In a short paper—even a research paper—you don’t need to provide an exhaustive summary as part of your conclusion. But you do need to make some kind of transition between your final body paragraph and your concluding paragraph. This may come in the form of a few sentences of summary. Or it may come in the form of a sentence that brings your readers back to your thesis or main idea and reminds your readers where you began and how far you have traveled.

So, for example, in a paper about the relationship between ADHD and rejection sensitivity, Vanessa Roser begins by introducing readers to the fact that researchers have studied the relationship between the two conditions and then provides her explanation of that relationship. Here’s her thesis: “While socialization may indeed be an important factor in RS, I argue that individuals with ADHD may also possess a neurological predisposition to RS that is exacerbated by the differing executive and emotional regulation characteristic of ADHD.”

In her final paragraph, Roser reminds us of where she started by echoing her thesis: “This literature demonstrates that, as with many other conditions, ADHD and RS share a delicately intertwined pattern of neurological similarities that is rooted in the innate biology of an individual’s mind, a connection that cannot be explained in full by the behavioral mediation hypothesis.”  

Highlight the “so what”  

At the beginning of your paper, you explain to your readers what’s at stake—why they should care about the argument you’re making. In your conclusion, you can bring readers back to those stakes by reminding them why your argument is important in the first place. You can also draft a few sentences that put those stakes into a new or broader context.

In the conclusion to her paper about ADHD and RS, Roser echoes the stakes she established in her introduction—that research into connections between ADHD and RS has led to contradictory results, raising questions about the “behavioral mediation hypothesis.”

She writes, “as with many other conditions, ADHD and RS share a delicately intertwined pattern of neurological similarities that is rooted in the innate biology of an individual’s mind, a connection that cannot be explained in full by the behavioral mediation hypothesis.”  

Leave your readers with the “now what”  

After the “what” and the “so what,” you should leave your reader with some final thoughts. If you have written a strong introduction, your readers will know why you have been arguing what you have been arguing—and why they should care. And if you’ve made a good case for your thesis, then your readers should be in a position to see things in a new way, understand new questions, or be ready for something that they weren’t ready for before they read your paper.

In her conclusion, Roser offers two “now what” statements. First, she explains that it is important to recognize that the flawed behavioral mediation hypothesis “seems to place a degree of fault on the individual. It implies that individuals with ADHD must have elicited such frequent or intense rejection by virtue of their inadequate social skills, erasing the possibility that they may simply possess a natural sensitivity to emotion.” She then highlights the broader implications for treatment of people with ADHD, noting that recognizing the actual connection between rejection sensitivity and ADHD “has profound implications for understanding how individuals with ADHD might best be treated in educational settings, by counselors, family, peers, or even society as a whole.”

To find your own “now what” for your essay’s conclusion, try asking yourself these questions:

  • What can my readers now understand, see in a new light, or grapple with that they would not have understood in the same way before reading my paper? Are we a step closer to understanding a larger phenomenon or to understanding why what was at stake is so important?  
  • What questions can I now raise that would not have made sense at the beginning of my paper? Questions for further research? Other ways that this topic could be approached?  
  • Are there other applications for my research? Could my questions be asked about different data in a different context? Could I use my methods to answer a different question?  
  • What action should be taken in light of this argument? What action do I predict will be taken or could lead to a solution?  
  • What larger context might my argument be a part of?  

What to avoid in your conclusion  

  • a complete restatement of all that you have said in your paper.  
  • a substantial counterargument that you do not have space to refute; you should introduce counterarguments before your conclusion.  
  • an apology for what you have not said. If you need to explain the scope of your paper, you should do this sooner—but don’t apologize for what you have not discussed in your paper.  
  • fake transitions like “in conclusion” that are followed by sentences that aren’t actually conclusions. (“In conclusion, I have now demonstrated that my thesis is correct.”)
  • picture_as_pdf Conclusions

how long is a conclusion essay

How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay

how long is a conclusion essay

By the time you get to the final paragraph of your paper, you have already done so much work on your essay, so all you want to do is to wrap it up as quickly as possible. You’ve already made a stunning introduction, proven your argument, and structured the whole piece as supposed – who cares about making a good conclusion paragraph?

The only thing you need to remember is that the conclusion of an essay is not just the last paragraph of an academic paper where you restate your thesis and key arguments. A concluding paragraph is also your opportunity to have a final impact on your audience. 

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How to write a conclusion paragraph that leaves a lasting impression – In this guide, the team at EssayPro is going to walk you through the process of writing a perfect conclusion step by step. Additionally, we will share valuable tips and tricks to help students of all ages impress their readers at the last moment.

Instead of Intro: What Is a Conclusion?

Before we can move on, let’s take a moment here to define the conclusion itself. According to the standard conclusion definition, it is pretty much the last part of something, its result, or end. However, this term is rather broad and superficial.

When it comes to writing academic papers, a concluding statement refers to an opinion, judgment, suggestion, or position arrived at by logical reasoning (through the arguments provided in the body of the text). Therefore, if you are wondering “what is a good closing sentence like?” – keep on reading.

What Does a Good Conclusion Mean?

Writing a good conclusion for a paper isn’t easy. However, we are going to walk you through this process step by step. Although there are generally no strict rules on how to formulate one, there are some basic principles that everyone should keep in mind. In this section, we will share some core ideas for writing a good conclusion, and, later in the article, we will also provide you with more practical advice and examples.

How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay _ 4 MAJOR OBJECTIVES THAT CONCLUSION MUST ACCOMPLISH

Here are the core goals a good conclusion should complete:

  • “Wrap up” the entire paper;
  • Demonstrate to readers that the author accomplished what he/she set out to do;
  • Show how you the author has proved their thesis statement;
  • Give a sense of completeness and closure on the topic;
  • Leave something extra for your reader to think about;
  • Leave a powerful final impact on a reader.

Another key thing to remember is that you should not introduce any new ideas or arguments to your paper's conclusion. It should only sum up what you have already written, revisit your thesis statement, and end with a powerful final impression.

When considering how to write a conclusion that works, here are the key points to keep in mind:

  • A concluding sentence should only revisit the thesis statement, not restate it;
  • It should summarize the main ideas from the body of the paper;
  • It should demonstrate the significance and relevance of your work;
  • An essay’s conclusion should include a call for action and leave space for further study or development of the topic (if necessary).

How Long Should a Conclusion Be? 

Although there are no strict universal rules regarding the length of an essay’s final clause, both teachers and experienced writers recommend keeping it clear, concise, and straight to the point. There is an unspoken rule that the introduction and conclusion of an academic paper should both be about 10% of the overall paper’s volume. For example, if you were assigned a 1500 word essay, both the introductory and final clauses should be approximately 150 words long (300 together).

Why You Need to Know How to End an Essay:

A conclusion is what drives a paper to its logical end. It also drives the main points of your piece one last time. It is your last opportunity to impact and impress your audience. And, most importantly, it is your chance to demonstrate to readers why your work matters. Simply put, the final paragraph of your essay should answer the last important question a reader will have – “So what?”

If you do a concluding paragraph right, it can give your readers a sense of logical completeness. On the other hand, if you do not make it powerful enough, it can leave them hanging, and diminish the effect of the entire piece.

Strategies to Crafting a Proper Conclusion

Although there are no strict rules for what style to use to write your conclusion, there are several strategies that have been proven to be effective. In the list below, you can find some of the most effective strategies with some good conclusion paragraph examples to help you grasp the idea.

One effective way to emphasize the significance of your essay and give the audience some thought to ponder about is by taking a look into the future. The “When and If” technique is quite powerful when it comes to supporting your points in the essay’s conclusion.

Prediction essay conclusion example: “Taking care of a pet is quite hard, which is the reason why most parents refuse their children’s requests to get a pet. However, the refusal should be the last choice of parents. If we want to inculcate a deep sense of responsibility and organization in our kids, and, at the same time, sprout compassion in them, we must let our children take care of pets.”

Another effective strategy is to link your conclusion to your introductory paragraph. This will create a full-circle narration for your readers, create a better understanding of your topic, and emphasize your key point.

Echo conclusion paragraph example: Introduction: “I believe that all children should grow up with a pet. I still remember the exact day my parents brought my first puppy to our house. This was one of the happiest moments in my life and, at the same time, one of the most life-changing ones. Growing up with a pet taught me a lot, and most importantly, it taught me to be responsible.” Conclusion:. “I remember when I picked up my first puppy and how happy I was at that time. Growing up with a pet, I learned what it means to take care of someone, make sure that he always has water and food, teach him, and constantly keep an eye on my little companion. Having a child grow up with a pet teaches them responsibility and helps them acquire a variety of other life skills like leadership, love, compassion, and empathy. This is why I believe that every kid should grow up with a pet!”

Finally, one more trick that will help you create a flawless conclusion is to amplify your main idea or to present it in another perspective of a larger context. This technique will help your readers to look at the problem discussed from a different angle.

Step-up argumentative essay conclusion example: “Despite the obvious advantages of owning a pet in childhood, I feel that we cannot generalize whether all children should have a pet. Whereas some kids may benefit from such experiences, namely, by becoming more compassionate, organized, and responsible, it really depends on the situation, motivation, and enthusiasm of a particular child for owning a pet.”

What is a clincher in an essay? – The final part of an essay’s conclusion is often referred to as a clincher sentence. According to the clincher definition, it is a final sentence that reinforces the main idea or leaves the audience with an intriguing thought to ponder upon. In a nutshell, the clincher is very similar to the hook you would use in an introductory paragraph. Its core mission is to seize the audience’s attention until the end of the paper. At the same time, this statement is what creates a sense of completeness and helps the author leave a lasting impression on the reader.

Now, since you now know what a clincher is, you are probably wondering how to use one in your own paper. First of all, keep in mind that a good clincher should be intriguing, memorable, smooth, and straightforward.

Generally, there are several different tricks you can use for your clincher statement; it can be:

  • A short, but memorable and attention-grabbing conclusion;
  • A relevant and memorable quote (only if it brings actual value);
  • A call to action;
  • A rhetorical question;
  • An illustrative story or provocative example;
  • A warning against a possibility or suggestion about the consequences of a discussed problem;
  • A joke (however, be careful with this as it may not always be deemed appropriate).

Regardless of the technique you choose, make sure that your clincher is memorable and aligns with your introduction and thesis.

Clincher examples: - While New York may not be the only place with the breathtaking views, it is definitely among my personal to 3… and that’s what definitely makes it worth visiting. - “Thence we came forth to rebehold the stars”, Divine Comedy - Don’t you think all these advantages sound like almost life-saving benefits of owning a pet? “So we beat on, boats against the current, borne back ceaselessly into the past.”, The Great Gatsby

strategies

Conclusion Writing Don'ts 

Now, when you know what tricks and techniques you should use to create a perfect conclusion, let’s look at some of the things you should not do with our online paper writing service :

  • Starting with some cliché concluding sentence starters. Many students find common phrases like “In conclusion,” “Therefore,” “In summary,” or similar statements to be pretty good conclusion starters. However, though such conclusion sentence starters may work in certain cases – for example, in speeches – they are overused, so it is recommended not to use them in writing to introduce your conclusion.
  • Putting the first mention of your thesis statement in the conclusion – it has to be presented in your introduction first.
  • Providing new arguments, subtopics, or ideas in the conclusion paragraph.
  • Including a slightly changed or unchanged thesis statement.
  • Providing arguments and evidence that belong in the body of the work.
  • Writing too long, hard to read, or confusing sentences.

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Conclusion Paragraph Outline

The total number of sentences in your final paragraph may vary depending on the number of points you discussed in your essay, as well as on the overall word count of your paper. However, the overall conclusion paragraph outline will remain the same and consists of the following elements:

conclusion ouline

  • A conclusion starter:

The first part of your paragraph should drive readers back to your thesis statement. Thus, if you were wondering how to start a conclusion, the best way to do it is by rephrasing your thesis statement.

  • Summary of the body paragraphs:

Right after revisiting your thesis, you should include several sentences that wrap up the key highlights and points from your body paragraphs. This part of your conclusion can consist of 2-3 sentences—depending on the number of arguments you’ve made. If necessary, you can also explain to the readers how your main points fit together.

  • A concluding sentence:

Finally, you should end your paragraph with a last, powerful sentence that leaves a lasting impression, gives a sense of logical completeness, and connects readers back to the introduction of the paper.

