• Section One: Introduction
  • Section Two: Learning and Teaching Resources to Support Integration of Mental Health and Addiction in Curricula
  • Section Three: Faculty Teaching Modalities and Reflective Practice
  • Section Four: Student Reflective Practice and Self-Care in Mental Health and Addiction Nursing Education
  • Section Five: Foundational Concepts and Mental Health Skills in Mental Health and Addiction Nursing
  • Section Six: Legislation, Ethics and Advocacy in Mental Health and Addiction Nursing Practice
  • Section Seven: Clinical Placements and Simulations in Mental Health and Addiction Nursing Education
  • Section Eight: Reference and Bibliography
  • Section Nine: Appendices and Case Studies

Section Five

Also in this section

This section supports educators with increased knowledge and skills to integrate mental health and screening, assessment and interventions related to mental illnesses in mental health and addiction curricula.

At the end of this section, the educator will ensure students achieve the following:

Educators will use the Resource Section to:

CASN/CFMHN Competencies

Mental health continuum.

The definition of mental health is much more holistic than it once was. According to the Public Health Agency of Canada it is: “The capacities of each and all of us to feel, think, and act in ways that enhance our ability to enjoy life and deal with the challenges we face. It is a positive sense of emotional and spiritual well-being that respects the importance of culture, equity, social justice, interconnections, and personal dignity” (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2014, para 2). However, mental health and mental illness are not the same thing. Mental illness is “a recognized, medically diagnosable illness that results in the significant impairment of an individual’s cognitive, affective or relational abilities. Mental disorders result from biological, developmental and/or psychosocial factors and can be managed using approaches comparable to those applied to physical disease (i.e., prevention, screening, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation)” (Epp, J., 2009, p. 82).

The “mental health continuum” best describes the relationship between health and illness where they are not at opposite ends of a single spectrum but on a continuum (Keyes, 2002). Every person can flourish or languish somewhere along the mental health continuum, and this state can vary on a daily basis. Inherent in the mental health continuum is the understanding that mental health is not simply the absence of mental illness. Rather the model adopts the notion that individuals can experience complete mental health even if they have been diagnosed with a mental illness (Keyes, 2002). On the other hand, individuals who are free of a diagnosed mental illness can still experience poor mental health if they have poor coping mechanisms. A useful tool for gaining further insight is the 2015 First Nations Mental Wellness Continuum Framework, which views mental well-being as “a balance of the mental, physical, spiritual, and emotional” that gives everyone—even the most vulnerable or mentally ill—an opportunity to live whole and healthy lives (Health Canada, 2015).

There is a relationship between being resilient and having good mental health. People who are “resilient” are able to recover from difficulties or change and move forward as they were before the disruption (Khanlou & Barankin, 2007). However, people who are resilient can develop a mental illness, which may lower resiliency (Khanlou & Barankin, 2007). Because nurses working in all practice settings along the continuum of health care will care for people with varying degrees of mental health and illnesses, they should be aware of and understand ways to improve resiliency in their interactions. Furthermore, faculty should impart not only the importance of using mental and illness knowledge to care for and impact populations, but to take leadership roles in advancing mental health promotion and driving improvements in mental health care delivery (CFMHN, 2016). Promoting mental health in fact encourages the development of resilience by implementing strategies that build on community-based strengths, provide opportunities, create safe places and encourage supportive resiliency (Khanlou & Barankin, 2007, p. 10).

Further research required: 

There are many different types of mental illnesses. Knowledge of the American Psychiatric Association [APA] (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5)—a classification and diagnostic tool for mental illness—is key for nurse educators to teach students about mental illness pathology in order to understand treatment and interventions related to specific mental illness. It may not be imperative to teach about every mental illness, but rather the educator’s role is equally important to have students learn where to find credible, reliable resources.

Teaching and Learning Activities

The following are teaching and learning activities that can be employed in the classroom to further support nurses in the integration of theory, principles and best practices related to mental health and illness.

Learner Engagement Questions

The following are thought-provoking and engaging learner questions that can be used to further discussions with nursing students regarding mental health and illness. These questions can be used either to stimulate discussion, engage students in critical thinking or be tied to class assignments and/or reflection exercises.

Evaluation and Self-reflection

The following tools can be used to evaluate students in their understanding and application of mental health and illness.




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Mental Health Nursing: Case Study

In the contemporary rapidly-developing world, healthcare can be noted as one of the most challenging areas. Both quality and safety of care depend on a range of diverse factors, including patients’ demands and expectations, financial constraints, inappropriate access to services, workforce issues and the need to adapt and continuously improve patient-centered care (Gopee and Galloway, 2014). In this connection, the scholarly literature states that effective governance is essential to ensure high-quality care in both inpatient and outpatient settings (Asamani et al. , 2016; Dickson, McVittie and Smith, 2020). This paper aims to examine the case study of a patient with emotionally unstable personality disorder and respiratory system issues, focusing on the role of leadership and interprofessional team collaboration. Using the evidence-based literature and personal experience, it is expected to identify the most suitable leadership styles and teamwork approaches.

