case study business law politeknik

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Description: dpa30083 company law, read the text version.

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COMPANY LAW TOPIC 1: INTRODUCTION Company law by ROSLEZAYTI BINTI AJEH LECTURER OF COMMERCE DEPARTMENT POLITEKNIK MELAKA COURSE LEARNING OUTCOME 1,1Explain the following main legislation governing companies: 1.1.1 Discuss Companies Act 2016 1.1.2 Discuss Companies Regulations 2017 1.2 Explain the background of a company’s existence as a business entity 1.2.1 Outline types of Business Entities a. Sole Proprietorship b. Partnership c. Limited Liability Partnership d. Company 1.2.2 Compare between Sole Proprietorship, Partnership, Limited Liability Partnership and Company 1.2.3 Discuss the concept of Separate Legal Entity 1.3 Elaborate the following types of companies: 1.3.1 Explain Private and Public Companies 1.3.2 Explain Parent (Holding) and Subsidiary Companies 1.3.3 Explain Limited and Unlimited Companies 1.3.4 Explain Foreign Companies -BASIC PRINCIPLES OF COMPANY LAW- • Companies come in many different shapes and sizes, there are key differences in what they can and cannot do, and the purpose for which each is designed. • A company’s property belongs to it and not to its directors, management or shareholders. Even if you are a sole director and a 100 per cent shareholder, you can still be found guilty of stealing from your own company. • A company is responsible for its own debts and liabilities. The shareholders and, as a general rule, directors cannot be forced to pay them. • A company may be sued until all its assets have been exhausted, but no creditor can turn to the shareholders and ask them to meet any deficit. • Most companies are ‘limited by shares’, and they may be ‘private’ or ‘public’ companies. BASIC INFORMATION ABOUT COMPANY LAW IN MALAYSIA • A company must have a minimum of two directors, being natural persons of full age and having their principal or only place of residence in Malaysia and not under bankruptcy. • \"director\" shall not include an alternate or substitute director. • No person other than a natural person of full age shall be a director of a company. • The first directors of a company shall be named in the memorandum or articles of the company. -LIMITED LIABILITIES partnership- • is a concept where by a person's financial liability is limited to a fixed sum. • most commonly the value of a person's investment in a company or partnership with limited liability. • If a company with limited liability is sued, then the plaintiffs are suing the company, not its owners or investors. • A shareholder in a limited company is not personally liable for any of the debts of the company. • By contrast, sole proprietors and partners in general partnerships are each liable for all the debts of the business (unlimited liability). • Although a shareholder's liability for the company's actions is limited, the shareholder may still be liable for its own acts. • For example, the directors of small companies are often required to give personal guarantees of the company's debts to those lending to the company. Then he is liable for those debts. Differences Between LLP and general partnership • No requirement for issuance of share • No requirement for AGM • No requirement for submission of Financial statements to SSM • No requirement for audited account • More flexibility in decision making CHARACTERISTIC SOLE PROPRIETORS PARTNERSHIP PRIVATE & PUBLIC COMPANIES Differences Between Sole Proprietors , Partnership & Number Of Owners One person Compa2n-2i0epsartners Private :1 – 50 shareholders Public :1– unlimited Capital resources Owner himself All the partners that shareholders Profit & Loss involved Liabilities Owner himself According to the Divided according to the Existence partnership agreement companies agreement (Refer page 8-9:teks book) Unlimited liabilities Unlimited liabilities(jointly Limited Liabilities and severally liable with Keeps continuing Does not continue when the partnership) and can the owner passed away extend to personal assets of the partners. Does not continue when the partners passed away -TYPES OF COMPANY- PRIVATE COMPANY LIMITED BY SHARE.. ❑Private companies, denoted as \"Sendirian Berhad\" or \"Sdn. Bhd.,\" may be limited or unlimited. ❑A private limited company restricts the right to transfer its shares. ❑Limits its membership to no more than 50 members. ❑Prohibits public subscription to its shares. ❑Prohibits invitation to the public to deposit money with the company for fixed periods. ❑A private company may be classified as an 'exempt private company' if its shares are not beneficially owned directly or indirectly by any corporation and it has not more than 20 members. COMPANY LIMITED BY GUARANTEE ❑The liability of members is limited to a specified amount undertaken to be contributed to assets on the company's termination. ❑These are generally nonprofit organizations. PUBLIC LIMITED COMPANY BY SHARE ❑Public limited companies, denoted as \"Berhad\" or \"Bhd.“ ❑Whose shares may be offered to the public for subscription. ❑Companies may apply to the stock exchange for permission to have their shares listed. ❑A public company must be issued a certificate by the Registrar of Companies (ROC) before it can commence business. ❑It is required to issue a prospectus that is approved by the ROC before it can invite the public to purchase shares in the company. FOREIGN COMPANY ❑Companies incorporated outside Malaysia that do business in Malaysia are classed as Foreign Companies by the Companies Acts. ❑Before local establishment, a Foreign Company is required to deposit the following with the Companies Registry:- 1. A certified copy of its certificate of incorporation 2. A certified copy of the charter, statutes, and/or articles of the company that define its constitution. 3. A list of its directors and secretary 4. A memorandum of appointment stating the names and addresses of two or more persons resident in Malaysia authorized to act legally and responsibly on the company's behalf. PARENT COMPANIES & THEIR SUBSIDIARIES ❑A subsidiary company, subsidiary, or daughter company is a company that is completely or partly owned and wholly controlled by another company that owns more than half of the subsidiary's stocks. ❑The subsidiary can be a company, corporation or limited liability company. ❑The controlling entity is called its parent company , parent or holding company. ❑A parent company does not have to be the larger or \"more powerful\" entity, it is possible for the parent company to be smaller than a subsidiary, or the parent may be larger than some or all of its subsidiaries. ❑The parent and the subsidiary do not necessarily have to operate in the same locations, or operate the same businesses. ❑ Also, because a parent company and a subsidiary are separate entities, it is entirely possible for one of them to be involved in legal proceedings, bankruptcy, tax delinquency or under investigation while the other is not. ❑A subsidiary may itself have subsidiaries, and these, in turn, may have subsidiaries of their own. TOPIC 2: INCORPORATION OF A COMPANY COURSE LEARNING OUTCOME 2.1 Explain the concept of incorporation 2.1.1 Interpret the concept of incorporation 2.2 Detail the process for the formation of a company 2.2.1 Outline the documents required in forming company 2.3 Elaborate the effects of incorporation 2.3.1 Detail the characteristics of a company 2.3.2 Discuss the exceptions to the veil of incorporation / Lifting the corporate veil a. Statutory Exceptions b. Judicial Exceptions 2.4 Outline Promoter and the Pre-incorporation contracts 2.4.1 Indicate promoter 2.4.2 Discuss legal duties of promoter 2.4.3 Recognize the effects of the pre-incorporation contracts a. According to Common Law b. According to Companies Act 2016 2.5 Explain constitution of a company 2.5.1 Elaborate legal effects of the constitution 2.5.2 Discuss Doctrine of ‘ultra vires’ according to a. Companies Act 2016 b. Common Law 2.5.3 Interpret the amendment of the constitution 2.5.4 Simplify the effects of constitution INTRODUCTION Incorporation is a legal process used to form a corporate entity or company. Incoporating a business means turning a sole proprietorship or general partnership into a company formally recognized by the company law in Malaysia. FORMATION OF COMPANY Section 14 of Act provides the incorporation process: -Name of proposed company -status of private / public -Nature of business Effect of Incorporation of a Company A) COMPANY LIABLE FOR IT OWN DEBTS B)BODY CORPORATE ● 1.The shareholders are not liable for the ● Once a company is incorporated,the debts and liabilities of the company and company exists as a legal personality cannot be sued by company’s creditors. separated from its members. ● 2.A shareholders can be debtor or creditor of the company and sue by the company. •Case 11: Salomon vs Salomon Co Ltd(1897) •Case 12: Lee vs Lee Air Farming Ltd Effect of Incorporation of a Company C)LIABILITY OF MEMBERS D)PERPETUAL SUCCESSION •The liability of members depends upon the • Even if all company’s shareholders have sold type of company incorporated(company their shares to others and new shareholders limited by share/limited by guarantee/etc) come in, the company will not change its identity or personality. CONTRACTUAL CAPACITY A company has full contractual capacity and only the company can enforce its contracts STATUTORY EXCEPTION •Although the companies act 2016 recognizes that a corporation is treated as a separate legal person,the courts have from time to time exercised their discreation to disregard the separate legal personality and lifted the corporate veil to impute liability on the parties who operate behind it The circumstances are as follow: A.DISTRIBUTION OF DIVIDENDS OUT OF B.FRAUDULENT TRADING :SECTION 540 COMPANY'S PROFIT:SECTION 131(1) (1)FRAUDULENT OCCUR WHEN THE OFFICER COMPANY CARRIED OUT BUSINESS WITH THE INTENTION/DEFRAUD OF COMPANY'S CREDITOR C. LIABILITY FOR DEBTS: SECTION 540(2)IN D. DEFAULT IN CONTRIBUTION :SECTION 46 WINDING UP PROCESS, THE COMPANY'S OFFICER EMPLOYEES PROVIDENT-THE EMPLOYER AND CONTINUE TO CONTRACT A DEBT FOR THE EMPLOYEES SALARIES MINIMUM CONTRIBUTOR COMPANY AND HE/ SHE HAS NO REASONABLE/ 12% AND 11% RESPECTIVELY OF THE EMPLOYEES FUND.