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National War Memorial, New Delhi India / WeBe Design Lab
- Curated by Hana Abdel
- Architects: WeBe Design Lab
- Area Area of this architecture project Area : 109265 m²
- Year Completion year of this architecture project Year : 2019
- Photographs Photographs : Maniyarasan , Madhumitha
- Manufacturers Brands with products used in this architecture project Manufacturers : AutoDesk , Lumion , iGuzzini , Adobe , HEINRICH , Havells , JK Cement , Jakson , Jaquar , Ligman , Linea Light Group , Neptune , Oikos Group , Penetron , Rhino , Trimble
- Architect In Charge : Yogesh Chandrahasan
- Design Team : Yogesh Chandrahasan, Satish Vasanth Kumar, Udhayarajan, Malli Saravanan, Visuwanathan,, Ranganathan Ravi, Anjana Sudhakar, Kamal Rajkumar, ViJay Prakash, Balachandar Baskaran, Abhishek Tiwari
- Clients : Executive agency of National War Memorial, Museum Ministry of Defence, Government of India
- Planting Design : Savita Punde, Design cell, Gurgaon
- Project Management : Turner project Management India, Private, Limited
- Structural Consultant : Roark Consulting Engineers
- Mep Consultants : Edifice – Delhi, ATE
- Lighitng : AWA lighting Designers
- Fountain : Ripples, Mr. Premkumar
- Signages : Ishan Khosla Design
- Artist : Lt.Col Arul Raj
- Construction : NCC Limited
- Bronze Murals : Ram Vanji Suta
- City : New Delhi
- Country : India
Text description provided by the architects. The concept of rebirth is inspired from the quote of Captain Vikram Batra.
Either I will come back after hoisting the Tricolor, or I will come back wrapped in it, but I will be back for sure. REBIRTH – पुनर्जन्म (in Hindi) ‘Reborn to be an immortal’.
Great sense of pride and victory at the cost of their life! The memorial is a gestation on the idea of rebirth of those unsung heroes through their stories, journey and struggles translated as spatial expressions. A culmination to the historical Rajpath extending through the India Gate, the National War Memorial is an open landscaped public space spread over 42 acres in the C -hexagon. Mostly invisible but strongly present, it is a semi-subterranean design remaining a peoples’ place but with a different dimension of emotional weight. Progressive act of protection, sacrifice, bravery and becoming the immortal translate as a concentric arrangement of which the ‘Thyag Chakra’ holds the name of each fallen soldier who become another brick in the nation’s defensive wall.
THE VOID . . . Six decades to come into existence: The request for the National War Memorial (NWM), India was placed by the armed forces in 1960. However, the consideration acquired momentum in 2015 and the construction was approved within the National capital's heritage zone of the British Imperial Times. Later, an International two stage competition was held for the design and implementation of the NWM by the Ministry of Defense, Government of India. WEBE Design Lab won both the first and the third place. The winning entry headed by Ar Yogesh Chandrahasan was commissioned for construction. India’s NWM was finally inaugurated on 25 th Feb 2019 by Honorable Prime Minister Narendra Modi.
CONTEXT AND DESIGN APPROACH - The Iconic India Gate, brims with an average footfall of 50,000 ppl/day. Inset within the bustling C Hexagon the lawns were retained to be active public spaces to play, meet, relax and more. This Capitol complex has a central axis, the Rajpath- The ceremonial path from the President’s home, that runs across and ends at the India Gate. The newly built NWM retains the axis and bestows the essence of hierarchical importance upon the overall footprint. A cross-connection at the core of the New Memorial: The Yudhpath– is a metaphorical placement of the Rajpath (Path of life) with the Yudhpath ( Path of war).
Circle of Sacrifice ( Tyag Chakra ): Inspired by the historic “Chakravyuha” Ancient war formation, the Tyag Chakra is arranged in concentric circles in accordance with the wars, gloriously housing the names of 25,700 war heroes, who sacrificed their life post-independence for the Nation. It is a concrete structure, with self-interlocking granite blocks placed over it. Each block represents a Martyr, and is engraved with his name, rank and number.
ESTABLISHING SYMBOL AND MEMORY - Circle of Protection The tree arrangement personifies the territorial line of control- The soldiers who are still there trying to safe guard us in places unseen. The circle containing 690 trees also helps in screening the busy roads of the C Hexagon thereby creating a calmer and protected space inside the memorial.
Circle of Bravery ( Veer Chakra ) A semi open corridor and gallery holding the brave stories of significant historic battles in Indian history of the Army, Navy and Air force.