These three key elements make up a perfect essay conclusion. Now, to give you an even better idea of how to create a perfect conclusion, let us give you a sample conclusion paragraph outline with examples from an argumentative essay on the topic of “Every Child Should Own a Pet:

  • Sentence 1: Starter
  • ~ Thesis: "Though taking care of a pet may be a bit challenging for small children. Parents should not restrict their kids from having a pet as it helps them grow into more responsible and compassionate people."
  • ~ Restated thesis for a conclusion: "I can say that taking care of a pet is good for every child."
  • Sentences 2-4: Summary
  • ~ "Studies have shown that pet owners generally have fewer health problems."
  • ~ "Owning a pet teaches a child to be more responsible."
  • ~ "Spending time with a pet reduces stress, feelings of loneliness, and anxiety."
  • Sentence 5: A concluding sentence
  • ~ "Pets can really change a child life for the better, so don't hesitate to endorse your kid's desire to own a pet."

This is a clear example of how you can shape your conclusion paragraph.

How to Conclude Various Types of Essays

Depending on the type of academic essay you are working on, your concluding paragraph's style, tone, and length may vary. In this part of our guide, we will tell you how to end different types of essays and other works.

How to End an Argumentative Essay

Persuasive or argumentative essays always have the single goal of convincing readers of something (an idea, stance, or viewpoint) by appealing to arguments, facts, logic, and even emotions. The conclusion for such an essay has to be persuasive as well. A good trick you can use is to illustrate a real-life scenario that proves your stance or encourages readers to take action. More about persuasive essay outline you can read in our article.

Here are a few more tips for making a perfect conclusion for an argumentative essay:

  • Carefully read the whole essay before you begin;
  • Re-emphasize your ideas;
  • Discuss possible implications;
  • Don’t be afraid to appeal to the reader’s emotions.

How to End a Compare and Contrast Essay

The purpose of a compare and contrast essay is to emphasize the differences or similarities between two or more objects, people, phenomena, etc. Therefore, a logical conclusion should highlight how the reviewed objects are different or similar. Basically, in such a paper, your conclusion should recall all of the key common and distinctive features discussed in the body of your essay and also give readers some food for thought after they finish reading it.

How to Conclude a Descriptive Essay

The key idea of a descriptive essay is to showcase your creativity and writing skills by painting a vivid picture with the help of words. This is one of the most creative types of essays as it requires you to show a story, not tell it. This kind of essay implies using a lot of vivid details. Respectively, the conclusion of such a paper should also use descriptive imagery and, at the same time, sum up the main ideas. A good strategy for ending a descriptive essay would be to begin with a short explanation of why you wrote the essay. Then, you should reflect on how your topic affects you. In the middle of the conclusion, you should cover the most critical moments of the story to smoothly lead the reader into a logical closing statement. The “clincher”, in this case, should be a thought-provoking final sentence that leaves a good and lasting impression on the audience. Do not lead the reader into the essay and then leave them with dwindling memories of it.

How to Conclude an Essay About Yourself

If you find yourself writing an essay about yourself, you need to tell a personal story. As a rule, such essays talk about the author’s experiences, which is why a conclusion should create a feeling of narrative closure. A good strategy is to end your story with a logical finale and the lessons you have learned, while, at the same time, linking it to the introductory paragraph and recalling key moments from the story.

How to End an Informative Essay

Unlike other types of papers, informative or expository essays load readers with a lot of information and facts. In this case, “Synthesize, don’t summarize” is the best technique you can use to end your paper. Simply put, instead of recalling all of the major facts, you should approach your conclusion from the “So what?” position by highlighting the significance of the information provided.

How to Conclude a Narrative Essay

In a nutshell, a narrative essay is based on simple storytelling. The purpose of this paper is to share a particular story in detail. Therefore, the conclusion for such a paper should wrap up the story and avoid finishing on an abrupt cliffhanger. It is vital to include the key takeaways and the lessons learned from the story.

How to Write a Conclusion for a Lab Report

Unlike an essay, a lab report is based on an experiment. This type of paper describes the flow of a particular experiment conducted by a student and its conclusion should reflect on the outcomes of this experiment.

In thinking of how to write a conclusion for a lab, here are the key things you should do to get it right:

  • Restate the goals of your experiment
  • Describe the methods you used
  • Include the results of the experiment and analyze the final data
  • End your conclusion with a clear statement on whether or not the experiment was successful (Did you reach the expected results?)

How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

Writing a paper is probably the hardest task of all, even for experienced dissertation writer . Unlike an essay or even a lab report, a research paper is a much longer piece of work that requires a deeper investigation of the problem. Therefore, a conclusion for such a paper should be even more sophisticated and powerful. If you're feeling difficulty writing an essay, you can buy essay on our service.

How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

However, given that a research paper is the second most popular kind of academic paper (after an essay), it is important to know how to conclude a research paper. Even if you have not yet been assigned to do this task, be sure that you will face it soon. So, here are the steps you should follow to create a great conclusion for a research paper:

  • Restate the Topic

Start your final paragraph with a quick reminder of what the topic of the piece is about. Keep it one sentence long.

  • Revisit the Thesis

Next, you should remind your readers what your thesis statement was. However, do not just copy and paste it from the introductory clause: paraphrase your thesis so that you deliver the same idea but with different words. Keep your paraphrased thesis narrow, specific, and topic-oriented.

  • Summarise Your Key Ideas

Just like the case of a regular essay’s conclusion, a research paper’s final paragraph should also include a short summary of all of the key points stated in the body sections. We recommend reading the entire body part a few times to define all of your main arguments and ideas.

  • Showcase the Significance of Your Work

In the research paper conclusion, it is vital to highlight the significance of your research problem and state how your solution could be helpful.

  • Make Suggestions for Future Studies

Finally, at the end of your conclusion, you should define how your findings will contribute to the development of its particular field of science. Outline the perspectives of further research and, if necessary, explain what is yet to be discovered on the topic.

Then, end your conclusion with a powerful concluding sentence – it can be a rhetorical question, call to action, or another hook that will help you have a strong impact on the audience.

  • Answer the Right Questions

To create a top-notch research paper conclusion, be sure to answer the following questions:

  • What is the goal of a research paper?
  • What are the possible solutions to the research question(s)?
  • How can your results be implemented in real life? (Is your research paper helpful to the community?)
  • Why is this study important and relevant?

Additionally, here are a few more handy tips to follow:

  • Provide clear examples from real life to help readers better understand the further implementation of the stated solutions;
  • Keep your conclusion fresh, original, and creative.

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So, What Is a Good Closing Sentence? See The Difference

One of the best ways to learn how to write a good conclusion is to look at several professional essay conclusion examples. In this section of our guide, we are going to look at two different final paragraphs shaped on the basis of the same template, but even so, they are very different – where one is weak and the other is strong. Below, we are going to compare them to help you understand the difference between a good and a bad conclusion.

Here is the template we used: College degrees are in decline. The price of receiving an education does not correlate with the quality of the education received. As a result, graduated students face underemployment, and the worth of college degrees appears to be in serious doubt. However, the potential social and economic benefits of educated students balance out the equation.

Strong Conclusion ‍

People either see college as an opportunity or an inconvenience; therefore, a degree can only hold as much value as its owner’s skillset. The underemployment of graduate students puts the worth of college degrees in serious doubt. Yet, with the multitude of benefits that educated students bring to society and the economy, the equation remains in balance. Perhaps the ordinary person should consider college as a wise financial investment, but only if they stay determined to study and do the hard work.

Why is this example good? There are several key points that prove its effectiveness:

  • There is a bold opening statement that encompasses the two contrasting types of students we can see today.
  • There are two sentences that recall the thesis statement and cover the key arguments from the body of the essay.
  • Finally, the last sentence sums up the key message of the essay and leaves readers with something to think about.

Weak Conclusion

In conclusion, with the poor preparation of students in college and the subsequent underemployment after graduation from college, the worth associated with the college degree appears to be in serious doubt. However, these issues alone may not reasonably conclude beyond a doubt that investing in a college degree is a rewarding venture. When the full benefits that come with education are carefully put into consideration and evaluated, college education for children in any country still has good advantages, and society should continue to advocate for a college education. The ordinary person should consider this a wise financial decision that holds rewards in the end. Apart from the monetary gains associated with a college education, society will greatly benefit from students when they finish college. Their minds are going to be expanded, and their reasoning and decision making will be enhanced.

What makes this example bad? Here are a few points to consider:

  • Unlike the first example, this paragraph is long and not specific enough. The author provides plenty of generalized phrases that are not backed up by actual arguments.
  • This piece is hard to read and understand and sentences have a confusing structure. Also, there are lots of repetitions and too many uses of the word “college”.
  • There is no summary of the key benefits.
  • The last two sentences that highlight the value of education contradict with the initial statement.
  • Finally, the last sentence doesn’t offer a strong conclusion and gives no thought to ponder upon.
  • In the body of your essay, you have hopefully already provided your reader(s) with plenty of information. Therefore, it is not wise to present new arguments or ideas in your conclusion.
  • To end your final paragraph right, find a clear and straightforward message that will have the most powerful impact on your audience.
  • Don’t use more than one quote in the final clause of your paper – the information from external sources (including quotes) belongs in the body of a paper.
  • Be authoritative when writing a conclusion. You should sound confident and convincing to leave a good impression. Sentences like “I’m not an expert, but…” will most likely make you seem less knowledgeable and/or credible.

Good Conclusion Examples

Now that we've learned what a conclusion is and how to write one let's take a look at some essay conclusion examples to strengthen our knowledge.

The ending ironically reveals that all was for nothing. (A short explanation of the thematic effect of the book’s end) Tom says that Miss Watson freed Jim in her final will.Jim told Huck that the dead man on the Island was pap. The entire adventure seemingly evaporated into nothingness. (How this effect was manifested into the minds of thereaders).
All in all, international schools hold the key to building a full future that students can achieve. (Thesis statement simplified) They help students develop their own character by learning from their mistakes, without having to face a dreadful penalty for failure. (Thesis statement elaborated)Although some say that kids emerged “spoiled” with this mentality, the results prove the contrary. (Possible counter-arguments are noted)
In conclusion, public workers should be allowed to strike since it will give them a chance to air their grievances. (Thesis statement) Public workers should be allowed to strike when their rights, safety, and regulations are compromised. The workers will get motivated when they strike, and their demands are met.
In summary, studies reveal some similarities in the nutrient contents between the organic and non-organic food substances. (Starts with similarities) However, others have revealed many considerable differences in the amounts of antioxidants as well as other minerals present in organic and non-organic foods. Generally, organic foods have higher levels of antioxidants than non-organic foods and therefore are more important in the prevention of chronic illnesses.
As time went by, my obsession grew into something bigger than art; (‘As time went by’ signals maturation) it grew into a dream of developing myself for the world. (Showing student’s interest of developing himself for the community) It is a dream of not only seeing the world from a different perspective but also changing the perspective of people who see my work. (Showing student’s determination to create moving pieces of art)
In conclusion, it is evident that technology is an integral part of our lives and without it, we become “lost” since we have increasingly become dependent on its use. (Thesis with main point)

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How To Write A Conclusion For An Essay?

How to write a good conclusion, how to write a conclusion for a college essay.

Daniel Parker

Daniel Parker

is a seasoned educational writer focusing on scholarship guidance, research papers, and various forms of academic essays including reflective and narrative essays. His expertise also extends to detailed case studies. A scholar with a background in English Literature and Education, Daniel’s work on EssayPro blog aims to support students in achieving academic excellence and securing scholarships. His hobbies include reading classic literature and participating in academic forums.

how long is a conclusion essay

is an expert in nursing and healthcare, with a strong background in history, law, and literature. Holding advanced degrees in nursing and public health, his analytical approach and comprehensive knowledge help students navigate complex topics. On EssayPro blog, Adam provides insightful articles on everything from historical analysis to the intricacies of healthcare policies. In his downtime, he enjoys historical documentaries and volunteering at local clinics.

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statement of purpose

The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Conclusions

What this handout is about.

This handout will explain the functions of conclusions, offer strategies for writing effective ones, help you evaluate conclusions you’ve drafted, and suggest approaches to avoid.

About conclusions

Introductions and conclusions can be difficult to write, but they’re worth investing time in. They can have a significant influence on a reader’s experience of your paper.

Just as your introduction acts as a bridge that transports your readers from their own lives into the “place” of your analysis, your conclusion can provide a bridge to help your readers make the transition back to their daily lives. Such a conclusion will help them see why all your analysis and information should matter to them after they put the paper down.