-IF FAIL, THE DIRECTOR WILL BE PENALTY AND PERSONALLY LIABLE FOR THE ACTION JUDICIAL EXCEPTIONS •Court will generally only do so if there has been serious misconduct, such as abuse of the corporate form/miss use of company property. A. Prevention of Fraud or improper conduct(case Lim Kar Bee vs Duofortis properties) B. Avoidance of contractual obligations and sham companies ( case Gilford motor co ltd vs Horne(1933) & (Jones v. Lipman 1962) C. Public policy or enemy character . Case Daimler Co.Ltd vs Continental tyres D. Agency. Cases: Re F.G (Films) LTD(1953) E. Group of companies.Cases The peoples insurance Co(M) v The Peoples insurance Co ltd (1986) PROMOTER AND THE PRE- INCORPARATION CONTRACT introduction The person who conceive an idea of a company, then decide and do the necessary work for formation of are called the promoters of the company. In other words, the promoter is a person who brings about the incorporation and organization of a corporation. Promoter bring together the person who become interested in the enterprise. MEANING OF • The idea of carrying on a business which can be profitably A PROMOTER undertaken is conceived either by a person or by a group of persons who are called promoters. After the idea is conceived, the promoters make detailed investigations to find out the weaknesses and strong points of the idea, to determine the amount of capital required and to estimate the operating expenses and probable income. • The term ‘promoter’ is a term of business and not of law. It has not been defined anywhere in the Act, but a number of judicial decisions have attempted to explain it. A ‘Promoter’ as “one who undertakes to form a company with reference to a given project, and to set it going, and who takes the necessary steps to accomplish that purpose” —Cockburn C.J., in the case of Twycross v. Grant DUTIES OF A PROMOTER Promoters have been described to be in fiduciary relationship with the company. This relationship of trust and confidence requires the promoter to make full disclosure of all material facts to the formation of the company. The promoter should not make any secret profit at the expense of company he promotes, without the knowlegde and consent of company and if he does so, the company can compel himm to account for it DUTIES OF PROMOTER 1. 3. To disclose the secret The promoter must profit make good to the 2. company what he has obtained as a trustee To disclose all the material facts 4. Duty to disclose private arrangements ERLANGER V NEW SOMBRERO PHOSPHATE CO (1878) 3 APP CAS 1218 FACTS • Erlanger was a French banker who bought the lease for the Anguilian island of “Sombrero”, phosphate mining for £55,000. • Erlanger then established New Erlanger Phosphate Co (Phosphate), before selling Sombrero’s lease to Phosphate for £110,000 through a nominee. • One of Phosphate’s directors was the Lord Mayor of London, who was independent of Erlanger’s initial group of founders. Two other directors were abroad, and the other directors were puppet directors of Erlanger. • Due Erlanger’s strong control over Phosphate, the company was essentially an extension of Erlanger. Phosphate ratified the sale of the lease. • Many people invested in Phosphate due to Erlanger’s skills at promotion. Eventually, the investors realised that Erlanger had sold the lease to Phosphate for double the price he had bought it for, and Phosphate sued Erlanger for recession due to non-disclosure and an account of profits. ERLANGER V NEW SOMBRERO PHOSPHATE CO ISSUES (1878) 3 APP CAS 1218 • Was Erlanger liable to Phosphate due to not disclosing to his conflict of interest? HELD • Erlanger was a promoter for Phosphate. The House of Lords unanimously held that the relationship between a promoter and a newly formed company attracts a fiduciary relationship. • The majority (Lord Cairns LC dissenting) also held that the contract can be rescinded. • A promoter owes duties of good faith and honesty to the company. • Erlanger should have declared any conflicting interests to the company promoted and cannot make any “secret profits”. • A promoter who breaches any duty to the company by failing to disclose to the company conflicting interests would be liable. The company is able to seek remedies such as rescission of contract and recovery of profits. • A constructive trust can also be formed for the profits gained by the promoter in breach of his or her duties. PRE-INCORPORATION CONTRACT Pre-incorporation contract is the contract entered by the promoter on behalf of the company before it has been registered. Before incorporation, the company is not artificial legal person or separate legal entity. So, it has not right to sue and be sued, may not buy and holds properties in its own name. The Promoters, while entering into the contract, acts as agents of the company. But when the principal, i.e the company is itself not in existence, become personally liable for all contract entered into by them evn though they claim to be acting for the prospective company. EFFECTS OF CONTRACT UNDER COMMON LAW Under common law as it s cannot be ratified and not enforceable in courts. Thus, outsiders have to face a risky situation where they engage into contracts with pre-incorporated company Newborne v. Sensolid supply tinned ham to Sensolid That action was dismissed Ltd. The price of tinned ham because Leopold Newborne fell and Sensolid Ltd. refused to (London) Ltd. had not been take further deliveries of incorporated at the time the tinned ham from Newborne contract was entered into EFFECTS OF CONTRACT UNDER COMPANIES ACTS 2016 Allows a company to ratify or accept any contract or transaction before incorporation KELNER V BAXTER (1866) FACTS • A group of promoters for a new hotel company, the “Gravesend Royal Alexandra Hotel Company” (Gravesend) entered into a contract for wine. • This contract was purportedly on behalf of Gravesend, but Gravesend had not at that point been registered. It was a “pre-incorporation contract”. • Gravesend was eventually registered, but by that stage the wine had been consumed before the money had been paid. Gravesend soon went into liquidation. • The promoters, as Gravesend’s agents, were sued. • The promoters argued that, as Gravesend had been incorporated, the contract had subsequently been ratified and the liability had passed to the company. KELNER V BAXTER (1866) ISSUES • Were the agents liable for the pre-incorporation contract post ratification by Gravesend? HELD • The Court of Common Pleas held that because the company did not exist at the time of the signing of the agreement it would be wholly inoperative unless it was binding on the promoters. • A stranger cannot, by subsequent ratification, relieve the promoters from that responsibility of liability. • A promoter can avoid liability if a substitute agreement novices the original pre-incorporation contract. Constitution Of a Introduction A company constitution is a document that generally Company specifies the rules governing the relationship between the company and outsiders and the members of the company. Unlike other , forms of contract that only bind those who are parties to it, a constitution is a special form of contract as it binds the company; shareholders who initially agreed to adopt a constitution and any future shareholders as provided in section 33(1) of Company Act. The constitution can be adopted either on or after the registration. The constitution of a company comprises of the Memorandum of Association and the Articles of Association. Company limited by guarantee, those constitutions are A) the company must be company limited by guarantee B) company objects C) the number of members with which the company proposed to be incorporated. D) the capacity, power, rights and privileges of the company. E) matters contemplated by this Act to be included in the constitution F) any other matters that the company wishes to include in its constitution. Legal Effects of the Constitution Based on section (23) of the Companies Act 2016. a) The company b) Directors c) Member The company, its directors ad shareholders are bound by the rights, powers, duties and obligations stated under the Companies Act 2016, except to the extent that such provisions are modified by the constitution and such modifications are permitted and do not contravene the Companies Act 2016 (section 31) [2]. The Companies Act 2016 will apply automatically on the rights, powers, duties and obligations of (section 31) [3] of: a)The company b)Its directors c) Its member 2.5.2 Doctrine of ‘Ultra Vires’ Under Companies Act 2016 Implementation, will have full capacity of a natural person. The doctrine and its effect on ultra vires transactions is still relevant for companies that decide to adopt a constitution. For a company limited by guarantee, the objects clause is mandatory in the constitution. The Company Act 2016 also provides that only a company limited by guarantee can be incorporated to achieve to the following objectives; A)providing recreation or amusement B) promoting commerce and industry C) promoting art, science, religion, charity D) promoting pension or superannuation schemes E) promoting any other object useful for the community or country. 2.5.3 Doctrine of ‘Ultra Vires’ Under Common Law An act of the company must not be beyond the objects clause, otherwise, it will be ultra vires and therefore, void and cannot be ratified even if all the members wish to ratify it. This is called the Doctrine of Ultra Vires, which has been firmly established in the case of Ashbury Railway Carriage and Iron Company Ltd v Riche (1873).

