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Media literature review guide: How to conduct a literature review of news sources

On this page, first steps: questions to ask, key things to keep in mind, sources by media type, online news, news websites, archival websites, library subscription news sources, archived broadcast/tv news, original audio-visual broadcasts, broadcast news transcripts, searching news sources methodically, how to do news content analysis, saving, exporting, and citing news from websites/databases, additional research help, related sfu resource guides.

Use this guide if you are conducting a literature review of news sources on a certain topic, and need help locating a sample of news sources for your analysis.  For example:

Ask yourself:

A few things key things to keep in mind:

Examples: CBC , Vancouver Sun , The Wall Street Journal

You can go directly to a commercial news website and search the site for its news archives.

A few things to note about general news websites:

Example: The Internet Archive

You may be able to obtain archival content through third party websites, which independently and intermittently scrape commercial web content for archiving.

Notes on archival websites:

Examples: Canadian Newsstream , CBCA , Factiva

SFU Library subscribes to a number of news databases which systematically archive news sources from both traditional print newspapers, and online and other media news sources. 

Notes on subscription news sources:

Examples: CTV National News, The National with Peter Mansbridge, PBS Newshour

Some resources:

The  Internet Archive's TV News archive includes extensive archived video material, mostly from the US. Advanced search by news program and network is available. Keyword searching searches closed captions. Coverage begins around 2009.

CBC Archives incorporates news, images, and audio files from across Canada in its extensive archives. Select items are exhibited on a changing basis. Coverage may include news stories, such as 1993: World Trade Centre Bombed . Users can also explore the  CBC Archives Sales  website for items to purchase.

Vanderbilt News Archive is a searchable, private database of broadcast news, but is unfortunately not free nor available through SFU library. Materials may be loaned, arriving through the mail in a hardcopy format.

YouTube It's possible a particular news broadcast was uploaded to YouTube.

Transcripts may be available from prior broadcast news stories. These are a possible alternative to finding the original broadcast in audio-visual format.

The following SFU databases contain some transcripts.

Canadian Business & Current Affairs Database Under "Document type", select "transcript". Run a search and then narrow by source and add keywords. Extensive transcripts are available for The National (CBC television), Canada AM (CTV television), and others.

Film & Television Literature Index with Full Text

Canadian Newsstream Under "Document type", select "transcript". Run a search and then narrow by source and add keywords. Extensive transcripts are available for The National (CBC television), Canada AM (CTV television), and others.

​Nexis Uni Includes transcripts from about 123 (mostly American) news broadcasts such as ABC, BBC, NPR, Fox News Network, and CNN.

Factiva (see image below for search instructions) An international collection of news broadcast transcripts in a variety of languages.

Finding transcripts in Factiva:

finding transcripts in factiva

Google News  will find articles related to your topic from a variety of sources.

advanced search arrow on google news screen

It's effective to plan your search before you tackle the databases and to track the databases you search, as well as the terms that you use. Follow these steps for effective research;

Write down a sentence describing the topic of your search

​ Compared to corporate media, alternative media offers vastly different frames on the impact climate change has on jobs within the petroleum industry.

Identify the key concepts in your topic

Compared to corporate media, alternative media offers vastly different frames on the impact climate change has on jobs within the petroleum industry .

Brainstorm synonyms or related terms for these key concepts

Track research: search terms, search expressions, databases

Track the terms that you use to search, using an Excel spreadsheet or other record, grouping them by concept, noting definitions. As you find literature, you will add to this list of terms.

Select an appropriate database for your search

Review your search results

Consider whether you need to focus your search, by date, by publication, or other parameters

Capture your results, either by emailing them to yourself or saving to a file

You will need to support your nomination with documentation of your research.

And, of course, watch out for signs of fake news.

There are a number of free citation management software and tools available for students through SFU. Use one of the citation managers  to export and save articles. When you are looking at articles found through the SFU database, there will be options to "save" the article through citation managers such as Mendeley or Zotero.