Your conclusion is your chance to have the last word on the subject. The conclusion allows you to have the final say on the issues you have raised in your paper, to synthesize your thoughts, to demonstrate the importance of your ideas, and to propel your reader to a new view of the subject. It is also your opportunity to make a good final impression and to end on a positive note.

Your conclusion can go beyond the confines of the assignment. The conclusion pushes beyond the boundaries of the prompt and allows you to consider broader issues, make new connections, and elaborate on the significance of your findings.

Your conclusion should make your readers glad they read your paper. Your conclusion gives your reader something to take away that will help them see things differently or appreciate your topic in personally relevant ways. It can suggest broader implications that will not only interest your reader, but also enrich your reader’s life in some way. It is your gift to the reader.

Strategies for writing an effective conclusion

One or more of the following strategies may help you write an effective conclusion:

  • Play the “So What” Game. If you’re stuck and feel like your conclusion isn’t saying anything new or interesting, ask a friend to read it with you. Whenever you make a statement from your conclusion, ask the friend to say, “So what?” or “Why should anybody care?” Then ponder that question and answer it. Here’s how it might go: You: Basically, I’m just saying that education was important to Douglass. Friend: So what? You: Well, it was important because it was a key to him feeling like a free and equal citizen. Friend: Why should anybody care? You: That’s important because plantation owners tried to keep slaves from being educated so that they could maintain control. When Douglass obtained an education, he undermined that control personally. You can also use this strategy on your own, asking yourself “So What?” as you develop your ideas or your draft.
  • Return to the theme or themes in the introduction. This strategy brings the reader full circle. For example, if you begin by describing a scenario, you can end with the same scenario as proof that your essay is helpful in creating a new understanding. You may also refer to the introductory paragraph by using key words or parallel concepts and images that you also used in the introduction.
  • Synthesize, don’t summarize. Include a brief summary of the paper’s main points, but don’t simply repeat things that were in your paper. Instead, show your reader how the points you made and the support and examples you used fit together. Pull it all together.
  • Include a provocative insight or quotation from the research or reading you did for your paper.
  • Propose a course of action, a solution to an issue, or questions for further study. This can redirect your reader’s thought process and help them to apply your info and ideas to their own life or to see the broader implications.
  • Point to broader implications. For example, if your paper examines the Greensboro sit-ins or another event in the Civil Rights Movement, you could point out its impact on the Civil Rights Movement as a whole. A paper about the style of writer Virginia Woolf could point to her influence on other writers or on later feminists.

Strategies to avoid

  • Beginning with an unnecessary, overused phrase such as “in conclusion,” “in summary,” or “in closing.” Although these phrases can work in speeches, they come across as wooden and trite in writing.
  • Stating the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion.
  • Introducing a new idea or subtopic in your conclusion.
  • Ending with a rephrased thesis statement without any substantive changes.
  • Making sentimental, emotional appeals that are out of character with the rest of an analytical paper.
  • Including evidence (quotations, statistics, etc.) that should be in the body of the paper.

Four kinds of ineffective conclusions

  • The “That’s My Story and I’m Sticking to It” Conclusion. This conclusion just restates the thesis and is usually painfully short. It does not push the ideas forward. People write this kind of conclusion when they can’t think of anything else to say. Example: In conclusion, Frederick Douglass was, as we have seen, a pioneer in American education, proving that education was a major force for social change with regard to slavery.
  • The “Sherlock Holmes” Conclusion. Sometimes writers will state the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion. You might be tempted to use this strategy if you don’t want to give everything away too early in your paper. You may think it would be more dramatic to keep the reader in the dark until the end and then “wow” them with your main idea, as in a Sherlock Holmes mystery. The reader, however, does not expect a mystery, but an analytical discussion of your topic in an academic style, with the main argument (thesis) stated up front. Example: (After a paper that lists numerous incidents from the book but never says what these incidents reveal about Douglass and his views on education): So, as the evidence above demonstrates, Douglass saw education as a way to undermine the slaveholders’ power and also an important step toward freedom.
  • The “America the Beautiful”/”I Am Woman”/”We Shall Overcome” Conclusion. This kind of conclusion usually draws on emotion to make its appeal, but while this emotion and even sentimentality may be very heartfelt, it is usually out of character with the rest of an analytical paper. A more sophisticated commentary, rather than emotional praise, would be a more fitting tribute to the topic. Example: Because of the efforts of fine Americans like Frederick Douglass, countless others have seen the shining beacon of light that is education. His example was a torch that lit the way for others. Frederick Douglass was truly an American hero.
  • The “Grab Bag” Conclusion. This kind of conclusion includes extra information that the writer found or thought of but couldn’t integrate into the main paper. You may find it hard to leave out details that you discovered after hours of research and thought, but adding random facts and bits of evidence at the end of an otherwise-well-organized essay can just create confusion. Example: In addition to being an educational pioneer, Frederick Douglass provides an interesting case study for masculinity in the American South. He also offers historians an interesting glimpse into slave resistance when he confronts Covey, the overseer. His relationships with female relatives reveal the importance of family in the slave community.

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Douglass, Frederick. 1995. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written by Himself. New York: Dover.

Hamilton College. n.d. “Conclusions.” Writing Center. Accessed June 14, 2019. https://www.hamilton.edu//academics/centers/writing/writing-resources/conclusions .

Holewa, Randa. 2004. “Strategies for Writing a Conclusion.” LEO: Literacy Education Online. Last updated February 19, 2004. https://leo.stcloudstate.edu/acadwrite/conclude.html.

You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

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How to Write an Essay Conclusion

How to Write an Essay Conclusion

4-minute read

  • 1st October 2022

Regardless of what you’re studying, writing essays is probably a significant part of your work as a student . Taking the time to understand how to write each section of an essay (i.e., introduction, body, and conclusion) can make the entire process easier and ensure that you’ll be successful.

Once you’ve put in the hard work of writing a coherent and compelling essay, it can be tempting to quickly throw together a conclusion without the same attention to detail. However, you won’t leave an impactful final impression on your readers without a strong conclusion.

We’ve compiled a few easy steps to help you write a great conclusion for your next essay . Watch our video, or check out our guide below to learn more!

1. Return to Your Thesis

Similar to how an introduction should capture your reader’s interest and present your argument, a conclusion should show why your argument matters and leave the reader with further curiosity about the topic.

To do this, you should begin by reminding the reader of your thesis statement. While you can use similar language and keywords when referring to your thesis, avoid copying it from the introduction and pasting it into your conclusion.

Try varying your vocabulary and sentence structure and presenting your thesis in a way that demonstrates how your argument has evolved throughout your essay.

2. Review Your Main Points

In addition to revisiting your thesis statement, you should review the main points you presented in your essay to support your argument.

However, a conclusion isn’t simply a summary of your essay . Rather, you should further examine your main points and demonstrate how each is connected.

Try to discuss these points concisely, in just a few sentences, in preparation for demonstrating how they fit in to the bigger picture of the topic.

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3. Show the Significance of Your Essay

Next, it’s time to think about the topic of your essay beyond the scope of your argument. It’s helpful to keep the question “so what?” in mind when you’re doing this. The goal is to demonstrate why your argument matters.

If you need some ideas about what to discuss to show the significance of your essay, consider the following:

  • What do your findings contribute to the current understanding of the topic?
  • Did your findings raise new questions that would benefit from future research?
  • Can you offer practical suggestions for future research or make predictions about the future of the field/topic?
  • Are there other contexts, topics, or a broader debate that your ideas can be applied to?

While writing your essay, it can be helpful to keep a list of ideas or insights that you develop about the implications of your work so that you can refer back to it when you write the conclusion.

Making these kinds of connections will leave a memorable impression on the reader and inspire their interest in the topic you’ve written about.

4. Avoid Some Common Mistakes

To ensure you’ve written a strong conclusion that doesn’t leave your reader confused or lacking confidence in your work, avoid:

  • Presenting new evidence: Don’t introduce new information or a new argument, as it can distract from your main topic, confuse your reader, and suggest that your essay isn’t organized.
  • Undermining your argument: Don’t use statements such as “I’m not an expert,” “I feel,” or “I think,” as lacking confidence in your work will weaken your argument.
  • Using generic statements: Don’t use generic concluding statements such as “In summary,” “To sum up,” or “In conclusion,” which are redundant since the reader will be able to see that they’ve reached the end of your essay.

Finally, don’t make the mistake of forgetting to proofread your essay ! Mistakes can be difficult to catch in your own writing, but they can detract from your writing.

Our expert editors can ensure that your essay is clear, concise, and free of spelling and grammar errors. Find out more by submitting a free trial document today!

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how long is a conclusion essay

How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay

how long is a conclusion essay

A well-structured conclusion is considered an important element of a strong essay and is often a part of the grading criteria.

Some instructors or grading rubrics might be more lenient on this aspect, while others might place a higher emphasis on it. To avoid potential point deductions, it's generally a good practice to include a well-structured conclusion, which usually takes 10-15% of your work (e.g., a 2,000-word essay should have a 250-word conclusion). In this article, you will find out how to write a concluding paragraph, what are the elements of an A-grade conclusion, as well as a couple of great examples.

How to Write a Conclusion Step by Step

Writing an effective conclusion paragraph involves several steps. Here's a step-by-step guide on how to write a conclusion for your essay:

how to write a conclusion for an essay

Restate the Thesis Statement

Begin your conclusion by restating the thesis statement. This reminds the reader of the overall argument or point of your essay. However, don't simply repeat things word for word; rephrase them to add a sense of closure.

Summarize Key Points

Summarize the main argument and the paper's main points. You don't need to go into great detail - simply repeat the main idea. Briefly touch upon the most important ideas discussed in the body of your essay.

Connect to the Introduction

Link your last sentence back to the introductory paragraph. Refer to something mentioned in the introduction or use similar language to create a sense of unity and closure in your essay.

Offer a Final Insight or Perspective

Provide a final perspective related to your topic. This can be a thought-provoking comment, a recommendation, a call to action, a broader implication of your argument, or even a provocative insight. Consider the "So What?" question – why should the reader care about your essay's topic?

Avoid Introducing New Information

Your final sentence is not the place to introduce new information or arguments. Stick to summarizing and tying up what you've already presented in the essay without any new ideas.

Keep It Concise

Essay conclusions should be concise and to the point. Maintain control by avoiding extensive detail or rehashing the entire essay. Aim for clarity and brevity.

Avoid Clichés

Avoid overused phrases and clichés. Instead, find more creative and engaging ways to write good conclusion sentences.

Consider the Tone

The tone of your conclusion should match the tone of your essay. If your essay is formal, keep the conclusion formal. If it's more casual or personal, maintain that tone. Always conclude essays on a positive note.

After writing your conclusion, take the time to proofread and edit it. Ensure there are no grammatical or spelling errors and that the language is clear and concise. This will leave a good final impression.

Think About the Reader

Put yourself in the reader's shoes. Consider what you would want to take away from the essay and what kind of conclusion would be most satisfying and impactful for them.

Remember that knowing how to start a conclusion paragraph can significantly impact the reader's overall impression of your essay. A well-crafted conclusion not only provides closure but also reinforces your main points and leaves a lasting impact.

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Why Conclusion Writing Is Important

Writing a conclusion is important because it provides closure and completeness to the essay, reinforcing the main points and giving the reader a final perspective on the topic.

Many students wonder if it's possible to turn in an essay without a closing sentence. Some see it as a creative choice; others - because they don't understand how to write a good conclusion.

Basically, the absence of a conclusion in an essay can affect the overall quality and coherence, so we always recommend finishing any academic article with a strong concluding paragraph.

Here are several reasons why a conclusion is a must-have in any essay:

  • Summarizes key points: A conclusion provides an opportunity to recap the main points and arguments made in the essay. It serves as a summary of the entire essay, reminding the reader of the most important information and ideas presented.
  • Reinforces the thesis statement: The conclusion should reiterate the thesis statement or the central argument of the essay. This reinforces the main message and helps the reader remember the purpose and focus of the essay.
  • Provides closure: A well-written conclusion gives the essay a sense of closure. It signals to the reader that the essay is ending and provides a satisfying wrap-up to the discussion.
  • Offers a final perspective: In the conclusion, you can provide your final thoughts and insights on the topic. This is an opportunity to express your perspective or offer suggestions for further research or action related to the subject matter.
  • Leaves a lasting impression: The conclusion is your last chance to leave a strong impression on the reader. A well-crafted conclusion can make your essay more memorable and impactful.
  • Connects to the introduction: A good conclusion should link back to the introduction, creating a sense of unity and coherence in the essay. It reminds the reader of the journey they've taken from the beginning to the end of the essay.
  • Encourages reflection: The conclusion invites the reader to reflect on the content of the essay and its significance. It can stimulate critical thinking and leave the reader with something to ponder.
  • Guides the reader: A conclusion can guide the reader on what to take away from the essay. It can suggest implications, applications, or further considerations related to the topic.