case study business law politeknik

Sharvinganesh Chandrasageran

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Business Law Notes: Politeknik Study Resources

Unraveling the intricacies of business law at politeknik.

Business law is an integral part of the curriculum at Politeknik, and for good reason. Understanding the legal framework within which businesses operate is crucial for success in the corporate world. In this blog post, we will delve into the world of business law at Politeknik and explore some key notes that every student should know.

The Importance of Business Law at Politeknik

Business law lays down the rules and regulations that govern commercial interactions and transactions. At Politeknik, students are equipped with the knowledge and skills to navigate the legal complexities of the business world. It provides a solid foundation for understanding contracts, intellectual property, employment law, and other legal aspects of business.

Key Notes on Business Law at Politeknik

Topic Description
Contracts Understanding the elements of a valid contract, the consequences of breach, and the remedies available.
Intellectual Property Learning about patents, trademarks, copyrights, and trade secrets, and their significance in business.
Employment Law Knowing the rights and obligations of employers and employees, as well as the legal aspects of hiring and firing.

Case Studies and Statistics

Let`s take a look at a real-life case study to demonstrate the practical application of business law at Politeknik:

Case Study: XYZ Corporation v. ABC Enterprises

In this case, XYZ Corporation sued ABC Enterprises for breach of contract. The court ruled in favor of XYZ Corporation and awarded damages amounting to $100,000. This case highlights the importance of understanding contract law and the potential consequences of non-compliance.

According to recent statistics, 80% of businesses that fail to protect their intellectual property rights end up facing legal disputes. This underscores the significance of intellectual property law in the corporate landscape.

Business law at Politeknik is a dynamic and essential aspect of the curriculum. The knowledge and insights gained from studying business law can shape future business leaders and entrepreneurs. By grasping the key notes and principles of business law, students can navigate the business world with confidence and integrity.

