Mental Health and Self-Esteem

Social Media and Cyberbullying: Strategies for Prevention

The Role of Social Media in Political Movements and Activism

11. Good Persuasive Speech Topics for 2023 on Technology

Ethical Considerations in AI and Machine Learning

The Future of the Space Exploration: Private vs. Government Initiatives

Cybersecurity in the Age of IoT: Protecting Our Digital Lives

The Role of Technology in Healthcare: Advancements and Challenges

The Environmental Impact of the E-Waste and Technology Disposal

Empower Yourself With Persuasion

In an era of information overload and constant communication, the ability to wield persuasive speech is a powerful tool that can transform your personal and professional life before your audience , so empower yourself with persuasion.

Acquire the skills to express your ideas effectively, build authentic connections, and drive positive change. With the art of persuasion in your toolkit, you hold the key to leaving a lasting mark on the world and shaping your unique history, all while considering the impact on mental health .

Follow by Email

By Rishabh Bhandari

How to give a persuasive presentation: techniques and proven framework, influence vs persuasion: what’s the real difference, what is persuasion: meaning, skills and examples.

persuasive speech mean

Kapable © 2024

  • Fast, Fluent & Structured Thinking
  • Confident Communication and Public Speaking
  • Leadership & Team Management
  • Power Presentation & Storytelling
  • Negotiation and Persuasion
  • Influence and Charisma

Logo for KU Libraries Open Textbooks

15 Persuasive Speeches

Speeches that Make a Change

In this chapter . . .

For many public speeches, the specific purpose is to convince the audience of a particular opinion or claim or to convince them to take some action in response to the speech. When your intention is to affect change in your audience (not just the acquisition of knowledge) then you are delivering a persuasive speech. In this chapter you will learn about the elements of persuasion, why persuasion is difficult, and how to overcome people’s resistance to change by using effective and ethical methods.

Although a persuasive speech involves information—even as much as an informative speech—the key difference is that a persuasive speech is designed for “creating, reinforcing, or changing people’s beliefs or actions” (Lucas, 2015. p. 306). A persuasive speech makes something happen. In other words, it performs a job.

Traditional Views of Persuasion

In the fourth century BCE, the classic philosopher Aristotle took up the study of the public practices of the ruling class in Athenian society. For two years he observed the  rhetoric  (the art of persuasion) of the men who spoke in the assembly and the courts. In the end, he developed a theory about persuasiveness that has come down to us in history as a treatise called Rhetoric. Among his many ideas was the identification of three elements essential to persuasion: ethos, logos, and pathos. In short, they mean credibility, reasonability, and emotion.

Ethos has come to mean speaker character and credentials. It is the element that establishes the audience’s trust in you as a speaker. A speaker’s credibility is based on who the speaker is and what they know: experience, education, expertise, and background. If you’re delivering a persuasive speech about adopting a pet from a shelter and you have raised several shelter dogs, then you have credibility through experience and should share that fact about yourself with the audience to enhance their trust in your persuasive argument. Another way to establish your credibility is through research sources. You may not be an expert in climate change, but if you were giving a persuasive speech about it, you can cite reliable authoritative sources.

The word ethos looks very much like the word “ethics,” and there are many close parallels to the trust an audience has in a speaker and their honesty and ethical stance. In terms of ethics, it goes without saying that your speech will be truthful.

In addition to expertise and truthfulness is your personal involvement in the topic. Ideally you have chosen the topic because it means something to you personally. Audiences will have more trust in you if they feel you have something as stake or something personal in the subject. For example, perhaps your speech is designed to motivate audience members to take action against bullying in schools, and it’s important to you because you work with the Boys and Girls Club organization and have seen how anti-bullying programs can have positive results. Sharing your own involvement and commitment is key to establishing your credibility on this topic.

Logos is the second key element in Aristotle’s theory of rhetoric. Related to our word “logic,” the Greek term logos in persuasion means presenting ideas that appeal to logic or reason. Logos in a speech pertain to arguments that the audience would find acceptable. Imagine a speech, for example, which has the goal of persuading an audience to adopt healthier eating habits. Would the speech be effective if the arguments focused on how expensive organic foods are? Of course not.

Logic and reason are persuasive not only as matters of content.  Logos  pertains to organization, as well. An effective persuasive speech presents arguments in an organized fashion.

In words like “empathy,” “sympathy,” and “compassion” we see the root word behind the Greek word pathos. Pathos, for Aristotle, meant exciting emotions such as anger, joy, hate, love, and desire to persuade the audience of the rightness of a proposition. In a positive sense, appealing to the emotions of the audience is a highly effective persuasive tool. In the earlier example of a speech designed to encourage an audience to take action against bullying in schools, including a touching story about a student experiencing bullying would make the audience more likely to support your call for action.

However, we recognize that pathos can be used in a negative way. Emotional appeals that use anger, guilt, hatred, inflammatory language like name-calling, or that try to frighten the audience with horrible images, are counter-productive and even unethical. They might incite emotion in the audience, but they are poor uses of pathos.

One negative emotion used frequently by persuasive speakers is fear. Candidates for political office, for example, often try to provoke fear to move us to vote for them. Intense, over-the-top fear appeals, based on factual falsehoods or cherry-picking, and/or including shocking photos, are not ethical and are often dismissed by discerning audience members. Appealing to the emotion of fear can be ethical if it’s managed carefully. This means being strictly factual and avoiding extremes.

Persuasion and the Audience

It makes sense that if a speaker wants to affect the audience’s beliefs or actions, then the speaker must be perfectly clear about their expectations. If you were listening to a persuasive speech call for your audience to support animals, wouldn’t you want to know exactly what “support” the speaker was talking about? Giving money to charities? Volunteering at an animal shelter? Writing state legislators and urging them to change laws? Your job as a persuasive speaker is to be clear about what you want to create, reinforce, or change in your audience.

For your speech to have persuasive power, you must also consider your audience and choose a goal that is feasible for them. Persuasion isn’t an on/off switch. It’s more like a thermometer. Skillful persuasive speakers respect and identify a persuasive goal that is calibrated to the audience. Think of persuasion as a continuum or line going both directions. At one end is strong disagreement. At the other end is strong agreement. Your audience members, either as a group or individually, are sitting somewhere on that line in relation to your central idea statement, or what we are going to call a proposition in this chapter.

Persuasion Scale

For example, your speech proposition might be something like “The main cause of climate change is human activity.” You are claiming that climate change is due to the harmful things that humans have done to the environment. To be an effective persuasive speaker, one of your first jobs after choosing this topic would be to determine where your audience “sits” on the continuum.

+ 3 means strongly agree to the point of making lifestyle choices to lessen climate change (such as riding a bike instead of driving a car, recycling, eating certain kinds of foods, and advocating for government policy changes). + 2 means agree but not to the point of acting upon it or only acting on it in small ways. + 1 as mildly agrees with your proposition; that is, they think it’s probably true, but the issue doesn’t affect them personally. 0 means neutral, no opinion, or feeling too uninformed to decide. – 1 means mildly opposed to the proposition but willing to listen to those with whom they disagree. – 2 means disagreement to the point of dismissing the idea pretty quickly. – 3 means strong opposition to the point that the concept of climate change itself isn’t even listened to or acknowledged as a valid subject.

Since everyone in the audience is somewhere on this line or continuum, you can accept the fact that any movement toward +3 or to the right is a win. Trying to change an audience from -3 (strong disagreement) to +3 (strong agreement) in a single speech would be quite impossible. When you understand this, you can make strategic choices about the content of your speech.

In this example, if you knew that most of the audience was at -2 or -3, your speech could focus on opening their minds to the possibility of climate change and provide the science behind human causes. On the other hand, if you knew your audience was at +1 or +2, you could focus on urging them to take bold steps, like giving up their gasoline-powered vehicles.

A proposition is assumed to be in some way controversial, or a “stretch” for the audience. Some people in the audience will disagree with your proposition or at least have no opinion; they are not “on your side.”

There will be those in the audience who disagree with your proposition but who are willing to listen. Some members of the audience may already agree with you, although they don’t know why. Both groups could be called the  target audience . At the same time, another cluster of your audience may be extremely opposed to your position to the degree that they probably will not give you a fair hearing. They probably can’t be persuaded. Focus on your target audience, they are the one you can persuade.

Why is Persuasion Hard?

Persuasion is hard mainly because we have a bias against change. We go out of our way to protect our beliefs, attitudes, and values. We selectively expose ourselves to messages that we already agree with, rather than those that confront or challenge us. We find it uncomfortable to be confronted with conflicting information or viewpoints.

Additionally, during a persuasive speech the audience members are holding a mental dialogue with the speaker or at least the speaker’s content. The processes that the human mind goes through while it listens to a persuasive message is like a silent conversation. In their minds, audience members are producing doubts or reservations about your proposal. If we could listen in on one of these conversations, it might go something like this:

Speaker: Switching to a plant-based diet is the best action you can take to support a reduction in the CO-2 emissions harming the climate. Audience Member Mind: Yeah, I hear what you’re saying, but eating like that won’t give me enough protein.

The audience member has a doubt or reservation about the speaker’s proposal. We can call these doubts “yeah, buts” because the audience members are thinking, “Yeah, but what about—?”  It’s a skill of good persuasion speechwriting to anticipate reservations.

Solutions to the Difficulty of Persuasion

With these reasons for the resistance audience members have to persuasion, what is a speaker to do? Here are some strategies.

First, choose a feasible goal for the persuasive action you want the audience to take. Going back to our continuum, trying to move an audience from -3 to +2 or +3 is too big a move. Having reasonable persuasive goals is the first way to meet resistance. Even moving someone from -3 to -2 is progress, and over time these small shifts can eventually result in a significant amount of persuasion.

Secondly, as speakers we must address reservations. While speechwriters aren’t mind-readers, we can easily imagine reservations about our proposition and build a response to those reservations into the speech. Using the example above, a speaker might say:

Switching to a plant-based diet is the best action you can take to support a reduction in the CO-2 emissions harming the climate. I urge all of you to consider this important dietary change. Perhaps you are thinking that a plant-based diet won’t provide enough protein. That is a common concern. Nutritionists at the website Forks Over Knives explain how the staples of a PB diet—whole grains, legumes, and nuts—provide ample protein.

Here, the speaker acknowledges a valid reservation and then offers a rebuttal. This is called a two-tailed argument. The speaker articulates a possible argument against their proposition and then refutes it.

The third strategy is to keep in mind that since you are asking the audience to change something, they must view the benefits of the change as worth the stress of the change. In effect, audiences want to know: “What’s in it for me?” (WIIFM). As a speaker, you should give thought to that question and in your speech address the benefit, advantage, or improvement that the audience will gain by taking the action you propose.

Structure of a Persuasive Speech

A persuasive speech shares with an informational speech the same four elements for a strongly structured speech: introduction, body, conclusion, and connectors. Like informative speeches, preparation requires thoughtful attention to the given circumstances of the speech occasion, as well as audience analysis in terms of demographic and psychographic features. That said, there are some elements unique to a persuasive speech.

General and Specific Purpose General Purpose: To Persuade Specific Purpose: To motivate my audience of campus administrators to provide LGBTQ+ safe spaces on campus.

This looks familiar up to this point. The general purpose is one of the three broad speech goals (to instruct, to persuade, to inspire or entertain). The specific purpose statement follows a clear T.W.A.C. pattern:

T o +  W ord: To convince A udience: campus administrators C ontent: LGBTQ+ safe spaces

What is unique to persuasive speeches is what comes next, the proposition.


Informational speeches require a thesis. This is the central idea of the speech; its “takeaway.” Persuasive speeches equally require a strong focus on the main idea, but we call this something else: a  proposition . A proposition is a statement that expresses a judgement or opinion about which you want audience in agreement. Remember that propositions must be something that can be argued. To say, “The earth is round” isn’t a proposition. “The earth is flat” is a proposition.

  • Converting to solar energy saves homeowners money.
  • A vegan diet is the most ethical way to eat.
  • Universities should provide on-line learning options for all classes.
  • The Constitution’s Second Amendment does not include possession of automatic weapons for private use.

Like a thesis statement for an informative speech, a proposition statement is best when it not only clearly states the judgment or opinion for which you seek audience agreement, but also provides a succinct preview of the reasons for that judgement.

Universities should provide LGBTQ+ safe spaces on campus to promote visibility, build community, and protect well-being for LGBTQ+ students and their allies.

Types of Propositions

If you take a closer look at the propositions above, you’ll notice that they suggest several types of persuasion. In fact, there are several broad categories of propositions, determined by their primary goal. These are: a) propositions of fact, b) propositions of value, c) propositions of policy, and d) propositions of definition.

Proposition of Fact

Speeches with this type of proposition attempt to establish the truth of a statement. The core of the proposition isn’t whether something is morally right or wrong, only that a statement is supported by evidence or not. These propositions are not facts such as “the chemical symbol for water is H20.” Rather, propositions of fact are statements over which people disagree and there is evidence on both sides. Some examples of propositions of fact are:

  • Experiments using animals are essential to the development of many life-saving medical procedures.
  • Climate change has been caused by human activity.