Knowing how to make a conclusion is important because it helps tie together the various elements of an essay, reinforces the main points, provides closure, and leaves a lasting impression on the reader. It is a critical component of effective essay writing that can enhance the overall impact and understanding of your work.

If you'd like to know more about how to write an essay , we've prepared some useful tips for you. In the meantime, we'd like to demonstrate a couple of great conclusion examples essay authors shared for your reference needs.

Three Essentials of a Perfect Final Paragraph

We want to share some practical tips regarding how to write a conclusion for an essay. First and foremost, a concluding passage should start with restating a thesis statement.

It involves rephrasing or summarizing the key arguments of your essay while maintaining the original intent and meaning.

Don't forget to use different wording, parallel structure, and link back to the introduction. E.g.:

Original: "The advancement of technology has had both positive and negative effects on society."
Restated: "Society has experienced a range of consequences, both beneficial and detrimental, due to technological progress."

Secondly, summarize key points and prioritize the main ideas. Focus on the most significant and relevant key points that support your thesis.

You don't need to mention every detail, only the most crucial elements. Be concise and to the point in your summaries. Avoid using lengthy sentences or providing too much context.

Get straight to the core of each key point. Present the key points in a logical order that follows the structure of your essay.

This helps the reader follow your thought process. If your key points in the body of your essay were related to the benefits and drawbacks of technology, this is how you summarize them:

"In summary, this essay has explored the multifaceted impact of technology on society. We have discussed its positive contributions, such as increased efficiency and connectivity, but also examined the negative aspects, including privacy concerns and overreliance on screens. These key points underscore the complexity of our relationship with technology and the need for balanced, informed decision-making."

Thirdly, it's hard to imagine how to conclude an essay without connecting the conclusion to the introduction. Try to use similar or parallel language in your conclusion that was used in the introduction.

This could be in the form of specific words, phrases, or even sentence structures. Such a linguistic connection will reinforce the relationship between the two sections.

If your introduction posed a question, hypothesis, or series of questions, use the conclusion to provide an answer, reflect on the evolution of thought, or address how these questions have been explored and answered in the essay.

Discuss the significance of the introduction's ideas or themes in light of the discussion that has unfolded in the body of the essay. E.g.:

Introduction: "In a world driven by technological advancements, the impact of our digital age on interpersonal relationships remains a topic of great interest."
Conclusion: "As we navigate the ever-changing landscape of the digital age, the significance of maintaining authentic and meaningful connections in our interpersonal relationships becomes even more apparent. The insights gained in this essay reaffirm the importance of striking a balance between the virtual and the real, ensuring that technology enhances rather than hinders our connections."

Ten Mistakes to Avoid When Writing a Conclusion

Writing essay conclusions can be challenging, so students should know how to write a conclusion correctly. Here are ten hints to help you prepare excellent concluding paragraphs:

mistakes to avoid while writing conclusion

  • Repetition of introduction.
  • Introducing new information.
  • Being too vague.
  • Lack of clarity.
  • Overlength.
  • Failure to address the "So What?" question.
  • Inconsistency with the essay's tone.
  • Lack of connection to the introduction.
  • Neglecting to revisit the thesis.
  • Not leaving a lasting impression. ‍

Don't repeat these mistakes, and you'll know how to make a conclusion in an essay perfectly well. It's essential to plan your conclusion carefully, review your essay thoroughly, and consider the reader's perspective.

Practice and feedback from instructors can also help. However, if it isn't sufficient, buy essay online in a few clicks to get the upper hand.

How Much Time Does It Take to Start Writing Proper Essay Conclusions

Practice makes perfect. To master the art of writing conclusions, you'll have to demonstrate patience, skill, and experience.

The time it takes to learn to write great conclusions for essays varies from person to person and depends on several factors, including your starting point, your dedication to improvement, and the quality of feedback and guidance you receive.

There is no fixed timeline for writing great essay conclusions. It doesn't happen overnight.

However, with consistent effort and a willingness to learn from your experiences, you can steadily improve your ability to craft effective concluding paragraphs.

It's also worth noting that writing is a continuous learning process, and even experienced writers continue to refine their skills over time.

How an Effective Conclusion Paragraph Should End

Good conclusions should always end with concluding phrases that can provide a strong, memorable finish to your essay. Remember that the effectiveness of these phrases depends on the context and the specific message you want to convey in your conclusion.

Choose the one that best suits the tone and content of your essay while providing a clear and impactful ending:

  • In conclusion.
  • In summary.
  • To wrap it up.
  • In a nutshell.
  • To put it simply.
  • Ultimately.
  • In the final analysis.
  • As a result.
  • To conclude.
  • In essence.
  • For these reasons.
  • In light of this.
  • With all factors considered.
  • Taking everything into account.
  • Given these points.
  • In the grand scheme of things.
  • To bring it all together.

Knowing how to end a conclusion will help you convey the overall purpose and message of your essay to readers.

It will provide closure and give the reader a sense of completeness while reinforcing the main points and leaving them with a final thought.

Since we speak a lot about conclusions and connecting them to introductions, you might also like to brush up on how to write an outline for an essay .

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Conclusion Paragraph Examples

"In essence, mastering the craft of how to write conclusion of essay is essential for creating impactful and well-structured essays. By reiterating the thesis, summarizing key points, and leaving a lasting impression, we are writing conclusions that not only provide closure but also reinforce the central message of our essays. As we continue to hone this skill, our ability to communicate effectively through our writing will undoubtedly improve, making our essays more persuasive and memorable."
"In summary, learning how to write a conclusion paragraph requires careful consideration and practice. By reiterating the main point, summarizing key arguments, leaving the reader with a thought-provoking final message, and keeping the conclusion format in mind, we can create conclusions that not only provide closure to our essays but also leave a lasting impact on our readers. As we continue to refine this skill, our ability to write compelling conclusions will enhance the overall quality of our essays and make our writing more engaging and persuasive. As writers, we should continually refine our knowledge of how to end a conclusion paragraph to make our essays more memorable and impactful."
"To sum up, producing an effective conclusion is vital for any writer. Understanding how to write a good conclusion ensures that our essays have the power to resonate with readers, leaving a lasting impression and reinforcing the central message of our work. By following these principles, we can elevate our experience with how to make a good conclusion and engage our audience effectively. It's a skill that, once honed, can distinguish our essays and make them truly memorable, leaving a lasting impact on those who read them."

In this article, we've demonstrated how to write a conclusion - a vital skill for crafting effective college articles.

This knowledge will prove highly beneficial to your educational progress.

By guiding you in restating the thesis, summarizing key points, offering closure, reflecting on significance, and avoiding introducing new information in conclusions, we've equipped you with the tools to leave a lasting impression on your academic work.

This newfound expertise regarding how to end a conclusion in an essay will undoubtedly enhance your college success and contribute to your overall academic achievement.

Why Writing a Conclusion Is Important?

Writing a conclusion paragraph is important because it provides closure, summarizes key points, reinforces the thesis, and leaves a lasting impression on the reader, ensuring that your message is effectively communicated and your work is well-rounded and impactful. Knowing how to write a conclusion sentence allows you to tie together the main ideas presented in your writing. It offers an opportunity to reflect on the broader implications of your work. It allows your audience to leave with a clear understanding of the significance of your argument or findings. Moreover, a strong conclusion can leave a memorable mark on your reader, making it a critical element in effective communication and achieving the desired impact with your writing. That's why every student should know how to write a good conclusion for an essay.

What Is an Essay Conclusions Outline?

A conclusion paragraph outline is a structured plan that helps writers summarize key points, restate the thesis, provide closure, and reflect on the broader significance of their essay. It serves as a roadmap for crafting a well-organized and impactful conclusion. This outline typically includes a section summarizing the main arguments or findings, followed by a restatement of the thesis to reinforce the central message. It also guides writers in discussing the broader implications or significance of their topic. Writing a conclusion for an essay ensures that you effectively encapsulate the essay's core ideas and leave a strong and lasting impression on the reader.

How to Write a Good Conclusion?

Demonstrate that you know how to write a conclusion by restating your thesis, summarizing key points, providing closure, and reflecting on the broader significance of your work. Avoid introducing new information, and aim to leave a strong and memorable final impression on the reader. A good conclusion should tie back to the introduction and the main body of your work, creating a sense of completeness. While learning how to end a essay, it's essential to maintain a consistent tone and style with the rest of the piece, ensuring a harmonious flow. Engage the reader by highlighting the relevance and real-world implications of your topic, leaving them with a clear understanding of why your argument or findings matter. According to MBA essay writing service experts, a good conclusion is an integral part of grading criteria and should be featured in the article.

Any Tips on How to Write a Concluding Paragraph?

The concluding paragraph is a critical component of effective writing, serving as the last opportunity to make a compelling impression on your audience. If you'd like to learn how to write a good conclusion paragraph, start by reiterating your thesis or central argument, reinforcing the core message. Summarize the key points and arguments presented in the body of your work, providing a concise overview of your main ideas. Next, offer closure by crafting a conclusion that brings your narrative or argument to a logical and satisfying end. Lastly, refrain from introducing new information, as this can disrupt the flow and purpose of your conclusion. When practicing how to write conclusion in essay, focus on reinforcing the existing content and leaving a memorable final impression on your readers.

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How to Write a Conclusion

Last Updated: July 15, 2023

Template and Sample Conclusion

This article was co-authored by Christopher Taylor, PhD and by wikiHow staff writer, Danielle Blinka, MA, MPA . Christopher Taylor is an Adjunct Assistant Professor of English at Austin Community College in Texas. He received his PhD in English Literature and Medieval Studies from the University of Texas at Austin in 2014. This article has been viewed 480,818 times.

Writing the introduction and body of a paper is a big accomplishment. Now you need to write your conclusion. Writing a conclusion can feel difficult, but it's easier if you plan ahead. First, format your conclusion by revisiting your thesis, summarizing your arguments, and making a final statement. Then, re-read and revise your conclusion to make it effective.

how long is a conclusion essay

  • Let’s say your thesis reads, “Allowing students to visit the library during lunch improves campus life and supports academic achievement because it encourages reading, allows students to start assignments early, and provides a refuge for students who eat alone.”
  • You might restate it as, “Evidence shows students who have access to their school’s library during lunch check out more books and are more likely to complete their homework; additionally, students aren’t forced to eat alone.”

Step 2 Summarize your argument in 1-2 sentences.

  • You might write, “According to data, students checked out more books when they were allowed to visit their library during lunch, used that time to do research and ask for help with homework, and reported feeling less alone at lunch time. This shows that opening up the library during lunch can improve student life and academic performance."
  • If you’re writing an argument essay, address the opposing argument, as well. You might write, “Although administrators worry that students will walk the halls instead of going to the library, schools that allow students into the library during lunch reported less behavioral issues during lunch than schools that don’t allow students in the library. Data show that students were spending that time checking out more books and working on homework assignments.” [3] X Trustworthy Source Purdue Online Writing Lab Trusted resource for writing and citation guidelines Go to source

Step 3 End your paper with a statement that makes your reader think.

  • Call your reader to action . For example, “By working with school administrators, Greenlawn ISD can increase academic achievement by letting students use the library during lunch.”
  • End with a warning . You might write, “If students aren’t allowed to use the library during lunch, they are missing out on a valuable learning opportunity they’ll never get back.”
  • Evoke an image . Write, “Next year, students at Greenlawn could be gathered around a table in the library reading or broadening their minds.”
  • Compare your topic to something universal to help your reader relate . You might write, “Everyone knows how stressful it is to have a planner full of assignments, so having extra time to work on them during lunch would be a great relief to many students.”
  • Show why the issue is significant. Write, "Giving students more time to spend in the library will help them become more comfortable spending time there, which also helps the library's mission."
  • Predict what would happen if your ideas are implemented . Say, “Next year, students at Greenlawn could increase their academic achievements, but results will only happen if they can use the library during lunch.”
  • End with a compelling quote . For instance, "As author Roald Dahl once said, 'If you are going to get anywhere in life, you have to read a lot of books.'"

Step 4 Talk to your instructor if you have questions about the assignment.