Circle of Immortality ( Amar Chakra) The obelisk carrying the eternal flame symbolizes the immortality of the Jawans that they will never be dead and they will always live in our memory. It is set in a larger circular court which also is the ceremonial space.
Lighting: The lighting in the central court around the eternal flame spearheads sideways and up building a sense of eternity as it fades out. The Thyag chakra seems floating with a series of small lights which resembles the oil lamps that are light in memory of the beloved ones in any Indian home. The streaks of light on the steps create a sense of transition through the concentric setup. The project does not have any ambient light. As much as the light brought in emphasis and character, the darkness made the required experience deeper and absorbing.
Address: rajpath, india gate, new delhi, delhi 110001, india.
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National War Memorial, Delhi: WeBe Design Lab
The National War Memorial in Delhi by Chennai-based Webe Design Lab is a built landscape that emerges from an unprecedented participatory process, programme, ambition, and typology. In its comprehension, the project creates a space of sanctitude in memory of Jawans, and of pride, and honour for their families and citizens of India, which is respectful to the context.
BACKGROUND & TIMEFRAMES
One of the most enduring images from Delhi since 1931 is the axis of India Gate, forming one of the pinnacles of the ceremonial Vijaypath (the erstwhile Rajpath or the Kings Way) – the currently debated Central Vista. The ceremonial boulevard was designated by Edwin Lutyens as the centre of what he contrived as a ‘modern imperial city’, tethering an enclave of buildings of political eminences such as Rashtrapati Bhavan (formerly the Viceroy’s Residence), Secretariat Building, Vijay Chowk, designed by Lutyens himself and Herbert Baker . Renowned as one of the foremost European designers of war memorials and graves, Edwin Lutyens designed the All India War Memorial, popular as India Gate in tribute to the soldiers martyred in the First World War from 1921-31. Beyond it, since 1972 stands the Amar Jawan Jyoti , an inverted bayonet with a soldier’s helmet – an insignia in homage to India’s victory in the 1971 war with Pakistan and to the brave soldiers who died while serving India’s armed forces. The area surrounding this is marked as the Lutyen’s Bungalow Zone (LBZ) which is also enlisted on 2002 World Monuments Watch list of 100 Most Endangered Sites. Needless to iterate, it is a site of cynosure – an avenue in focus with the ongoing debates around the Central Vista project. It is a landscape of immense cultural, historical and political significance.
The National War Memorial comes at the hem of almost 60 years of contemplation and consideration. Ongoing since 1961, the discussion put forth by the Armed Forces over the years finally saw fruition in 2014, gaining momentum presided by the current Government. In 2006, a conceptual scheme had also presented to the President of India by Charles Correa .
In July 2014, a competition was announced by the Government of India on its online portal for the National War Memorial and Museum. “It is India’s first commemorative memorial for the wars and military conflicts since 1947. Post India’s independence on 15th August 1947, our country has been involved in many conflicts of different magnitudes and participated in innumerable operations both inland and overseas. Our country continues to engage in counter-terrorism operations and proxy war from across the front resulting in number of battle casualties. While a number of area/battle specific memorials are built across the country, but no memorial existed that was all encompassing.,” read the premise in the Brief. It ‘proposed that lawns within the Hexagon, without disturbing Lawns V, VI, Chhatri(Canopy) and Childrens’ Park be utilised as the site’. With unambiguous guidelines, it called for a design that would ‘stand tall between the expanse of manicured lawns and grand buildings […]’must be majestic and timeless.’ At the same time, it emphasised that ‘the design should pay more attention to landscape-based interventions rather than any major construction except for commemorative wall, platforms and minimal public utilities etc.’ and ‘should be in harmony with the existing landscape of the Hexagon.’
The competition was conducted in two stages; it garnered around 427 submissions in an overwhelming response. A multidisciplinary jury comprising of architects, designers, academicians, singers, bureaucrats, social workers, was instituted which selected 9 entries for further discussions. After a closed presentation reviewed by the committee, Chennai-based WeBE Design Lab were announced as winners and coveting the third place for the National War Memorial. The winning entry led by Yogesh Chandrahasan of WeBe Design Lab , was commissioned for construction. Mumbai-based Sameep Padora & Associates (sP+a) was announced as the winner for the National War Museum.
The execution of both the National War Memorial and Museum were assigned guidance by a Special Projects Division overseen by the Chief Administrative Officer (Ministry of Defence), and the Military Engineer Services. The National War Museum dealt with unbidden controversies before it was shelved. A welcome contrast, the National War Memorial was inaugurated and dedicated to the Armed Forces of India on 25 th February 2019 by the Prime Minister of India.