Notice that in none of these are any values—good or bad—mentioned. The point of these propositions is to prove with evidence the truth of a statement.

Proposition of Value

Propositions of fact have the primary purpose of arguing that something exists in a particular way. Propositions of value, on the other hand, have as their primary purpose to argue that one thing is better than another. When the proposition has a word such as “good,” “bad,” “best,” “worst,” “just,” “unjust,” “ethical,” “unethical,” “moral,” “immoral,” “beneficial,” “harmful,” “advantageous,” or “disadvantageous,” then it’s a proposition of value. Some examples include:

  • Hybrid cars are the best form of automobile transportation available today.
  • Mascots that involve Native American names, characters, and symbols are unjust.

Propositions of value require a first step: defining the “value” word. If you are trying to convince your audience that something is “unjust,” you will have to make clear what you mean by that term. For different people, “best” might mean “safest,” “least expensive,” “most environmentally responsible,” “stylish,” “powerful,” or “prestigious.” Obviously, in the case of the first proposition above, it means “environmentally responsible.” It’s the first job of the speaker, after introducing the speech and stating the proposition, to explain what “best form of automobile transportation” means. Then the proposition would be defended with separate arguments.

Proposition of Policy

These propositions are easy to identify because they almost always have the word “should” in them. These propositions call for a change in policy or practice (including those in a government, community, or school), or they can call for the audience to adopt a certain behavior.

  • The federal government should act to ensure clean water standards for all citizens.
  • Universities should eliminate attendance requirements.
  • States should lower taxes on food.

The proposition determines the approach to the speech, especially the organization. The exact phrasing of the proposition should be carefully done to be reasonable, positive, and appropriate for the context and audience.

Propositions of Definition

Propositions of definitions argue that a word, phrase, or concept has a particular meaning. Lawyers, legislators, and scholars often write briefs, present persuasive speeches, or compose articles to define terms that are vital to defendants, citizens, or disciplines. Some examples might be:

  • The Second Amendment to the Constitution does not include possession of automatic weapons for private use.
  • Alcoholism should be considered a disease because…
  • Thomas Jefferson’s definition of inalienable rights did not include a right to privacy.

In each of these examples, the proposition is that the definition of these things needs to be changed or viewed differently, but the audience isn’t asked to change an attitude or action.

These are not strict categories. A proposition of value most likely contains elements of facts and definitions, for example. However, identifying the primary category for a persuasive speech focuses the speaker on the ultimate purpose of the speech.


Once you know your proposition, the next step is to make your case for your judgement or opinion through clear and distinct points. These are the main points of the body of your persuasive speech. We call these the “pro” or “for” arguments. You should present at least three distinct arguments in favor of your proposition. Expanding on the example above,

General Purpose: To Persuade Specific Purpose:  To motivate my audience of campus administrators to provide LGBTQ+ safe spaces on campus. Proposition: Universities should provide LGBTQ+ safe spaces on campus in order to promote visibility, build community, and protect well-being for LGBTQ+ students and their allies.

Three pro-arguments for the proposition are:

Pro-Argument #1: Creating a safe space makes LGBTQ+ community more visible and central to campus life, instead of marginalized. Pro-Argument #2: Safe spaces create a place where LGBTQ+ and their allies learn to build networks, friendship, and support circles. Pro-Argument #3: With a safe and centralized space bringing together this community, instances of bias or harassment can be brought to counselors, making for a safer community.

Two-Tailed Arguments

There is one more crucial element following pro-arguments. These are unique to persuasive speeches. As discussed above, it’s essential to anticipate and address audience reservations about your propositions. These are the two-tailed arguments that articulate the reservation and then address it or refute it. In the example we’re using, such a statement might look like this:

“Perhaps you are thinking that an LGBTQ+ safe space isn’t necessary on campus because there are already places on campus that provide this function. I understand that concern. However, a space that is officially provided by the University provides access to resources with trained personnel. The national organization CampusPride provides training to university facilitators for exactly this reason.”

There are some techniques for rebuttal or refutation that work better than others. You would not want to say, “If you are one of the people who believe this about my proposition, you are wrong.” It’s better to say that their reservations are “misconceptions,” “myths,” or “mistaken ideas” that are commonly held about the proposition.

Building Upon Your Persuasive Speech’s Arguments

Once you have constructed the key arguments, it’s time to be sure the main points are well supported with evidence.

First, your evidence should be from sources that the audience will find credible. If you can find the same essential information from two sources but know that the audience will find the information more credible from one source than another, use and cite the information from the more credible one. For example, if you find the same statistical data on Wikipedia and the US Department of Labor’s website, cite the US Department of Labor. Audiences also accept information from sources they consider unbiased or indifferent. Gallup polls, for example, have been considered reliable sources of survey data because unlike some organizations, Gallup does not have a cause (political or otherwise) it’s supporting.

Secondly, your evidence should be new to the audience. New evidence is more attention-getting, and you will appear more credible if you tell the audience something new (as long as you cite it well) than if you use the “same old, same old” evidence they have heard before.

Third, in order to be effective and ethical, your supporting evidence should be relevant and not used out of context, manipulated, or edited to change its meaning.

After choosing the evidence and apportioning it to the correct parts of the speech, you will want to consider the use of metaphors, quotations, rhetorical devices, and narratives that will enhance the language and “listenability” of your speech. Narratives are especially good for introduction and conclusions, to get attention and to leave the audience with something dramatic. You might refer to the narrative in the introduction again in the conclusion to give the speech a sense of finality.

Lastly, you will want to decide if you should use any type of presentation aid for the speech. The decision to use visuals such as PowerPoint slides or a video clip in a persuasive speech should take into consideration the effect of the visuals on the audience and the time allotted for the speech. The charts, graphs, or photographs you use should be focused and credibly done.

Organization of a Persuasive Speech

You can see that the overall structure of a persuasive speech follows a common model: introduction, body (arguments and support), two-tailed arguments, and conclusion. Study the example at the end of this chapter to see this structure in action.

In speechwriting, you can think of a speech structure like the building of a house and organization like the arrangement of the rooms within it. As with other speeches, persuasive speeches can be organized topically, chronologically, or spatially. However, persuasive speeches often follow a problem-solution or problem-cause-solution pattern.

Organization for a proposition of fact

If your proposition is one of fact or definition, it will be best to use a topical organization for the body of your speech. That means that you will have two to four discrete, separate topics in support of the proposition.

Proposition: Converting to solar energy saves homeowners money.

  • (Pro-Argument 1) Solar energy can be economical to install.
  • (Pro-Argument 2) The government awards grants for solar.
  • (Pro-Argument 3) Solar energy reduces power bills.
  • (Pro-Argument 4) Solar energy requires less money for maintenance.

Organization for a proposition of value

A persuasive speech that incorporates a proposition of value will have a slightly different structure. A proposition of value must first define the “value” word for clarity and provide a basis for the other arguments of the speech. Then the pro-arguments for the proposition based on the definition.

Proposition: Hybrid cars are the best form of automotive transportation available today.

  • (Definition of value) Automotive transportation that is best meets three standards: dependable, economical, and environmentally responsible.
  • (Pro-Argument 1) Studies show that hybrid cars are durable and dependable.
  • (Pro-Argument 2) Hybrid cars are fuel-efficient.
  • (Pro-Argument 3) Hybrid cars are environmentally responsible.

Organization for a propositions of policy

The most common type of outline organizations for speeches with propositions of policy is problem-solution or problem-cause-solution. Typically, we don’t feel any motivation to change unless we are convinced that some harm, problem, need, or deficiency exists, and even more, that it affects us personally. Therefore, the organization of a speech about policy needs to first explain the problem and its cause, followed by the solution in the form of 3-5 pro-arguments.

Proposition: Universities should provide on-line learning options for all classes.

  • (Problem) Regular attendance in a physical classroom is no longer possible for all students.
  • (Cause) Changes brought about by the COVID pandemic have made guaranteed classroom attendance difficult.
  • (Pro-Argument 1) Providing on-line learning options protects the health of students.
  • (Pro-Argument 2) On-line learning serves students who cannot come to campus.
  • (Pro-Argument 3) Access to on-line learning allows students to maintain employment while still going to school.

To complete this outline, along with introduction and conclusion, your pro-arguments should be supported with fact, quotations, and statistics.

Your persuasive speech in class, as well as in real life, is an opportunity to share a passion or cause that you believe will matter to society and help the audience live a better life. Even if you are initially uncomfortable with the idea of persuasion, we use it all the time in diverse ways. Choose your topic based on your commitment and experience, look for quality evidence, craft your proposition so that it will be clear and audience appropriate, and put the finishing touches on it with an eye toward enhancing your logos , ethos , and pathos .

Media Attributions

  • Persuasion Scale © Mechele Leon is licensed under a CC BY-NC-SA (Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike) license

Public Speaking as Performance Copyright © 2023 by Mechele Leon is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.


Improve your practice.

Enhance your soft skills with a range of award-winning courses.

Persuasive Speech Outline, with Examples

March 17, 2021 - Gini Beqiri

A persuasive speech is a speech that is given with the intention of convincing the audience to believe or do something. This could be virtually anything – voting, organ donation, recycling, and so on.

A successful persuasive speech effectively convinces the audience to your point of view, providing you come across as trustworthy and knowledgeable about the topic you’re discussing.

So, how do you start convincing a group of strangers to share your opinion? And how do you connect with them enough to earn their trust?

Topics for your persuasive speech

We’ve made a list of persuasive speech topics you could use next time you’re asked to give one. The topics are thought-provoking and things which many people have an opinion on.

When using any of our persuasive speech ideas, make sure you have a solid knowledge about the topic you’re speaking about – and make sure you discuss counter arguments too.

Here are a few ideas to get you started:

  • All school children should wear a uniform
  • Facebook is making people more socially anxious
  • It should be illegal to drive over the age of 80
  • Lying isn’t always wrong
  • The case for organ donation

Read our full list of  75 persuasive speech topics and ideas .

Ideas for a persuasive speech

Preparation: Consider your audience

As with any speech, preparation is crucial. Before you put pen to paper, think about what you want to achieve with your speech. This will help organise your thoughts as you realistically can only cover 2-4 main points before your  audience get bored .

It’s also useful to think about who your audience are at this point. If they are unlikely to know much about your topic then you’ll need to factor in context of your topic when planning the structure and length of your speech. You should also consider their:

  • Cultural or religious backgrounds
  • Shared concerns, attitudes and problems
  • Shared interests, beliefs and hopes
  • Baseline attitude – are they hostile, neutral, or open to change?

The factors above will all determine the approach you take to writing your speech. For example, if your topic is about childhood obesity, you could begin with a story about your own children or a shared concern every parent has. This would suit an audience who are more likely to be parents than young professionals who have only just left college.

Remember the 3 main approaches to persuade others

There are three main approaches used to persuade others:

The ethos approach appeals to the audience’s ethics and morals, such as what is the ‘right thing’ to do for humanity, saving the environment, etc.

Pathos persuasion is when you appeal to the audience’s emotions, such as when you  tell a story  that makes them the main character in a difficult situation.

The logos approach to giving a persuasive speech is when you appeal to the audience’s logic – ie. your speech is essentially more driven by facts and logic. The benefit of this technique is that your point of view becomes virtually indisputable because you make the audience feel that only your view is the logical one.

  • Ethos, Pathos, Logos: 3 Pillars of Public Speaking and Persuasion

Ideas for your persuasive speech outline

1. structure of your persuasive speech.

The opening and closing of speech are the most important. Consider these carefully when thinking about your persuasive speech outline. A  strong opening  ensures you have the audience’s attention from the start and gives them a positive first impression of you.

You’ll want to  start with a strong opening  such as an attention grabbing statement, statistic of fact. These are usually dramatic or shocking, such as:

Sadly, in the next 18 minutes when I do our chat, four Americans that are alive will be dead from the food that they eat – Jamie Oliver

Another good way of starting a persuasive speech is to include your audience in the picture you’re trying to paint. By making them part of the story, you’re embedding an emotional connection between them and your speech.

You could do this in a more toned-down way by talking about something you know that your audience has in common with you. It’s also helpful at this point to include your credentials in a persuasive speech to gain your audience’s trust.

Speech structure and speech argument for a persuasive speech outline.

Obama would spend hours with his team working on the opening and closing statements of his speech.

2. Stating your argument

You should  pick between 2 and 4 themes  to discuss during your speech so that you have enough time to explain your viewpoint and convince your audience to the same way of thinking.

It’s important that each of your points transitions seamlessly into the next one so that your speech has a logical flow. Work on your  connecting sentences  between each of your themes so that your speech is easy to listen to.

Your argument should be backed up by objective research and not purely your subjective opinion. Use examples, analogies, and stories so that the audience can relate more easily to your topic, and therefore are more likely to be persuaded to your point of view.

3. Addressing counter-arguments

Any balanced theory or thought  addresses and disputes counter-arguments  made against it. By addressing these, you’ll strengthen your persuasive speech by refuting your audience’s objections and you’ll show that you are knowledgeable to other thoughts on the topic.