  • You could also ask your instructor if you can see an example of a well-written conclusion to give you an idea about what they expect you to write.

Step 1 Avoid using introductory phrases like “in conclusion.”

  • If you want to use an introductory phrase, use a stronger one like “based on the evidence” or “ultimately.” You might also begin your first sentence with a word like “although,” “while,” or “since.” [6] X Trustworthy Source University of North Carolina Writing Center UNC's on-campus and online instructional service that provides assistance to students, faculty, and others during the writing process Go to source
  • Additionally, avoid “to conclude,” “in summary,” or “in closing.”

Step 2 Model your conclusion based on your introduction.

  • For example, you may have opened your introduction with an anecdote, quote, or image. Bring it back up in your conclusion. Similarly, if you opened with a rhetorical question, you might offer a potential answer in your conclusion.

Step 3 Include all of your points in your summary, rather than focusing on one.

  • For example, you wouldn’t want to end your essay about allowing students to use the library during lunch by stating, “As the evidence shows, using the library at lunch is a great way to improve student performance because they are more likely to do their homework. On a survey, students reported using the library to do research, ask homework questions, and finish their assignments early.” This leaves out your points about students reading more and having a place to spend their lunch period if they don’t like eating in the cafeteria.

Step 4 Make sure you don’t introduce any new information.

  • If you have introduced something you think is really important for your paper, go back through the body paragraphs and look for somewhere to add it. It’s better to leave it out of the paper than to include it in the conclusion.

Step 5 Proofread

  • If something doesn’t make sense or your conclusion seems incomplete, revise your conclusion so that your ideas are clear.
  • It’s helpful to read your entire paper as a whole to make sure it all comes together.

Community Q&A

Community Answer

  • Don’t put any evidence or statistics in your conclusion. This information belongs in the body of your paper. [11] X Trustworthy Source University of North Carolina Writing Center UNC's on-campus and online instructional service that provides assistance to students, faculty, and others during the writing process Go to source Thanks Helpful 1 Not Helpful 0
  • Make sure you aren’t simply repeating what you’ve written earlier. While you want to restate your ideas, present them in a new way for the reader. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
  • Don’t write your conclusion until you’ve written the entire paper. It’ll be much easier to come up with your concluding thoughts after the body of the paper is written. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0

how long is a conclusion essay

  • Never copy someone else’s words or ideas without giving them credit, as this is plagiarism. If you are caught plagiarizing part of your paper, even just the conclusion, you’ll likely face severe academic penalties. Thanks Helpful 5 Not Helpful 2
  • Don’t express any doubts you may have about your ideas or arguments. Whenever you share your ideas, assume the role of expert. [12] X Research source Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0

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  • ↑ http://writing2.richmond.edu/writing/wweb/conclude.html
  • ↑ https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/conclusions/
  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/general_writing/common_writing_assignments/argument_papers/conclusions.html
  • ↑ https://writingcenter.fas.harvard.edu/pages/ending-essay-conclusions

About This Article

Christopher Taylor, PhD

Writing a conclusion can seem difficult, but it’s easier if you think of it as a place to sum up the point of your paper. Begin your conclusion by restating your thesis, but don’t repeat it word-for-word. Then, use 1-2 sentences to summarize your argument, pulling together all of your points to explain how your evidence supports the thesis. End the paper with a statement that makes the reader think, like evoking a strong image or concluding with a call to action. Keep reading for tips on how to avoid cliches in your conclusion! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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How to Write a Strong Conclusion Paragraph

All’s well that ends well ... including your essay! Writing a strong conclusion paragraph for your college essay is important if you want to leave a positive lasting impression on your reader.

The conclusion is your chance to leave a lasting and thoughtful impression on your reader. You want to wrap up your essay in a way that makes the reader glad they took the time to read it.

Once you’ve laid out a solid introduction and supported your ideas with quality details, you want to finish strong by wrapping up your thoughts perfectly.

The conclusion paragraph, in theory, seems like the easiest part of an essay to write..really, you’re just wrapping up thoughts you’ve already written. But conclusions ( and introductions ) are sometimes the trickiest parts of an essay to get right.

Learning how to write a conclusion takes practice, but there are many tips to help guide you through the process. With a few hints about what to do (and what not to do), you’ll be crafting stellar conclusions in no time!

Why does a conclusion paragraph matter?

Your conclusion is your final word in the argument you’ve written out. It can inspire your reader to see things from a different point of view or challenge the reader to open his mind to new ideas. It also serves as a reminder of everything the reader has just learned and ties together all of the points you’ve made.

You want to craft your last words well so that people take something important away from what you’ve written. It should also provide an understanding of your topic as a whole and how all of the different claims you’ve made in your essay connect back to your central argument.

How should I format a conclusion paragraph?

There are some basic formulas that fit in with a standard college essay format that can help you get started on laying out your final thoughts.

Most conclusion paragraphs are four to five sentences long and should average between 50–75 words. They should be long enough to get your point across, but short enough that you’re not rehashing every idea you’ve ever had on the subject.

Conclusion paragraphs begin by revisiting the main idea definition . The first sentence reminds the reader of what this has all been about. This sentence revisits your thesis statement or main topic.

If you revisit the hook from the introduction of your essay and tie it into your conclusion, you’ll make your piece come full circle and tie all of your arguments together.

The next two to three sentences tie together the main points you have used to support your thesis or central topic. Finally, your closing sentence is where you drive home the meat of your message and leave a lasting impression on the reader.

What should I include in my conclusion?

Every conclusion is trying to accomplish similar goals: making a lasting and positive impression on the reader, tying all of the pieces of an essay’s argument together, and making the reader think. But the road to these goals can take many different directions.

There are a lot of options as to what to include in your conclusion. Here are a few to consider:

  • A connection to your hook. If you began your essay with a hook to get your reader’s interest, you can tie back into it at the end. Did you start off with a question? Provide the answer. Did you tell the beginning of a story? Let them know the ending. Using a hook is a great tactic to start a paper, and tying it into your conclusion artfully is an easy way to end your paper. ‍
  • An answer to the question “So what?” When you can’t think of what to say, pretend to be your reader and ask yourself, “So what?” When the reader reaches the end of your essay, they should completely understand your essay’s purpose. Why should they care about the argument you’ve been making? Take your main idea and ask, “So what?” Then keep digging deeper until you have the ultimate takeaway from what you’ve been trying to express. ‍
  • A solution. Or a challenge to the reader to think of a solution. If your essay involves a problem or an issue that needs to be solved, you can end with an answer to that problem. If it seems unsolvable, you can end with options that might get people closer to solving the issue. ‍
  • A poignant quote. If there’s a powerful quote that adds substance to your essay, feel free to add it. But it has to be relevant and tie together your concluding thoughts (and of course, give credit to the author).

What should I avoid in my conclusion?

You don’t want to put all of your hard work into a powerful introduction and fantastic body paragraphs, just to tank it in the end with a conclusion that goes way off course.

Be sure to avoid these common errors:

  • Repeating your introduction as your conclusion. Although it’s good practice to revisit your thesis statement or main ideas in your conclusion, make sure you rephrase your thoughts and present them in a slightly different light. You want to connect to your opening and reflect on it, but you don’t want it to be exactly the same. ‍
  • Introducing a completely new idea for the first time in the conclusion. After you’ve organized your ideas and made your claims, it’s very confusing to the reader if you throw in a random new idea at the end of the essay. It may seem like an exciting twist, but really, it’s just poor organization. Keep your focus on the main argument throughout the essay, especially when you are wrapping it all up. ‍
  • Using boring phrases to start your conclusion. In summary... In conclusion... These phrases (and others like these) have no place in a conclusion paragraph. Let your ideas and creative wording guide the reader to realize you’re wrapping up your thoughts. ‍
  • Changing your tone. The tone of your essay should be consistent throughout. If you’re very scientific in your entire essay, don’t end it in a really conversational tone. If your tone is very friendly and laid-back, don’t get extremely serious and judgmental in your conclusion. Whoever you are in the introduction, that voice should be clearly echoed in the conclusion. ‍
  • Rambling. Be succinct. This is not the time to start listing random thoughts or coming up with supporting details that really should have already been mentioned in previous paragraphs. Nor is it the time to restate the same idea over and over.

There are a lot of things to consider when concluding your essay. You want to hit the highlights, make people think, and leave them with a positive impression of what they have just read. You only have one chance to wrap things up nicely for your reader. Make your conclusion succinct, thought-provoking and powerful.

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College Essays

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Figuring out your college essay can be one of the most difficult parts of applying to college. Even once you've read the prompt and picked a topic, you might wonder: if you write too much or too little, will you blow your chance of admission? How long should a college essay be?

Whether you're a terse writer or a loquacious one, we can advise you on college essay length. In this guide, we'll cover what the standard college essay length is, how much word limits matter, and what to do if you aren't sure how long a specific essay should be.

How Long Is a College Essay? First, Check the Word Limit

You might be used to turning in your writing assignments on a page-limit basis (for example, a 10-page paper). While some colleges provide page limits for their college essays, most use a word limit instead. This makes sure there's a standard length for all the essays that a college receives, regardless of formatting or font.

In the simplest terms, your college essay should be pretty close to, but not exceeding, the word limit in length. Think within 50 words as the lower bound, with the word limit as the upper bound. So for a 500-word limit essay, try to get somewhere between 450-500 words. If they give you a range, stay within that range.

College essay prompts usually provide the word limit right in the prompt or in the instructions.

For example, the University of Illinois says :

"You'll answer two to three prompts as part of your application. The questions you'll answer will depend on whether you're applying to a major or to our undeclared program , and if you've selected a second choice . Each response should be approximately 150 words."

As exemplified by the University of Illinois, the shortest word limits for college essays are usually around 150 words (less than half a single-spaced page). Rarely will you see a word limit higher than around 650 words (over one single-spaced page). College essays are usually pretty short: between 150 and 650 words. Admissions officers have to read a lot of them, after all!

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Weigh your words carefully, because they are limited!

How Flexible Is the Word Limit?

But how flexible is the word limit? What if your poignant anecdote is just 10 words too long—or 100 too short?

Can I Go Over the Word Limit?

If you are attaching a document and you need one or two extra words, you can probably get away with exceeding the word limit by such a small amount. Some colleges will actually tell you that exceeding the word limit by 1-2 words is fine. However, I advise against exceeding the word limit unless it's explicitly allowed for a few reasons:

First, you might not be able to. If you have to copy-paste it into a text box, your essay might get cut off and you'll have to trim it down anyway.

If you exceed the word limit in a noticeable way, the admissions counselor may just stop reading your essay past that point. This is not good for you.

Following directions is actually a very important part of the college application process. You need to follow directions to get your letters of recommendation, upload your essays, send supplemental materials, get your test scores sent, and so on and so forth. So it's just a good general rule to follow whatever instructions you've been given by the institution. Better safe than sorry!

Can I Go Under the Word Limit?

If you can truly get your point across well beneath the word limit, it's probably fine. Brevity is not necessarily a bad thing in writing just so long as you are clear, cogent, and communicate what you want to.

However, most college essays have pretty tight word limits anyways. So if you're writing 300 words for an essay with a 500-word limit, ask yourself: is there anything more you could say to elaborate on or support your points? Consult with a parent, friend, or teacher on where you could elaborate with more detail or expand your points.

Also, if the college gives you a word range, you absolutely need to at least hit the bottom end of the range. So if you get a range from the institution, like 400-500 words, you need to write at least 400 words. If you write less, it will come across like you have nothing to say, which is not an impression you want to give.

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What If There Is No Word Limit?

Some colleges don't give you a word limit for one or more of your essay prompts. This can be a little stressful, but the prompts generally fall into a few categories:

Writing Sample

Some colleges don't provide a hard-and-fast word limit because they want a writing sample from one of your classes. In this case, a word limit would be very limiting to you in terms of which assignments you could select from.

For an example of this kind of prompt, check out essay Option B at Amherst :

"Submit a graded paper from your junior or senior year that best represents your writing skills and analytical abilities. We are particularly interested in your ability to construct a tightly reasoned, persuasive argument that calls upon literary, sociological or historical evidence. You should NOT submit a laboratory report, journal entry, creative writing sample or in-class essay."

While there is usually no word limit per se, colleges sometimes provide a general page guideline for writing samples. In the FAQ for Option B , Amherst clarifies, "There is no hard-and-fast rule for official page limit. Typically, we anticipate a paper of 4-5 pages will provide adequate length to demonstrate your analytical abilities. Somewhat longer papers can also be submitted, but in most cases should not exceed 8-10 pages."

