- Books, Articles, & More
- Curriculum Library
- Archives & Special Collections
- Scholars Crossing
- Research Guides
- Student Support
- Faculty Support
- Interlibrary Loan
Turabian Writing Guide: Formatting
- Citing the Bible
Writing Center Help
The Liberty University Writing Center is available to provide writing coaching to students. Residential students should contact the On-Campus Writing Center for assistance. Online students should contact the Online Writing Center for assistance.
The Writing Center has a sample paper available here and has also made templates available depending on the length of the paper:
- Turabian Template for papers with no headings . These are typically undergraduate papers with less than ten pages in the body.
- Turabian Template for papers requiring headings . These are typically graduate or doctoral papers with more than ten pages in the body. See page 9 of the Sample Paper for specific instructions for setting the paper's headings.
- The paper should use Times New Roman, 12 point font. Footnotes use Times New Roman, 10 point font
- 1" margins all around
- For bound theses or dissertations (rare), include a 1.5" left margin
Spacing and Indentation
- The body of the paper should be double-spaced.
- Quotes should be blocked if the citations are five or more lines.
- Footnotes should be single-spaced, but add a blank line between individual footnotes.
Footnotes and Bibliography
- Indent Footnotes on the first line
- In Word, use “Insert Footnote” under the “References” ribbon (not “Insert Citation”). This will insert a superscripted number in the body text and the footnote below. The Turabian manual shows footnote numbers that are not superscripted and are followed by a period, but Liberty University programs require superscripted numbers with no periods, which is the Word default.
- To renumber footnotes, add section breaks between chapters.
- Use hanging indents for bibliography citations.
- The bibliography is single-spaced, with a blank line between entries.
- In general, page numbers in Turabian Style should begin after the title page and any front matter; they should continue through the rest of the paper. To format your page numbering properly, you would need to add section breaks after the front matter. You can find a guide to adding page numbers to your paper in Word here .
The paper’s body, bibliography, and appendices display Arabic numerals (i.e., 1, 2, 3) placed flush-right in the header, beginning with page 1 on the first page of the body of the paper.
- << Previous: Home
- Next: Title Page >>
- Last Updated: Jan 20, 2023 4:28 PM
- URL: https://libguides.liberty.edu/Turabian
Chicago/Turabian Citation Guide (17th Edition): Annotated Bibliography
- Bibliography & Sample Papers
- Annotated Bibliography
On This Page
- Video: What is an Annotated Bibliography?
Writing an Evaluative Annotation
Basic tips on writing and formatting, sample evaluative annotation, useful links for annotated bibliographies.
An annotated bibliography is a list of citations for various books, articles, and other sources on a topic. The annotated bibliography looks like a Works Cited page but includes an annotation after each source cited. An annotation is a short summary and/or critical evaluation of a source. Annotated bibliographies can be part of a larger research project, or can be a stand-alone report in itself.
Types of Annotations
A summary annotation describes the source by answering the following questions: who wrote the document, what the document discusses, when and where was the document written, why was the document produced, and how was it provided to the public. The focus is on description.
An evaluative annotation includes a summary as listed above but also critically assesses the work for accuracy, relevance, and quality. Evaluative annotations can help you learn about your topic, develop a thesis statement, decide if a specific source will be useful for your assignment, and determine if there is enough valid information available to complete your project. The focus is on description and evaluation.
What is an Annotated Bibliography?
- Cite the source using Chicago style.
- Describe the main ideas, arguments, themes, theses, or methodology, and identify the intended audience.
- Explain the author’s expertise, point of view, and any bias he/she may have.
- Compare to other sources on the same topic that you have also cited to show similarities and differences.
- Explain why each source is useful for your research topic and how it relates to your topic.
- Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each source.
- Identify the observations or conclusions of the author.
- Each annotation should be one paragraph, between three to six sentences long (about 150- 200 words).
- Start with the same format as a regular Works Cited list.
- All lines should be double-spaced. Do not add an extra line between the citations.
- If your list of citations is especially long, you can organize it by topic.
- Try to be objective, and give explanations if you state any opinions.