In the given case, Mrs. B., a 35-year-old female patient, has emotionally unstable personality disorder and chronic pain. She returned from the leave to the hospital and was referred to the student nurse by a nurse in charge to monitor her vital symptoms. Mrs. B. was found unconscious in her room and resuscitated by the nurse in charge, while the Clinical Team Lead (CTL) was also present. This information was transferred to the Multidisciplinary Team (MDT, and when the student nurse noticed hypertension, high temperature and saturation, the Medical Emergency Team (MET) was called. Due to pain relief medication overdose, the patient was placed in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). This case shows a lack of proper leadership and management to ensure a high-quality and coordination of care providers, which resulted in health complications of the identified patient.

In order to understand the changes that could be applied to the given case study, it is critical to pay attention to the links between Mrs. B.’s diseases and the role nurses play in handling them. The review of epidemiological information on personality disorder shows the “prevalence of personality disorder of between 4% and 15%” in North America and Europe (Tyrer, Reed and Crawford, 2015, p. 720). In females, this prevalence is higher, and people with personality disorders have higher morbidity and mortality rates. These findings mean that mental health care nurses should be more attentive to their patients to detect any symptoms and address them in a timely manner. For example, Paton et al. (2015) and Antai-Otong (2016) are consistent in the assumption that evidence-based care should be applied to such patients. The attitudes of nurses towards patients are critical: their emotional and behavioral responses impact therapeutic relationships, as well as care delivery processes and outcomes (Loader, 2017; Mack and Nesbitt, 2016). Psychoeducation and training of nurses is a viable way to enhance their knowledge and attitudes (Clark, Fox and Long, 2015; Dickens, Hallett and Lamont, 2016).

In this case study, it is clear that nurses and teams already have a certain set of knowledge and skills, as well as experience working in the mental health unit. However, as health care transforms, and the nursing profession develops, they need new areas of expertise and strong leadership to guide their actions. In particular, there is a need to develop their competencies, clinical thinking, nursing diagnostic skills, and communication (Cope and Murray, 2017). The above authors emphasize that management focuses on people doing their responsibilities, but leadership prioritizes making people adopt correct behaviors and attitudes. Considering a lack of coordination among various care providers to help Mrs. B., it seems that transformational and participative leadership styles are most pertinent to making mental health care more focused, timely and patient-centered.

Higher life span, expectations and lifestyle choices set an additional burden on mental health care of the 21st century. The World Health Organisation (2013) distinguishes between six dimensions of quality, such as accessible, safe, equitable, efficient, effective and acceptable to patients. The fundamental aspects of care quality are patient experience, patient safety, and clinical effectiveness. The challenges of keeping the condition of the given patient stable are associated with the last two aspects, which can be minimized through the theory of transformational leadership. According to this leadership style, a leader should encourage people to do more of what they initially considered possible, through the exchange of personal ideas, knowledge and expertise (Huston, 2017). While not trusting employees, the leader may never find out about their problems and receive critical information. The leader can create an enabling environment by developing open, two-way communication in which he or she transmits and obtains information. Such an environment can be formed via the presence of the leader in the working area and building relationships with the members of a team.

It is beneficial for a leader in nursing to monitor the implementation of tasks daily and regularly checks the progress towards the main goal. It is important to clearly understand where they can achieve success since only in this case, people learn to develop and consolidate successes to further improve (Tafvelin, Hyvönen and Westerberg, 2014). For example, once every three months, it is worth testing the level of competencies of employees with subsequent analysis. Negative information is usually a warning or a signal of danger, but sometimes it makes it difficult to choose the right direction and often slows down the movement to the goal. A nurse with the psychology of a loser sees the mistake as the end of a failed action, losing the target and feeling guilty (Tafvelin, Hyvönen and Westerberg, 2014). A transformational nurse leader can use different methods to create an environment conducive to staff support and open communication.

Speaking of the strategies, one way is to conduct informal rounds of patient care units and consult with nurses about the problems they face. Giddens (2018) stresses that by participating in such events, the leader shows interest in the nurse as a person and demonstrates attention to staff performance. The atmosphere of open communication can also be designed by exchanging information with nurses at meetings. Another way to create a trusting environment is to involve nurses in the sectors of the Nursing Councils where they can share their knowledge and experience, contributing to better patient care. By providing nurses with the opportunity to engage in this type of activity, the nurse supervisor helps them gain new knowledge and skills and shows confidence in their abilities (Giddens, 2018). Guided by the theory of transformational leadership, a leader nurse contributes to the maximum development of the potential of nurses, empowering them to share views and remain open to changes.