So even though there's no word limit, they'd like somewhere in the 4-10 pages range. High school students are not usually writing papers that are longer than 10 pages anyways, so that isn't very limiting.

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Implicit Length Guideline

Sometimes, while there's no word (or even page) limit, there's still an implicit length guideline. What do I mean by this?

See, for example, this Western Washington University prompt :

“Describe one or more activities you have been involved in that have been particularly meaningful. What does your involvement say about the communities, identities or causes that are important to you?”

While there’s no page or word limit listed here, further down on page the ‘essay tips’ section explains that “ most essay responses are about 500 words, ” though “this is only a recommendation, not a firm limit.” This gives you an idea of what’s reasonable. A little longer or shorter than 500 words would be appropriate here. That’s what I mean by an “implicit” word limit—there is a reasonable length you could go to within the boundaries of the prompt.

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But what's the proper coffee-to-paragraph ratio?

Treasure Hunt

There is also the classic "treasure hunt" prompt. No, it's not a prompt about a treasure hunt. It's a prompt where there are no length guidelines given, but if you hunt around on the rest of the website you can find length guidelines.

For example, the University of Chicago provides seven "Extended Essay" prompts . You must write an essay in response to one prompt of your choosing, but nowhere on the page is there any guidance about word count or page limit.

However, many colleges provide additional details about their expectations for application materials, including essays, on FAQ pages, which is true of the University of Chicago. On the school’s admissions Frequently Asked Questions page , they provide the following length guidelines for the supplemental essays: 

“We suggest that you note any word limits for Coalition or Common Application essays; however, there are no strict word limits on the UChicago Supplement essays. For the extended essay (where you choose one of several prompts), we suggest that you aim for around 650 words. While we won't, as a rule, stop reading after 650 words, we're only human and cannot promise that an overly wordy essay will hold our attention indefinitely. For the “Why UChicago?” essay, we suggest about 250-500 words. The ideas in your writing matter more than the exact number of words you use!”

So there you go! You want to be (loosely) in the realm of 650 for the extended essay, and 250-500 words for the “Why UChicago?” essay.

Help! There Really Is No Guidance on Length

If you really can't find any length guidelines anywhere on the admissions website and you're at a loss, I advise calling the admissions office. They may not be able to give you an exact number (in fact, they probably won't), but they will probably at least be able to tell you how long most of the essays they see are. (And keep you from writing a panicked, 20-page dissertation about your relationship with your dog).

In general, 500 words or so is pretty safe for a college essay. It's a fairly standard word limit length, in fact. (And if you're wondering, that's about a page and a half double-spaced.) 500 words is long enough to develop a basic idea while still getting a point across quickly—important when admissions counselors have thousands of essays to read!

guy-with-magnifying-glass

"See? It says 500 words right there in tiny font!"

The Final Word: How Long Should a College Essay Be?

The best college essay length is usually pretty straightforward: you want to be right under or at the provided word limit. If you go substantially past the word limit, you risk having your essay cut off by an online application form or having the admissions officer just not finish it. And if you're too far under the word limit, you may not be elaborating enough.

What if there is no word limit? Then how long should a college essay be? In general, around 500 words is a pretty safe approximate word amount for a college essay—it's one of the most common word limits, after all!

Here's guidance for special cases and hunting down word limits:

If it's a writing sample of your graded academic work, the length either doesn't matter or there should be some loose page guidelines.

There also may be implicit length guidelines. For example, if a prompt says to write three paragraphs, you'll know that writing six sentences is definitely too short, and two single-spaced pages is definitely too long.

You might not be able to find length guidelines in the prompt, but you could still hunt them up elsewhere on the website. Try checking FAQs or googling your chosen school name with "admissions essay word limit."

If there really is no word limit, you can call the school to try to get some guidance.

With this advice, you can be sure you've got the right college essay length on lockdown!

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Hey, writing about yourself can even be fun!

What's Next?

Need to ask a teacher or friend for help with your essay? See our do's and dont's to getting college essay advice .

If you're lacking in essay inspiration, see our guide to brainstorming college essay ideas . And here's our guide to starting out your essay perfectly!

Looking for college essay examples? See 11 places to find college essay examples and 145 essay examples with analysis !

Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?   We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download them for free now:

Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to helping students succeed in all areas of life. She received a BA from Harvard in Folklore and Mythology and is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University.

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How Long is a Conclusion in an Essay?

The successful composition of an essay involves writing the introduction, its body, and the conclusion. However, many essay writers overlook the conclusion. They do not give their conclusions the much-needed attention. Remember, a good conclusion should ideally leave the reader with the main points you wished to convey through your work.

Some of the elements of an essay conclusion that any writer should focus on are its contents and length. This article concentrates primarily on the length of an essay’s conclusion. So, how long is a conclusion in an essay? Are 200 words too long for a conclusion? Stick around to answer these questions and many more on this topic.

A closing paragraph should generally be as long as necessary to wrap up the essay adequately. Nevertheless, there is an underlying rule that proposes the conclusion of any essay to be approximately 10 percent of its entire length. Therefore, according to this rule, a 500-word essay should have a 50-word conclusion while a 5000-word essay should have a 500-word conclusion.

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Note that there are several things that an essay’s conclusion should meet to be excellent. For example, a good conclusion should reaffirm your thesis, include a synopsis or summary of your main ideas, and make your discussion’s framework obvious. Therefore, the conclusion should leave your readers with a powerful impression and a sense of completion.

There are no universal rules that require the conclusion of an essay to have a specific length. However, a good conclusion meets the factors named in the previous paragraph. Educators and seasoned writers advise keeping it brief, to the point, and easy to understand.

Therefore, a solid paragraph can be three sentences. It can also be five or even ten sentences depending on your essay’s entire length. These number of sentences can translate to a single or sometimes up to three paragraphs.

How Long Should a Conclusion be in a 3000-Word Essay?

A conclusion in a 3000-word essay should be approximately 300 words. This is according to the inexplicit rule that requires the conclusion of an essay to be roughly 10 percent of its entire length. This number of words translates to about four to six paragraphs.

Note that a 3000-word essay is a pretty long essay that is approximately six pages single-spaced and twelve pages double-spaced. This length approximates 20-35 paragraphs.

Putting this length into consideration, it can only be fair for your conclusion to match the 10 percent length underlying rule. Therefore, your conclusion, in this case, will be roughly six paragraphs of 50 words each.

Can a Conclusion Be Two Sentences?

A solid conclusion cannot be two sentences. There are too many important details in the entire essay for a conclusion to cover in only two sentences. It should have at least three sentences. A substantial conclusion represents the whole paper.

For example, as earlier stated, a good conclusion should reaffirm your thesis, include a synopsis or summary of your main ideas, and make your discussion’s framework obvious. Therefore, there should be at least one sentence to cover each of the three elements.

Therefore, the perfect length of a conclusion is a minimum of three sentences. Please avoid writing short conclusions unless instructed by your professor.

How Long Should a Conclusion be in a 1000-Word Essay?

A conclusion in a 1000-word essay should be approximately 100 words. This is according to the inexplicit rule that requires the conclusion of an essay to be about 10 percent of its entire length. This length translates to approximately one to two paragraphs.

Remember that a substantial conclusion should make a direct reference to the original inquiry. It should also have a sentence or two that summarizes your primary point and a string of sentences that provide backing. Finally, the conclusion should include a concluding line that explains why your thoughts are significant to the field as a whole.

Therefore, taking all these factors into account and the essay’s entire length too, the conclusion will be roughly 100 words. This will translate to roughly two paragraphs of 50 words each.

Are 200 Words Too Long for a Conclusion?

200 words are not too long for a conclusion of an essay that is approximately 2000 words and above. In an essay with such a word count, a long conclusion is necessary to cover all the essential features of a substantial essay conclusion. Such a conclusion will wrap up the essay and summarize the paper’s main themes adequately.

However, 200 words for a conclusion will be too long for an essay with a shorter word length. Remember, if your conclusion is overly drawn out, you can start presenting ideas that you ought to have addressed in earlier sections.

How Long Should a Conclusion be in a 2000-Word Essay?

A conclusion in a 2000-word essay should be approximately 200 words. This is according to the inexplicit rule that requires the conclusion of an essay to be about 10 percent of its entire length. This length translates to approximately two to three paragraphs.

In a 200-word essay, there will be an introduction, a conclusion, and roughly four body paragraphs. Breaking down the number of words in each section, the introduction will have approximately 200 words. The body will carry around 1600 words with 400 words for each body paragraph. Lastly, the conclusion will be about 200 words.

So, how long is a conclusion in an essay? After reading this article, you would agree that there is no standard length that constitutes the conclusion of any essay. However, as a writer, you could use the 10 percent inexplicit length rule to guide you on a suitable word count for your conclusion.

How Long Is an Essay? The Ultimate Essay Length Guide

It’s safe to say that most students struggle with the word limit within an essay. Sometimes, it’s hard to find ideas for a text and meet the word requirement for every part of the paper. With so many factors influencing essay length, it’s easy to get confused.

The picture enumerates the factors influencing essay length.

Luckily, our custom-writing team has your back. In this article, our custom-writing experts will answer all your questions regarding essay length. We will also help you write papers with an ideal number of words!

📜 Is Essay Length Important?

📏 essay parts: recommended length.

  • 🤔 How to Make Essays Shorter or Longer
  • 📑 Essay Length & Formatting
  • ❓ Different Academic Levels FAQ
  • 📚 Essay Length: Different Types
  • ⭐ Other Aspects
  • 📝 Essay Examples

🔍 References

Often, the phrase “word limit” causes panic among students. After all, if an essay is too long or too short, your grade will be lowered. However, in reality, there’s nothing to worry about. When it comes to words, limitations are beneficial for both the students and the professors.

Let’s see what exactly it means.

Many people believe that the longer an essay is, the better. However, according to Frontiers, research shows that it’s a bias that couldn’t be further from the truth. A perfect-length paper is one that allows students to express their ideas and showcase their knowledge fully while keeping it clean and simple.

What Influences Essay Length

Various factors determine the length of an essay. Here are the most important ones:

Let’s start with the essentials. Usually, assignment length is given as a number of words rather than pages. Unless your supervisor or instructor mentions any specific limitations, it’s acceptable to be 10% below or above the word limit.

It’s also worth knowing the 80/20 rule . According to it, the body should constitute 80% of the text, while the intro and the conclusion take up the remaining 20%.

Keep reading to learn more about the recommended length of each essay part. The main numbers are shown in the table below:

How Long Should an Introduction Be?

An introduction is the first section and the face of your essay. For that reason, it needs to be compelling and well-thought-out. Usually, it consists of 3 to 5 sentences or 50 to 80 words .

An introduction must have a hook, some background information, and a thesis statement. While the attention grabber and the thesis are usually brief, you may need 2 to 3 sentences for the background. To avoid going overboard, try to stay on topic and don’t add any filler.

How Long Is a Body Paragraph in an Essay?

The length of a body paragraph may vary. Sometimes, it can be limited to a single sentence. In other cases, it may take up a whole page. Usually, it’s recommended to have between 80 and 200 words (5-8 sentences) per body paragraph.

Since the paper’s body contains the most information, it’s necessary to explain and support your ideas properly. That’s why it’s no big deal if your body paragraphs go slightly over the word limit.

How Many Body Paragraphs Should Be in an Essay?

Like the word count, the number of paragraphs is determined by the type of paper and its topic. The minimum is 1. Generally, however, the body consists of 3-5 paragraphs , 1 for each argument.

To improve your paper’s structure, ensure that there are as many paragraphs as there are points in your thesis statement. Each one should have a purpose and support your arguments. If there’s any fluff, it’s better to get rid of it.

How Long Should a Conclusion Be?

Like the introduction, the conclusion consists of 50-80 words . It’s essential to keep it simple and only mention the central ideas. A weak concluding sentence may affect the reader’s understanding of the topic and spoil the overall impression of your paper.

🤔 How to Make Essays Shorter or Longer: Best Tips

Undoubtedly the essay’s content is more important than the number of words you use. But there are times when students go more than 10-15% below or over the limit. Is there a solution to this problem?

Yes, there is! In this section, we will share the most useful tips to help you stay on point with your paper’s word count.