- Use the third person (e.g., he, she, the author) instead of the first person (e.g., I, my, me)
London, Herbert. “Five Myths of the Television Age.” Television Quarterly , 10, no. 1 (March 1982): 69-81. Herbert London, the Dean of Journalism at New York University and author of several books and articles, explains how television contradicts five commonly believed ideas. He uses specific examples of events seen on television, such as the assassination of John Kennedy, to illustrate his points. His examples have been selected to contradict such truisms as: “seeing is believing”; “a picture is worth a thousand words”; and “satisfaction is its own reward.” London uses logical arguments to support his ideas which are his personal opinion. He does not refer to any previous works on the topic. London’s style and vocabulary would make the article of interest to any reader. The article clearly illustrates London’s points, but does not explore their implications leaving the reader with many unanswered questions.
"How to Write Annotated Bibliographies." Memorial University Libraries , www.library.mun.ca/researchtools/guides/writing/annotated_bibl/. Accessed 29 June 2016.
- Annotated Bibliographies Overview of purpose and form of annotated bibliographies from the Purdue OWL.
- Sample Annotated Bibliographies Sample annotated bibliographies from the OWL (Online Writing Lab) at Purdue University.
The Chicago Manual of Style
A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations
- << Previous: Bibliography & Sample Papers
- Next: More Help? >>
- Last Updated: Dec 14, 2021 4:11 PM
- URL: https://lcc-ca.libguides.com/chicago-turabian-citation-guide-17th
Using the Library
- Library Catalogue
Project guides, digital resources, reading lists, quick access.
- Junior School Catalog
- Senior School Catalog
- Sora Tutorials
- Sora Web Application
- Citation Guides
Lower Canada College Libraries
514-482-9916 ext. 473
LCC is an English coeducational K-11 school leading to the MEES Secondary Leaving Diploma / LCC est une école anglophone mixte de la maternelle à la 5e secondaire menant au DES du MEES.
- My Playlists
- Media Upload
- School of Aeronautics
- College of Applied Studies and Academic Success (CASAS)
- College of Arts and Sciences
- School of Behavioral Sciences
- School of Business
- School of Communication & Digital Content
- School of Divinity
- School of Education
- School of Engineering and Computational Sciences
- School of Health Sciences
- College of General Studies
- School of Government
- School of Law
- School of Music
- Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) New Student Information
- College of Osteopathic Medicine
- School of Visual and Performing Arts
- Center for Academic Development
- Jerry Falwell Library
- Provost's Office - Online
- Provost's Office - Residential
- Club Sports
- LUO Webcasts
- LUO Webcasts (login)
- LUO Webinars On Demand
- LUO | Tutorials
- On-Campus Recruitment Events
- Resident Admissions
- Campus Live
- IT Information
Turabian Style Basics: Creating Properly Formatted Bibliographies
Generate accurate Chicago citations for free
The Scribbr Citation Generator will automatically create a flawless Chicago citation
- Knowledge Base
- Chicago Style
- Introduction to Turabian Style | Citations & Formatting
Introduction to Turabian Style | Citations & Formatting
Published on May 28, 2021 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on November 1, 2022.
Turabian is a version of Chicago style that’s specifically designed for students and researchers. If you’ve been told to follow Chicago style when writing your academic research paper , thesis , or dissertation , it’s usually the Turabian guidelines that will be most useful to you.
Table of contents
What is turabian style, how do citations work in turabian style, notes and bibliography style, author-date style, turabian formatting guidelines.
Kate L. Turabian published the first edition of A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations —often called “Turabian” for short—in 1937. The ninth and latest edition was published in 2018.
Where the Chicago Manual of Style is mainly aimed at publishers, Turabian is specifically aimed at students. Turabian is not a separate style from Chicago, but rather presents Chicago guidelines in a way that prioritizes student needs.
As such, Turabian differs from Chicago only in minor ways—formatting advice tailored to student papers, greater detail regarding specific citation formats —and the Turabian guidelines are the ones you should follow in your papers.
Chicago and Turabian style both offer a choice between two citation styles: notes and bibliography, and author-date:
- In notes and bibliography style , citations appear in footnotes or endnotes, with a bibliography or annotated bibliography at the end listing all your sources in full. This style is popular in the humanities.
- In author-date style , in-text citations appear in parentheses, with a reference list listing all your sources at the end. This style is mainly used in the sciences.