Democratic leadership style is another option that is characterized by the distribution of power and authority among the team members. In a democratically managed team, leadership functions are divided between employees and the leader, who is often considered the most authoritative actor (Sullivan and Decker, 2013). Such an organization promotes two-way interaction between the team and its leaders. Greater decentralization of power means the greater influence of employees on policy development, decision-making and the application of control systems. Among the most important characteristics of the democratic style of leadership, there are the delegation of authority and ongoing consultations on important issues. In such a team, communication flows are actively working in both directions. The leader unquestionably bears the ultimate responsibility, but, at the same time, actively delegates authority to other members of the team. Compared to the transformational style, this leadership style is marked by an active transfer of information both from top to bottom and vice versa (Sullivan and Decker, 2013). Due to the participation of nurses in decision-making processes, their involvement is at a high level in both leadership styles.

As nurses participate in the decision-making process within the framework of the democratic leadership style, they are more inclined to contribute to their implementation, creating the conditions for greater creativity and productivity. Employees also try to take great initiative – they are looking for new methods for accomplishing tasks to work more efficiently in less time and cost, which ultimately leads to productivity growth (McKeown & Carey, 2015). The team’s creative spirit creates conditions for the growth of the level of innovative ideas and technological solutions generated by the employees. The right to make mistakes and constant feedback give place to creative thinking. The process of consultations and participation in decision-making boosts personal interest and openness (Huston, 2017). The culture of democratic management is considered by giving employees a certain responsibility and setting positive, motivating tasks for them (Harris and Mayo, 2018). This approach allows employees not to be afraid to talk about problems and difficulties, as well as ask for help in solving them.

The critique of the democratic leadership style is related to the issue of time. Namely, the decision-making process in a team requires time that an employee could spend on his or her job (Saleh et al. , 2018). It is clear that the collegial form is not suitable for every solution, and that it will be problematic in a crisis, when the speed of response is essential. In contrast, transformational leadership allows for making rapid decisions since it is the leader who guides others’ actions. On the contrary to transformational leadership, democratic leadership can engender a pseudo-participatory culture (Saleh et al. , 2018). In those situations where the leader does not adhere to a democratic manner, but only pretends, a serious threat to the formation of a culture of pretense and double standards may arise in the team.

In a democratic management model, team members can function even in the absence of a leader. However, the absence of a leader can lead to completely opposite results in cases where employees are not accustomed to a participatory style and do not have self-organization skills, or have not yet managed to develop sufficiently mature views and skills-building horizontal connections (Fowler, 2016). Some studies note that in the short term, there is great productivity at the initial stage (Tafvelin, Hyvönen and Westerberg, 2014). However, this period is usually replaced by a rapid decline in productivity in a long period. The level of productivity in authoritarian-driven teams falls significantly below the level of productivity of teams with democratic and transformational styles.

The application of nursing leadership theories is often associated with considerable barriers. A lack of incentives, poor communication, clinical cynicism, and a low level of confidence can be mentioned. Griffith (2015) states that confidentiality is especially significant in terms of nursing as it proposes making sure that patients’ sensitive information is kept securely and shared appropriately. According to the latest Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) Code, nurses can “share necessary information with other health and care professionals and agencies only when the interests of patient safety and public protection override the need for confidentiality” (NMC, 2015, p. 8). The inter-professional collaborative practice implies systematic and integrative care, and nurses should be aware of the above principle when they work in a team. The right to confidentiality is inherent to all the patients, who can stay aware of the process of care, as far as the law allows (Griffith, 2015). In this case, sharing patient information can be regarded as one of the benefits of interprofessional collaboration, which contributes to informed decision-making.

As care providers, nurses, physicians, nurse leaders, managers, and other team members, tend to behave differently in working settings. Each of them possesses a unique set of skills, knowledge and experience, but some clusters can be used to classify these behaviors. DaCosta (2020) examines Belbin’s teamwork theory, according to which there are nine basic roles. A leader has a role of a Shape to guide projects or a Co-coordinator to align tasks and relevant persons. In case of Mrs. B., the clinical team leader can take one of these roles to overview and monitor the entire process of care delivery. Another group of roles includes a Completer-Finisher, Implementer and Monitor-Evaluator, who are responsible for some specific action or procedure (DaCosta, 2020). For example, the nurse in charge and student nurse should monitor the patient’s symptoms and timely call for their colleagues, if necessary.

Since little attention was paid to the dosage of medication, it becomes evident that the team’s coordination is insufficient. It would be better if at least one of the team members identified this problem and prevented Mrs. B.’s health complications. In particular, the so-called “doers”, registered nurses, physicians or nurse assistants, could note and report about this problem. In the context of Belbin’s teamwork theory, there can be Plant-Innovators, who offer new ideas and promote the implementation of innovations into practice (DaCosta, 2020). For example, a manager of the ward or a social worker can take this role and prioritize staff and patient education to stop the patient’s leaves. Team Workers and Resource Investigators are the persons who support others and communicate across the disciplines, such as the nurse in charge. Ultimately, an Expert-Specialist role is to be taken by a nurse consultant to provide the depth of expertise.