Depending on which citation style you are using, the SFU citation & style guides explain how to cite news articles and other document types.

Ask a Librarian

See News resources: Finding newspaper articles and newspapers  to help find newspaper articles and newspapers.

Please note that Internet Explorer version 8.x is not supported as of January 1, 2016. Please refer to this support page for more information.


Procedia Computer Science

A systematic review on the profiling of digital news portal for big data veracity ☆.

Currently, digital news portals have been one of the most important news sources for Internet users. However, the way it is written depends on the direction of the content. One approach to news reporting is through manipulative writing. Such method of writing has created a number of adverse outcomes such as political unrest, slander and negative perception towards the particular organization, personnel, and country. It is important for readers to choose and select news portal that is reporting positively and to neglect portals which practices manipulative writing approach for their own gains or causing negative impact towards the community. The aim of this study is to structure and analyzed the literature related to data veracity research that can be used to the profile of digital news portal. The method that has been used in this paper is to classify and define data veracity; a systematic literature review is a conduct. It includes journal and conference proceedings. The results come out with objectives in data veracity, the structure of research topics, research trends with publications and framework veracity model validated. This paper provides a complete review of literature related to profiling digital news portal in data veracity.

Cited by (0)

Peer-review under responsibility of organizing committee of Information Systems International Conference (ISICO2015).

Online Videos at Newspaper Websites: A Literature Review

The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of research in online video on newspapers’ websites. The article identifies a number of relevant issues in production and business models and presents research results concerning the production and consumption of online news videos. Advertising in relation to online news videos is also examined. 

Bellman, S. 2013. Can 30-second ads save newspapers? Published 10.06.2013. Available: http://media.murdoch.edu.au/can-30-second-ads-save-newspapers Murdoch University. Accessed 25.09.2014.

Brown, T & Collins, S. 2010. What “They” Want From “Us”: Industry Expectations of Journalism Graduates. Electronic News, 4(2), 68-82, DOI: 10.1177/1931243110367635.

Doyle, G. 2010. From Television to Multi-Platform: Less for More or More for Less? Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 16(4), 1-19, DOI: 10.1177/1354856510375145.

Doyle, G. 2013. Re-Invention and Survival: Newspapers in the era of digital multiplatform delivery. Presented at EMMA Conference 2013. 13p.

Ericsson Consumer Labs. 2014. TV and Media 2014 Changing consumer needs are creating a new media landscape. Available: http://www.ericsson.com/res/docs/2014/consumerlab/tv-media-2014-ericsson-consumerlab.pdf 13p.

Evens, T. 2014. (De)convergence in TV: a comparative analysis of the development of Smart TV. Presented at EMMA Conference 2014. 14p.

Ihlström Eriksson, C & Åkersson, M. 2013. User Generated Content in News Media – a Comparison of Reader and Newspaper views. Presented at EMMA Conference 2013. 17 p.

Ksiazek, T B & Peer, L & Lessard, K. User engagement with online news: Conceptualizing interactivity and exploring the relationship between online news videos and user comments. New media & society, 1-19, DOI: 10.1177/1461444814545073.

Lagger, C & Lux, M & Marques, O. 2012. What makes People Watch Online Videos: An Exploratory Study. Available: http://www.itec.uni-klu.ac.at/~mlux/files/papers/CiE_lagger_lux_preprint.pdf 42p.

Livingston, S. 2004. The Challenge of Changing Audiences Or, What is the Audience Researcher to do in the Age of the Internet? European Journal of Communication, 19:75, 75-86, DOI: 10.1177/0267323104040695.

Murschetz, P. 2014. Does Online Video Save Newspapers? An Economic Performance Perspective of Adopting Online Video Services in Regional News Publishing in Germany. Presented at EMMA Conference 2014, 28p.

OECD. 2007. Participative Web and User-Created Content Web 2.0, Wikis and Social Networking. Available: http://browse.oecdbookshop.org/oecd/pdfs/free/9307031e.pdf Accessed 30.10.2014. 128p.