Here's why students love Scribbr's proofreading services
Discover proofreading & editing
There are two parts to a notes and bibliography citation: a Chicago footnote in the text, and an entry in your bibliography . You add a citation for all sources, whether they are primary or secondary sources , or tertiary sources .
Footnotes and endnotes
Citations in your text appear in footnotes or endnotes; the first citation of each source provides full information, while subsequent citations of the same source are usually shortened to save space.
A note is signaled by a superscript number appearing at the end of the clause or sentence the citation relates to. Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page, while endnotes appear at the end of the paper. Use one or the other, not a mix of footnotes and endnotes.
Each culture “erects its own musical signposts, melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic devices to represent emotion.” 1
The bibliography lists full information on all the sources cited in your text. It appears at the end of your text. Bibliography entries are alphabetized by authors’ last names, so names are inverted in the bibliography with a comma separating them (e.g. “Smith, John”).
Each source is listed on a new line, with a hanging indent applied when an entry for a single source extends onto additional lines. An example of a properly formatted Turabian bibliography is shown below.
In the tabs below, you can explore examples of various common source types cited in Turabian notes and bibliography style. It’s always important to make sure you use credible sources .
Notes and bibliography citation examples
- Book chapter
- Journal article
Author-date style consists of short parenthetical in-text citations that correspond to entries in your reference list .
Author-date in-text citations consist of the author’s last name, the year of publication, and a page number (or other locator) if relevant. They appear at the end of the relevant clause or sentence, before any closing punctuation .
Each culture “erects its own musical signposts, melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic devices to represent emotion” (Swafford 1992, 518).
The reference list provides full information on all the sources cited. It is presented in a similar format to the bibliography, except that the year comes immediately after the author’s name, to allow for easy cross-referencing with the in-text citations.
Explore the tabs below to see examples of author-date citations for various common source types.
Author-date citation examples
Unlike the Chicago Manual itself, Turabian presents guidelines for formatting an academic paper, thesis, or dissertation. The following general format guidelines should be followed unless your university provides different ones:
- Use a standard font like 12 pt. Times New Roman.
- Double-space the text.
- Use 1 inch margins or larger.
- Indent new paragraphs by ½ inch.
- Place page numbers in the top right or bottom center.
The image below shows an example of a page formatted according to Turabian guidelines.
You can also download one of our template documents for Turabian style. Just select the citation style you need to follow; the appropriate formatting is already set up in the document.
Author-date Notes and bibliography
Cite this Scribbr article
If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.
Caulfield, J. (2022, November 01). Introduction to Turabian Style | Citations & Formatting. Scribbr. Retrieved March 2, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/chicago-style/turabian/
Is this article helpful?
Other students also liked, chicago style citation examples | website, book, article, video, chicago style format for papers | requirements & examples, creating a chicago style bibliography | format & examples, what is your plagiarism score.
Turabian Annotated Bibliography
Use of Turabian Style
The famous Turabian’s Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations has been elaborated for the University of Chicago by Kate Turabian. Hence, it has shared many features in common with the Chicago Manual of Style. While the most used styles (APA, MLA, and Chicago style) are employed in publications (or works which should be published), Turabian style is elaborated in order to be used by students writing research papers, master theses , PhD dissertations, etc. This style allows for using references in footnotes or endnotes (the so-called notes-bibliography style). There are some small differences between the use of references in the notes, and its use in bibliography which should be taken into consideration when you prepare your work according to the Turabian style.
Each bibliographical entry may be described in one or several short sentences; this is called annotation. To write a good annotation means that you have understood the content of the cited titles very well, and also that you are able to evaluate them critically.
If you are required to write an annotated bibliography in Turabian style, then you should follow some rules.
Turabian annotated bibliography – 6 important rules
Rule 1: cite all titles in the bibliography .
First, your Turabian annotated bibliography should contain all titles cited throughout your paper, even if you have not used direct quotations from the given sources. For example, you may simply inform your reader that a given problem has been researched by d-r A. in the book B. Then the book B should be included in your bibliography.
Rule 2: Annotate correctly
Second, when you annotate every title, you have two options:
- To use brief phrases (4-5 words); then add them in brackets immediately after the publication data.
- To use full sentences; then add them on a new line, without bracketing.