Legal FAQ: Business Law Notes Politeknik

Question Answer
1. What are the key principles of business law? Well, when it comes to business law, there are several fundamental principles that one must keep in mind, such as the principle of limited liability, the principle of separate legal personality, and the principle of corporate governance. These principles form the backbone of business law and play a crucial role in shaping the legal framework for businesses.
2. How does business law regulate contracts? Contracts are one of the cornerstones of business transactions, and business law plays a pivotal role in regulating them. From formation to enforcement, business law sets out the guidelines and requirements for a valid contract, ensuring that parties adhere to their obligations and responsibilities. It`s fascinating how business law seamlessly interweaves with the intricacies of contract law.
3. What legal considerations should businesses keep in mind when entering into partnerships? Partnerships are a complex legal structure, and businesses need to navigate a myriad of legal considerations when entering into them. Issues such as profit sharing, decision-making authority, and liability must be carefully thought out and addressed in the partnership agreement. It`s truly remarkable how business law provides a framework for businesses to structure their partnerships in a legally sound manner.
4. How does business law protect intellectual property rights? Intellectual property is an invaluable asset for businesses, and business law offers robust protection for these rights. From trademarks to patents, business law sets out the legal framework for safeguarding intellectual property, ensuring that businesses can reap the benefits of their innovations and creations. It`s awe-inspiring how business law fosters a climate of innovation and creativity through intellectual property protection.
5. What are the legal implications of business insolvency? Business insolvency can have far-reaching legal implications, touching upon issues such as creditor rights, debt restructuring, and liquidation. Business law provides a structured approach to addressing insolvency, offering mechanisms such as bankruptcy proceedings to navigate these challenging situations. It`s truly remarkable how business law offers a lifeline for businesses facing financial distress.
6. How does business law regulate competition and antitrust issues? Competition is the lifeblood of a thriving market, and business law plays a pivotal role in regulating it. Through antitrust laws and competition regulations, business law ensures a level playing field for businesses, fostering healthy competition and preventing monopolistic practices. It`s fascinating to see how business law strikes a delicate balance between competition and fair business practices.
7. What legal obligations do businesses have towards consumers? Businesses have a range of legal obligations towards consumers, encompassing consumer protection laws, product liability, and fair trading practices. Business law sets the standards for businesses to uphold the rights and interests of consumers, ensuring transparency and accountability in their dealings. It`s truly remarkable how business law places a strong emphasis on protecting consumer rights.
8. How does business law govern employment relations? Employment relations are intricately governed by business law, covering aspects such as employment contracts, workplace health and safety, and anti-discrimination laws. Business law ensures a fair and equitable framework for both employers and employees, striking a balance between business interests and employee rights. It`s awe-inspiring how business law seeks to create a harmonious and legally compliant work environment.
9. What legal implications should businesses consider in international trade? International trade presents a myriad of legal implications for businesses, from cross-border contracts to trade regulations and tariffs. Business law plays a crucial role in navigating the complexities of international trade, providing legal frameworks such as trade agreements and dispute resolution mechanisms. It`s fascinating to see how business law transcends national boundaries to facilitate global commerce.
10. How does business law address corporate governance and ethics? Corporate governance and ethics are at the heart of business sustainability, and business law sets the standards for responsible corporate conduct. From fiduciary duties to ethical codes of conduct, business law shapes the ethical compass of businesses, fostering a culture of integrity and accountability. It`s truly remarkable how business law intertwines with corporate values to promote ethical business practices.

Business Law Notes Politeknik: Legal Contract

This legal contract (“Contract”) is entered into as of [Date] by and between [“Politeknik”] and [“Recipient”].

1. Definitions 2. Scope Use
a. “Business Law Notes Politeknik” refers to the proprietary materials, including but not limited to lecture notes, presentations, and study guides, created by Politeknik for educational purposes. a. Recipient acknowledges that the Business Law Notes Politeknik are provided for educational use only and may not be reproduced, distributed, or used for any commercial purposes without the express written consent of Politeknik.
b. “Recipient” refers to the individual or entity who has been granted access to the Business Law Notes Politeknik for educational purposes. b. Recipient agrees to use the Business Law Notes Politeknik solely for their own educational purposes and may not share, sell, or otherwise distribute the materials to any third party without the express written consent of Politeknik.
c. “Politeknik” refers to the educational institution that owns the proprietary rights to the Business Law Notes Politeknik and is granting access to the Recipient for educational use only. c. Recipient acknowledges that any unauthorized use or distribution of the Business Law Notes Politeknik may result in legal action and damages being sought by Politeknik.

3. Governing Law. This Contract shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of [Jurisdiction], without regard to its conflict of laws principles.

4. Entire Agreement. This Contract constitutes the entire agreement between the parties with respect to the subject matter hereof and supersedes all prior and contemporaneous agreements and understandings, whether oral or written, relating to such subject matter.

5. Counterparts. This Contract may be executed in any number of counterparts, each of which when so executed and delivered shall be deemed an original, and all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument.


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A Critical Reflection on Issues and Challenges of Teaching Commercial Law to students of Diploma in Logistics and Supply Chain Management, Politeknik Metro Johor Bahru

Profile image of Siti Fatimatuz Zahra Hussin

Legal education no longer exists exclusively for law students who wish to enter the legal profession. Increasingly, law components are found in many other programmes including the programme of Diploma in Logistic and Supply Chain in Politeknik Metro Johor Bahru. This is important because all profession will also need to enter into a contract of law and its relevant field. However, students from other disciplines often find law uninteresting and difficult. Such negative experiences have been blamed on traditional ways of teaching law and the contents of learning law itself which is considered as dry, dull and not very interesting 1 .There are also many challenges and issues identified in teaching law courses to a non law students particularly to the Diploma of Logistics students. It is suggested that a different approaches of teaching different legal curriculum, a variety of integrated formative assessment methods and different pedagogy from that offered to pure law students to overcome these issues and challenges.

Related Papers

Rafidah Salleh

Law subjects have been perceived among non-law students as some of the toughest subjects in their studies. This perception might be true as law subjects are among the subjects with the highest failure rate in UiTM Sabah. LAW299, for an example, had a 55.4% failure rate in September 2015 final examination and LAW346 had a 40.2% failure rate in the April 2016 final examination. Various efforts and approaches have been carried out in addressing this high failure rate issue. In addition to the adoption of an expository approach in conducting classes, lecturers also use hands-on and collaborative approaches to add variety to the students' learning process. Despite such concerted efforts, the failure rate of students is still at a perturbing stage. This is predominantly true for students taking Business Law (LAW299). Thus, this paper aims to discover new approaches in teaching LAW299 to non-law students. Apart from that, it also seeks the opinions of Law lecturers on the possible teaching methodologies that will work best for non-law students. This study involved primary data collection as well as a review of related literature. Findings revealed that introducing new methods in assessing students may help students face law subjects confidently. Standardizing notes may also avoid confusion among students especially those who repeat the subject with a different lecturer. In addition, the utilisation of blended-learning may help students acquire skills in the technique of answering problem-based questions and guide students in applying the principles of law to the issues raised in the examination questions. It is hoped that from the findings of this paper, lecturers will be able to adapt their teaching approaches per the needs of students.

case study business law politeknik

International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention (IJHSSI)

hana suijuris

Many learners view the legal topic as difficult, challenging and tedious inherently. Therefore, something needs to be done to change these perceptions and transform the overview of the learners on this subject. This study aims to discuss the problems faced by students with non-law background in learning the law subject and to recommend strategies for the students to effectively learn the subject. To achieve the objectives, the doctrinal methodology is used by adopting library-based research. In addition, this study is largely based on the writer’s experience of teaching law to students with a non-law background in accounting school, UiTM Perak Branch, Tapah Campus. The writers analyzed the challenges and problems arising from teaching law to non-law students also explored effective solutions and strategies to deal with the issues. It is hoped that the recommendations proposed will have an impact on improving the teaching and learning strategies for future non-law students.

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International Journal of Engineering & Technology

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Upon attaining independence in 1957, most judges and lawyers in Malaysia received legal education and legal training in the United Kingdom. University of Malaya was the only premier law school in Malaysia during that time. Gradually, the number of law schools increased and now legal education is available in a number of both private and public universities in Malaysia. The landscape of legal education differ post 2008 when new law schools from public universities were made subject to a review conducted by the Legal Profession Qualifying Board (LPQB) – failure to obtain full recognition will result in students from the universities concerned, having to sit for Certificate in Legal Practice (CLP) examination. In the light of this development, legal education in Malaysia has become under strict scrutiny by the legal fraternity, and thus it is a question of what reasonable expectation should the country set on the legal education provided by universities. This article will address lega...