Pew Research Center. 2014. News Video on the Web, a Growing, if Uncertain, Part of News. Avaliable: http://www.journalism.org/files/2014/03/News-Video-on-the-Web.pdf 25p.

Phalen, P F & Ducey R V. 2012. Audience Behavior in the Multi-Screen “Video-Verse”. The International Journal on Media Management. 14:2, 141-156, DOI:10.1080/14241277.2012.657811

Quinn, S & Filak, V F. 2005. Convergent journalism: An introduction. Focal Press. ISBN 0-240-80724-3. 227p.

Reuters Institute. 2014. Digital News Report 2014. Available https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/sites/default/files/Reuters%20Institute%20Digital%20News%20Report%202014.pdf Accessed 14.10.2014. 96p.

Tameling, K & Broersma, M. 2013. De-converging the newsroom: Strategies for newsroom change and their influence on journalism practice. The International Communcation Gazette, 75(1), 19-34, DOI: 10.1177/1748048512461760.

Thurman, N & Lupton, B. 2008. Multimedia Storytelling at British News Websites. Convergence Calls, 14(4), 439-455, DOI: 10.1177/1354856508094662.

Uliyanova, A & Hol, B & Neilsen, A. 2013. Business Model Change in the Newspaper Industry: The Case of Young News Consumers in the Age of Postmodernity. Presented at EMMA Conference 2013, 25p.

Wellbrock, C M & Rausch, L. 2012. How to Act Hyper local – Users Expectations towards Regional Newspapers Websites. Presented at EMMA Conference 2012. 16p

Additional Files


literature review on news websites

Readers and Online News Websites Research Paper

This paper will be a case study of News.com.au. The objective will be to use this site to explore some of the factors mentioned above. It will show that the success of online broadcasts relies on more than just the readers. The paper will also take into account the thoughts of the readers on their role in that success, and members of the site’s staff on the news and the new developments they wish to adopt.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Readers and Online News Websites specifically for you for only $11.00 $9.35/page

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This will be done through a questionnaire. The paper will also explore the organization and structure of News.com.au website, and how this helps it sell itself to the readers.


With the prevalence of online media today, more and more media houses are going online. Not only are new media houses adopting online broadcasting, but the ones that are already online are increasing their online portals. These media houses hope to retain their customers.

Their adoption of online media is an attempt to chase after their customers who are already on line, as well as winning new online users. The participation of readers is pivotal for the success of the sites (Cushion 2001; Cameron 2000).

Based on their perceptions on the sites, the readers could inform other people; their friends, families, workmates, et cetera. Although getting more people coming in is a good thing, the real question is not whether a person logs in, but whether he/she keeps returning to the portal. Retaining old customers makes it possible to identify the new readers, and to evaluate whether the portal is popular amongst readers (Emmerichs et al 2004).

News.com is an organization of editors based in Sydney. It has a large number of online editors who manage its work in many cities and mast-head sections all over the world (Burden 2008; Chappel 2000, p. 12). It has reporters and newspapers that contribute greatly in many states including territories all over Australia and goes further to include correspondents from different parts of the world (Chaston 1999, p. 34).

In Asia, it has correspondents from various cities that include Beijing in China, Bangkok in Thailand, Tokyo in Japan and Jakarta in Indonesia. In Europe, London takes the lion share and takes the representation of United Kingdom and the larger European continent. In the United States, the cities of Washington, Wellington, New York and Los Angeles have been inhabited by the correspondents of this organization (Chaston 1999, p. 30).

It has in the last decade drawn its global power of incorporating news and the act of gathering parallel news from News Limited. This is the largest new gathering network in Australia (De Botton 2002; Denu 2011).

Within its rank, is an out-and-about team of online reporters who work hard to contribute their daily reports to the millions of the Australian population (Little 2007, p. 41; Alysen 2002, p. 35).It presents the content it gathers from the vast network of the News Limited network which has in its ranks news on a range issues such as business, weather, entertainment, and sports.