Rule 3: Center “Annotated Bibliography” at the end
Third, the phrase “Annotated Bibliography” should be placed at the end of your work, centered one inch from the top of the page. After it you should present the title of your paper. As with other academic styles, the titles are put in an alphabetical order.
Rule 4: Use correct formatting
Fourth, be careful with formatting: use Times New Roman, font pt. 12. The first line of each entry should begin at the left margin. The first line of the annotation should have a hanging indentation. Every subsequent line should have a five-space indentation. You should use double space between entries, but single space within entries.
Rule 5: Distinguish between the notes style & the bibliography style
Fifth, you should distinguish between the notes style and the bibliography style. The latter uses periods instead of commas and parentheses.
Rule 6: Make the description of every title brief
Sixth, it is recommended that brief description of every title is less than five sentences, 150 words. Don’t forget that you are writing an annotated bibliography and not an abstract of each work. You may simply review (describe) the work, make critical evaluation , or combine both.
Example of Turabian annotated bibliography
Annotated bibliography example
Pragmatist approaches to epistemology
Encyclopedia Britannica , 9th ed., "Pragmatism."
A well-written article about the philosophical movement called Pragmatism.
Contains useful information and critical remarks.
Johanson, Arnold E. “Philosophy and the Limits of Doubt.” Ph.D. diss., Yale University,
The author investigates the nature and the forms of doubt in classical pragmatism. A
comprehensive and innovative PhD dissertation.
Mead, George H. The Philosophy of the Act . Chicago: The University of Chicago Press,
A fundamental work by the founder of social psychology. According to Mead,
thought and act exist in union. The theoretical cannot be considered separately from
Murphey, Murray G. “On Peirce’s Metaphysics.” Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce
Society 1, no.1 (1965): 12-25.
As one of the most renowned pragmatist scholars, Murphey offers a conception
based on the assumption that Peirce’s metaphysics is the fundament of his
pragmatism. Classical pragmatism does not turn upon epistemology, but on
metaphysics, particularly on Peirce’s theory of categories.
Putnam, Ruth-Anna, ed. The Cambridge Companion to William James . Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1997.
A volume devoted to William James’ thought. It contains useful insights elaborated
by James’ scholars. A perfect book for everyone interested in classical pragmatism
and modern epistemology.
Do you need help with writing an annotated bibliography in Turabian format?
Our guarantees, customer feedback.
© 2023 SolidEssay. All Rights Reserved.
Powered by Data Researchers Network
CITATION QUICK GUIDE
Notes and Bibliography: Sample Citations
The following examples illustrate the notes and bibliography style. Sample notes show full citations followed by shortened forms that would be used after the first citation. Sample bibliography entries follow the notes. For more details and many more examples, see chapters 16 and 17 of Turabian. (For examples of the same citations using the author-date system, go to Author-Date: Sample Citations .)
1. Katie Kitamura, A Separation (New York: Riverhead Books, 2017), 25.
2. Sharon Sassler and Amanda Jayne Miller, Cohabitation Nation: Gender, Class, and the Remaking of Relationships (Oakland: University of California Press, 2017), 114.
3. Kitamura, Separation , 91–92.
4. Sassler and Miller, Cohabitation Nation , 205.
BIBLIOGRAPHY ENTRIES (IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER)
Kitamura, Katie. A Separation . New York: Riverhead Books, 2017.
Sassler, Sharon, and Amanda Jayne Miller. Cohabitation Nation: Gender, Class, and the Remaking of Relationships . Oakland: University of California Press, 2017.
CHAPTER OR OTHER PART OF AN EDITED BOOK
In a note, cite specific pages. In the bibliography, include the page range for the chapter or part.
1. Mary Rowlandson, “The Narrative of My Captivity,” in The Making of the American Essay , ed. John D’Agata (Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016), 19–20.
2. Rowlandson, “Captivity,” 48.
Rowlandson, Mary. “The Narrative of My Captivity.” In The Making of the American Essay , edited by John D’Agata, 19–56. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016.
To cite an edited book as a whole, list the editor(s) first.
1. John D’Agata, ed., The Making of the American Essay (Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016), 19–20.
2. D’Agata, American Essay, 48.
D’Agata, John, ed. The Making of the American Essay. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016.
1. Jhumpa Lahiri, In Other Words , trans. Ann Goldstein (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2016), 146.