Proceedings of International Young Scholars Workshop

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There has been shift from, only ‘Class Room Learning’ to the ‘Clinical Method of Learning’ and it will be the major revolutionizing work in the history of Law Teaching. The researcher will discuss in detail the learning by doing method which can be used for teaching law students and also evaluating them. The present ‘Learning by doing Model" can also be used to evaluate various projects of students. Apart from that the researcher will present quite a few models to integrate the different subjects with clinical approach of teaching law and make recommendations as to how this can be mentored and evaluated. The researcher has discussed in detail the model adopted in Galgotias University and its pros and cons and how this model has helped the students in better learning.

Global Journal of Sociology: Current Issues

Maria João Mimoso

The present study is a reflection on the method of case study in learning law. To achieve this purpose we will discuss the traditional method and its limitations to the challenges of law in the era of globalization. We will emphasize the urgent need to implement the case study method in Portuguese law schools, as an instrument that enhances the active participation of the student, protagonist in the process of learning and knowledge acquisition. This study is justified today, especially the challenges triggered by the Bologna process, including the implication in the teaching, learning and assessment. The teacher is assumed as a supervisor of the learning process, calling for the autonomy of the student. It is intended that students develop critical thinking and be able to reflect on their own learning process. Therefore, the need to revise the traditional methodology here rooted in the teaching of law. A review of the literature will be carried out, which will seek to contextualize...


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Business Law Chapter 1 at Politeknik: Essential Principles and Concepts

Top 10 legal questions about business law chapter 1 politeknik.

Question Answer
1. What is the legal definition of a business entity? Ah, the wondrous concept of a business entity! It is a legal structure that allows individuals to conduct business activities under the protection of certain laws. Can include proprietorships, corporations, more. Beauty entities lies ability shield individuals personal liability, pursuit entrepreneurial endeavors bit peace mind.
2. What key differences partnership corporation? A partnership, a harmonious coming together of minds, involves two or more individuals joining forces to run a business. In contrast, a corporation, a majestic entity in its own right, is a separate legal entity from its owners, providing limited liability and perpetual existence. Each charms challenges, crucial choose structure best suits unique needs aspirations business.
3. What is the significance of legal personality in business law? Legal personality, a captivating notion, bestows upon a business entity the rights, responsibilities, and obligations that are akin to those of a natural person. Allows entity enter contracts, sue, sued own name, separate owners. It`s truly a marvel to witness the birth of a distinct, legal persona that can navigate the tumultuous waters of commerce.
4. What are the primary sources of law governing business transactions? Ah, the grand tapestry of legal sources enveloping business transactions! These sources include statutes, regulations, case law, and yes, the majestic common law. Each source contributes its own unique flavor to the complex brew of business law, guiding and shaping the conduct of commercial activities with a blend of tradition, precedent, and contemporary legal developments.
5. What is the significance of the principle of stare decisis in business law? Stare decisis, the noble principle of standing by decisions, is a cornerstone of the legal realm, imbuing business law with a sense of stability and consistency. Through this principle, courts are bound to adhere to precedents set in prior cases, fostering a sense of predictability and coherence in the interpretation and application of the law. It`s a testament to the enduring power of legal tradition and the evolution of judicial wisdom.
6. What role does contract law play in business transactions? Contracts, those elegant instruments of mutual promises and obligations, serve as the lifeblood of business transactions. They provide the framework for agreements between parties, governing the exchange of goods, services, and more. The symphony of contract law harmonizes the rights and duties of the parties, offering a beacon of order and predictability in the complex landscape of commerce.
7. How does the concept of agency impact business relationships? Agency, a captivating dance of authority and representation, allows individuals to act on behalf of others in business matters. This concept knits together the threads of business relationships, empowering agents to bind their principals through their actions and decisions. It`s a mesmerizing dynamic that shapes the intricate web of commercial interactions, weaving together the aspirations and interests of diverse parties.
8. What are the rights and responsibilities of business owners in a corporate setting? Oh, the noble saga of corporate governance! As owners of a corporation, individuals are bestowed with rights to participate in decision-making processes, elect directors, and partake in the fruits of their collective endeavors. Simultaneously, they bear the weight of responsibilities to act in the best interests of the corporation and its shareholders, fostering a delicate balance of power and accountability within the corporate realm.
9. How does intellectual property law protect the creations of businesses? Intellectual property, the ethereal realm of creative endeavors and innovative genius, encompasses the protection of trademarks, copyrights, patents, and trade secrets. Within this domain, businesses find sanctuary for their unique creations, shielding them from unauthorized use and exploitation. It`s a realm where imagination and innovation are revered, and where the fruits of human creativity find refuge from the winds of infringement.
10. What are the legal considerations involved in international business transactions? International business transactions, the captivating ballet of cross-border commerce, give rise to a myriad of legal considerations. From the complexities of differing legal systems to the nuances of international trade regulations, businesses wade into a realm of cultural, political, and legal diversity. It`s a thrilling adventure, where legal minds navigate the seas of globalization and seek to harmonize disparate legal landscapes for the pursuit of international prosperity.

Discovering the Fascinating World of Business Law Chapter 1 at Politeknik

As a student of business law at Politeknik, you are about to embark on a thrilling journey that will open your eyes to the intricate and captivating world of legal principles and their application in the business domain. Chapter 1 of the business law curriculum holds a special place, as it lays down the foundation for your understanding of the legal framework that governs the business world.

Key Concepts Business Law

Business law encompasses a wide range of topics, including contract law, corporate law, intellectual property law, and much more. In Chapter 1, you will delve into the fundamental principles that underpin the legal framework within which businesses operate. Some key concepts explore include:

Concept Description
Legal Systems Understanding the different legal systems and their impact on business practices.
Contracts Exploring the elements of a valid contract and the consequences of breach of contract.
Torts Learning about civil wrongs and their remedies in the business context.

Real-World Application

Business law theoretical concepts – real-world implications observed everyday business operations. Let`s take a look at a case study that illustrates the importance of understanding legal principles in the business world.

Case Study: XYZ v. ABC

In this case, XYZ, a software company, entered into a contract with ABC, a marketing agency, for the promotion of its new product. However, ABC failed to deliver the agreed-upon services within the specified timeframe, resulting in financial losses for XYZ. Result, XYZ sued ABC breach contract. The court ruled in favor of XYZ, holding ABC liable for the breach and ordering them to pay damages.

Your Journey of Discovery

As you begin your study of business law Chapter 1 at Politeknik, embrace the opportunity to explore the complexities and nuances of the legal framework that shapes the business landscape. By immersing yourself in the subject matter and seeking to understand its practical relevance, you will lay a strong foundation for a successful career in the business world.