How to Make Essays Longer

Since having enough words is essential for a good grade, we’ve collected the best tips that can help you lengthen your essay without teachers noticing:

  • Use relevant quotations.  You don’t need to litter your essay with citations, but using them whenever appropriate is a great idea. For instance, if you’re working on a book analysis, referencing a couple of direct quotes from the source text will make your essay more credible and increase the word count.
  • Give examples.  Go through the claims in your paper and provide additional evidence where possible. It will make your essay longer and more informative.
  • Use transitional expressions.  Adding transition words and phrases is a natural way of increasing the number of words. It will also improve your essay’s readability. 
  • Add more references.  Providing references is always a good idea when writing a formal essay. That way, you will increase the number of words and make your paper more credible.
  • Work on your descriptions.  If you struggle to develop new ideas, go over what you’ve already written and consider adding some descriptive words. It’s a great idea for creative essays to include more imagery. 

How to Shorten an Essay

Another struggle of academic writing is cutting down the number of words in your essay to meet a set limit. We are here to tell you that it’s not that hard. Writing straightforwardly and keeping your sentences short is a key to concise content. Here are several strategies you may use to tighten a lengthy essay:

  • Choose the active voice.  It takes up less space than passive voice. Using it also makes your writing more professional and compelling.
  • Remove needless transitions.  Transitions can indeed maintain the flow of the paper. But some transitional phrases can be easily removed.
  • Get rid of unnecessary adverbs and adjectives.  Some students tend to overuse adjectives and adverbs. It adds wordiness to their writing.
  • Avoid running starts.  Some students like to start their sentences with long phrases like: “there are,” “it is believed,” or “the fact that.” Getting rid of them makes texts much more concise.
  • Delete “that.”  In most cases, the word “that” can often be easily removed from texts.

Another cool trick is to use our summarizing tool as essay shortener. Try it out!

📑 How Long Is an Essay Depending on Formatting?

As we mentioned earlier, the essay’s length is usually limited by the number of words. But sometimes, a teacher may ask you to write a specific number of pages. This is trickier because the amount of text you can place on the page depends on the formatting. By using the font size and spacing properly, it’s possible to make the paper visually longer or shorter. Let’s discuss it in more detail.

The picture describes how formatting affects essay length.

Essay Spacing: How Does It Affect the Length?

  • Adjusting the spacing between lines.  Try to make the changes as slight as possible. For instance, if you were asked to double-space the paper, use 2.1 or 2.2 spacing instead. Another option is to slightly extend spaces between paragraphs.
  • Extending the margin size.  You can increase the right and bottom margins by a quarter to make very subtle changes in length. For example, if the margins are 1 inch , you can set them at 1.25 inches instead. 
  • Increasing the spacing between characters.  It is less noticeable than the line spacing. Still, try not to overdo it and keep the numbers between 1.2 and 1.5 . 
  • Adjusting the footer.  Add a footer with page numbers to stretch the bottom margin even further.
  • Lengthening the header.  You can extend your header by adding your name, e-mail address, or other relevant information. Another option is double-spacing it.

Length of an Essay: Font and Size

  • Using the right type of font.  If your instructor didn’t specify which font you should use, go for the bigger ones. We suggest Arial, Bangla Sangam MN, Cambria, or Quicksand. They will make your text look longer without being too on the nose.  
  • Using a bigger font size.  This is another technique that can come in handy. However, be careful and don’t increase your font by more than 0.1-0.5 pt.  
  • Increasing the size of periods and commas.   This is one of the less noticeable tricks you can use. For instance, if your paper’s font is 12 pt. , increase it to 14 pt. only for punctuation marks. Italicizing periods and commas will also add several lines of length to your essay. 

What to Do if There Are No Length Guidelines

Sometimes a teacher sets no word limit for a written work. What to do in that case? Well, first, you can ask your professor to confirm if they have simply forgotten to mention it. But if that’s not the case, here are a couple of helpful solutions:

  • Think of the paragraph number.  Sometimes, you may be given the number of paragraphs instead of words. In that case, you can decide on the number of words depending on how many paragraphs you have. 
  • Think about the topic’s complexity.  The length of your paper is also directly dependent on the theme. If the topic is simple, 4-5 paragraphs will be enough. A more complex issue may require an in-depth explanation, so your essay can be 6-8 paragraphs long.

❓ Essay Length for Different Academic Levels FAQ

The length of the elementary school essay is usually short. Usually, a paper needs to have around 3-5 paragraphs, with 4-5 sentences per paragraph. Primary school essays can be 1-2 paragraphs long.

The word limit for a middle school essay is usually between 300 to 1000 words. The most common essay length is 500 words, which is about 5 paragraphs. However, it may differ from school to school.

The length of the high school essay may differ depending on the school and the complexity of the task itself. Usually, however, a paper can be between 300 to 1000 words long.

The length of the undergraduate college essay often falls within the range of 1500 to 2100 words. It translates into roughly 5-7 pages. 5 pages is the most common essay length at this level.

When it comes to the graduate school admission essay, the word limit is usually between 500 and 1000 words. It’s possible to go slightly over or below the set limit; however, it’s best to stick to the requirements as close as possible.

📚 How Long Should an Essay Be: Different Types

Now, let’s talk about different types of essays. How long should they be? Keep reading to learn about the length of college essays, short and extended ones, scholarship essays, and research papers.

How Long Is a College Essay?

When it comes to a college essay, it’s more important to stick to the word limit than with any other paper. Some teachers may refuse to read it unless it meets all the requirements.

The shortest limit for a college essay is about 250 words which is the shortest length of a Common App personal statement. It’s also rare to see a good college essay with over 650 words . So, an average piece usually has between 150 and 650 words ; you can go over or below the limit by 50.

How Long Is a Paragraph in College Essays?

A college essay usually consists of 4-5 paragraphs . One paragraph takes about 1/3 of the page, which is roughly 5 sentences . Each sentence corresponds with one of the following components:

  • Topic sentence.
  • Explanation.
  • Transitions.

College Essay Length Requirements: Top 5 Schools

To understand the requirements for a college application essay even better, take a look at the table below. It showcases the top 5 schools and their length criteria for personal statements. Keep it in mind when writing your college essay:

How Long Is a Short Essay?

A short essay is usually 500 words long. Using 12pt Times New Roman font with standard margins and double spacing should result in about 2 pages of text.

Extended Essay Length

An extended essay is different from a short or a standard one. It requires extensive research and thorough explanation. That’s why the upper limit for this kind of essay is 4000 words . In this case, a typical essay length is 3500 words or 18 paragraphs .

Scholarship Essay Length

Generally, scholarship papers have a limit of 500 words , which is 1 page in length. Most scholarship programs provide additional requirements that indicate the minimum number of words or pages. If there are no set limitations, you can stick to the limit.

How Long Is a Research Paper?

Typically, a research paper is between 4000 and 6000 words long. Sometimes, there are shorter papers, which have around 2000 words, or in-depth ones with over 10000 words.

⭐ Other Aspects of Essay Length

When it comes to essay length, many different aspects come into play. Here, we’ve gathered all the essential information regarding an essay’s number of pages, paragraphs, words, and references.

How Many Paragraphs Are in an Essay?

Sometimes, it is more convenient to count paragraphs rather than words. Let’s now figure out how many paragraphs are in essays of different lengths. You may also check out the examples to see what such an essay looks like:

How to Count Paragraphs in an Essay Based on Word Count

You can also count the number of body paragraphs for your essay using the formula below:

Number of body paragraphs (average) = (TWC – TWC*0.16)/100

  • TWC – total word count
  • 0.16 – an average percentage of total word count for introduction and conclusion
  • 100 – an average number of words per paragraph

How Many Pages Are in an Essay?

The number of pages in your essay may vary from subject to subject. But it’s still possible to determine the number of pages based on word count. Check out the numbers below to see the conversions with bonus examples:

You can also use a specialized calculator such as Word Counter to determine a number of pages in your essay.

What Does an Essay Look Like when Typed?

You might be wondering: what do essays of different lengths look like when typed? Well, here’s the table where you can find out the metrics for single- and double-spaced papers.

How Many Pages Are in a Handwritten Essay?

In case you need to turn in a handwritten paper, you should check out the table below.

Counting Words in a Handwritten Essay

If you don’t have enough time to count the words in your handwritten essay one by one, here’s what you can do:

  • Count how many words there are in one line. Take the first and last lines and a line in the middle of a page. Let’s say there are 15, 14, and 15 words in them. Then, the average number of words per line is 15.
  • Next, count how many lines there are on one page. Let’s say there are 17 lines on a page.
  • Take the number of words per line and multiply it by the number of lines per page. In our case, we multiply 15 by 17. So, there are 255 words per page on average.
  • Finally, multiply the number of words per page by the number of pages. If your essay has 3 pages, it is approximately 765 words long.

How Long Does it Take to Write an Essay?

It is crucial to know how long writing will take you, especially if you are working on an exam essay or just short on time. Note that you need to consider the time for typing and researching necessary to complete a piece. Research time may vary. Usually, it’s 1-2 hours for 200-250 words .

The picture shows the fact about the average speed of writing.

Below, we’ve gathered the average writing time for average and slower writing speed:

And here are the results in pages:

How Many References Does an Essay Need?

Another essential part of any composition is the reference list. Different academic levels require different references. You’ll find out how many of them should be in your paper in the table below!

📝 Essay Examples: Different Length

Finally, we’ve gathered some excellent sample essays of different lengths. Make sure to check them out!

We also recommend you check out our free essay samples sorted by pages:

  • 1-Page Essay Examples
  • 2-Page Essay Examples
  • 3-Page Essay Examples
  • 4-Page Essay Examples
  • 5-Page Essay Examples
  • 10-Page Essay Examples
  • 20-Page Essay Examples
  • 30-Page Essay Examples
  • 40-Page Essay Examples
  • 50-Page Essay Examples

Now you know all about essay length, word limits, and ways to lengthen or shorten your text. If you know other interesting tricks, make sure to share them in a comment! Good luck with your writing assignments!

You may also like:

  • How to Write a Process Analysis Essay: Examples & Outline
  • How to Write a Precis: Definition, Guide, & Examples 
  • How to Write a Critical Analysis Essay: Examples & Guide
  • How to Write a Narrative Essay Outline: Template & Examples
  • How to Write a Formal Essay: Format, Rules, & Example
  • Word Limits and Assignment Length: Massey University
  • The Paragraph in the College Essay: California State University, Long Beach
  • Introductions & Conclusions: The University of Arizona Global Campus
  • How Long Should a Paragraph Be?: Daily Writing Tips
  • Paragraphing (Length Consistency): Purdue University
  • Hitting the Target Word Count in Your College Admission Essay: Dummies.com
  • How Long Should Your College Essay Be? What is the Ideal Length?: College Vine
  • Writing Personal Statements Online: Issues of Length and Form: Penn State University
  • Pen Admissions: Essays: University of Pennsylvania
  • Essay Questions: University of Michigan
  • Essay Structure: Harvard University
  • Components of a Good Essay: University of Evansville
  • Write Your Essay: UNSW Sydney
  • College Writing: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
  • 21 Helpful and Easy Tips to Make an Essay Longer: Seventeen
  • How to Make a College Paper Longer: ThoughtCo
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Off-peak LIRR riders also deserve a break on fares

Kick off the people on the train who say they...

Kick off the people on the train who say they can’t afford it, a reader says about LIRR fare dodgers. Credit: Newsday/J. Conrad Williams Jr.

This guest essay reflects the views of Sabina Sethi Unni, a writer, urban planner and second-generation Long Islander who commutes into Manhattan from Long Island on the LIRR every day.

Perhaps you’re a construction worker who needs to be at a job site at 5:45 a.m. Perhaps you’re a nanny or domestic worker who cleans houses and starts at noon. Or a home care aide or nurse who starts a night shift at 9 p.m., or an adjunct teaching night school.

If you are, and you're commuting to or from Long Island, chances are you're riding the Long Island Rail Road during off-peak hours. Peak trains arrive weekdays in New York City terminals between 6 a.m. and 10 a.m., depart those terminals between 4 p.m. and 8 p.m., and have the highest demand and ridership. Everything else is off-peak. Peak tickets cost more than off-peak. But if you buy a monthly ticket to get a discount on daily fares, you pay the same price whether you're riding peak or off-peak. That's unfair and discriminatory.

It makes sense for peak fares to be higher than off-peak fares, and transit agencies stagger prices for a variety of reasons: increasing revenue based on higher demand (similar, but not quite, to Lyft and other ride-sharing apps), subsidizing extra costs like greater electricity use for extra cars needed for peak trains, and reducing the financial burden for students, senior citizens, riders with disabilities, and low-income customers who ride off-peak. Equal fares mean off-peak riders are subsidizing peak riders who put more stress on the system.