When describing an opposing point of view, don’t explain it in a bias way – explain it in the same way someone who holds that view would describe it. That way, you won’t irritate members of your audience who disagree with you and you’ll show that you’ve reached your point of view through reasoned judgement. Simply identify any counter-argument and pose explanations against them.

  • Complete Guide to Debating

4. Closing your speech

Your closing line of your speech is your last chance to convince your audience about what you’re saying. It’s also most likely to be the sentence they remember most about your entire speech so make sure it’s a good one!

The most effective persuasive speeches end  with a  call to action . For example, if you’ve been speaking about organ donation, your call to action might be asking the audience to register as donors.

Practice answering AI questions on your speech and get  feedback on your performance .

If audience members ask you questions, make sure you listen carefully and respectfully to the full question. Don’t interject in the middle of a question or become defensive.

You should show that you have carefully considered their viewpoint and refute it in an objective way (if you have opposing opinions). Ensure you remain patient, friendly and polite at all times.

Example 1: Persuasive speech outline

This example is from the Kentucky Community and Technical College.

Specific purpose

To persuade my audience to start walking in order to improve their health.

Central idea

Regular walking can improve both your mental and physical health.


Let’s be honest, we lead an easy life: automatic dishwashers, riding lawnmowers, T.V. remote controls, automatic garage door openers, power screwdrivers, bread machines, electric pencil sharpeners, etc., etc. etc. We live in a time-saving, energy-saving, convenient society. It’s a wonderful life. Or is it?

Continue reading

Example 2: Persuasive speech

Tips for delivering your persuasive speech

  • Practice, practice, and practice some more . Record yourself speaking and listen for any nervous habits you have such as a nervous laugh, excessive use of filler words, or speaking too quickly.
  • Show confident body language . Stand with your legs hip width apart with your shoulders centrally aligned. Ground your feet to the floor and place your hands beside your body so that hand gestures come freely. Your audience won’t be convinced about your argument if you don’t sound confident in it. Find out more about  confident body language here .
  • Don’t memorise your speech word-for-word  or read off a script. If you memorise your persuasive speech, you’ll sound less authentic and panic if you lose your place. Similarly, if you read off a script you won’t sound genuine and you won’t be able to connect with the audience by  making eye contact . In turn, you’ll come across as less trustworthy and knowledgeable. You could simply remember your key points instead, or learn your opening and closing sentences.
  • Remember to use facial expressions when storytelling  – they make you more relatable. By sharing a personal story you’ll more likely be speaking your truth which will help you build a connection with the audience too. Facial expressions help bring your story to life and transport the audience into your situation.
  • Keep your speech as concise as possible . When practicing the delivery, see if you can edit it to have the same meaning but in a more succinct way. This will keep the audience engaged.

The best persuasive speech ideas are those that spark a level of controversy. However, a public speech is not the time to express an opinion that is considered outside the norm. If in doubt, play it safe and stick to topics that divide opinions about 50-50.

Bear in mind who your audience are and plan your persuasive speech outline accordingly, with researched evidence to support your argument. It’s important to consider counter-arguments to show that you are knowledgeable about the topic as a whole and not bias towards your own line of thought.

How to Write and Structure a Persuasive Speech

  • Homework Tips
  • Learning Styles & Skills
  • Study Methods
  • Time Management
  • Private School
  • College Admissions
  • College Life
  • Graduate School
  • Business School
  • Distance Learning
  • M.Ed., Education Administration, University of Georgia
  • B.A., History, Armstrong State University

The purpose of a persuasive speech is to convince your audience to agree with an idea or opinion that you present. First, you'll need to choose a side on a controversial topic, then you will write a speech to explain your position, and convince the audience to agree with you.

You can produce an effective persuasive speech if you structure your argument as a solution to a problem. Your first job as a speaker is to convince your audience that a particular problem is important to them, and then you must convince them that you have the solution to make things better.

Note: You don't have to address a real problem. Any need can work as the problem. For example, you could consider the lack of a pet, the need to wash one's hands, or the need to pick a particular sport to play as the "problem."

As an example, let's imagine that you have chosen "Getting Up Early" as your persuasion topic. Your goal will be to persuade classmates to get themselves out of bed an hour earlier every morning. In this instance, the problem could be summed up as "morning chaos."

A standard speech format has an introduction with a great hook statement, three main points, and a summary. Your persuasive speech will be a tailored version of this format.

Before you write the text of your speech, you should sketch an outline that includes your hook statement and three main points.

Writing the Text

The introduction of your speech must be compelling because your audience will make up their minds within a few minutes whether or not they are interested in your topic.

Before you write the full body you should come up with a greeting. Your greeting can be as simple as "Good morning everyone. My name is Frank."

After your greeting, you will offer a hook to capture attention. A hook sentence for the "morning chaos" speech could be a question:

  • How many times have you been late for school?
  • Does your day begin with shouts and arguments?
  • Have you ever missed the bus?

Or your hook could be a statistic or surprising statement:

  • More than 50 percent of high school students skip breakfast because they just don't have time to eat.
  • Tardy kids drop out of school more often than punctual kids.

Once you have the attention of your audience, follow through to define the topic/problem and introduce your solution. Here's an example of what you might have so far:

Good afternoon, class. Some of you know me, but some of you may not. My name is Frank Godfrey, and I have a question for you. Does your day begin with shouts and arguments? Do you go to school in a bad mood because you've been yelled at, or because you argued with your parent? The chaos you experience in the morning can bring you down and affect your performance at school.

Add the solution:

You can improve your mood and your school performance by adding more time to your morning schedule. You can accomplish this by setting your alarm clock to go off one hour earlier.

Your next task will be to write the body, which will contain the three main points you've come up with to argue your position. Each point will be followed by supporting evidence or anecdotes, and each body paragraph will need to end with a transition statement that leads to the next segment. Here is a sample of three main statements:

  • Bad moods caused by morning chaos will affect your workday performance.
  • If you skip breakfast to buy time, you're making a harmful health decision.
  • (Ending on a cheerful note) You'll enjoy a boost to your self-esteem when you reduce the morning chaos.

After you write three body paragraphs with strong transition statements that make your speech flow, you are ready to work on your summary.

Your summary will re-emphasize your argument and restate your points in slightly different language. This can be a little tricky. You don't want to sound repetitive but will need to repeat what you have said. Find a way to reword the same main points.

Finally, you must make sure to write a clear final sentence or passage to keep yourself from stammering at the end or fading off in an awkward moment. A few examples of graceful exits:

  • We all like to sleep. It's hard to get up some mornings, but rest assured that the reward is well worth the effort.
  • If you follow these guidelines and make the effort to get up a little bit earlier every day, you'll reap rewards in your home life and on your report card.

Tips for Writing Your Speech

  • Don't be confrontational in your argument. You don't need to put down the other side; just convince your audience that your position is correct by using positive assertions.
  • Use simple statistics. Don't overwhelm your audience with confusing numbers.
  • Don't complicate your speech by going outside the standard "three points" format. While it might seem simplistic, it is a tried and true method for presenting to an audience who is listening as opposed to reading.
  • How to Write a Persuasive Essay
  • 5 Tips on How to Write a Speech Essay
  • Tips on How to Write an Argumentative Essay
  • Writing an Opinion Essay
  • How To Write an Essay
  • 5 Steps to Writing a Position Paper
  • How to Structure an Essay
  • Ethos, Logos, Pathos for Persuasion
  • What Is Expository Writing?
  • Audience Analysis in Speech and Composition
  • Definition and Examples of Analysis in Composition
  • 100 Persuasive Speech Topics for Students
  • What an Essay Is and How to Write One
  • How to Write a Good Thesis Statement
  • 100 Persuasive Essay Topics
  • How to Write a Graduation Speech as Valedictorian


, , , , .


Fearless Presentations Logo

  • Public Speaking Classes
  • Corporate Presentation Training
  • Online Public Speaking Course
  • Northeast Region
  • Midwest Region
  • Southeast Region
  • Central Region
  • Western Region
  • Presentation Skills
  • 101 Public Speaking Tips
  • Fear of Public Speaking

Persuasive Speech: How to Write an Effective Persuasive Speech

Persuasive Speech How to Write a Persuasive Speech

Most often, it actually causes the other person to want to play “Devil’s advocate” and argue with you. In this article, we are going to show you a simple way to win people to your way of thinking without raising resentment. If you use this technique, your audience will actually WANT to agree with you! The process starts with putting yourself in the shoes of your listener and looking at things from their point of view.

Background About How to Write a Persuasive Speech. Facts Aren’t Very Persuasive.

In a Persuasive Presentation Facts Aren't Very Persuasive

Most people think that a single fact is good, additional facts are better, and too many facts are just right. So, the more facts you can use to prove your point, the better chance you have of convincing the other person that you are right. The HUGE error in this logic, though, is that if you prove that you are right, you are also proving that the other person is wrong. People don’t like it when someone proves that they are wrong. So, we prove our point, the other person is likely to feel resentment. When resentment builds, it leads to anger. Once anger enters the equation, logic goes right out the window.

In addition, when people use a “fact” or “Statistic” to prove a point, the audience has a natural reaction to take a contrary side of the argument. For instance, if I started a statement with, “I can prove to you beyond a doubt that…” before I even finish the statement, there is a good chance that you are already trying to think of a single instance where the statement is NOT true. This is a natural response. As a result, the thing that we need to realize about being persuasive is that the best way to persuade another person is to make the person want to agree with us. We do this by showing the audience how they can get what they want if they do what we want.

You may also like How to Design and Deliver a Memorable Speech .

A Simple 3-Step Process to Create a Persuasive Presentation

Persuasion Comes from both Logic and Emotion

The process below is a good way to do both.

Step One: Start Your Persuasive Speech with an Example or Story

When you write an effective persuasive speech, stories are vital. Stories and examples have a powerful way to capture an audience’s attention and set them at ease. They get the audience interested in the presentation. Stories also help your audience see the concepts you are trying to explain in a visual way and make an emotional connection. The more details that you put into your story, the more vivid the images being created in the minds of your audience members.

This concept isn’t mystical or anything. It is science. When we communicate effectively with another person, the purpose is to help the listener picture a concept in his/her mind that is similar to the concept in the speaker’s mind. The old adage is that a “picture is worth 1000 words.” Well, an example or a story is a series of moving pictures. So, a well-told story is worth thousands of words (facts).

By the way, there are a few additional benefits of telling a story. Stories help you reduce nervousness, make better eye contact, and make for a strong opening. For additional details, see Storytelling in Speeches .

I’ll give you an example.

Factual Argument: Seatbelts Save Lives

Factual Arguments Leave Out the Emotion

  • 53% of all motor vehicle fatalities from last years were people who weren’t wearing seatbelts.
  • People not wearing seatbelts are 30 times more likely to be ejected from the vehicle.
  • In a single year, crash deaths and injuries cost us over $70 billion dollars.

These are actual statistics. However, when you read each bullet point, you are likely to be a little skeptical. For instance, when you see the 53% statistic, you might have had the same reaction that I did. You might be thinking something like, “Isn’t that right at half? Doesn’t that mean that the other half WERE wearing seatbelts?” When you see the “30 times more likely” statistic, you might be thinking, “That sounds a little exaggerated. What are the actual numbers?” Looking at the last statistic, we’d likely want to know exactly how the reporter came to that conclusion.

As you can see, if you are a believer that seatbelts save lives, you will likely take the numbers at face value. If you don’t like seatbelts, you will likely nitpick the finer points of each statistic. The facts will not likely persuade you.

Example Argument: Seatbelts Save Lives

A Story or Example is More Persuasive Because It Offers Facts and Emotion

When I came to, I tried to open my door. The accident sealed it shut. The windshield was gone. So I took my seatbelt off and scrambled out the hole. The driver of the truck was a bloody mess. His leg was pinned under the steering wheel.

The firefighters came a few minutes later, and it took them over 30 minutes to cut the metal from around his body to free him.

A Sheriff’s Deputy saw a cut on my face and asked if I had been in the accident. I pointed to my truck. His eyes became like saucers. “You were in that vehicle?”

I nodded. He rushed me to an ambulance. I had actually ruptured my colon, and I had to have surgery. I was down for a month or so, but I survived. In fact, I survived with very few long-term challenges from the accident.

The guy who hit me wasn’t so lucky. He wasn’t wearing a seatbelt. The initial impact of the accident was his head on the steering wheel and then the windshield. He had to have a number of facial surgeries. The only reason he remained in the truck was his pinned leg. For me, the accident was a temporary trauma. For him, it was a life-long tragedy.

The Emotional Difference is the Key

As you can see, there are major differences between the two techniques. The story gives lots of memorable details along with an emotion that captures the audience. If you read both examples, let me ask you a couple of questions. Without looking back up higher on the page, how long did it take the firefighters to cut the other driver from the car? How many CDs did I have? There is a good chance that these two pieces of data came to you really quickly. You likely remembered this data, even though, the data wasn’t exactly important to the story.