The teamwork theory that is applied to the given case study above shows that patient-centered care, comprehensive care delivery and closing communication gaps are the key benefits of inter-professional collaboration in care settings. As rationally argued by MacKian and Simons (2013) and Wilson et al . (2016), collaborative care reduces medical errors and improves patient health outcomes. It becomes easier to notice and understand mistakes and insufficiencies when serval care providers hold their responsibility areas and share valuable information. The recent study by Coventry et al. (2015) points to the positive impact of partnerships in psychological care delivery, which is expressed in the improvement of patients’ self-management of chronic disorders. In addition, the cooperation between various caregivers allows for starting treatment faster due to connectedness and timely response to the emerging problems (Wilson et al ., 2016). It should also be stressed that it empowers the team members, who are invited to make recommendations and impact important decisions.

While inter-professional collaboration has a variety of advantages, some challenges should also be discussed. Among the most pronounced barriers, scholars list organizational, team-level and individual ones (Illingworth and Chelvanayagam, 2017). A lack of understanding and appreciation of others’ roles in a team and clearly-stated goals compose the main challenge at the organizational level (MacKian and Simons, 2013). There can also be resistance to cooperation, which is especially widespread between experienced and novice nurses, when the former does not want to share knowledge and skills with the latter. The policies accepted in hospitals can also impede the process of interdisciplinary cooperation (Illingworth and Chelvanayagam, 2017). In the given case study, the members of the team did not have clear instructions on how they should act in case of emergencies, which probably occurred due to leadership ambiguity. It would be better if the leader discussed this situation at the meeting so that the team would formulate and implement the guidelines to avoid similar cases in the future.

At the team level, the barriers to effective inter-professional collaborative practice include a lack of training, low professionalism of the team members, the absence of commitment to teamwork, conflicts and poor cooperation mechanisms. Beirne (2017) notes that individuals can also encounter prejudices, competition, a lack of trust and openness, as well as multiple responsibilities. It seems that the last three challenges are pertinent to the case of Mrs. B., which requires establishing a unified philosophy and developing a commitment to a common goal of high-quality care. These approaches inform inter-professional and multi-agency working, clarifying that all the team members should learn and recognize others’ contributions. According to a collaborative approach, the members should negotiate continuously to identify the roles, goals and practices (Dowell, Moss and Odedra, 2018; Watters et al. , 2015). It is also critical to ensure that teams respect others’ knowledge and skills and support positive attitudes towards the nursing profession. The need to establish mutual trust and responsibility underlies successful collaborative tendencies and outcomes.

Proper communications promote building honest and transparent interactions in a team. The readiness for interprofessional cooperation can be defined as a personality quality that contributes to the productive integration of individual activities of professionals in solving complex, multifunctional problems (Watters et al. , 2015). At the same time, from the perspective of the study, it is advisable to consider motivational readiness as a person’s readiness to transform his or her activity and change motives, when meeting with significant information that can affect such a transformation (O’Sullivan, Moneypenny, and McKimm, 2015). Based on the foregoing, readiness to change is a complex construct that contains in its structure not only communication but also cognitive, personal, and social components.

It is essential to note that the contribution of every team member is important for the ultimate goal achievement. The role of self in collective decision-making plays a key role to align personal and organizational stances. According to Watters et al. (2015), interprofessional increases the self-efficiency of a person in teamwork and leadership. In terms of the communication dimension, training leads to better staff performance and, consequently, result in improved patient outcomes. Among the main training needs, there is the ability to make informed decisions, effectively use evidence-based interventions, consider negotiation and consultation opportunities and shape a common understanding regarding care practices. Compared to a uniprofessional approach to training, interprofessional practices encourage the greater engagement of nurses and stimulate the interest in ongoing learning. Thus, communication, teamwork and leadership shape a triangle for effective interprofessional collaboration.

To conclude, it should be emphasized that a lack of strong and determined leadership, as well as poor team interaction, were the main causes of Mrs. B.’s health deterioration. The case analysis allowed for revealing that a range of professionals who were involved in care need to improve their awareness of others’ knowledge, skills and responsibilities. The patient had a medication overdose, leaves from the hospital, and had respiratory issues, and the failure to properly manage her condition points to the ineffectiveness of inter-professional collaboration. Transformational and democratic leadership styles were proposed to be applied by a leader to empower the team members to participate in decision-making and build interpersonal relationships. The examination of benefits and challenges to inter-professional team performance identifies the need to adopt a collaborative approach and focus on communication, which requires staff training, constant meetings, and open discussions.

Reference List


A 35 years old female patient who suffers from Chronic Pain and was diagnosed of Emotional Unstable Personality Disorder, returned on the ward from leave. For confidentiality reasons, this patient will be referred to as Mrs B.