The portal makes almost minute to minute update of its news. For example, it can be noticed that the Breaking News column in the News.com.au bears headlines only minutes apart (Young 2007).

It has a wide range of contributing factors in its daily to daily news that range from newspapers which include the daily telegraph, the advertiser, the Australian, the herald sun, the Sunday times, the courier mail and the mercury. The posting of the newspapers is done every night at around 2am.

The reporting teams give an update on the events that happen each and every-day, and get its daily update from its efficiently developed network of printing activities and the other resources of the associated press of Australia and other press resources like the Agence France-Presse and the associated press (Erdelez 1995).

Literature review

Print media thrive on readership. As has been briefly mentioned above, media houses count on readers to keep their sites running. Variety and the consequent competitiveness helped by the internet makes it necessary for these media houses to adopt suitable ways to attract and retain more readers.

For this reason, various media houses have adopted a number of audience-based tactics. Since the primary objective is to win and retain these customers, the news content, which is the primary product that these media houses are selling, becomes only a small part of the overall methods used to win readers (Valentine 2011, p. 65).

For instance, Bowman and Willis (2003, p. 7) pointed out how MSNBC.com, CNN, Washington Post and The Wall Street Journal offered their readers certain degrees of personalization on their sites’ front pages. Personalization means that readers can customize the portals to satisfy some of their tastes.

Also another phenomenon of online activity is what Erdelez (1995, p. 20) referred to as information encountering. This is the ability of the internet to get readers to news without them really intending to. This thrives upon the opportunistic reading habits and emotional response of the readers.

Tewksbury et al. (2001, p. 34) argued that due to the prevalence of news online, many people come by news items without necessarily setting out to find the news. In the same line, Nguyen (2008) agrees that the structure of online media has facilitated unintended encounter of news and its reading.

What these examples reveal is that it is not only the place of readers to keep the get to the site. While the end target is humans, there are other elements of the internet that helps keep the sites running. The irony here is that people may not really go to the site for the purpose of reading the news, but maybe to reach a gateway to other portals.

But the fact still remains that they have gotten the readers to their site. Another Irony is that the very nature of internet structure that leads readers to these sites may be the same thing that directs them away. Nonetheless, the case of New.com.au shows clearly just how important readers are to keeping news website running.

News.com.au has also adopted a readers-centered tactic of retaining its readers. This has involved different forms of reader-participation. For instance, readers participate in the site by posting their comments on various issues on the company site.

These posts include the reader’s reaction(s) to various issues, including the news or certain new adoptions in the site-structure and organization, amongst others. This paper will show that this reader-centered tactic is having a positive effect on winning readers to their online portal.

As it were, this tactic has been a direct way to hear what the readers want from their own lips. The company has an online portal dedicated to collecting the readers’ views fro critical assessment and evaluation. It has constantly used the information from the readers to know what they perceive as negative and make necessary adjustments.

In other words, the company realizes and acknowledges the role of the readers in keeping their site running. Their primary goal then becomes satisfying the readers (Goggin 2001, p. 44).

It is as if the company has explicitly set out to answer a question it has set itself: How do we expect to have the most captivating news when the readers do not have the right platforms to express themselves and air their satisfactions or dissatisfactions?

A good media house cannot emerge without the resurgent action of its readers, so the readers ought to be given the chance to help the media houses online make the right decisions and changes (Heracleous, Wirtz & Pangarkar 2006; Berridge 2007).

Research Questions

The research seeks to answer the question like; how has the general setting of the online portal of the News.com.au helped it win and keep readers? And what other new tactics should the company adopt to ensure that it retains a close relation with its readers?


The research made use of multiple methods of data collection, including where experimentation, surveys, questionnaires and observation of the site to enhance the accuracy and reproducibility of the results, and to increase the likeliness of getting more results from other sources relating to online media organization, especially News.com.au (Karol & Nelson 2007).

Experimentation: the research emphasized on studying the trend of relations between the readers and the organization.