2. Lahiri, In Other Words , 184.
Lahiri, Jhumpa. In Other Words . Translated by Ann Goldstein. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2016.
For books consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database. For other types of e-books, name the format. If no fixed page numbers are available, cite a section title or a chapter or other number in the notes or, if possible, track down a version with fixed page numbers.
1. Fyodor Dostoevsky, Crime and Punishment , trans. Constance Garnett, ed. William Allan Neilson (New York: P. F. Collier & Son, 1917), 444, https://archive.org/details/crimepunishment00dostuoft.
2. Eric Schlosser, Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the American Meal (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2001), 88, ProQuest Ebrary.
3. Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (New York: Penguin Classics, 2007), chap. 3, Kindle.
4. Dostoevsky, Crime and Punishment , 504–5.
5. Schlosser, Fast Food Nation , 100.
6. Austen, Pride and Prejudice , chap. 14.
Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice . New York: Penguin Classics, 2007. Kindle.
Dostoevsky, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment . Translated by Constance Garnett, edited by William Allan Neilson. New York: P. F. Collier & Son, 1917. https://archive.org/details/crimepunishment00dostuoft.
Schlosser, Eric. Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the American Meal . Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2001. ProQuest Ebrary.
THESIS OR DISSERTATION
1. Guadalupe Navarro-Garcia, “Integrating Social Justice Values in Educational Leadership: A Study of African American and Black University Presidents” (PhD diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 2016), 44, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.
2. Navarro-Garcia, “Social Justice Values,” 125–26.
Navarro-Garcia, Guadalupe. “Integrating Social Justice Values in Educational Leadership: A Study of African American and Black University Presidents.” PhD diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 2016. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.
In a note, cite specific page numbers. In the bibliography, include the page range for the whole article. For articles consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database. Many journal articles list a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). A DOI forms a permanent URL that begins https://doi.org/. This URL is preferable to the URL that appears in your browser’s address bar.
1. Ashley Hope Pérez, “Material Morality and the Logic of Degrees in Diderot’s Le neveu de Rameau ,” Modern Philology 114, no. 4 (May 2017): 874, https://doi.org/10.1086/689836.
2. Shao-Hsun Keng, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem, “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality,” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 9–10, https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.
3. Peter LaSalle, “Conundrum: A Story about Reading,” New England Review 38, no. 1 (2017): 95, Project MUSE.
4. Pérez, “Material Morality,” 880–81.
5. Keng, Lin, and Orazem, “Expanding College Access,” 23.
6. LaSalle, “Conundrum,” 101.
Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 1–34. https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.
LaSalle, Peter. “Conundrum: A Story about Reading.” New England Review 38, no. 1 (2017): 95–109. Project MUSE.
Pérez, Ashley Hope. “Material Morality and the Logic of Degrees in Diderot’s Le neveu de Rameau .” Modern Philology 114, no. 4 (May 2017): 872–98. https://doi.org/10.1086/689836.
Journal articles often list many authors, especially in the sciences. If there are four or more authors, list up to ten in the bibliography; in a note, list only the first, followed by et al. (“and others”). For more than ten authors (not shown here), list the first seven in the bibliography, followed by et al.
7. Jesse N. Weber et al., “Resist Globally, Infect Locally: A Transcontinental Test of Adaptation by Stickleback and Their Tapeworm Parasite,” American Naturalist 189, no. 1 (January 2017): 45, https://doi.org/10.1086/689597.
8. Weber et al., “Resist Globally,” 48–49.
Weber, Jesse N., Martin Kalbe, Kum Chuan Shim, Noémie I. Erin, Natalie C. Steinel, Lei Ma, and Daniel I. Bolnick. “Resist Globally, Infect Locally: A Transcontinental Test of Adaptation by Stickleback and Their Tapeworm Parasite.” American Naturalist 189, no. 1 (January 2017): 43–57. https://doi.org/10.1086/689597.
NEWS OR MAGAZINE ARTICLE
Articles from newspapers or news sites, magazines, blogs, and the like are cited similarly. Page numbers, if any, can be cited in a note but are omitted from a bibliography entry. If you consulted the article online, include a URL or the name of the database.
1. Farhad Manjoo, “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera,” New York Times , March 8, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/08/technology/snap-makes-a-bet-on-the-cultural-supremacy-of-the-camera.html.