However, if I asked you how much money was lost last year as a result of traffic accidents, you might struggle to remember that statistic. The CDs and the firefighters were a part of a compelling story that made you pay attention. The money lost to accidents was just a statistic thrown at you to try to prove that a point was true.

The main benefit of using a story, though, is that when we give statistics (without a story to back them up,) the audience becomes argumentative. However, when we tell a story, the audience can’t argue with us. The audience can’t come to me after I told that story and say, “It didn’t take 30 minutes to cut the guy out of the car. He didn’t have to have a bunch of reconstructive surgeries. The Deputy didn’t say those things to you! The audience can’t argue with the details of the story, because they weren’t there.

Step 2: After the Story, Now, Give Your Advice

When most people write a persuasive presentation, they start with their opinion. Again, this makes the listener want to play Devil’s advocate. By starting with the example, we give the listener a simple way to agree with us. They can agree that the story that we told was true. So, now, finish the story with your point or your opinion. “So, in my opinion, if you wear a seatbelt, you’re more likely to avoid serious injury in a severe crash.”

By the way, this technique is not new. It has been around for thousands of years. Aesop was a Greek slave over 500 years before Christ. His stories were passed down verbally for hundreds of years before anyone ever wrote them down in a collection. Today, when you read an Aesop fable, you will get 30 seconds to two minutes of the story first. Then, at the conclusion, almost as a post-script, you will get the advice. Most often, this advice comes in the form of, “The moral of the story is…” You want to do the same in your persuasive presentations. Spend most of the time on the details of the story. Then, spend just a few seconds in the end with your morale.

Step 3: End with the Benefit to the Audience

3 Step Process to Write an Effective Persuasive Speech

So, the moral of the story is to wear your seatbelt. If you do that, you will avoid being cut out of your car and endless reconstructive surgeries .

Now, instead of leaving your audience wanting to argue with you, they are more likely to be thinking, “Man, I don’t want to be cut out of my car or have a bunch of facial surgeries.”

The process is very simple. However, it is also very powerful.

How to Write a Successful Persuasive Speech Using the “Breadcrumb” Approach

Once you understand the concept above, you can create very powerful persuasive speeches by linking a series of these persuasive stories together. I call this the breadcrumb strategy. Basically, you use each story as a way to move the audience closer to the ultimate conclusion that you want them to draw. Each story gains a little more agreement.

So, first, just give a simple story about an easy to agree with concept. You will gain agreement fairly easily and begin to also create an emotional appeal. Next, use an additional story to gain additional agreement. If you use this process three to five times, you are more likely to get the audience to agree with your final conclusion. If this is a formal presentation, just make your main points into the persuasive statements and use stories to reinforce the points.

Here are a few persuasive speech examples using this approach.

An Example of a Persuasive Public Speaking Using Breadcrumbs

Marijuana Legalization is Causing Huge Problems in Our Biggest Cities Homelessness is Out of Control in First States to Legalize Marijuana Last year, my family and I took a mini-vacation to Colorado Springs. I had spent a summer in Colorado when I was in college, so I wanted my family to experience the great time that I had had there as a youth. We were only there for four days, but we noticed something dramatic had happened. There were homeless people everywhere. Keep in mind, this wasn’t Denver, this was Colorado City. The picturesque landscape was clouded by ripped sleeping bags on street corners, and trash spread everywhere. We were downtown, and my wife and daughter wanted to do some shopping. My son and I found a comic book store across the street to browse in. As we came out, we almost bumped into a dirty man in torn close. He smiled at us, walked a few feet away from the door, and lit up a joint. He sat on the corner smoking it. As my son and I walked the 1/4 mile back to the store where we left my wife and daughter, we stepped over and walked around over a dozen homeless people camped out right in the middle of the town. This was not the Colorado that I remembered. From what I’ve heard, it has gotten even worse in the last year. So, if you don’t want to dramatically increase your homelessness population, don’t make marijuana legal in your state. DUI Instances and Traffic Accidents Have Increased in Marijuana States I was at the airport waiting for a flight last week, and the guy next to me offered me his newspaper. I haven’t read a newspaper in years, but he seemed so nice that I accepted. It was a copy of the USA Today, and it was open to an article about the rise in unintended consequences from legalizing marijuana. Safety officials and police in Colorado, Nevada, Washington, and Oregon, the first four state to legalize recreational marijuana, have reported a 6% increase in traffic accidents in the last few years. Although the increase (6%) doesn’t seem very dramatic, it was notable because the rate of accidents had been decreasing in each of the states for decades prior to the law change. Assuming that only one of the two parties involved in these new accidents was under the influence, that means that people who aren’t smoking marijuana are being negatively affected by the legalization. So, if you don’t want to increase your chances of being involved in a DUI incident, don’t legalize marijuana. (Notice how I just used an article as my evidence, but to make it more memorable, I told the story about how I came across the article. It is also easier to deliver this type of data because you are just relating what you remember about the data, not trying to be an expert on the data itself.) Marijuana is Still Largely Unregulated Just before my dad went into hospice care, he was in a lot of pain. He would take a prescription painkiller before bed to sleep. One night, my mom called frantically. Dad was in a catatonic state and wasn’t responsive. I rushed over. The hospital found that Dad had an unusually high amount of painkillers in his bloodstream. His regular doctor had been on vacation, and the fill-in doctor had prescribed a much higher dosage of the painkiller by accident. His original prescription was 2.5 mg, and the new prescription was 10 mg. Since dad was in a lot of pain most nights, he almost always took two tablets. He was also on dialysis, so his kidneys weren’t filtering out the excess narcotic each day. He had actually taken 20 MG (instead of 5 MG) on Friday night and another 20 mg on Saturday. Ordinarily, he would have had, at max, 15 mg of the narcotic in his system. Because of the mistake, though, he had 60 MGs. My point is that the narcotics that my dad was prescribed were highly regulated medicines under a doctor’s care, and a mistake was still made that almost killed him. With marijuana, there is really no way of knowing how much narcotic is in each dosage. So, mistakes like this are much more likely. So, in conclusion, legalizing marijuana can increase homelessness, increase the number of impaired drivers, and cause accidental overdoses.

If you use this breadcrumb approach, you are more likely to get at least some agreement. Even if the person disagrees with your conclusion, they are still likely to at least see your side. So, the person may say something like, I still disagree with you, but I totally see your point. That is still a step in the right direction.

For Real-World Practice in How to Design Persuasive Presentations Join Us for a Class

Our instructors are experts at helping presenters design persuasive speeches. We offer the Fearless Presentations ® classes in cities all over the world about every three to four months. In addition to helping you reduce nervousness, your instructor will also show you secrets to creating a great speech. For details about any of the classes, go to our Presentation Skills Class web page.

For additional details, see Persuasive Speech Outline Example .

persuasive speech mean

Podcasts , presentation skills

View More Posts By Category: Free Public Speaking Tips | leadership tips | Online Courses | Past Fearless Presentations ® Classes | Podcasts | presentation skills | Uncategorized

My Speech Class

Public Speaking Tips & Speech Topics

How to Write an Outline for a Persuasive Speech, with Examples

Photo of author

Jim Peterson has over 20 years experience on speech writing. He wrote over 300 free speech topic ideas and how-to guides for any kind of public speaking and speech writing assignments at My Speech Class.

How to Write an Outline for a Persuasive Speech, with Examples intro image

Persuasive speeches are one of the three most used speeches in our daily lives. Persuasive speech is used when presenters decide to convince their presentation or ideas to their listeners. A compelling speech aims to persuade the listener to believe in a particular point of view. One of the most iconic examples is Martin Luther King’s ‘I had a dream’ speech on the 28th of August 1963.

In this article:

What is Persuasive Speech?

Here are some steps to follow:, persuasive speech outline, final thoughts.

Man Touches the Word Persuasion on Screen

Persuasive speech is a written and delivered essay to convince people of the speaker’s viewpoint or ideas. Persuasive speaking is the type of speaking people engage in the most. This type of speech has a broad spectrum, from arguing about politics to talking about what to have for dinner. Persuasive speaking is highly connected to the audience, as in a sense, the speaker has to meet the audience halfway.

Persuasive Speech Preparation

Persuasive speech preparation doesn’t have to be difficult, as long as you select your topic wisely and prepare thoroughly.

1. Select a Topic and Angle

Come up with a controversial topic that will spark a heated debate, regardless of your position. This could be about anything. Choose a topic that you are passionate about. Select a particular angle to focus on to ensure that your topic isn’t too broad. Research the topic thoroughly, focussing on key facts, arguments for and against your angle, and background.

2. Define Your Persuasive Goal

Once you have chosen your topic, it’s time to decide what your goal is to persuade the audience. Are you trying to persuade them in favor of a certain position or issue? Are you hoping that they change their behavior or an opinion due to your speech? Do you want them to decide to purchase something or donate money to a cause? Knowing your goal will help you make wise decisions about approaching writing and presenting your speech.

3. Analyze the Audience

Understanding your audience’s perspective is critical anytime that you are writing a speech. This is even more important when it comes to a persuasive speech because not only are you wanting to get the audience to listen to you, but you are also hoping for them to take a particular action in response to your speech. First, consider who is in the audience. Consider how the audience members are likely to perceive the topic you are speaking on to better relate to them on the subject. Grasp the obstacles audience members face or have regarding the topic so you can build appropriate persuasive arguments to overcome these obstacles.

Can We Write Your Speech?

Get your audience blown away with help from a professional speechwriter. Free proofreading and copy-editing included.

4. Build an Effective Persuasive Argument

Once you have a clear goal, you are knowledgeable about the topic and, have insights regarding your audience, you will be ready to build an effective persuasive argument to deliver in the form of a persuasive speech. 

Start by deciding what persuasive techniques are likely to help you persuade your audience. Would an emotional and psychological appeal to your audience help persuade them? Is there a good way to sway the audience with logic and reason? Is it possible that a bandwagon appeal might be effective?

5. Outline Your Speech

Once you know which persuasive strategies are most likely to be effective, your next step is to create a keyword outline to organize your main points and structure your persuasive speech for maximum impact on the audience.

Start strong, letting your audience know what your topic is, why it matters and, what you hope to achieve at the end of your speech. List your main points, thoroughly covering each point, being sure to build the argument for your position and overcome opposing perspectives. Conclude your speech by appealing to your audience to act in a way that will prove that you persuaded them successfully. Motivation is a big part of persuasion.

6. Deliver a Winning Speech

Select appropriate visual aids to share with your audiences, such as graphs, photos, or illustrations. Practice until you can deliver your speech confidently. Maintain eye contact, project your voice and, avoid using filler words or any form of vocal interference. Let your passion for the subject shine through. Your enthusiasm may be what sways the audience. 

Close-Up of Mans Hands Persuading Someone

Topic: What topic are you trying to persuade your audience on?

Specific Purpose:  

Central idea:

  • Attention grabber – This is potentially the most crucial line. If the audience doesn’t like the opening line, they might be less inclined to listen to the rest of your speech.
  • Thesis – This statement is used to inform the audience of the speaker’s mindset and try to get the audience to see the issue their way.
  • Qualifications – Tell the audience why you are qualified to speak about the topic to persuade them.

After the introductory portion of the speech is over, the speaker starts presenting reasons to the audience to provide support for the statement. After each reason, the speaker will list examples to provide a factual argument to sway listeners’ opinions.

  • Example 1 – Support for the reason given above.
  • Example 2 – Support for the reason given above.

The most important part of a persuasive speech is the conclusion, second to the introduction and thesis statement. This is where the speaker must sum up and tie all of their arguments into an organized and solid point.

  • Summary: Briefly remind the listeners why they should agree with your position.
  • Memorable ending/ Audience challenge: End your speech with a powerful closing thought or recommend a course of action.
  • Thank the audience for listening.

Persuasive Speech Outline Examples

Male and Female Whispering into the Ear of Another Female

Topic: Walking frequently can improve both your mental and physical health.

Specific Purpose: To persuade the audience to start walking to improve their health.

Central idea: Regular walking can improve your mental and physical health.

Life has become all about convenience and ease lately. We have dishwashers, so we don’t have to wash dishes by hand with electric scooters, so we don’t have to paddle while riding. I mean, isn’t it ridiculous?

Today’s luxuries have been welcomed by the masses. They have also been accused of turning us into passive, lethargic sloths. As a reformed sloth, I know how easy it can be to slip into the convenience of things and not want to move off the couch. I want to persuade you to start walking.

Americans lead a passive lifestyle at the expense of their own health.

  • This means that we spend approximately 40% of our leisure time in front of the TV.
  • Ironically, it is also reported that Americans don’t like many of the shows that they watch.
  • Today’s studies indicate that people were experiencing higher bouts of depression than in the 18th and 19th centuries, when work and life were considered problematic.
  • The article reports that 12.6% of Americans suffer from anxiety, and 9.5% suffer from severe depression.
  • Present the opposition’s claim and refute an argument.
  • Nutritionist Phyllis Hall stated that we tend to eat foods high in fat, which produces high levels of cholesterol in our blood, which leads to plaque build-up in our arteries.
  • While modifying our diet can help us decrease our risk for heart disease, studies have indicated that people who don’t exercise are at an even greater risk.