For instance, the number of readers who have visited their websites of the organization, what kinds of comments the readers have made: positive or negative, and how these comments have influenced certain changes in the site, and the company’s general operations. The decisions of the managers and the readers’ involvement in online media were used for the experimentation (Gillespie, Jeannette & Hennessey 2010).

Some of the data was obtained from the company’s history from the company website sites. Other data that was gotten from the company website including the recent activities of the company and what the managers have done to deal with the pressure of the increasing online readership and how they have reacted to the different comments.

The correspondence between the company and the readers on the company website was equally witnessed. Moreover, more data was gotten from the company’s history, its position on online reading and the effects it has had on the general online media broadcasts from other secondary results like journals and magazines (Atwood 2007; Cohen 2011).

Questionnaires were used to interview specific groups of people over the internet. The different questions that were required for the research were composed and sent to the News Limited office in Australia via email. In this case, the researcher identified the target group from the players within this organization.

Since these persons were located in various places around Australia, the internet was the only effective means of communicating with them. Questionnaires were developed on word format and sent to the identified study group, which included the managers and the executive chairman of the organization who had been consulted before the study. As already stated, the questionnaires were sent over through email.

The results were received back from these persons by the same means. This study identified 40 potential interviewees who signed consent forms, received the questionnaire over the net, but only 35 of them returned the questionnaires. Out of the 35 returned questionnaires, 2 were found ineligible for the study. In the end, only 33 of the of the study sample were eligible for the study (MacGinley 2004; Erdley & Kesterson 2002).

The annual reports released by News.com Australian media for the last five years shows their performances regarding the number of online readers who visited its online portal. I obtained permission to study the data from the organization which had been identified as the study center and place.

The researcher sought for permission from the managers and the various stakeholders of the organization. The executive chairman was the main person contacted with a request to allow an explicit study on his organization on their activities and everything revolving around their reader-data collection methods. The permission was granted.

These study populations formed the first study section, where the causes of the divergent opinions and comments in the online Medias were determined. These study populations were considered for the qualitative research, given that the study was both quantitative and qualitative. For the quantitative research, the researcher sent questionnaires to the main organization offices in Australia.

Because all the study populations identified in this research understood and used English, the questionnaires were in English language. The researcher obtained important financial aid from the professionals working at the News.com.au branch in the region.

The study targeted the organization, which, it felt, was the best in Australia- being the major media house in Australia (Kenyon 2008; Austin 2010). The data was not tampered with in for one month that data collection was carried out.

The qualitative data was cumulated in individual’s interviews and then documented. For the Quantitative data, the questionnaires were gathered by the researcher and distributed through email to the staff of News.com.au. Responses were collected via the email (Bunzel 2000; Karol & Nelson 2007).

Data analysis

Statistical data analysis tools and procedures were used to derive information from the data obtained in the questionnaires. Specifically, the Statistical Packages software as well as the Microsoft access and database tools was used for the study. The data analysis procedure was done within a period of one week which was well within the stipulated time (Donald & Keane 2002; Bowman & Willis 2003).

The questionnaires were responded to according to the instructions given. On analyzing the questionnaires, it was revealed that there were several positive questions for the researched organization. The organization conveyed that there was an average of more than 5% difference between the comments and the opinions which the online readers gave out in 2009.

The difference rose by 6 percent in 2010.

The organization further reported that they had a negative difference when handling readers from other countries who had read and sampled its news portal, mainly because it was not so enriched in terms of experience compared to other well established media sites in Australia like the News Limited which has acted as an all-time leading online portal in the past decade (Newton & Morrison 2007, p. 45).

Most readers preferred other up to date and the emerging news precisely the political news.

Study results

The research found out that the organization had taken into key consideration the increased feedbacks and the opinions that it received from its daily readers through their portal. As the managers explained in their questionnaires, this had impacted greatly on the company positively since they were able to receive prompt feedbacks when an error occurred in their site.