The design of this Memorial emerges from a context of legacy – the legacy of 25,000 Jawans (soldiers) who lost their lives in various wars and operations such as ‘the Indo-Pak wars of 1947, 1965, and 1971; the Indo-China war of 1962; the Kargil war of 1999, besides the peace keeping operations in Sri Lanka, counter insurgency operations, and internal conflicts within the country’. It emerges from the remarkably, surprising mature process of a Government-organised competition. It emerges from this historically and politically charged site in the C-Hexagon, India Gate Complex.
Entitled ‘ P u n a r j a n m [ पुनर्जन्म ] ’ (rebirth), this is a non-building that articulates the legacy and the context, neither partial to one or the other, but bridging both. A quote of Captain Vikram Batra , laid the conceptual foundation of rebirth for the design.
“Either I will come back after hoisting the Tricolour, or I will come back wrapped in it, but I will be back for sure.”
Context and Master Plan
Within 42 acres extended in the C-Hexagon, the design subscribes consciously to the formal rhythm and geometry of Lutyen’s zone and transcends into a plane of layers that traces the lie of the land.
The architects refer to it as a ‘semi-subterranean design’ which respected the governing heritage zone that it was a part of. The planning was delineated across three parts:
- The Param Yodha Sthal: A dedicated walkway connecting statues of the 21 Paramveer Chakra awardees.
- The Rashtriya Samar Smarak (National War Memorial) : consisting of the central zone (Circles of Emotions) and utility complex on both north and southern side.
- Public plazas
Past the crowds that converge and the languorous circumventing of hawkers that one attempts at the India Gate security barricades, the linearity starts to thin as one enters the complex – the Circles of Emotions.
The elements of design – these four circles – namely, the Circle of Immortality (Amar Chakra), Circle of Bravery (Veer Chakra), Circle of Sacrifice (Tyag Chakra), Circle of Protection and the Path of War are profoundly a personal take of the design team, on conveyance of ‘emotion and design: establishing symbol and memory’.
On arrival, one begins their journey at the Circle of Protection. Enveloped by 690 trees, the memorial area is relatively calmer, and protected from the outside. “It personifies the territorial line of control,” write the architects, “The soldiers who are still there trying to safeguard us in places unseen. The ordered arrangement of the trees reflect the disciplined life led by them.”
Subsequently, one finds themselves ushered into a promenade, a wider avenue. It is here that one begins to understand the intrinsic nature of the design, the idea of the pastoral and the ordered landscape. In plan, concentric layers radiate from the core, each manicured and meticulous, inspiring a movement which is curated. The walk is long-drawn but implicit suggestions of the design start expressing themselves along the trajectory. It is a negated ziggurat that moves downward closer to the earth – a deference, restrained posture.
The readability of the circles becomes more pronounced at the Circle of Sacrifice (Tyag Chakra). While making a reference to Chakravyuha , a traditional concentric military formation, the sculpturesque layout inscribes names of 25942 martyrs over 8 segments of 2 walls each. In its simplicity of a precast RCC structure holding up simple self-interlocking granites chiselled with names of the Martyrs with their names, rank and numbers, it offers an experiential way of remembrance. Rows and rows systemised chronologically outline an enormity of the loss, a physical echo of the absence, a memorial for an individual soldier, not a general monument.
The visibility of the layout strengthens as one moves onwards to the Circle of Bravery. At the threshold, one pauses looking down as the Eternal Flame comes into view, and reconciling with the breadth of the memorial that reveals itself. The Circle of Bravery is a semi-open corridor that circumvallates the main plaza. Six bronze murals inspired from the painting of Lt Col A J Arul Raj (Retd), made by renowned sculptor Ram Sutar narrate details from six post-independence battles fought by the defence forces. Considering this is a singular representation, the exhibits leave a lot to be desired. In absence of a Museum, perhaps, these can be substantially curated . Additionally, the architects mention that this circle ‘holds a large semicircular rainwater harvesting tank. The water from the paved areas and landscaped areas in the central zone are collected and reused for irrigation.’
The obelisk carrying the eternal flame finds an eloquent place in the Circle of Immortality (Amar Chakra), the innermost core, the sanctum of the design seen against the tessellations of the stairs. Prosaically, it is the radiating centre defined as a ceremonial space; poetically, it is choreographed with an edificial symbol rising from the earth, meeting the sky, immortalising the memory of the soldiers. “The central obelisk and the opening out of the memorial intends to hold a subtle hierarchy to the India Gate and the Chattri,” say the architects. It is apparent that from here, the comprehensive plan sustains the symmetrical, hierarchical layout of the context.