Remember, the knowledge you gain from Chapter 1 will serve as a springboard for your future studies and endeavors in the field of business law. Stay curious, stay engaged, and let the world of business law unfold before you in all its fascinating glory.

Professional Legal Contract

This contract is entered into on this ___ day of ___, 20__, by and between the undersigned parties

Party A: [Insert Name]
Party B: [Insert Name]

WHEREAS, Party A and Party B wish to enter into a legal contract regarding the business law chapter 1 at Politeknik;

NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the mutual covenants and promises made by the parties hereto, the Parties agree as follows:

  • [Insert Definition]
  • Obligations. Party A Party B agree abide laws, regulations, policies set forth business law Politeknik.
  • Term. This contract shall commence date first above written shall continue completion business law Politeknik.
  • Governing Law. This contract shall governed construed accordance laws [Insert Jurisdiction].
  • Dispute Resolution. Disputes arising contract shall resolved through arbitration accordance rules [Insert Arbitration Organization].

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Parties have executed this contract as of the date first above written.

Party A: [Insert Signature]
Party B: [Insert Signature]

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Business Law and Practice

The purpose of this online course is to extend the understanding of basic contract law, and commercial property transactions relating to selected business law applications commonly encountered in business practice.  , availability.

Our distance learning courses are offered throughout the year to help you fit study around your work and life commitments. Courses are offered up to 12 times per year depending on demand and availability of academic staff. Exact start dates are in the course information pages and in our Enrolment dates page:

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Whether courses are delivered online, on paper or a mixture of both, there may also be components such as workshops, noho marae, work experience and practicum to participate in. To find out what your course involves check the course information page.

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  •   Level 6
  •   Credits 20
  •   Cost $601 NZ Domestic $2,010 NZ International
  •   EFTS 0.1667
  • Delivery type Online only
  • Teaching weeks 16 weeks
  • Workload Approximately 13 hours per week
  •   Exam dates 2024 Offerings Jun - 26 Sep 2024 Oct - 22 Jan 2025 2025 Offerings Mar - 24 Jun 2025 Jul - 23 Oct 2025
  • LES501 Introduction to the Legal System
  • LES502 Law Office Practice

If you need to discuss prerequisites for this course contact us

It will enable you to work competently and with minimum supervision to handle the processes and compliance requirements involved in the area of business law and practice while also developing a recognition of the limits to personal competence and training.

For more information watch the course introduction video below.

Students who successfully complete this course will be able to

  • Analyse and apply the legal principles and practices relevant to the role of solicitor for vendor and purchaser in an agreement for sale and purchase of a small business.
  • Analyse and apply the legal principles and practices relevant to the role of solicitor for the parties to other selected business transactions commonly encountered by legal executives.
  • Analyse and apply the legal principles and practices applicable to formation and use of small limited liability companies in situations commonly encountered by legal executives.
  • Prepare and critically comment on business documentation commonly used or encountered by legal executives.
  • 40% internally assessed

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You can do this course as part of these qualifications:

Certificate of Proficiency

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  • New Zealand Diploma in Legal Executive Studies (Level 6) (NZ3508)

Course availability over the next 12 months


case study business law politeknik

The Malaysian Lawyer

Latest updates on malaysian law, top 5 company law cases in malaysia for 2020.

case study business law politeknik

This article kickstarts the series of the Top 5 cases for the year 2020. This follows last year’s Top 5 Company Law Cases in Malaysia for 2019 , restructuring and insolvency cases , and arbitration cases . This year’s series will cover five areas: company law, tax, construction, restructuring and insolvency, and arbitration cases in Malaysia.

We start with this year’s top company law cases in Malaysia. I will do things a bit differently as there were a number of interesting company law decisions. So I group the cases (which are more than five) into five areas of company law issues.

#1: Rozilawati – High Court Decision on Notice of Board Meeting

(Rozilawati binti Haji Basir v Nationwide Express Holdings Berhad & Ors [2020] MLJU 1198. HC with the grounds of judgment dated 18 August 2020 )

Judge : Ong Chee Kwan JC

Why is the case important?

The full case update is here . This case establishes two important points.

First, the High Court clarified that there was no legal requirement for a board meeting notice to contain the matters or particulars of the business to be transacted at the meeting. Such requirement was, at most, best practice. This is unless expressly required in the relevant company’s constitution.

Second, it is not necessary for a deliberation or a formal voting process in relation to the subject matter in question before a resolution relating to the said matter can be validly passed.

However, do consider the impact of having the Third Schedule of the Companies Act 2016 (CA 2016) apply to your company. Paragraph 4 of the Third Schedule will require the notice to contain “ the matters to be discussed .”

#2: Bank of Nova Scotia – First Time Court Decides on a Debenture Holder Bringing Oppression

(The Bank of Nova Scotia Berhad and another v Lion DRI Sdn Bhd and others [2020] MLJU 1987, HC with grounds of judgment dated 26 October 2020 )

Judge: Ong Chee Kwan JC

This is the first known decision to interpret the term “ debenture holder ” in the context of the oppression provision in section 346 of the CA 2016. This term was also present in the previous section 181 of the Companies Act 1965.

It was always unusual that an oppression provision relating to shareholder remedies included a reference to “ debenture holder “. Only Malaysia, Singapore and Ghana has this reference. So this is the first decision in these jurisdictions on a debenture holder bringing an oppression action.

This decision made two points.

First, the interpretation of the term debenture and debenture holder for the purposes of section 346 of the CA 2016. The term ‘debenture’ in this context refers to debt or financial instruments issued for fundraising or arising from instruments effected in the money market. It did not mean a debenture being a form of charge over assets in respect of commercial loans. The latter interpretation would open the flood gates to permit creditors of the company to file oppression acts.

Second, a debenture holder within section 346 must be a member of a class of debenture holders. This is just as the section applies to protect a person who is a member of a class of shareholders. It does not include a person who is a sole debenture holder.

This decision is presently on appeal.

#3: Golden Plus Cases – Court of Appeal and High Court Decisions on Removal of Directors

(Golden Plus Holdings Berhad v Teo Sung Giap with Court of Appeal grounds of judgment dated 20 July 2020 )

Judges:  Suraya Othman JCA, Vazeer Alam Mydin Meera JCA, and S. Nantha Balan JCA

(Golden Plus Holdings Berhad v Teo Kim Hui and others [2020] MLJU 1049, HC with grounds of judgment dated 10 April 2020 )

Judge:  Ahmad Fairuz bin Zainol Abidin J

(Low Thiam Hoe and another v Sri Serdang Sdn Bhd & Ors [2020] 4 CLJ 618, HC with grounds of judgment dated 14 January 2020 )

Judge:  Darryl Goon J

Why are the cases important?

A series of three cases from the various litigation relating to the Golden Plus Holdings Berhad group of companies. These cases fleshed out important issues relating to removal of directors and holding of general meetings.