The day had started with a handover session of three Registered nurses, two Healthcare Assistants and a second-year student nurse currently on placement on the ward. The nurse in charge delegated tasks and assigned the student nurse to monitor vital signs of Mrs B. On getting to Mrs Bs door, the student heard no response after knocking three times. She opened the door and saw Mrs B lying unconscious on the floor, the student nurse shouted for help and pressed the security bleep while the nurse in charge and the Clinical Team Lead (CTL) rushed into the room. The nurse in charge commenced resuscitation for ten minutes, Mrs B was eventually resuscitated and was placed on 1:1 observation monitored by the CTL to ensure that no adverse event occurs.

The nurse in charge advised the student nurse to conduct vital signs while she informed the Multidisciplinary Team (MDT), consist of Consultant, Manager of the ward, Physician and Social Worker of the incident. The student nurse conducted vital signs as instructed and found out that the vital signs of Mrs B were deteriorating. Her Pulse was 130, Saturation (SpO2) was 80%, systolic/diastolic was 197/80 and Temperature was 38.5. The student nurse sensed out that something was not right then called the CTL and the nurse in charge, both recalled their nursing skills, decide to call Medical Emergency Team (MET) and started to provide emergency aid. They changed the position of Mrs B and immediately got hold of a Physician who advised to give emergency aid to Mrs B. The MET gave clear instructions and active communication while the emergency aid was giving saved the patient from adverse event.

The MET arrived, and the student nurse recorded NEWS Score on Electronic Patient Records before the CTL handed over the vital signs results to the Team and took Mr B to intensive Care Unit (ICU) for a short period of time for further observations and was brought back on the ward after few hours. It was observed that Mrs B was suffering from respiratory and circulatory distress because of an overdose of pain relieve medication she took while on unescorted leave.

The MDT met and discussed on how to stop Mrs Bs unescorted leave and manage her mental and physical health on the ward.

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Mental Health - Definition and Case Study

Info: 1058 words (4 pages) Nursing Case Study Published: 29th Mar 2021

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5 evidence-based treatment practices in mental health nursing

mental health nursing case study assignment

Seven evidence-based treatment practices in mental health nursing

Scientific studies and research surveys show consistent proof to validate depression or other psychological disorders. There is ample evidence to prove how mental health issues can be fatal for the individual if left untreated for long. And it is only with a proper diagnosis that we can identify the symptoms and take care of them. 

Evidence-based practices or EBP refer to a holistic, patient-oriented approach. EBP is part of a more prominent framework called EBM or evidence-based medicine. Here are some of the popular evidence-based treatments, popular in the nursing sector.

What is evidence-based nursing?

The National Alliance on Mental Health defines evidence-based practice or EBP as scientifically proven methods to diagnose behavioural and psychological disorders. These practices follow a more niche approach to patient care, ensuring a higher success rate.

EBP techniques combine the best of individual patient-values and clinical experience. It is an innovative approach to healthcare that produces effective results.

Effective EBP practices

Evidence-based practices usually deal with mental health issues, psychological disorders, and substance abuse cases. Here are a few EBP interventions that nursing practitioners apply on the various situations they get

Cognitive behavioural therapy or CBT is one of the most noteworthy practices in evidence-based treatments. The traditional therapy techniques focus more on the doctor-patient rapport, built over multiple personal sessions. EBP, in comparison, is more scientific and hence has a standardized approach.

Patients struggling with anxiety and other psychological disorders often find themselves subjected to prejudice and stigma. This might discourage them from seeking medical help. EBP treatment is a progressive step towards spreading awareness of mental health.

Here are some of the standard EBP methods used in mental health nursing.

Regular therapy gives the doctor daily updates on the patient’s mental health.

Program for Assertive Community Treatment (PACT)

PACT helps patients get back to their healthy life under a watchful and safe environment. Nursing practitioners’ resort to behavioural patterns, observations, and brain scans to substantiate the diagnosis.

PACT focuses on outpatient treatments and ongoing therapy techniques. This carries on even after the patient has been discharged. Regular therapy gives the doctor daily updates on the patient’s mental health. It is easier to predict any relapse or identify trigger points in such cases, reducing the risk of any physical/psychological damage.

Integrated treatment for recurring disorders

A team of doctors and nursing professional usually provide multi-channel support to patients with behavioural and substance abuse issues. A combination of these two factors increases the recovery chances almost tenfold.

Some medical institutes and rehabilitation centres also provide housing facilities to patients. This ensures that the patient is under observation and can get immediate help if they relapse. These integrated programs often get government support and funding as well for proper functioning.