For instance, whenever their broadcast is not streaming properly, they have learnt it from the readers and used the information to avert and counter the problem promptly. And by observing the website and witnessing the correspondence between the readers and the site staff, it was noticed that the handlers of the portal responded promptly to the readers’ questions and comments (Berridge 2007; Bretford 2010).

After the end of research on the organization and the readers’ participation on online media, it can be concluded that each and every media that feeds news to the people through an online platform should instill efficient platforms where readers’ can air and interact directly with the organization, for example, the help-platform in the organization’s website.

The use of online feeds will give the readers a one-on-one platform to air their opinions: satisfactions and dissatisfactions, and their views on various pieces of information.

For an efficient growth of the online Media, the readers should be allowed to be involved in the day to day running of the organization. The research also found out that news.com had involved their online readers a lot and this had been a major help to their immense growth in the past decade (Young 2007).

Alysen, B 2002, Broadcast Journalism in Australia , McGraw Hill, New York.

Atwood, C G 2007, Australian studies in journalism , Society for Training and Development, Massachusetts.

Austin, J 2010, Online journalism , Cengage Learning, Mason.

Berridge, G 2007, Understanding online media, Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford.

Bowman, S & Willis, C 2003, We Media, The Media Centre at The American Press Institute, Virginia.

Bretford, A 2010, A methodology approach to journalism , Gower Publishing, Ltd, Hampshire.

Bunzel, D 2000, Australian media organizations, University of Western Sydney, Sydney.

Burden, D, Joyce, P and Mustard, J 2008, Adoption of the World Wide Web by Traditional Australian Media Organizations Web.

Cameron, D 2000, Media and the web , Sage Publications Ltd, London.

Chappel, S 2000, News limited in perspective , University of South Australia, Melbourne.

Chaston, I 1999, New-Media Strategies: Evolving Flexible Processes to Fit Information Seeking , Syracuse University, Syracuse.

Cohen, R 2011, An analysis on Australian online Media? Springer, New York.

Cushion, S 2001, The rise of 24-hour news television: Global perspectives , UMI Research Press, New York.

De Botton, A 2002, The art of media , Hamish Hamilton, New Delhi.

Denu, B 2011, Institutions and media houses: Europe and Australia , LIT, Munich.

Donald, S H & Keane, M 2002, “Responses to crisis: convergence, content industries, and media governance”, Media in China: Consumption, Content and Crisis , pp. 200-211.

Emmerichs, R M, Marcum, C Y & Robbert, A A 2004, An operational process for workforce planning, RAND, California.

Erdelez, S 1995, Information Encountering: An Exploration Beyond Market Circumstance , SAGE, New York.

Erdley, M & Kesterson, T 2002, American and Australian media houses , IBM Future Series, New York.

Gillespie, K, Jeannet, J P & Hennessey, H D 2010, Global Marketing , Cengage Learning, Masson.

Goggin, G 2001, Virtual Nation: The Internet in Australia , McGraw-Hill Professional, New York.

Heracleous, L T, Wirtz, J & Pangarkar, N 2006, Information technology and innovation in language education , McGraw Hill, New York.

Karol, R & Nelson, B 2007, National library for Australian news , For Dummies, New Jersey.

Kenyon, A 2008, TV futures: digital television policy in Australia , OECD publishing, Paris.

Little, J 2007, “Perspectives on Assessment Practices in Australian Journalism Education”, Australian Studies in Journalism , pp. 90-103.

MacGinley, R 2004, The Golding Centre for online portals, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne.

Newton, M & Morrison, J 2007, World’s Journalism , Emerald Group Publishing, Bingley.

Nguyen, A 2008, The Contribution of Online News Attributes To It Diffusion : [Online).

Tewksbury, D, Hals, M & Bibart, A 2008, “The Efficacy of News Browsing:

The American Press Institute, Virginia” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly , 85 (2), pp. 257-272.

Valentine, F 2011, Readers and Journalism , LIT Verlag, Munich.

Young, S A 2007, Government communication in Australia , Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

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