In the first case , the Court of Appeal emphasised the distinction between decisions made at the holding company level and at the subsidiaries level. The board of directors at the holding company passed a board resolution to remove an individual who had been appointed as legal representative and corporate representative at the holding company’s subsidiaries.

Hence, the legal issue was whether the holding company (through the holding company’s Board) could terminate the individual’s position in those subsidiaries without the Board of those subsidiaries doing so. It was argued that this could be validly done provided that the holding company showed that as the ultimate shareholder of the subsidiaries, its decisions would have been subsequently ratified.

Both the High Court and the Court of Appeal essentially held that the Board of the holding company could not act in that way. The holding company could not, by remote control, try to carry out acts that only the subsidiaries could do.

In the second case , the High Court interpreted section 310(b) of the CA 2016. Section 310(b) is unique to the CA 2016. The section allows a meeting of members to be convened by “ any member holding at least ten per centum of the issued share capital of the company .. .”

Would “ any member ” mean an aggregate of members holding at least the 10% of shares? Or did it mean that only a single member holding at least the 10% of shares? This was important since it was an aggregate of members that convened the general meeting to remove the directors.

The High Court held that “ any member ” could be both the singular and the plural. Hence, an aggregate of members holding at least the 10% of shares could convene the general meeting.

In  third case , the High Court interpreted the removal of a director and whether section 206 of the CA 2016 would always apply. I have written a case update on this decision before.

The section 206 mechanism sets out a few parts. In relation to a private company being the case at hand, subject to the constitution, a private company director may be removed by ordinary resolution. Next, special notice is required of a resolution to remove a director “ under this section “ . Therefore, the special notice requirement is only needed if the removal of the director was made under the section 206 mechanism.

But in this case, the removal of the director was made under the specific procedure and requirements spelled out in the subsidiaries’ constitution. The constitution merely required a removal by either special resolution or ordinary resolution. There was no constitution requirement of special notice. Thus, it was a proper removal under the constitution and it was not a removal of a director under section 206.

#4: Dato’ Gue See Sew and ISM – High Court Explains Shareholders’ Agreements and Oppression

(Dato’ Gue See Sew and others v Heng Tang Hai and others [2020] MLJU 46, HC with grounds of judgment dated 2 January 2020 ).

Judge:  Ong Chee Kwan JC

(ISM Sendirian Berhad v Queensway Nominees (Asing) Sdn Bhd and others [2020] MLJU 388; [2020] 1 LNS 322, HC)

Judge:  Azizul Azmi Adnan J

Both these cases assist in clarifying that disputes among shareholders under a shareholders’ agreement can still fall within the oppression relief under section 346 of the CA 2016. This distinguishes the Federal Court decision in  Jet-Tech .

The High Court decided that breaches were not mere breaches of shareholders’ rights simpliciter  as contained in the shareholders’ agreement. The breaches were in relation to the manner in which the affairs of the company were being conducted or how the powers of the directors are being exercised. Where the contended breach relates solely to matters between the shareholders inter see, that claim for breach must be pursued in contract and not under oppression.

However, even where the matter pertains to the affairs of the company, that does not mean the Court will permit an oppression action. Where the shareholders’ agreement provides for an alternative remedy, the Court would unlikely make a finding of oppression. It is only if the contractually alternative remedy is not adequate or appropriate that the Court will permit an oppression action.

#5: Yee Teck Fah – High Court Decides Company Secretary Owes A Duty of Care to Intended Transferee of Shares

(Yee Teck Fah and another v Wong Ngiap Lim and another with grounds of judgment dated 30 November 2020 ).

This is a rare case determining the duties of a company secretary, who those duties are owed to, and whether there was a breach.

Here, the company secretary was instructed to adjudicate, stamp and register the transfer of shares from the registered shareholder to the beneficial owners. Midway through the adjudication process, the registered shareholder instructed the company secretary to stop the transfer. There was a dispute as to the ownership of shares.

The beneficial shareholders, being the intended transferees of the shares, brought a claim against the company secretary.

First, the court held that there was no claim based on contract. The company secretary  did not have a contractual relationship with the intended transferees of the shares.

Second, the company secretary did owe a duty of care to these intended transferees to properly carry out the instructions to adjudicate, transfer and register the shares. The company secretary was expected to take into account the intended transferees’ interests in the shares.

Third however, there was no breach of this duty of care. There was no evidence that the company secretary acted negligently. Nothing to suggest that the company secretary had not exercised the skill and care expected of him.

This case is significant in establishing that a company secretary can owe such a duty of care to third parties, such as the intended transferee of shares. It is important that the company secretary exercises proper skill and care when carrying out the share transfer process.

Read the rest of the series:

  • Top 5 Tax Cases in Malaysia for 2020
  • Top 5 Construction Cases in Malaysia for 2020
  • Top 5 Restructuring and Insolvency Cases in Malaysia for 2020
  • Top 5 Arbitration Cases in Malaysia for 2020

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Boeing Struck a Deal With the Justice Department. What Comes Next?

The plane manufacturer must still resolve various legal challenges and operational problems tied to the troubled 737 Max plane.

A crowd of people, some with their hands painted. One woman holds a sign that says “We are the victims’ voice.”

By Niraj Chokshi ,  Danielle Kaye and Mark Walker

Boeing’s announcement on Sunday that it had agreed to plead guilty to a federal criminal charge as part of a deal with the Justice Department was the culmination of a yearslong crisis involving the company’s 737 Max plane.

The agreement may help Boeing put to rest a federal case stemming from two fatal crashes of the 737 Max in 2018 and 2019. But the deal is not the final word on that saga and may have little impact on other problems, including questions about the company’s production quality that were brought to light when a panel blew out of a Max jet during a January flight.

Here’s what else to know about Boeing’s deal with federal prosecutors and other challenges the company is dealing with.

What is expected to happen next?

Boeing and the Justice Department first reached an agreement in 2021 about the two crashes that allowed the company to avoid criminal charges. But federal prosecutors this year said that the company had violated the terms of that agreement and came up with a new one, which was agreed to in principle on Sunday.

Under the latest agreement, Boeing would plead guilty to conspiring to defraud the federal government. The company would also agree to an independent monitor, three years of probation and additional financial penalties. That includes a $487.2 million fine, half of which could be forgiven because of Boeing’s earlier fine payments.

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    case study business law politeknik

  2. contoh case study osha politeknik

    case study business law politeknik

  3. (PDF) Towards the Development of an Entrepreneurial Academic

    case study business law politeknik

  4. Business Law study case

    case study business law politeknik


    case study business law politeknik

  6. contoh case study osha politeknik

    case study business law politeknik


  1. Macaura V. Northern Assurance Ltd. (1925)


  3. How ca foundation students study business law first time 🤣🤣#cadream #viralvideo #viralshorts


  5. The acceptance of green technology: a case study in jkm politeknik kota kinabalu,sabah

  6. Case Study CA Foundation I Business Law Case Study Questions


  1. business law

    Rating. year. Ratings. Studying business law dpb30073 at Politeknik Sultan Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah? On Studocu you will find lecture notes, practice materials, mandatory assignments,

  2. Business Law

    Studying Business Law DPB30073 at Politeknik Kota Bharu? On Studocu you will find 28 practical, lecture notes, mandatory assignments, practice materials, tutorial ... END OF CHAPTER OF BUSINESS LAW IN BUSINESS STUDIES. Tutorial work 67% (3) Lecture notes. Date Rating. year. Ratings. ... CASE Study OB - aaaaaaaaaaaa. 1 page 2020/2021 None. 2020/ ...