In closing, I urge you to start walking more. Walking is a simple, easy activity. Park further away from stores and walk. Walk instead of driving to your nearest convenience store. Take 20 minutes and enjoy a walk around your neighborhood. Hide the TV remote, move off the couch and, walk. Do it for your heart.

Thank you for listening!

Topic: Less screen time can improve your sleep.

Specific Purpose: To persuade the audience to stop using their screens two hours before bed.

Central idea: Ceasing electronics before bed will help you achieve better sleep.

Who doesn’t love to sleep? I don’t think I have ever met anyone who doesn’t like getting a good night’s sleep. Sleep is essential for our bodies to rest and repair themselves.

I love sleeping and, there is no way that I would be able to miss out on a good night’s sleep.

As someone who has had trouble sleeping due to taking my phone into bed with me and laying in bed while entertaining myself on my phone till I fall asleep, I can say that it’s not the healthiest habit, and we should do whatever we can to change it.

  • Our natural blue light source is the sun.
  • Bluelight is designed to keep us awake.
  • Bluelight makes our brain waves more active.
  • We find it harder to sleep when our brain waves are more active.
  • Having a good night’s rest will improve your mood.
  • Being fully rested will increase your productivity.

Using electronics before bed will stimulate your brainwaves and make it more difficult for you to sleep. Bluelight tricks our brains into a false sense of daytime and, in turn, makes it more difficult for us to sleep. So, put down those screens if you love your sleep!

Thank the audience for listening

A persuasive speech is used to convince the audience of the speaker standing on a certain subject. To have a successful persuasive speech, doing the proper planning and executing your speech with confidence will help persuade the audience of your standing on the topic you chose. Persuasive speeches are used every day in the world around us, from planning what’s for dinner to arguing about politics. It is one of the most widely used forms of speech and, with proper planning and execution, you can sway any audience.

How to Write the Most Informative Essay

How to Craft a Masterful Outline of Speech

Leave a Comment

I accept the Privacy Policy

Reach out to us for sponsorship opportunities

Vivamus integer non suscipit taciti mus etiam at primis tempor sagittis euismod libero facilisi.

© 2024 My Speech Class

persuasive speech mean

Introduction To Persuasive Speech

Have you ever convinced your parents to let you stay up beyond your bedtime? Have you ever convinced your friend…

Introduction To Persuasive Speech

Have you ever convinced your parents to let you stay up beyond your bedtime? Have you ever convinced your friend to stay longer at a party? Have you ever convinced a group of professionals at a meeting of your ideas? If your answer is yes to any or all of these questions, then you’ve successfully engaged in persuasive speaking.

These persuasive speech examples indicate that we influence and convince people of our thoughts, ideas and suggestions more frequently than we realize. Persuasive speech is an important quality that the corporate world values. Curious to know more? Read on!

What Is A Persuasive Speech?

Tips for persuasive speaking at work, speak effectively with harappa.

Before we explore the meaning of persuasive speech, let’s first understand what is persuasive speaking. As the name suggests, persuasive speaking is the art of convincing someone of your viewpoint. Persuasive speech is a type of speech that helps convince the audience of a certain view. We tend to believe that we have a positive influence over others, but in reality, exerting influence isn’t always easy. Persuasive speaking skills help us become more convincing and create a true impact when we speak.

There are three elements of a persuasive speech, namely:

It refers to your character, attitude, behavior, ethics and credibility when you speak. Establishing trust with your audience and building credibility improves the likelihood of your audience accepting your viewpoints and taking necessary action.

Logos is the Greek word for logic. Your persuasive speech should have a structure, flow and logic. Choosing words wisely and backing your arguments with well-founded reasons can help in creating coherent statements that convince your audience. There should be a beginning, a middle and an end, where you conclude your viewpoints smartly.

It’s the emotional aspect of your persuasive speech. It’s only when you influence people on an emotional level that you can motivate them to see your point of view. An emotional impact is necessary for the listeners to change their thoughts and follow a particular action.

It was Aristotle, the famous Greek philosopher, who introduced these elements of persuasive speaking several centuries ago. They continue to hold relevance and are essential to navigate personal as well as professional relationships.

The power of persuasive speech isn’t possessed by many. However, it’s not impossible to master the art over time. Here are some key techniques that’ll help you brush up your persuasive speaking skills and win your audience over:

Have A Goal In Mind

As we’ve already established, the main motive of persuasive speaking is to convince someone of something. This is why having a goal in mind helps. It provides you with an ultimate objective and guides you in preparing your speech. For example, if you want someone to change certain workplace policies, you need to identify ways to achieve that goal. A call to action at the end of your speech can speed things up.

Know Your Audience

It’s important to identify your target audience before your speech or presentation. It’s no secret that in any group of people there will always be someone who disagrees with your suggestions. Considering multiple factors and audience expectations can help you prepare better. For example, if someone presents a counter-argument and negates your entire idea, you can respond appropriately if you are prepared.

Add Examples And Emotions

Ethos or emotional connection is a crucial aspect of persuasive speech. If you want to establish a positive connection, use anecdotes or real-life examples that help you build credibility. Appealing to the emotions of your audience also establishes trust, that is, people believe in you and think you’re reliable.

Whether it’s sharing your ideas in a brainstorming session or pitching your business idea to an investor, you need strong persuasive speaking capabilities to establish rapport and create a positive impact on your listeners. Preparation and continuous practice are instrumental in building confidence, polishing communication skills and strengthening interpersonal relationships.

It’s no secret that communication is a catalyst for establishing trust and long-term relationships. Employers value employees with strong communication and interpersonal skills as they’re helpful in navigating day-to-day exchanges with internal and external stakeholders. To do so, strong persuasion skills alone won’t suffice. You need to speak concisely and exhibit confidence.

Harappa’s  Speaking Effectively course will teach you how to deliver ideas with precision, use empathy and logic to connect with others and stand out as an effective speaker. Aristotle’s Appeals framework will teach you about ethos, logos and pathos. The Non-Verbal Cues framework will help you pay attention to your body language. Learn to speak with confidence, with Harappa!

Explore Harappa Diaries to learn more about topics such as Types Of Speeches , What Is Impromptu Speech , Improve Speech Writing and How To Give Good Speech to deliver ideas with precision.


  • Games, topic printables & more
  • The 4 main speech types
  • Example speeches
  • Commemorative
  • Declamation
  • Demonstration
  • Informative
  • Introduction
  • Student Council
  • Speech topics
  • Poems to read aloud
  • How to write a speech
  • Using props/visual aids
  • Acute anxiety help
  • Breathing exercises
  • Letting go - free e-course
  • Using self-hypnosis
  • Delivery overview
  • 4 modes of delivery
  • How to make cue cards
  • How to read a speech
  • 9 vocal aspects
  • Vocal variety
  • Diction/articulation
  • Pronunciation
  • Speaking rate
  • How to use pauses
  • Eye contact
  • Body language
  • Voice image
  • Voice health
  • Public speaking activities and games
  • About me/contact
  • Writing a persuasive speech
  • Persuasive speech outline

Persuasive speech outline example

-an outline using Monroe's 5 step Motivated Sequence

By:  Susan Dugdale  

This persuasive speech outline example uses Monroe's Motivated Sequence (MMS) - a 5 step structural pattern for organizing material focusing on, as its name suggests, motivational appeals.

The sequence forms the basis of many of the successful political, public awareness or advertising campaigns you see and hear around you on a daily basis.

For example: campaigns to raise awareness of health issues: The Heart Truth, NDAFW - National Drugs and Alcohol Facts Week, or STOMP Out Bullying. *

Why is the framework so popular? Because it faithfully follows the psychology of persuasion. In a nutshell, it works. Exceedingly well.

Use the quick links to get around this very long page efficiently. Each of the five steps is fully explained and illustrated in an example speech outline. There's a printable MMS speech outline document for your own use too!

Page quick links

  • Step overview
  • Step 1 - Attention
  • Step 2 - Need
  • Step 3 - Satisfaction
  • Step 4 - Visualization
  • Step 5 - Action
  • Download blank outline template

More persuasive speech resources

Image: A diagram showing the 5 steps of Monroe's Motivated Sequence.

About Monroe's Motivated Sequence

Alan H Monroe - originator of Monroe's Motivated Sequence

The pattern, or steps, of the sequence mirror those identified as being the normal thinking processes that occur whenever a person is confronted by a problem.

Because the steps are perceived as reasonable and logical using them prepares and motivates an audience to respond positively to the speaker's message.

The sequence is named after Dr  Alan H Monroe who, after graduating from Northwestern University in 1924, joined the staff at Purdue University (USA) as an Instructor in English. Two years later he became Instructor in Public Speaking and was subsequently promoted to Assistant Professor and head of the speech section of the English department. He retired from the role in 1963.  

 Overview of Monroe's 5 step motivation sequence

In developing your persuasive speech outline you will follow these 5 steps:

  • Attention Grab the audience's attention
  • Need Establish there is a problem (need) demanding their attention
  • Satisfaction Outline a solution to the problem
  • Visualization Show the audience how they will benefit from your solution
  • Action Provide the impetus and means to act

Monroe's five steps in more detail

Now let's examine those steps more closely.

To make the process easier to follow I've prepared a simple example speech illustrating each step and the transitions between them.  That's the text in the green boxes. 

As you read start thinking about your audience and your topic.  Jot any ideas down for later use.

About this sample speech - topic, purpose and audience

The subject  is fear of public speaking.

The specific purpose of the speech is  to persuade and encourage people in the audience to take a course to overcome their fear of public speaking. 

The central idea   of the speech is that the ability to speak in public opens doors to many opportunities.

The audience is  drawn from the local community. They range in age from late teens to forties plus.

The 5 steps of Monroe's motivation sequence 

Getting attention - step 1.

Monroes Motived Sequence -Step 1 Attention

This step is your introductory "listen up" call. To make it effective it needs to grab the audience. It could be any of the following:

  • a startling statement
  • a rhetorical question
  • a quotation
  • a funny story
  • a dramatic story
  • a photograph or other visual aid

Put yourself in the position of your audience when deciding how to hook and hold their attention. Why should they listen to you?  How does what you have to say benefit them? Is it relevant to them? How?

Step one - attention 

Do you know the real costs of public speaking fear?

The price is high.

Research reveals that a person with public speaking fear is 10% less likely to graduate from college, is likely to receive 10% less in wages and is 15% less likely to take on management or leadership positions.

Who pays? You. Me. Us. Anybody who allows fear to govern their decision making. We pay by sacrificing our potential selves, putting our dreams away and settling for less.

Establishing credibility

As well as getting their attention you also need to establish your credibility or right to talk on the subject. Your audience needs to know that they can believe what you're telling them. If they feel they can trust your expertise and experience they will be much more likely to follow your lead. 

Credibility statement

That’s a question I asked myself a long time ago. As a teacher with many years of experience I saw far too many students who would do anything they could to avoid public speaking. To answer it I researched.

Then I used those answers to devise public speaking programs that were effective and fun.

Transition - the link from step 1 to step 2

Can you imagine the positive impact feeling OK about speaking up would have? On individuals? On families? On our community?

E stablish the need - step 2

Monroes Motived Sequence -Step 2 Need

This step develops the need for change. Now that you have your audience's attention you will clearly show them what the problem is and the extent of it.

To be effective use:

  • examples to illustrate how it impacts on them - their happiness, future, health, family, neighborhood...
  • statistics - facts, figures, graphs, diagrams... Remember to cite your sources and remember too that some are more credible than others. You need recognized sources to give your speech the credibility you want.
  • expert witness testimony - the more authoritative, the better

Your goal at the conclusion of this step is to have your audience eager to hear your solution. They agree with you that there is a problem and want the answer.

Step two – Need

A.  According to frequently cited statistics 75%   of people suffer from some degree of glossophobia - fear of speaking in public. Source:    Hamilton, C. (2008) [2005]. Communicating for Results, a Guide for Business and the Professions (eighth edition)

  • At the extreme upper end of this very large group are the people who would literally run a mile rather than speak. For example, they will not apply for promotions if the new position means giving presentations. They will not give a speech at a special family occasion - a wedding, birthday or funeral.  Public speaking makes them ill, literally. There maybe quite a few of you here, so you’ll know exactly what I mean.
  • At the other end of the scale are the people who have one or two butterflies fluttering around – enough to make them register they’re a little nervous about speaking but it’s nothing to worry about. There’s likely not so many of you here. If you have come along, it’s probably to support someone who needs it! Thank you.
  • The majority of us are somewhere in the middle where it’s neither all fine nor all bad. Some days are OK. We manage. And some days it’s definitely not OK. We just hang in there by the skin of our chattering teeth.