2. Erin Anderssen, “Through the Eyes of Generation Z,” Globe and Mail (Toronto), June 25, 2016, http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/through-the-eyes-of-generation-z/article30571914/.
3. Rob Pegoraro, “Apple’s iPhone Is Sleek, Smart and Simple,” Washington Post , July 5, 2007, LexisNexis Academic.
4. Vinson Cunningham, “You Don’t Understand: John McWhorter Makes His Case for Black English,” New Yorker , May 15, 2017, 85.
5. Dara Lind, “Moving to Canada, Explained,” Vox , September 15, 2016, http://www.vox.com/2016/5/9/11608830/move-to-canada-how.
6. Manjoo, “Snap.”
7. Anderssen, “Generation Z.”
8. Pegoraro, “Apple’s iPhone.”
9. Cunningham, “Black English,” 86.
10. Lind, “Moving to Canada.”
Anderssen, Erin. “Through the Eyes of Generation Z.” Globe and Mail (Toronto), June 25, 2016. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/through-the-eyes-of-generation-z/article30571914/.
Cunningham, Vinson. “You Don’t Understand: John McWhorter Makes His Case for Black English.” New Yorker , May 15, 2017.
Lind, Dara. “Moving to Canada, Explained.” Vox , September 15, 2016. http://www.vox.com/2016/5/9/11608830/move-to-canada-how.
Manjoo, Farhad. “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera.” New York Times , March 8, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/08/technology/snap-makes-a-bet-on-the-cultural-supremacy-of-the-camera.html.
Pegoraro, Rob. “Apple’s iPhone Is Sleek, Smart and Simple.” Washington Post , July 5, 2007. LexisNexis Academic.
Readers’ comments are cited in the text or in a note but omitted from a bibliography.
11. Eduardo B (Los Angeles), March 9, 2017, comment on Manjoo, “Snap.”
1. Fernanda Eberstadt, “Gone Guy: A Writer Leaves His Wife, Then Disappears in Greece,” review of A Separation , by Katie Kitamura, New York Times , February 15, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/15/books/review/separation-katie-kitamura.html.
2. Eberstadt, “Gone Guy.”
Eberstadt, Fernanda. “Gone Guy: A Writer Leaves His Wife, Then Disappears in Greece.” Review of A Separation , by Katie Kitamura. New York Times , February 15, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/15/books/review/separation-katie-kitamura.html.
Web pages and other website content can be cited as shown here. For a source that does not list a date of publication, posting, or revision, include an access date (as in the Columbia example).
2. “History,” Columbia University, accessed May 15, 2017, http://www.columbia.edu/content/history.html.
4. Columbia University, “History.”
Columbia University. “History.” Accessed May 15, 2017. http://www.columbia.edu/content/history.html.
1. Kory Stamper, “From ‘F-Bomb’ to ‘Photobomb,’ How the Dictionary Keeps Up with English,” interview by Terry Gross, Fresh Air , NPR, April 19, 2017, audio, 35:25, http://www.npr.org/2017/04/19/524618639/from-f-bomb-to-photobomb-how-the-dictionary-keeps-up-with-english.
2. Beyoncé, “Sorry,” directed by Kahlil Joseph and Beyoncé Knowles, June 22, 2016, music video, 4:25, https://youtu.be/QxsmWxxouIM.
3. Stamper, interview.
4. Beyoncé, “Sorry.”
Beyoncé. “Sorry.” Directed by Kahlil Joseph and Beyoncé Knowles. June 22, 2016. Music video, 4:25. https://youtu.be/QxsmWxxouIM.
Stamper, Kory. “From ‘F-Bomb’ to ‘Photobomb,’ How the Dictionary Keeps Up with English.” Interview by Terry Gross. Fresh Air , NPR, April 19, 2017. Audio, 35:25. http://www.npr.org/2017/04/19/524618639/from-f-bomb-to-photobomb-how-the-dictionary-keeps-up-with-english.
SOCIAL MEDIA CONTENT
Citations of content shared through social media can usually be limited to the text (as in the first example below). A note may be added if a more formal citation is needed or to include a link. In rare cases, a bibliography entry may also be appropriate. In place of a title, quote up to the first 160 characters of the post. Comments are cited in reference to the original post.