  3. Business Law

    Studying Business Law DPB3063 at Politeknik Kota Kinabalu? On Studocu you will find 27 lecture notes, essays, summaries, mandatory assignments, tutorial work, ... Supporting CASE IN Business LAW-converted. 24 pages 2018/2019 100% (2) 2018/2019 100% (2) Save. Case Study 2 HR Wan Adam-converted. 5 pages 2021/2022 None. 2021/2022 None. Save ...

  4. DPA30083 COMPANY LAW Pages 1-50

    COMPANY LAW TOPIC 1: INTRODUCTION Company law by ROSLEZAYTI BINTI AJEH LECTURER OF COMMERCE DEPARTMENT POLITEKNIK MELAKA COURSE LEARNING OUTCOME 1,1Explain the following main legislation governing companies: 1.1.1 Discuss Companies Act 2016 1.1.2 Discuss Companies Regulations 2017 1.2 Explain the background of a company's existence as a business entity 1.2.1 Outline types of Business Entities a.

  5. Business Law Notes: Politeknik Study Resources

    The Importance of Business Law at Politeknik. Business law lays down the rules and regulations that govern commercial interactions and transactions. At Politeknik, students are equipped with the knowledge and skills to navigate the legal complexities of the business world. It provides a solid foundation for understanding contracts, intellectual ...

  6. (PDF) A Critical Reflection on Issues and Challenges of Teaching

    For example, in the Diploma of Logistics and Supply Chain Management program offered by the Politeknik Metro Johor Bahru, one of the core modules is "Commercial Law", which covers topics such as the Malaysian legal system, law of contract, legal business entities, law of agency, law of hire purchase, sale of goods law and negotiable ...

  7. Top 5 Company Law Cases in Malaysia 2021

    We start this year's Top 5 cases series with a feature on the Top 5 Company Law Cases in Malaysia for 2021 (see the 2020 Company Law Cases edition and the 2019 Company Law Cases edition). This list will cover decisions on shareholder's oppression, the shadow director, indemnity for officers, pre-emptive right and adjourned general meetings.


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  9. Business Law Chapter 1 at Politeknik: Essential Principles and Concepts

    Let`s take a look at a case study that illustrates the importance of understanding legal principles in the business world. Case Study: XYZ v. ABC. ... As you begin your study of business law Chapter 1 at Politeknik, embrace the opportunity to explore the complexities and nuances of the legal framework that shapes the business landscape. ...

  10. Nota DPB30073 Business Law Chapter 2 & 3 Sesi 2021 2022

    CHAPTER 2 : LAW OF CONTRACT. 2 Definition of Contract: ⚫ Section 2(h) Contract Act 1950 (CA 1950) : Contract is an agreement which can be enforced by law. ⚫ If one party fails to perform as promised, the other party can use the court system to enforce the contract and recover damages or other remedy. ⚫ Generally in Malaysia, the law of contracts is regulated by the Contracts Act 1950.

  11. Consumer Protection in Higher Education: A Case Study at Polytechnic

    This paper describes the. results of a qualitative and quantitative study on consumer. protection in higher education with Politeknik Negeri Bandung. as the case study. Normative rules including ...

  12. Business Law and Practice

    Jun. Study an understanding of basic contract law, and commercial property transactions relating to selected business law applications commonly encountered in business practice anytime and anywhere you want with New Zealand's specialised provider of distance and online learning courses and qualifications, Open Polytechnic NZ.

  13. West's business law: a case study approach

    Browsing Perpustakaan Politeknik Seberang Perai Shelves , Shelving location: Reference Close shelf browser. Previous. Next. KF888 J46 2001 ... KF888 M5543 2003 West's business law: a case study approach / KF888 T969 2005 ...

  14. PDF Programme Structure for Diploma in Business Studies

    (The numbers indicated under L, P & T represent the contact hours per week, to be used as a guide for time table preparation). * For Muslim Students

  15. 2020 CASE Study LAW

    2020 CASE Study LAW - make an example for future use references. its about explaination through the ... View more. Course. Business Law (DPB 30073) 3 Documents. Students shared 3 documents in this course. University Politeknik Port Dickson. Academic year: 2020/2021. Uploaded by: Anonymous Student. ... Politeknik Port Dickson. 3 Documents. Go to ...

  16. Top 5 Company Law Cases in Malaysia for 2020

    This article kickstarts the series of the Top 5 cases for the year 2020. This follows last year's Top 5 Company Law Cases in Malaysia for 2019, restructuring and insolvency cases, and arbitration cases. This year's series will cover five areas: company law, tax, construction, restructuring and insolvency, and arbitration cases in Malaysia.

  17. Why Britain Just Ended 14 Years of Conservative Rule

    For more than a decade, Britain has been governed by the Conservative Party, which pushed its politics to the right, embracing smaller government and Brexit.

  18. Trump Picks His Running Mate, and Political Heir

    transcript. Trump Picks His Running Mate, and Political Heir Former President Donald J. Trump chose the 39-year-old Senator J.D. Vance of Ohio as his vice-presidential nominee.

  19. End of Chapter of Business Law in Business Studies

    CASE Study OB - aaaaaaaaaaaa; Topik 3- Aspek-Aspek Perundangan Entiti Perniagaan - Only You My Law; ... END OF CHAPTER OF BUSINESS LAW IN BUSINESS STUDIES. Course: Business Law (DPB30073) 26 Documents. ... Business Plan POLITEKNIK rancangan perniagaan; Contoh Proposal-Kajian; BODY Posture - lmm; CASE Study OB - aaaaaaaaaaaa ...

  20. The Attempted Assassination of Donald Trump

    Senior law enforcement officials say the gunman was a 20-year-old man from Pennsylvania. archived recording 7 A gunman was on the roof of a building several hundred feet from the lectern where ...

  21. Boeing Plea Deal Involving 737 Max: What to Know and What Comes Next

    The agreement may help Boeing put to rest a federal case stemming from two fatal crashes of the 737 Max in 2018 and 2019. ... a law professor at Duke University who studies corporate misconduct ...

  22. Case study

    PROFESIONAL ETHICS PAPER dpa 50163 case study clo: perform accordingly the tax planning computation to reduce the tax liability under tax provision and rulings ... Topic 2 buss law - Notes for Business Law; Script for oral presentation (DR VET) Problem Based DPA40113; Preview text. DPA 50163 CASE STUDY. ... Politeknik Sultan Azlan Shah. 64 ...