B. Bad public speaking experiences often lead to more of the same. History repeats.

  • We focus on the criticism we received and interpret it as a criticism of ourselves. Our speech is bad therefore I am bad. This makes a shaky platform to build public speaking skills and confidence on.
  • When given a presentation to prepare we procrastinate because we don’t feel confident or competent. That means we don’t put the work in which in turn leads to another bad experience. It becomes a vicious circle.
  • When we feel ashamed about ourselves we often close off. We don’t ask for help and it becomes easier to expect less of ourselves and our lives.
  •  Here's those stats again. According to Franklin Schneier, MD, s omeone with public speaking fear is likely to receive 10% less in wages, be 10% more likely to drop out of college and be 15% less likely to apply for leadership or management roles.

C. Begins in youth.

  • “The fear of public speaking is more common in younger patients as compared to older ones and may be more prevalent in females as compared to males,” says Jeffrey R. Strawn, MD, FAACAP, associate professor of psychiatry and pediatrics and director of the Anxiety Disorders Research Program in the Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Neuroscience at the University of Cincinnati.
  • More than 75% of people experience their first symptoms of Social Anxiety Disorder which often includes fear of public speaking during their childhood or early teenage years - American Psychiatric Association. (2014). Understanding Mental Disorders
  • Let’s conduct a quick informal survey to test that– raise your hand if any anxiety you feel about public speaking began when you were young.

Transition - the link between step 2 and step 3

However there is a way to break this pattern of anxiety. It can be stopped, and everyone who wants to can learn to speak in public confidently.

S atisfy the need - step 3

Monroes Motived Sequence -Step 3  Satisfaction

Now you outline your answer or solution and show the audience how it will work.

To do this well:

  • outline your solution succinctly
  • demonstrate how it meets the problem
  • use examples to show how effective it is
  • support with facts, figures, graphs, diagrams, statistics, testimony...
  • if there is known opposition to your solution, acknowledge and counteract showing how your plan overturns it

The ideal outcome of this step is the audience nodding and saying to themselves: " Yes. This is possible, practical and sensible."   Your answer satisfies them. It gives them  "satisfaction".

Step three - Satisfaction 

A. Come along to an introductory course

  • It's free, led by experienced teachers and especially designed for people with a history of being nervous about speaking in public.
  • Once a week for 4 weeks you'll have 2 hours of practical public speaking training and practice.
  • You'll learn tips and tricks to manage your anxiety, to give varying types of presentations, to effectively structure a speech, and to confidently deliver a speech.

B. When people overcome fear of public speaking there are so many things they can do:

  • Complete their college education and go on to further study if they wanted to
  • Apply for the positions they know would give them greater work satisfaction
  • Speak up when they need to about issues concerning themselves, their family and their community
  • Inspire others to follow their example

C. Exchanging public speaking fear for confidence will help people to:

  • Communicate more effectively
  • Listen more carefully to others
  • Understand the power of the spoken word and what it can achieve

Transition - the link between step 3 and step 4

Can you imagine the positive impact that would have on people’s lives? Maybe yours?

S ee the future - step 4

Monroes Motived Sequence -Step 4  Visualization

In this step the audience "experiences" the solution. They see (feel, hear, taste...) what will happen if they do as you are suggesting contrasted against what will happen if they don't do as you are suggesting.

This step relies on your use of vivid imagery to portray the outcome of their action, or inaction. They see and feel the pleasure, or pain, in their imagination. To bring it home to your audience the pictures you provide, the stories you tell, need to be relevant and believable.

What you want folk thinking as you conclude this step is:  "I can see that this would be good for me."

Step four - Visualization

A. Imagine what society would be like if everyone took full advantage of the educational opportunities that best fitted their interests and abilities. How would that feel?

  • There would be much less personal dissatisfaction and social unrest caused by people working in positions that do not pay very well or extend their skills and well being. That would be much more healthy: physically, emotionally and mentally, for everybody. You could ask for a raise! Apply for that job you always wanted! Give a presentation! Toast your bride!
  • It would generate a ripple effect. People who speak up confidently and competently encourage others to do likewise. People would feel empowered – free to become the best of themselves - shoulders back, head up, standing tall, looking the world straight in the eye!

B. What disadvantages could there possibly be?

  • Perhaps it could uncomfortable for those who have got used to assuming the right to talk for others without consultation. Is that really a bad thing?
  • Perhaps it could lead to robust conversations where there are differing opinions over issues?  Again, is that a bad thing? It could be an opportunity to polish debating skills.
  • There are no real disadvantages! Overcoming public speaking fear is good for everyone. A win-win.

Transition - the link from step 4 to step 5

Let’s do more than imagine speaking in public freely and competently. Let’s take the steps towards making it happen.

T ake action - step 5

Monroes Motived Sequence -Step 5 Action

In this last step you present your call to action.

The call to action can be embedded in any combination of the following:

  • a challenge or appeal
  • a personal statement of intent

To be effective the action step must be readily doable and executed as soon as possible. Make it as easy as you can for your audience. If you want them to sign up for something, have the forms available. If you wish them to lodge a personal protest in writing to your local government have stock letters and envelopes ready. In other words do the leg work for them!

Action steps that are delayed even for 48 hours are less likely to be acted on. We're human - life goes on. Other things intervene and the initial urgency is lost.

Step five – Action

  A. (Summary) Apparently 3/4 of us – 75%, are nervous about public speaking – often the result of a bad experience when were young. That has a direct impact on our adult lives. If we allow it to continue it is likely we will be paid less, fall out of college without graduating and settle for less-challenging jobs. In short – live a lesser life. However it doesn’t have to be like that. We could choose to change. We could become our bigger and best selves.

  B. (Call to Immediate Action)

We could, in the famous words of Susan Jeffers, "Feel the fear and do it anyway!"

I’ve got enrollment forms here for that free introductory public speaking course. That’s four two hour sessions over the next four weeks using tried, tested and proven methods of teaching with experienced instructors. You’ll learn how to prepare and deliver speeches. And you'll swap fear for confidence and competence while having fun!

C. (Memorable Close) Who knows what magic may happen once you speak up!

There are 15 places available. Make one of them yours.


  • Rosemary Black. (2018, June 4)  Glossophobia (Fear of Public Speaking): Are You Glossophobic?     Retrieved from  
  • Franklin Schneier. (2005) Social Anxiety Disorder. Retrieved from:
  • Author and date of publication unknown.  Social Anxiety Disorder. Retrieved from:
  • Doug Staneart. (2018, March). Podcast 29 - How to Scare the Gooey Out of a Nervous Public Speaker. Retrieved from:  

F itting the standard speech format

If you are wondering how these 5 steps of Monroe's Motivated Sequence fit into the standard 3 part speech format , they go like this:

  • Step 1 ( Attention ) forms the Introduction.
  • Steps 2,  3 and 4 ( Need,   Satisfaction and Visualization ) form the Body.
  • Step 5 ( Action ) is the Conclusion.

Download a persuasive speech outline template

And now download printable blank ready-to-complete Monroe's Motivated Sequence  persuasive speech outline template . You'll find the entire 5 step process laid out clearly, ready for you to fill in the gaps.

persuasive speech mean

A sample persuasive speech

Round image - drawing of a child holding a balloon with the word hope inside it.

Want to read a  persuasive speech example ?

This example speech ("After they're gone") follows the sequence outlined on this page.

Before you click through to it you should know the topic is somber; the impact of suicide on family and friends. I wrote it to persuade those in need to seek and accept help and to raise awareness of the issues around suicide.

Persuasive speech topics

persuasive speech mean

Maybe you haven't found the persuasive speech topic you want yet? Check these pages:

- 100 great  persuasive speech ideas  

- 50  good persuasive speech topics

-  205 fun persuasive speech topics

- 309 'easy' persuasive speech topics

-  310 persuasive speech topics for college

- 108 feminist persuasive speech topics

Communication coach Alex Lyon explains

If you'd like more on Monroe's Motivated Sequence  here's a great video with excellent examples from communication coach Alex Lyons. 

dividing line dark green

And lastly, here's the links to those campaigns I mentioned at the top of the page: The Heart Truth ,  National Drug and Alcohol Facts Week (NDAFW)  and STOMP Out Bullying .

speaking out loud 

Subscribe for  FREE weekly alerts about what's new For more see  speaking out loud  

Susan Dugdale - - Contact

Top 10 popular pages

  • Welcome speech
  • Demonstration speech topics
  • Impromptu speech topic cards
  • Thank you quotes
  • Impromptu public speaking topics
  • Farewell speeches
  • Phrases for welcome speeches
  • Student council speeches
  • Free sample eulogies

From fear to fun in 28 ways

A complete one stop resource to scuttle fear in the best of all possible ways - with laughter.

Public speaking games ebook cover -

Useful pages

  • Search this site
  • About me & Contact
  • Blogging Aloud
  • Free e-course
  • Privacy policy

©Copyright 2006-24

Designed and built by Clickstream Designs

persuasive speech mean

Logo for M Libraries Publishing

Want to create or adapt books like this? Learn more about how Pressbooks supports open publishing practices.

17.3 Organizing Persuasive Speeches

Learning objectives.

  • Understand three common organizational patterns for persuasive speeches.
  • Explain the steps utilized in Monroe’s motivated sequence.
  • Explain the parts of a problem-cause-solution speech.
  • Explain the process utilized in a comparative advantage persuasive speech.

A classroom of attentive listeners

Steven Lilley – Engaged – CC BY-SA 2.0.

Previously in this text we discussed general guidelines for organizing speeches. In this section, we are going to look at three organizational patterns ideally suited for persuasive speeches: Monroe’s motivated sequence, problem-cause-solution, and comparative advantages.

Monroe’s Motivated Sequence

One of the most commonly cited and discussed organizational patterns for persuasive speeches is Alan H. Monroe’s motivated sequence. The purpose of Monroe’s motivated sequence is to help speakers “sequence supporting materials and motivational appeals to form a useful organizational pattern for speeches as a whole” (German et al., 2010).

While Monroe’s motivated sequence is commonly discussed in most public speaking textbooks, we do want to provide one minor caution. Thus far, almost no research has been conducted that has demonstrated that Monroe’s motivated sequence is any more persuasive than other structural patterns. In the only study conducted experimentally examining Monroe’s motivated sequence, the researchers did not find the method more persuasive, but did note that audience members found the pattern more organized than other methods (Micciche, Pryor, & Butler, 2000). We wanted to add this sidenote because we don’t want you to think that Monroe’s motivated sequence is a kind of magic persuasive bullet; the research simply doesn’t support this notion. At the same time, research does support that organized messages are perceived as more persuasive as a whole, so using Monroe’s motivated sequence to think through one’s persuasive argument could still be very beneficial.

Table 17.1 “Monroe’s Motivated Sequence” lists the basic steps of Monroe’s motivated sequence and the subsequent reaction a speaker desires from his or her audience.

Table 17.1 Monroe’s Motivated Sequence

The first step in Monroe’s motivated sequence is the attention step , in which a speaker attempts to get the audience’s attention. To gain an audience’s attention, we recommend that you think through three specific parts of the attention step. First, you need to have a strong attention-getting device. As previously discussed in Chapter 9 “Introductions Matter: How to Begin a Speech Effectively” , a strong attention getter at the beginning of your speech is very important. Second, you need to make sure you introduce your topic clearly. If your audience doesn’t know what your topic is quickly, they are more likely to stop listening. Lastly, you need to explain to your audience why they should care about your topic.

In the need step of Monroe’s motivated sequence, the speaker establishes that there is a specific need or problem. In Monroe’s conceptualization of need, he talks about four specific parts of the need: statement, illustration, ramification, and pointing. First, a speaker needs to give a clear and concise statement of the problem. This part of a speech should be crystal clear for an audience. Second, the speaker needs to provide one or more examples to illustrate the need. The illustration is an attempt to make the problem concrete for the audience. Next, a speaker needs to provide some kind of evidence (e.g., statistics, examples, testimony) that shows the ramifications or consequences of the problem. Lastly, a speaker needs to point to the audience and show exactly how the problem relates to them personally.


In the third step of Monroe’s motivated sequence, the satisfaction step , the speaker sets out to satisfy the need or solve the problem. Within this step, Monroe (1935) proposed a five-step plan for satisfying a need:

  • Explanation
  • Theoretical demonstration
  • Reference to practical experience
  • Meeting objections

First, you need to clearly state the attitude, value, belief, or action you want your audience to accept. The purpose of this statement is to clearly tell your audience what your ultimate goal is.

Second, you want to make sure that you clearly explain to your audience why they should accept the attitude, value, belief, or action you proposed. Just telling your audience they should do something isn’t strong enough to actually get them to change. Instead, you really need to provide a solid argument for why they should accept your proposed solution.

Third, you need to show how the solution you have proposed meets the need or problem. Monroe calls this link between your solution and the need a theoretical demonstration because you cannot prove that your solution will work. Instead, you theorize based on research and good judgment that your solution will meet the need or solve the problem.

Fourth, to help with this theoretical demonstration, you need to reference practical experience, which should include examples demonstrating that your proposal has worked elsewhere. Research, statistics, and expert testimony are all great ways of referencing practical experience.

Lastly, Monroe recommends that a speaker respond to possible objections. As a persuasive speaker, one of your jobs is to think through your speech and see what counterarguments could be made against your speech and then rebut those arguments within your speech. When you offer rebuttals for arguments against your speech, it shows your audience that you’ve done your homework and educated yourself about multiple sides of the issue.