Illness management and recovery programs (IMR)

IMR or illness management recovery programs are interactive sessions wherein the patient actively participates in the recovery process. IMR includes regular weekly meetings with registered behavioural psychiatrists to discuss various exercises, activities, and treatments. This gives the patient better chances of getting back to healthy living and starts again

Mental health affects our day to day activities and interactions with people. Drug addicts, victims of trauma or patients with severe PTSD might find it difficult to function normally. With these interventions, nurses try to integrate them into society and boost their confidence slowly.

mental health nursing case study assignment

Medication treatment and evaluation (MedTEAM)

MedTEAM is a framework that provides in-depth research-based diagnosis reports to patients on their mental health. The primary purpose of this platform is to improve the patient’s quality of life and enhance their behavioural skills.

The physician or nurse in charge must have a detailed medical history of the patient. All future prescriptions are based on this report, and hence custom-made to suit the patient’s needs. The medical evaluation team keeps the patient and their family in the loop as well.

The Cochrane collaboration

The Cochrane collaboration is a body that helps patients make informed decisions about their treatment. Here, the doctor or nursing professional would give you a detailed, evidence-based diagnosis and the possible options available.

The Cochrane collaboration works in over 100 countries and has approx. 15,000 participants to date. This platform also gives patients access to healthcare professionals. You can directly contact the surgeons and understand the success percentage of any operation. With EBD diagnosis, doctors can be more transparent with the patient’s family.

Childcare trends organization

The stigma over post-partum depression have considerably reduced, and EBP plays a significant role in this change. Labour and giving birth to a baby is an exhaustive process, and some young mothers suffer from physical/mental trauma post-delivery.

Due to the residual trauma and hormonal imbalances in the body, the mother might not be able to bond with the new-born. Motherhood is not always a joyful experience. The Childs Trend Organisation is a body that actively advocates for post-partum depression patients.

A recent legislative move in 2016 , finally recognized PTSD and psychosis on mothers as a valid medical concern. As per evidence-based diagnosis, it is now standard practice to screen mothers post-delivery for the condition.

Evidence-based practices in nursing offer more than therapy and medication to the patient.

Permanent supportive housing for patients

Mental health issues crop up both internal and external reasons. The emotional responses to everyday struggles, socio-political breakdowns and personal responses can trigger depression, PTSD, and other disorders in people.

People turn to drugs and other substances to escape a deep-seated trauma. Such addictions can have life-threatening repercussions on the patient, driving them to self-harm and even suicide. This is where EBP comes into play.

Evidence-based practices in nursing offer more than therapy and medication to the patient. The professionals also help the patient rehabilitate and rebuild their lives from scratch and get back to normalcy. The patient receives assistance in finding independent housing facilities and earning opportunities.

5 A’s of EBP nursing cycle

Evidence-based practices are the general norm in mental health diagnosis. Nursing candidates would be familiar with the 5-A’s of the EBP cycle – ask, acquire, appraise, apply, and assess. The details of each step are discussed below.

Step 1: Ask the patient

The first step for any diagnosis is asking the patient. Here, the nurse enquires about the health- both mental and physical of the patient. The initial diagnosis consists of recording body stats like temperature, pressure, and sugar levels. A basic blood test gives insights on substance abuse or drug addictions.

This process continues over multiple sessions, wherein the patient opens up about their struggles and experiences.

Step 2: Acquire evidence

After the fundamental questioning, the nurse begins an in-depth check-up of the patient. Here, the nurse collects all the data on the patient. This includes running several tests to check the hormonal levels, presence of drugs etc. Doctors also take CT scans and ultrasound reports for more information.

These stats and reports are clinical evidence. Analyzing these reports, one can develop a hypothesis on the source of the problem.

mental health nursing case study assignment

Step 3: Appraise the evidence

Here, the nurse or practitioner compares the evidence with existing medical research. The nursing curriculum has a section where the students learn to crack case studies and come up with alternative solutions.

When you appraise the evidence, you analyze it and try to derive valuable insights from the data collected. Note that the practitioner in charge must also check the credibility of the source before appraising it.

Step 4: Apply evidence

This is perhaps the most crucial aspect of EBP, wherein the nurse applies the appropriate solution to treat the patient. Based on the research and proof hence collected, the doctors can arrive at the right treatment/medication.

And because there is a clinical experience to back up your diagnosis, the chances of errors reduce considerably. As per the EBP method, the doctors/nurses discuss the possible treatments with the patient. Patients are free to choose from the options given.

Step 5: Assess evidence

Once the evidence is applied, the nurse records the results and assess them. This gives you the final results- was the treatment effective or not. In case the medication doesn’t work, the nurse reviews the evidence for any discrepancies.

EBP treatments simplify the process of identifying the source of the problem. Patient feedback and post-treatment care are also part of this process.

Quick links and references

Here are a few research papers and sources taken from academic and govt. Websites. You can even cite them in your next document!

Evidence-Based Practice (NUR 4169): What is EBP?