Sloane Crosley offers the following advice: “How to edit: Attack a sentence. Write in the margins. Toss in some arrows. Cross out words. Rewrite them. Circle the whole mess and STET” (@askanyone, Twitter, May 8, 2017).
1. Pete Souza (@petesouza), “President Obama bids farewell to President Xi of China at the conclusion of the Nuclear Security Summit,” Instagram photo, April 1, 2016, https://www.instagram.com/p/BDrmfXTtNCt/.
2. Chicago Manual of Style, “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993,” Facebook, April 17, 2015, https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.
3. Souza, “President Obama.”
4. Michele Truty, April 17, 2015, 1:09 p.m., comment on Chicago Manual of Style, “singular they.”
Chicago Manual of Style. “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993.” Facebook, April 17, 2015. https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.
Personal interviews, correspondence, and other types of personal communications—including email and text messages and direct messages sent through social media—are usually cited in the text or in a note only; they are rarely included in a bibliography.
1. Sam Gomez, Facebook message to author, August 1, 2017.
2. Interview with home health aide, July 31, 2017.
- Become Involved |
- Give to the Library |
- Staff Directory |
- UNF Library
- Thomas G. Carpenter Library
Citation Styles: A Brief Guide to APA, MLA and Turabian
Sample bibliography: turabian.
- Journal Articles
- Magazine Articles
- Newspaper Articles
- Government Publications
- Other Materials
- In Text Citations
- Sample Bibliography: APA
- Sample Bibliography: MLA
- Creating an Annotated Bibliography
The basic format for a book citation requires listing the author's name, the title of the book, the publisher's name, and the date of publication. Edited books, when cited in full, will list the editor's name instead of an author’s name.
Clemens, Lieselotte. Old Lutheran Emigration from Pomerania to the U.S.A. : History and Motivation, 1839-1843 . Kiel, West Germany: Pomeranian Foundation, 1976.
Detzler, Jack J. "'I Live Here Happily': A German Immigrant in Territorial Wisconsin." Wisconsin Magazine of History 50, no. 3 (2007): 254-259.
Gruenwald, Myron Eugene. Baltic Teutons : Pioneers of America's Frontier . Oshkosh, WI: Pommerschen Leute, 1988.
------. Two Worlds for Our Children . Oshkosh, WI: Pommerschen Leute, 1985.
Kuyper, Susan Jean. The Americanization of German Immigrants : Language, Religion and Schools in Nineteenth Century Rural Wisconsin , 1981.
Marth, Elmer H. "Gustav Adolph Kindermann - Leader of a German Lutheran Immigration and Pioneer Southeastern Wisconsin Pastor." Concordia Historical Institute Quarterly 38, no. 3 (1965): 135-145.
Ostergren, Robert Clifford, Cora Lee Kluge, and Heike Bungert. Wisconsin German Land and Life . Madison, WI: Max Kade Institute for German-American Studies, University of Wisconsin--Madison, 2006.
Reppmann, Joachim. Freedom, Education and Well-Being for All : North Germans in the USA, 1847-1860 . Davenport, Iowa; Germany: Hesperian Press; Verlag für Amerikanistik, 1999.
Schlemper, M. B. “From the Rhenish Prussian Eifel to the Wisconsin Holyland: Immigration, Identity and Acculturation at the Regional Scale.” Journal of Historical Geography 33, no. 2 (2007): 377-402. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6WJN-4KRY3YV-1/2/e32171402b1650a576a754073 76ef15d (accessed April 28, 2009).
Strohschänk, Johannes. 2001. "The Official Word vs. the Horse's Mouth: Descriptions of Wisconsin for the German Emigrant in the 1850s." Yearbook of German-American Studies 36 (2001): 129-156.
Strohschänk, Johannes, William G. Thiel, and Max Kade Institute for German-American Studies (University of Wisconsin--Madison). The Wisconsin Office of Emigration, 1852-1855, and Its Impact on German Immigration to the State . Madison, WI: Max Kade Institute for German-American Studies, 2005.
Tabbert, Ronald. "Milwaukee's Trinity Designated a 'Landmark'." Concordia Historical Institute Quarterly 41, no. 4 (1968): 153-155. Zucker, A. E. 1958. "Roesler, Doughty Forty-Eighter." American-German Review 24, no. 6: 25-27.