The next step of Monroe’s motivated sequence is the visualization step , in which you ask the audience to visualize a future where the need has been met or the problem solved. In essence, the visualization stage is where a speaker can show the audience why accepting a specific attitude, value, belief, or behavior can positively affect the future. When helping people to picture the future, the more concrete your visualization is, the easier it will be for your audience to see the possible future and be persuaded by it. You also need to make sure that you clearly show how accepting your solution will directly benefit your audience.

According to Monroe, visualization can be conducted in one of three ways: positive, negative, or contrast (Monroe, 1935). The positive method of visualization is where a speaker shows how adopting a proposal leads to a better future (e.g., recycle, and we’ll have a cleaner and safer planet). Conversely, the negative method of visualization is where a speaker shows how not adopting the proposal will lead to a worse future (e.g., don’t recycle, and our world will become polluted and uninhabitable). Monroe also acknowledged that visualization can include a combination of both positive and negative visualization. In essence, you show your audience both possible outcomes and have them decide which one they would rather have.

The final step in Monroe’s motivated sequence is the action step , in which a speaker asks an audience to approve the speaker’s proposal. For understanding purposes, we break action into two distinct parts: audience action and approval. Audience action refers to direct physical behaviors a speaker wants from an audience (e.g., flossing their teeth twice a day, signing a petition, wearing seat belts). Approval, on the other hand, involves an audience’s consent or agreement with a speaker’s proposed attitude, value, or belief.

When preparing an action step, it is important to make sure that the action, whether audience action or approval, is realistic for your audience. Asking your peers in a college classroom to donate one thousand dollars to charity isn’t realistic. Asking your peers to donate one dollar is considerably more realistic. In a persuasive speech based on Monroe’s motivated sequence, the action step will end with the speech’s concluding device. As discussed elsewhere in this text, you need to make sure that you conclude in a vivid way so that the speech ends on a high point and the audience has a sense of energy as well as a sense of closure.

Now that we’ve walked through Monroe’s motivated sequence, let’s look at how you could use Monroe’s motivated sequence to outline a persuasive speech:

Specific Purpose: To persuade my classroom peers that the United States should have stronger laws governing the use of for-profit medical experiments.

Main Points:

  • Attention: Want to make nine thousand dollars for just three weeks of work lying around and not doing much? Then be a human guinea pig. Admittedly, you’ll have to have a tube down your throat most of those three weeks, but you’ll earn three thousand dollars a week.
  • Need: Every day many uneducated and lower socioeconomic-status citizens are preyed on by medical and pharmaceutical companies for use in for-profit medical and drug experiments. Do you want one of your family members to fall prey to this evil scheme?
  • Satisfaction: The United States should have stronger laws governing the use of for-profit medical experiments to ensure that uneducated and lower-socioeconomic-status citizens are protected.
  • Visualization: If we enact tougher experiment oversight, we can ensure that medical and pharmaceutical research is conducted in a way that adheres to basic values of American decency. If we do not enact tougher experiment oversight, we could find ourselves in a world where the lines between research subject, guinea pig, and patient become increasingly blurred.
  • Action: In order to prevent the atrocities associated with for-profit medical and pharmaceutical experiments, please sign this petition asking the US Department of Health and Human Services to pass stricter regulations on this preying industry that is out of control.

This example shows how you can take a basic speech topic and use Monroe’s motivated sequence to clearly and easily outline your speech efficiently and effectively.

Table 17.2 “Monroe’s Motivated Sequence Checklist” also contains a simple checklist to help you make sure you hit all the important components of Monroe’s motivated sequence.

Table 17.2 Monroe’s Motivated Sequence Checklist


Another format for organizing a persuasive speech is the problem-cause-solution format. In this specific format, you discuss what a problem is, what you believe is causing the problem, and then what the solution should be to correct the problem.

Specific Purpose: To persuade my classroom peers that our campus should adopt a zero-tolerance policy for hate speech.

  • Demonstrate that there is distrust among different groups on campus that has led to unnecessary confrontations and violence.
  • Show that the confrontations and violence are a result of hate speech that occurred prior to the events.
  • Explain how instituting a campus-wide zero-tolerance policy against hate speech could stop the unnecessary confrontations and violence.

In this speech, you want to persuade people to support a new campus-wide policy calling for zero-tolerance of hate speech. Once you have shown the problem, you then explain to your audience that the cause of the unnecessary confrontations and violence is prior incidents of hate speech. Lastly, you argue that a campus-wide zero-tolerance policy could help prevent future unnecessary confrontations and violence. Again, this method of organizing a speech is as simple as its name: problem-cause-solution.

Comparative Advantages

The final method for organizing a persuasive speech is called the comparative advantages speech format. The goal of this speech is to compare items side-by-side and show why one of them is more advantageous than the other. For example, let’s say that you’re giving a speech on which e-book reader is better:’s Kindle or Barnes and Nobles’ Nook. Here’s how you could organize this speech:

Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that the Nook is more advantageous than the Kindle.

  • The Nook allows owners to trade and loan books to other owners or people who have downloaded the Nook software, while the Kindle does not.
  • The Nook has a color-touch screen, while the Kindle’s screen is black and grey and noninteractive.
  • The Nook’s memory can be expanded through microSD, while the Kindle’s memory cannot be upgraded.

As you can see from this speech’s organization, the simple goal of this speech is to show why one thing has more positives than something else. Obviously, when you are demonstrating comparative advantages, the items you are comparing need to be functional equivalents—or, as the saying goes, you cannot compare apples to oranges.

Key Takeaways

  • There are three common patterns that persuaders can utilize to help organize their speeches effectively: Monroe’s motivated sequence, problem-cause-solution, and comparative advantage. Each of these patterns can effectively help a speaker think through his or her thoughts and organize them in a manner that will be more likely to persuade an audience.
  • Alan H. Monroe’s (1935) motivated sequence is a commonly used speech format that is used by many people to effectively organize persuasive messages. The pattern consists of five basic stages: attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action. In the first stage, a speaker gets an audience’s attention. In the second stage, the speaker shows an audience that a need exists. In the third stage, the speaker shows how his or her persuasive proposal could satisfy the need. The fourth stage shows how the future could be if the persuasive proposal is or is not adopted. Lastly, the speaker urges the audience to take some kind of action to help enact the speaker’s persuasive proposal.
  • The problem-cause-solution proposal is a three-pronged speech pattern. The speaker starts by explaining the problem the speaker sees. The speaker then explains what he or she sees as the underlying causes of the problem. Lastly, the speaker proposes a solution to the problem that corrects the underlying causes.
  • The comparative advantages speech format is utilized when a speaker is comparing two or more things or ideas and shows why one of the things or ideas has more advantages than the other(s).
  • Create a speech using Monroe’s motivated sequence to persuade people to recycle.
  • Create a speech using the problem-cause-solution method for a problem you see on your college or university campus.
  • Create a comparative advantages speech comparing two brands of toothpaste.

German, K. M., Gronbeck, B. E., Ehninger, D., & Monroe, A. H. (2010). Principles of public speaking (17th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon, p. 236.

Micciche, T., Pryor, B., & Butler, J. (2000). A test of Monroe’s motivated sequence for its effects on ratings of message organization and attitude change. Psychological Reports, 86 , 1135–1138.

Monroe, A. H. (1935). Principles and types of speech . Chicago, IL: Scott Foresman.

Stand up, Speak out Copyright © 2016 by University of Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

Share This Book

Module 10: Persuasive Speaking

Types of persuasive speeches.

Persuasive speeches revolve around propositions that can be defended through the use of data and reasoning. Persuasive propositions respond to one of three types of questions: questions of fact, questions of value, and questions of policy. These questions can help the speaker determine what forms of argument and reasoning are necessary to support a specific purpose statement.

Everything we hear is an opinion, not a fact. Everything we see is a perspective, not the truth. – Marcus Aurelius

Propositions of Fact

Questions of fact ask whether something “can potentially be verified as either true or false.” [1] These questions can seem very straightforward—something is or it is not—but in reality, the search for truth is a complex endeavor. Questions of fact rarely address simple issues such as, “is the sky blue?” They tend to deal with deep-seated controversies such as the existence of global warming, the cause of a major disaster, or someone’s guilt or innocence in a court of law. To answer these questions, a proposition of fact may focus on whether or not something exists. For example, in the U.S. there is a debate over the prevalence of racial profiling, the practice of law enforcement officers targeting people for investigation and arrest based on skin color. On one hand, the American Civil Liberties Union advances the proposition: “Racial profiling continues to be a prevalent and egregious form of discrimination in the United States.” [2] They verify this claim using data from government studies, crime statistics, and personal narratives. However, journalist Heather MacDonald proposes that studies confirming racial profiling are often based in “junk science”; in fact she says, “there’s no credible evidence that racial profiling exists.” [3] To substantiate her proposition, MacDonald relies on a study of traffic stops on the New Jersey turnpike along with personal narratives, policy analysis, and testimony from a criminologist. The claim that racial profiling exists is either true or false, but there is evidence for and against both propositions; therefore no consensus exists.

While some propositions of fact deal with the existence of a particular phenomenon or the accuracy of a theory, others focus on causality. For example, the U.S. government appointed a commission to evaluate the causes of the nation’s recent economic crisis. In their report the commission concluded by proposing that recklessness in the financial industry and failures on the part of government regulators caused the economic crisis. However, Congressman Paul Ryan has proposed that Medicare is to blame, and the chief investment officer at JP Morgan has proposed that U.S. housing policy is the root cause of the problem. [4] Each of these three propositions of fact is backed by its own set of historical and economic analysis.

A highway crowded with cars.

“Interstate 10 looking east from Crenshaw Boulevard” by Downtowngal. CC-BY-SA .

Propositions of fact may also be used to make predictions concerning what will happen in the future. In the summer of 2011, ten miles of a popular Southern California freeway were closed for an entire weekend. Motorists, news outlets, and government officials called the closure “Carmageddon” because they proposed there would be an “inevitable and likely epic traffic tie-up.” [5] As a result of the predictions motorists stayed off the roads and made alternative plans that weekend resulting in much lighter traffic than expected. The proposition may have been true, but the prediction was not fulfilled because people were persuaded to stay off the freeway.

When advancing propositions of fact, you should focus on the evidence you can offer in support of your proposition. First, make sure that your speech contains sufficient evidence to back up your proposition. Next, take the time to interpret that evidence so that it makes sense to your audience. Last, emphasize the relationship between your evidence and your proposition as well as its relevance to the audience. [6]

Bitter experience has taught us how fundamental our values are and how great the mission they represent. – Jan Peter Balkenende

Propositions of Value

Persuasive speakers may also be called to address questions of value, which call for a proposition judging the (relative) worth of something. These propositions make an evaluative claim regarding morality, aesthetics, wisdom, or desirability. For example, some vegetarians propose that eating meat is immoral because of the way that animals are slaughtered. Vegetarians may base this claim in a philosophy of utilitarianism or animal rights. [7]

A McLaren Honda sports car.

“McLarenF1” by Jagvar. Public domain.

Sometimes a proposition of value compares multiple options to determine which is best. Consumers call for these comparisons regularly to determine which products to buy. Car buyers may look to the most recent Car and Driver “10 Best Cars” list to determine their next purchase. In labeling a car one of the best on the market for a given year, Car and Driver says that the cars “don’t have to be the newest, and they don’t have to be expensive . . . They just have to meet our abundant needs while satisfying our every want.” [8]

Both the vegetarian and car examples offer standards for evaluating the proposition. Since propositions of value tend to be more subjective, speakers need to establish evaluation criteria by which the audience can judge and choose to align with their position. When advancing a proposition of value, offer a clear set of criteria, offer evidence for your evaluation, and apply the evidence to demonstrate that you have satisfied the evaluation criteria. [9]

An inner process stands in need of outward criteria. – Ludwig Wittgenstein

The 2005 disagreement between family members over removing a woman’s feeding tube after she had been in a coma for 15 years sparked a national debate over the value of life that highlights the importance of evaluation criteria. After years of failed medical treatments and rehabilitation attempts, Terri Schiavo’s husband petitioned the court to remove her feeding tube, initiating a legal battle with her parents that went all the way to the President of the United States. [10] Opposing sides in the debate both claimed to value life. To support his proposition that his wife had a right to die, Mr. Schaivo applied the evaluation criteria of quality of life and argued that she would not want to continue to live in a vegetative state. [11] Ms. Schiavo’s parents vehemently disagreed with his argument. They also claimed to value life and, with the support of religious groups, relied on the evaluation criteria of the sanctity of life to contend that she should be kept alive. [12] Both sides gained widespread support based on people’s agreement or disagreement with their evaluation criteria. Despite intervention on behalf of both state and federal legislators, the courts eventually ruled that Mr. Schiavo had the right to have his wife’s feeding tube removed and allow her to die.