Evidence-based practices in mental health

Evidence for psychological and psychiatric health nursing  

Evidence-based practice as a mental health policy

Implementing evidence-based practices in routine mental healthcare

The bottom line

There was a time when people with mental health issues were considered lazy, unproductive, or weak. Thankfully, over the years, medical science has actively worked towards debunking this stigma. Mental health issues like anxiety, depression, and bipolar disorder etc. are legit.

And anyone suffering from these ailments should reach out to a professional ASAP and get the help required to be better. Mental health is as important (if not more) than physical health. I hope this blog answers all your questions about EBP treatments. Take care.

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Nsb204 mental health, introduction.

This assignment deals with the mental health study of a person named Samuel. He is 25 years old gay and single man who lived in a shared house. He works at his locality as a barber. He used to drink frequently at nights and smokes the weed regularly for reducing stress. He also went to gym at his leisure time for doing some workout.

Samuel is having some mental problems as he reports of feeling guilty of not being a typical son as everyone as he doesn’t want to marry and have children. His mother had a history of anxiety and depression. At his school level he became a victim of brutal assault in which he got a scar beneath the chin and his nose was broken which took 3 days to recover from the hospital (Akiskal, 2016).  During the past eight years he got some thought of self harm and anxiety and while diagnosis it was found he is suffering from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Before that he does not have any such issues. The doctor had prescribed him a low dose of antidepressant and had counselling sessions.

Mental status examination

Whenever a patient is admitted to a hospital the first step a nurse used to do is assessment. It is a process of collecting data, then organizing them for the evaluation and finally the documentation of the data of the patient. This assessment process is one of the important tasks for the health care experts as they must know the physical, mental and social status of a patient (Coombs, Curtis, & Crookes, 2013). An assessment is necessary to do for obtaining the information for creating the detailed history of the patient and distinguishing the problems so that a suitable diagnosis plan can be made.

The mental health status examination is a process that provides a structure about the condition of the mental health of an individual. The MSE deals with some key elements which are being addressed. They are:

Clinical Formulation Table

The clinical formulation is a process in which the patients information is explained which is obtained from clinical assessment. This process offers a hypothesis about the cause of the disease, its nature and the process of diagnosis.

The case formulation can be done by the 5P table:

Plan for nursing care

The plan of nursing care for the psychology patients mainly depends on the MASLOW’S HEIRACHY OF NEEDS. It is a motivational theory for the psychological patients which mainly depend on five different features generally shown by a pyramid (Tanner, 2016).  By this theory Maslow explained that people are having some basic needs and these needs sometimes become very important from the others.

In case of Samuel the two main prior needs are love needs and psychological needs. As Samuel is not so much attached to his parents he feels lonely and also he is having a feeling of guilty that he is unable to satisfy his parent’s demands. At this point if Samuel’s parents will give him love and support, then he can get recover himself from his guilt feelings. Also he can recover from his childhood trauma and will able to lead his normal life (Dallos, 2017).

One nursing intervention

PTSD is a mental disorder that leads to stress which causes life threatening nature of the patient. Cognitive behavioral therapy is being used for the management of PTSD. CBT has been proved as a safe and an effective treatment for both acute and chronic trauma.

As Samuel is suffering from post traumatic stress disorder, the cognitive behavioral therapy is the best intervention plan. PTSD is the most dangerous health hazard in a person’s life. Therefore, it’s very important to provide treatment as soon as possible so that the trauma of PTSD can be reduced from both the individual and society (Adam, 2017). From the studies it can be stated that the effects of PTSD from child abuse and fight are more harmful than the others.

CBT is the best and most widely used approaches for reducing stress, depression, sleeplessness, anxiety, relationship problems, and various other problems. Cognitive behavioral therapy can be done individually or in groups together with the people having similar problems (Ryu et al., 2016). It generally includes the learning process in which the mental health condition of a patient can be learned and to apply the techniques such as relaxation, stress management and assertiveness.

Steps in CBT

Therapeutic relationship

The therapeutic relationship is referred as an alliance between healthcare expert and a patient. It is the way of therapy in which the professional tries to engage with the other and hopes that this engagement will bring a change which will be beneficial to the patient. This type of relationship is different from others and are valuable to the clients those who have problems in making good relationships with others. It is also beneficial to the patients, those who had experienced some traumatic events in the childhood. As Samuel is suffering from post traumatic stress disorder which has caused from his past incident of bashing, he is being treated by his case manager carefully.  The therapeutic relationship between Mary and Samuel is based on trust and respect between both of them.  As given in case study that when Samuel was suffering the most from the trauma he called for his case manager Mary and she as soon as possible appeared in Samuel’s house (Rizvi, 2016).

Cultural safety

While treating with CBT the nurse must look after the cultural safety of a patient. There are various ways which we will help to improve the sensitivity of culture and the usual features of CBT. There are seven steps to maintain patient safety:

In case of a mental disorder a nurse or the care manager can think of different ways for generating a therapeutic treatment which includes the process of understanding the patient’s problem. In addition to this the care manager can also organize some counselling sessions and some process to reflect the problem of the patient (Cleary et al., 2017).