- << Previous: Sample Bibliography: MLA
- Next: Creating an Annotated Bibliography >>
- Last Updated: Sep 1, 2022 9:39 AM
- URL: https://libguides.unf.edu/citationguide
- Cite: Why? When?
- Books or Ebooks
- Theses and Manuscripts
- Reference and Sacred Works
- Government Documents
- Format Your Paper
- Shortened Notes
Turabian Style (9th Ed.)
Turabian Style is a notation style (footnotes) most commonly used by writers in humanities (literature, history and the arts). The 9th edition of Turabian outlined in this guide is based on 17th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style and is adopted for student research papers. This format is primarily used by the History Department at UW-Whitewater and the one highlighted in this guide. Check with your professor about which version of Turabian to use for your paper.
- Another format of Turabian is the author-date system used in social sciences.
Turabian Format Template Document
Example paper & annotated bibliography.
- Turabian Student Paper Tip Sheets
- Turabian Annotated Bibliography Rules and Example
Printable Help Sheets & Tutorial
- Citing References: Turabian Style [PDF]
- Turabian Style Quick Guide
Get the Book
Many thanks to PSCC Libraries' excellent APA guide for sharing much of the content and organization.
- << Previous: Cite: Why? When?
- Next: Books or Ebooks >>
- Last Updated: Aug 11, 2022 9:11 AM
- URL: https://libguides.uww.edu/turabian
- Liberty University Notes-Bibliography Citation Style Used in all programs of study using Turabian format (except book reviews, which use Author-Date format). Footnotes are the preferred...
Turabian is the student version of the Chicago Manual of Style. It's important to note that Turabian has two different formatting approaches, the Notes-Bibliography styleand the Author-Date...
Annotated Bibliography Claudia S. Sample ENGL 100: Introduction to English February 15, 2023
The Turabian manual shows footnote numbers that are not superscripted and are followed by a period, but Liberty University programs require superscripted numbers with no periods, which is the...
The annotation appears on a new line directly after the source citation. The whole annotation is indented, to make it clear when the annotation ends and a new source appears. According to Turabian guidelines, annotations should be formatted the same as the main text of any paper: Double-spaced. Left-aligned.
An annotated bibliography is a list of citations for various books, articles, and other sources on a topic. The annotated bibliography looks like a Works Cited page but includes an annotation after each source cited. An annotation is a short summary and/or critical evaluation of a source.
Completing Your Annotated Bibliography. From Sarah Hughes November 1st, 2021. views comments.
Turabian Style Basics: Creating Properly Formatted Bibliographies . From Jeremy McGinniss ... Details; Does using Chicago/Turabian style to create footnotes and bibliographies for your research assignments seem to be an overwhelming task? We understand, and we can help! You will learn the basics of citing sources while also learning how to use ...
Turabian is a version of Chicago style that's specifically designed for students and researchers. If you've been told to follow Chicago style when writing your academic research paper, thesis, or dissertation, it's usually the Turabian guidelines that will be most useful to you. Note
Rule 1: Cite all titles in the bibliography. First, your Turabian annotated bibliography should contain all titles cited throughout your paper, even if you have not used direct quotations from the given sources. For example, you may simply inform your reader that a given problem has been researched by d-r A. in the book B.
The following examples illustrate the notes and bibliography style. Sample notes show full citations followed by shortened forms that would be used after the first citation. Sample bibliography entries follow the notes. For more details and many more examples, see chapters 16 and 17 of Turabian. (For examples of the same citations using the ...
Sample Bibliography: Turabian The basic format for a book citation requires listing the author's name, the title of the book, the publisher's name, and the date of publication. Edited books, when cited in full, will list the editor's name instead of an author's name. Bibliography Clemens, Lieselotte.
The 9th edition of Turabian outlined in this guide is based on 17th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style and is adopted for student research papers. This format is primarily used by the History Department at UW-Whitewater and the one highlighted in this guide. Check with your professor about which version of Turabian to use for your paper.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1958. This is the seminal text in describing the structure of an argument in nonsymbolic language. Format: The annotated bibliography for a paper written in Turabian follows the basic format of the works cited page. The title, Annotated Bibliography, is centered one inch from the top of the page, is not ...