A policy is a temporary creed liable to be changed, but while it holds good, it has got to be pursued with apostolic zeal. – Mahatma Gandhi

Propositions of Policy

Although the Schiavo case was rooted in a question of value, the debate resulted in a question of policy.  Questions of policy ask the speaker to advocate for an appropriate course of action. This form of persuasive speech is used every day in Congress to determine laws, but it is also used interpersonally to determine how we ought to behave. A proposition of policy may call for people to stop a particular behavior, or to start one. For example, some U.S. cities have started banning single use plastic bags in grocery stores. Long before official public policy on this issue was established, organizations such as The Surfrider Foundation and the Earth Resource Foundation advocated that people stop using these bags because of the damage plastic bags cause to marine life. In this case local governments and private organizations attempted to persuade people to stop engaging in a damaging behavior— shopping with single use plastic bags. However, the organizations also attempted to persuade people to start a new behavior—shopping with reusable bags.

When answering a question of policy, speakers will typically begin by describing the status quo. If you are arguing that a change must be made, you must first identify the problem inherent in the current behavior, and then demonstrate that the problem is significant enough to warrant immediate consideration. Once you have established that there is a problem which the audience ought to consider, you can then offer your proposal for a preferable course of action. [13] Then, it is up to you to demonstrate that your proposed policy will have more benefits than costs.

USPS Mailboxes

“USPS mailboxes” by EraserGirl. CC-BY .

In 2011 the U.S. Postal Service, the nation’s second-largest employer, told Congress it was facing an $8.3 billion budget shortfall. [14] To solve the problem, the Postal Service proposed that be permitted to end Saturday mail delivery and close some post offices. To make their argument, they first described the status quo saying that the demand for their service had dramatically decreased with the popularity of email and online bill-pay services. They explained that in preceding years they laid off workers and cut spending to help with the shortfall of revenue, but now another plan was necessary to avoid defaulting on their financial obligations. They offered evidence that people preferred ending Saturday mail to alternatives such as paying more for stamps or allocating more tax money to post offices. [15] Although they made a compelling case, the USPS still needed to overcome perceived disadvantages to their proposition such as the negative impact on businesses and rural towns. [16] [17] A full year later, the policy proposition passed the U.S. Senate but continues to await approval in the House. [18]

  • Herrick, J.A. (2011). Argumentation: Understanding and Shaping Arguments . State College, PA: Strata Publishing. ↵
  • American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). (2012). Racial Profiling. Retrieved from: ↵
  • MacDonald, H. (2002, March 27). The racial profiling myth debunked. City Journal . Retrieved from: ↵
  • Angelides, P. (2011, June 28). The real causes of the economic crisis? They’re history. The Washington Post . Retrieved from: ↵
  • Kandel, J. (2011, July 14). Los Angeles braces for weekend of “Carmageddon.” Reuters. Retrieved from: ↵
  • Herrick 2011 ↵
  • DeGrazia, D. (2009). Moral vegetarianism from a very broad basis. Journal of Moral Philosophy , 6 . Retrieved from:   ↵
  • Car and Driver (2011, December). 2012 10Best Cars. Car and Driver. Retrieved from: ↵
  • Cerminara, K. & Goodman, K. (2012). Schiavo Timeline. Retrieved from University of Miami Ethics Program: ↵
  • Caplan, A. (2005). The time has come to let Terri Schiavo die: Politicians, courts must allow husband to make final decision. NBC News . Retrieved from: ↵
  • Catholic Culture. (2005). The death of Terri Schiavo. Catholic World News . Retrieved from: ↵
  • Bingham, A. (2011, July 22). Postal Service pushes to end Saturday delivery. ABC News . Retrieved from: ↵
  • Bingham 2011 ↵
  • Stephenson, E. (2012, August 1). Senators blast House leaders over Postal Service default. Reuters . Retrieved from: ↵
  • Stephenson 2012 ↵
  • Chapter 16 Types of Persuasive Speeches. Authored by : Sarah Stone Watt, Ph.D. and Joshua Trey Barnett. Provided by : Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA and Indiana University, Bloomington, IN. Located at : . Project : The Public Speaking Project. License : CC BY-NC-ND: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives
  • Interstate 10 looking east from Crenshaw Boulevard. Authored by : Downtowngal. Located at : . License : CC BY-SA: Attribution-ShareAlike
  • USPS mailboxes. Authored by : EraserGirl. Located at : . License : CC BY: Attribution
  • McLarenF1. Authored by : Jagvar. Located at : . License : Public Domain: No Known Copyright

Footer Logo Lumen Candela

Privacy Policy

The Federal Register

The daily journal of the united states government, request access.

Due to aggressive automated scraping of and, programmatic access to these sites is limited to access to our extensive developer APIs.

If you are human user receiving this message, we can add your IP address to a set of IPs that can access &; complete the CAPTCHA (bot test) below and click "Request Access". This process will be necessary for each IP address you wish to access the site from, requests are valid for approximately one quarter (three months) after which the process may need to be repeated.

An official website of the United States government.

If you want to request a wider IP range, first request access for your current IP, and then use the "Site Feedback" button found in the lower left-hand side to make the request.


  1. Persuasive speech central idea examples

    persuasive speech mean

  2. Persuassive Speech (Oral Communication)

    persuasive speech mean

  3. Examples of Persuasive Speeches

    persuasive speech mean

  4. PPT

    persuasive speech mean

  5. Persuasive speech topics

    persuasive speech mean

  6. Sample Persuasive Speech Powerpoint

    persuasive speech mean


  1. persuasive speech

  2. Persuasive speech

  3. Persuasive speech #2

  4. Persuasive Speech Part 5

  5. Persuasive Speech 1315-042

  6. Persuasive Speech


  1. Persuasive Speeches

    The three main types of persuasive speeches are factual, value, and policy. A factual persuasive speech focuses solely on factual information to prove the existence or absence of something through substantial proof. This is the only type of persuasive speech that exclusively uses objective information rather than subjective.

  2. What Is Persuasive Speech? (Plus 10 Tips for Creating One)

    A persuasive speech is a type of speech where the goal is to convince the audience to accept the speaker's point of view or perform a desired action. The speaker uses words and visuals to guide the audience's thoughts and actions. Persuasive speeches rely on three forms of rhetoric, which are as follows: Ethos: Ethos is the speaker's credibility.

  3. 11.2 Persuasive Speaking

    Foundation of Persuasion. Persuasive speaking seeks to influence the beliefs, attitudes, values, or behaviors of audience members. In order to persuade, a speaker has to construct arguments that appeal to audience members. Arguments form around three components: claim, evidence, and warrant. The claim is the statement that will be supported by ...

  4. What Is Persuasive Speech: Meaning, Skills And Examples

    1. Building Credibility. Credibility is the cornerstone of a persuasive speech, representing the trust your audience invests in you as a communicator. Without it, your words may lack impact. To build credibility, authenticity is key; by sharing your genuine thoughts, emotions, and intentions, you establish trust rapidly.

  5. Persuasive Speeches

    Although a persuasive speech involves information—even as much as an informative speech—the key difference is that a persuasive speech is designed for "creating, reinforcing, or changing people's beliefs or actions" (Lucas, 2015. p. 306). A persuasive speech makes something happen. In other words, it performs a job.

  6. What is Persuasive Speaking?

    Persuasive speeches "intend to influence the beliefs, attitudes, values, and acts of others." [3] Unlike an informative speech, where the speaker is charged with making some information known to an audience, in a persuasive speech the speaker attempts to influence people to think or behave in a particular way. This art of convincing others ...

  7. Persuasive Speech Outline, with Examples

    A persuasive speech is a speech that is given with the intention of convincing the audience to believe or do something. This could be virtually anything - voting, organ donation, recycling, and so on. ... When practicing the delivery, see if you can edit it to have the same meaning but in a more succinct way. This will keep the audience engaged.

  8. What Is a Persuasive Speech?

    Persuasion, in other words, is an attempt to make a viewpoint or a behavior agreeable to someone. When your objective as a speaker is to convince your audience to adopt a particular belief or engage in a specific action, you are speaking to persuade. When we persuade, we are acting as advocates and we are encouraging our audience to adopt a ...

  9. 9.2: What is Persuasive Speaking?

    Persuasive speeches "intend to influence the beliefs, attitudes, values, and acts of others" (O'Hair & Stewart, 1999, p. 337). Unlike an informative speech, where the speaker is charged with making some information known to an audience, in a persuasive speech the speaker attempts to influence people to think or behave in a particular way.

  10. How to Write and Structure a Persuasive Speech

    The purpose of a persuasive speech is to convince your audience to agree with an idea or opinion that you present. First, you'll need to choose a side on a controversial topic, then you will write a speech to explain your position, and convince the audience to agree with you. You can produce an effective persuasive speech if you structure your ...

  11. 14.1: What is Persuasive Speaking?

    Persuasive speeches "intend to influence the beliefs, attitudes, values, and acts of others" (O'Hair & Stewart, 1999). Unlike an informative speech, where the speaker is charged with making some information known to an audience, in a persuasive speech the speaker attempts to influence people to think or behave in a particular way.

  12. Rhetoric 101: The art of persuasive speech

    Below, Camille A. Langston describes the fundamentals of deliberative rhetoric and shares some tips for appealing to an audience's ethos, logos, and pathos in your next speech. Rhetoric, according to Aristotle, is the art of seeing the available means of persuasion. Today we apply it to any form of communication.

  13. How to Write a Persuasive Speech [with Examples]

    Step 2: After the Story, Now, Give Your Advice. When most people write a persuasive presentation, they start with their opinion. Again, this makes the listener want to play Devil's advocate. By starting with the example, we give the listener a simple way to agree with us.

  14. Structure of a Persuasive Speech

    Identify characteristic structures of a persuasive speech. In many ways, a persuasive speech is structured like an informative speech. It has an introduction with an attention-getter and a clear thesis statement. It also has a body where the speaker presents their main points and it ends with a conclusion that sums up the main point of the speech.

  15. Persuasive Speech Preparation & Outline, with Examples

    Persuasive speech is a written and delivered essay to convince people of the speaker's viewpoint or ideas. Persuasive speaking is the type of speaking people engage in the most. ... I mean, isn't it ridiculous? Today's luxuries have been welcomed by the masses. They have also been accused of turning us into passive, lethargic sloths. As a ...

  16. Introduction to Persuasive Speaking

    Definition A persuasive speech is a specific type of speech in which the speaker has a goal of convincing the audience to accept his or her point of view. The speech is arranged in such a way as to hopefully cause the audience to accept all or part of the expressed view. Though the overarching goal of a persuasive speech is to convince the ...

  17. Persuasive Speaking

    Persuasive speaking is the type of speaking that most people engage in the most. This type of speech can involve everything from arguing about politics to talking about what to eat for dinner. Persuasive speaking is very connected to the audience, as the speaker must, in a sense, meet the audience halfway. Persuasion, obviously, is not entirely controlled by the speaker--persuasion occurs when ...

  18. Persuasive Speech Definition, Types & Features

    Persuasive speech is intended to convince an audience to accept a certain opinion, fact, or viewpoint. Its importance is found in politics, advertising, education, activism, and any other field in ...

  19. 17.2 Types of Persuasive Speeches

    Key Takeaways. There are four types of persuasive claims. Definition claims argue the denotation or classification of what something is. Factual claims argue the truth or falsity about an assertion being made. Policy claims argue the nature of a problem and the solution that should be taken.

  20. Meaning And Examples Of Persuasive Speech

    Persuasive speech is a type of speech that helps convince the audience of a certain view. We tend to believe that we have a positive influence over others, but in reality, exerting influence isn't always easy. Persuasive speaking skills help us become more convincing and create a true impact when we speak.

  21. Persuasive speech outline: Monroe's Motivated Sequence in action

    Persuasive speech outline example. About this sample speech - topic, purpose and audience. The subject is fear of public speaking.. The specific purpose of the speech is to persuade and encourage people in the audience to take a course to overcome their fear of public speaking.. The central idea of the speech is that the ability to speak in public opens doors to many opportunities.

  22. 17.3 Organizing Persuasive Speeches

    Alan H. Monroe's (1935) motivated sequence is a commonly used speech format that is used by many people to effectively organize persuasive messages. The pattern consists of five basic stages: attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action. In the first stage, a speaker gets an audience's attention.

  23. Types of Persuasive Speeches

    Types of Persuasive Speeches. Persuasive speeches revolve around propositions that can be defended through the use of data and reasoning. Persuasive propositions respond to one of three types of questions: questions of fact, questions of value, and questions of policy. These questions can help the speaker determine what forms of argument and ...

  24. Persuasive Speech Techniques for Skeptical Audiences

    Crafting a persuasive speech that sways a skeptical audience is a nuanced art in business communications. You need to understand not just what you're saying, but how it's received. The key is to ...

  25. Federal Register :: Medical Devices; Laboratory Developed Tests

    FDA is amending the definition of "in vitro diagnostic products" in its regulations to state that IVDs are devices Start Printed Page 37287 under the FD&C Act "including when the manufacturer of these products is a laboratory." In conjunction with this amendment, FDA is phasing out the general enforcement discretion approach for LDTs. ...