Recovery oriented nursing care

The recovery oriented nursing care is a type of care which is used to provide prevention to the disease by the help of screening, then the diagnosis is done, treatment is provided accordingly and then the patient is sent for the rehabilitation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Van der Kolk, 2017).

Three dimensions of access to PTSD care in Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) are considered—availability, accessibility, and acceptability.

Adam, S. (2017). Critical care nursing: science and practice. Oxford University Press.

Adelufosi, A., Edet, B., Arikpo, D., Aquaisua, E., & Meremikwu, M. M. (2017). Cognitive behavioral therapy for post?traumatic stress disorder, depression, or anxiety disorders in women and girls living with female genital mutilation: A systematic review. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 136(S1), 56-59.

Akiskal, H. S. (2016). The mental status examination. In The Medical Basis of Psychiatry (pp. 3-16). Springer New York.

Cleary, M., Lees, D., Molloy, L., Escott, P., & Sayers, J. (2017). Recovery-oriented Care and Leadership in Mental Health Nursing. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 38(5), 458-460.

Coombs, T., Curtis, J., & Crookes, P. (2013). What is the process of a comprehensive mental health nursing assessment? Results from a qualitative study. International nursing review, 60(1), 96-102.)

Dallos, R. (2017). Reflections on assessment, diagnosis and formulation.

Johnstone, L. (2017). Psychological Formulation as an Alternative to Psychiatric Diagnosis. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 0022167817722230.

McLeod, S. (2016). Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Simply Psychology Website.

Rizvi, S. (2016). The essential aspects of building a therapeutic relationship. Indian Journal of Positive Psychology, 7(3), 359.

Ryu, J. H., Kredentser, M. S., Bienvenu, O. J., Blouw, M., Sareen, J., & Olafson, K. (2016). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Survivors of Critical Illness. Comprehensive Guide to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders, 263-280.

Tanner, R. (2016). Motivation: Applying Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory.

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Mental Health Nursing - Case Study Example

Mental Health Nursing

Extract of sample "Mental Health Nursing"

Confidentiality is important and therefore I will not expose the identity of my patient, I will identify her as Janet (not her real name). This is because the NMC (Nursing and Midwifery Council) code of conduct stipulates that people’s rights to confidentiality must be respected by professional nurses while giving health care. For that reason, nurses should explain to the client how and why information concerning their health is shared by healthcare professionals involved in the particular client’s health.

As a result, good communication amongst healthcare professionals facilitates understanding and working relationships between them (Goldsmith, 2011). Janet has a problem of increasing low mood. I will implement nursing interventions such as cognitive behavior therapy, interpersonal therapy behavior therapy, mindful-based cognitive therapy, medical intervention, and support. In addition, I will define care planning and discuss its significance. Moreover, the biopsychosocial model together with a recovery framework is incorporated in the delivery of the client's health care.

This paper will be informed by the use of relevant references from books and journals. 2. Care Planning 2.1. Needs The case regards Janet who is about to complete her studies in engineering. She is twenty-two years and originates from Britain. Her free time is spent in the gym and cycling. She does not get along with her three roommates. The recent past shows that her mood is low; concentration is low, has no appetite and lacks sleep. Besides being unable to follow routine activities, her performance in class is dwindling after losing interest in learning.

The physician prescribed antidepressants after diagnosing her with depression. The mental health nurse can use nursing intervention to assist the client recover from depression. The depression has caused the problem of low mood. A number of interventions that are useful for recovery have been identified and will be implemented in a care plan. Therefore Janet’s needs and problems are low mood low appetite poor relationships low concentration lack of sleep no interest in studies unable to follow routine Depression is a mood disorder which manifests in different ways for different people.

Depressed individuals complain of emptiness and feel sad. They become pessimistic and engage in negative thinking. A feeling of hopelessness sets in and they isolate themselves. They become restless and keep away from usual activities. Depression may cause individuals to become irritable and lead to poor relationships with others. They may end up losing interest in activities they have enjoyed doing and even abandon their hobbies. Because of many changes and engagement in thinking, individuals with depression lack concentration capabilities, forget important details and become indecisive when making choices.

Their sleep patterns changes with either long episodes of sleep or lack of sleep. Lack of appetite or augmented appetite is common in depressed individuals. Consequently, depressed individuals complain of headaches, digestive problems, pain, aches and cramps. The client has symptoms such as loss of concentration, loss of appetite, lack of interest at school and normal functioning is affected.

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Mental health, nursing, autonomy and consent in mental health nursing, conceptual model in mental health nursing, leadership and management in mental health nursing, mental health nursing care, psychiatric mental health nursing: paranoid schizophrenia, developing autonomous practise in mental health nursing, formulation of the individuals current psychological, physical and social needs.

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