Daily commuters like me benefit from buying monthly tickets, which give peak riders a discount from 55% to 66.5% per trip compared to the cost of buying single peak tickets, depending on the length of the commute. But you won’t benefit from this if you’re a Long Islander who works outside “regular” hours because all monthly tickets are peak pricing.

Why is this discriminatory? Off-peak riders — often working-class New Yorkers in blue-collar and service industries dominated by people of color — are subsidizing fare discounts for peak riders, who have incomes at least 20% more than off-peak riders and take trips nearly double the length, according to City Observatory and the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. If you ride the train during off-peak hours every day and get a monthly ticket, you’re losing anywhere between $69.24 to $173.57 a month. Weekly off-peak 10-ticket passes are even more expensive than a monthly peak pass, ranging from $70 to $410 more per month.

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The MTA knows off-peak riders are disproportionately burdened by less frequent and reliable transit service (i.e., fewer trains and more cancellations). Why should these riders also have to pay thousands of additional dollars per year? And cost reductions often increase revenue. When the LIRR’s Atlantic Ticket program reduced ticket costs for rides between the LIRR's New York City stations to $5, ridership jumped 45% and revenue increased 22%.

Everyone deserves access to government-subsidized fees for public transportation, not just those who happen to commute on a 9-to-5 schedule.

Long Island has been forever plagued by the legacies of discriminatory housing practices, segregated schools, income inequality, and racism. The LIRR is not the salve for these issues, but small changes are a start to restitution. Instead of worrying about whether congestion pricing might harm low-income Long Islanders, we should focus on LIRR pricing which already does, and create an off-peak discounted monthly LIRR ticket.

If we can't make public transit truly equitable by making it free for all users, at least we can give off-peak riders the fare they deserve.

This guest essay reflects the views of Sabina Sethi Unni, a writer, urban planner and second-generation Long Islander who commutes into Manhattan from Long Island on the LIRR every day.

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Authorship of Federalist 51: the Architect Behind the Vision

This essay is about the authorship of Federalist 51, one of the key essays within the Federalist Papers, and its significance in the development of the United States Constitution. It highlights how James Madison, known as the “Father of the Constitution,” crafted Federalist 51 to argue for a system of checks and balances within the government. Madison emphasized the necessity of separating powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches to prevent tyranny and protect individual liberties. The essay also discusses Madison’s belief in a large republic to manage factions and ensure a balanced political landscape. Through Federalist 51, Madison’s insights on human nature and governance have had a lasting influence on American constitutional principles.

How it works

The authorship of Federalist 51, an essential essay within the Federalist Papers, has long been a topic of interest among scholars and historians. This particular essay is one of the 85 articles and essays promoting the ratification of the United States Constitution, collectively written under the pseudonym “Publius.” Federalist 51 is credited to James Madison, who is often celebrated as the “Father of the Constitution” for his pivotal role in its drafting and his profound contributions to the theory of federalism.

James Madison, born on March 16, 1751, in Virginia, was a key figure in the formation of the United States.

His education at the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University) equipped him with a deep understanding of political philosophy and governance. Madison’s collaboration with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay on the Federalist Papers was instrumental in shaping the newly independent nation’s foundational principles. While Hamilton and Jay also authored several essays, Madison’s contributions were particularly influential in addressing the structure of government and the separation of powers.

Federalist 51 is renowned for its articulation of the necessity of checks and balances within the government to maintain liberty and prevent tyranny. Madison’s core argument in this essay is that each branch of government must be independent and have sufficient power to check the others, ensuring no single branch becomes too dominant. This concept was revolutionary, emphasizing the need for a balanced government where powers are separated yet intertwined to protect the rights of individuals.

Madison eloquently argues that human nature requires such a system. He famously states, “If men were angels, no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary.” This acknowledgment of human imperfection underscores the need for a robust structure to manage the potential for power abuse. Madison believed that by dividing authority and creating a system of checks and balances, the Constitution could effectively guard against tyranny and protect individual freedoms.

The context of Federalist 51’s writing was the heated debate over the ratification of the Constitution. Many were concerned about the potential for an overly powerful central government that could infringe upon the rights of states and individuals. Madison’s arguments in Federalist 51 were aimed at assuaging these fears by demonstrating how the Constitution’s design inherently protected against such dangers. His vision was that each branch of government—legislative, executive, and judicial—would have distinct and separate powers but also mechanisms to check the other branches, thus maintaining a balance.

Furthermore, Madison emphasized the importance of a large republic in controlling factions. He argued that a larger republic would dilute the influence of any single faction, making it more difficult for any one group to dominate the political landscape. This idea was crucial in addressing the concerns of those who feared that a large, centralized government would be unresponsive to the needs of local communities. By extending the sphere of the republic, Madison believed that a variety of interests and factions would coexist, forcing compromise and preventing any single entity from gaining unchecked power.

Madison’s insights in Federalist 51 were not only theoretical but also practical, grounded in his deep understanding of human behavior and political dynamics. His ability to foresee the potential pitfalls of governance and design mechanisms to address them has had a lasting impact on the United States’ political system. The principles outlined in Federalist 51 continue to influence contemporary discussions about the balance of power, the role of government, and the protection of individual rights.

In conclusion, James Madison, through Federalist 51, provided a compelling blueprint for a balanced government that safeguards liberty and prevents tyranny. His arguments for the separation of powers and a system of checks and balances remain fundamental to the American constitutional framework. As a visionary and a pragmatic thinker, Madison’s contributions to the Federalist Papers and the Constitution have left an indelible mark on the fabric of American governance, ensuring that the principles of democracy and liberty endure through time.

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IMAGES

  1. How To Write a Conclusion for an Essay: Expert Tips and Examples

    how long is a conclusion essay

  2. Academic Conclusion

    how long is a conclusion essay

  3. How to write a conclusion in a college essay

    how long is a conclusion essay

  4. Conclusion Paragraph

    how long is a conclusion essay

  5. 🏆 How to start the conclusion in an essay. Parts of an Essay Conclusion

    how long is a conclusion essay

  6. How To Write A Conclusion Essay

    how long is a conclusion essay

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  1. How long should a conclusion be in an essay?

  2. How to write conclusion? |Conclusion in English Literature

  3. Conclusion Definition & Meaning

  4. How to write the CONCLUSION of an English Essay with an EXAMPLE

  5. How Long Does my Essay have to be?

  6. How to write CSS Essay ? Past Papers Solved CSS, IAS

COMMENTS

  1. How to Conclude an Essay

    Step 1: Return to your thesis. To begin your conclusion, signal that the essay is coming to an end by returning to your overall argument. Don't just repeat your thesis statement —instead, try to rephrase your argument in a way that shows how it has been developed since the introduction. Example: Returning to the thesis.

  2. Ending the Essay: Conclusions

    Finally, some advice on how not to end an essay: Don't simply summarize your essay. A brief summary of your argument may be useful, especially if your essay is long--more than ten pages or so. But shorter essays tend not to require a restatement of your main ideas. Avoid phrases like "in conclusion," "to conclude," "in summary," and "to sum up ...

  3. Conclusions

    Conclusions. One of the most common questions we receive at the Writing Center is "what am I supposed to do in my conclusion?". This is a difficult question to answer because there's no one right answer to what belongs in a conclusion. How you conclude your paper will depend on where you started—and where you traveled.

  4. How to Write a Conclusion: Full Writing Guide with Examples

    These three key elements make up a perfect essay conclusion. Now, to give you an even better idea of how to create a perfect conclusion, let us give you a sample conclusion paragraph outline with examples from an argumentative essay on the topic of "Every Child Should Own a Pet: Sentence 1: Starter.

  5. Conclusions

    The Writing Center Campus Box #5135 0127 SASB North 450 Ridge Road Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (919) 962-7710 [email protected]

  6. How to Write an Essay Conclusion

    1. Return to Your Thesis. Similar to how an introduction should capture your reader's interest and present your argument, a conclusion should show why your argument matters and leave the reader with further curiosity about the topic. To do this, you should begin by reminding the reader of your thesis statement.

  7. How To Write a Conclusion for an Essay: Expert Tips and Examples

    When wondering how to write a conclusion, it boils down to this: Conclusions should round off the topic and leave a strong impression in the readers' minds. We show you three key elements to a memorable conclusion.

  8. How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay

    An effective conclusion paragraph is vital to writing a successful college essay. A strong conclusion restates the thesis, offers new insight, and forms a personal connection. ... Civilization X believed that invading Civilization Y would help them survive long, hunger-inducing winters. But all people go through moments when they crave security ...

  9. How to End an Essay: Writing a Strong Conclusion

    End your essay with a call to action, warning, or image to make your argument meaningful. Keep your conclusion concise and to the point, so you don't lose a reader's attention. Do your best to avoid adding new information to your conclusion and only emphasize points you've already made in your essay. Method 1.

  10. Writing a Research Paper Conclusion

    Table of contents. Step 1: Restate the problem. Step 2: Sum up the paper. Step 3: Discuss the implications. Research paper conclusion examples. Frequently asked questions about research paper conclusions.

  11. How to Write an Essay Conclusion: Full Guide with Examples

    A strong conclusion should: summarize all the main points of the essay and tie them in with the thesis statement. highlight the most important argument of your essay. show the broader implications ...

  12. How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay

    To avoid potential point deductions, it's generally a good practice to include a well-structured conclusion, which usually takes 10-15% of your work (e.g., a 2,000-word essay should have a 250-word conclusion).

  13. How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay (Examples Included!)

    3. Don't undermine your argument. Although there might be several points of view regarding your essay topic, it is crucial that you stick to your own. You may have stated and refuted other points of view in your body paragraphs. However, your conclusion is simply meant to strengthen your main argument.

  14. How to Write a Conclusion: 9 Steps (with Pictures)

    It's better to leave it out of the paper than to include it in the conclusion. 5. Proofread and revise your conclusion before turning in your paper. Set aside your paper for at least a few hours. Then, re-read what you've written. Look for typos, misspelled words, incorrectly used words, and other errors.

  15. How to Write a Strong Conclusion Paragraph

    Most conclusion paragraphs are four to five sentences long and should average between 50-75 words. They should be long enough to get your point across, but short enough that you're not rehashing every idea you've ever had on the subject. Conclusion paragraphs begin by revisiting the main idea definition.

  16. The Best College Essay Length: How Long Should It Be?

    In the simplest terms, your college essay should be pretty close to, but not exceeding, the word limit in length. Think within 50 words as the lower bound, with the word limit as the upper bound. So for a 500-word limit essay, try to get somewhere between 450-500 words. If they give you a range, stay within that range.

  17. How Long is a Conclusion in an Essay?

    A conclusion in a 2000-word essay should be approximately 200 words. This is according to the inexplicit rule that requires the conclusion of an essay to be about 10 percent of its entire length. This length translates to approximately two to three paragraphs. In a 200-word essay, there will be an introduction, a conclusion, and roughly four ...

  18. How Long Is an Essay? The Ultimate Essay Length Guide

    Usually, it consists of 3 to 5 sentences or 50 to 80 words. An introduction must have a hook, some background information, and a thesis statement. While the attention grabber and the thesis are usually brief, you may need 2 to 3 sentences for the background.

  19. How to Write a Conclusion for a Compare & Contrast Essay

    A well-written essay should have at least three main components: an introduction, a body and a conclusion. While the introduction introduces the topic and draws the reader in, the body of the essay should consist of several paragraphs supporting the essay's main argument or hypothesis. A strong conclusion will satisfactorily draw an essay's ...

  20. How Long Should a College Essay Be?

    Revised on June 1, 2023. Most college application portals specify a word count range for your essay, and you should stay within 10% of the upper limit. If no word count is specified, we advise keeping your essay between 400 and 600 words. You should aim to stay under the specified limit to show you can follow directions and write concisely.

  21. Off-peak LIRR riders also deserve a break on fares

    This guest essay reflects the views of Sabina Sethi Unni, a writer, urban planner and second-generation Long Islander who commutes into Manhattan from Long Island on the LIRR every day. Perhaps ...

  22. Authorship of Federalist 51: the Architect Behind the Vision

    Essay Example: The authorship of Federalist 51, an essential essay within the Federalist Papers, has long been a topic of interest among scholars and historians. This particular essay is one of the 85 articles and essays promoting the ratification of the United States Constitution, collectively