The circles represent a nexus to the intersection formed by the Rajpath with the Yudhpath (life of a soldier). On either sides, the landscape extends and the edges expand into these subterranean pathways – Path of War. Of this, the architects write, that they ‘were designed as preparation space which displays a brief history of Indian Defence force. The upward ramp from the gallery does not reveal what stays ahead. All that one could see the pinnacle of the obelisk – the destination. On climbing up there is a sudden opening up of the entire spread of the memorial which is a parallel drawn to the war moment.’ These pathways were connecting the site of the War Museum and the lawns. The connections drawn at the central core also illustrated ‘a symbolic intersection of the Rajpath and the Yudhpath- “Path of life” and “Path of war”.’
It is a well-meaning attempt, translating the ‘emotions which a soldier transits through when he/she goes to war’ into a geometric manifestation. Beyond the creation of what the brief called for, by organising separate sections, the design places an emphasis on people to consider each space with its own distinct history.
The material palette used is another conscious nod to the context, and because of that, the space innately responds to the heritage zone, not very inextricably different from the existing landscape. Elaborating on another relevant integration, the architects say that ‘the lighting in each circle enhances its emotional component differently. The lighting in the central court around the eternal flame spearheads sideways and up building a sense of eternity as it fades out. The Tyag Chakra seems floating with a series of small lights which resembles the oil lamps that are light in memory of the beloved ones in any Indian home. The streaks of light on the steps create a sense of transition through the concentric rings. As much as the light brought in emphasis and character, the darkness made the required experience deeper and absorbing.”
At the approximate cost of INR 176 crores, the Memorial was designed and built in a time span of 20 months. Given the stature of the project, it has faced its own fair share of disputations. The proposed site had encroachments and there was concerns raised by the Army about vacating World War II barracks on the adjacent sites. But unlike its counterpart – the National War Museum, this project proceeded in principle.
As a project, the Memorial negotiates a wide variety of expectations. How does one build in this incredible monumental core? What does a competition like this mean for a practice in India? What does it mean for the young practice which was appointed with this honour and responsibility? How does one design a memorial that is able to convey such a complex and significant military history? How does one define an identity for such a place/space in public imagination? In fragments of this process, the project’s position gets consolidated, and merely viewing it as an architectural object flatlines it.
For a practice that was established in February 2010, by eight friends/studio partners from School of Architecture and Planning, Chennai, and who won two commendations (first place and third place) in this competition, it compellingly gives credence to an optimistic view of what it means for a young practice to be involved with a project of this scale and import. As Yogesh remarks in his interview, “We were not in a great circumstance at the time of the competition. Especially after Chennai Floods the construction field was completely down. It was the time we were looking for other possibilities and practices to build our portfolio.” In a separate interview with Indian Express , that they were fortunate enough to receive emotional, resourceful and financial support from friends and family.
Whatever the reading of the architecture and its visual matrix, the reality of this Memorial is in the course of its trajectory which provokes reams of conceptual comment and every chance of it becoming a widely debated work. It is noteworthy that despite being a Government-led initiative, the range of the competition was equally expansive. It diverged from the familiar ‘invited’ and ‘closed’ competition template.
To some, in the detailing and finishing of construction, the gaps may seem quite tangible. However, the architecture does not claim overt attention. Nor is it a sudden, jarring change for the landscape, neither does it attempt to emancipate the present context from any history. Even as an insert of over 109265 sqm, it still remains as a background and in deference to the India Gate monument. At this scale, even though the project embraces the vast peripheries of its given site, it is commendable that the invisible becomes visible only by navigating the journey and the power of conveyance that the architecture mediates for the visitor.
Within a landscape that has not witnessed a similar intervention in recent times, and whose appearance could not therefore be anticipated, on many levels, the design also breaks down preconceptions of what a late 21 st century building should be. It remains devoid of any trademark approach, of any ‘iconic’ signifiers. Although it absorbs features from accepted historicity such as the Mughal Gardens or the Chakravyuh, but there seem to be none of over-the-top ‘inspired’ motifs or ethics that characterise it. That is a refreshing virtue. Additionally, in its reticence, it sets a precedent of how to deal with a site like this.
As a project, it acknowledges that important beginning of a transition from existing opaque processes of state-sponsored projects. Yogesh admits that except for a rare exclusion, the project itself has not changed from its inception but evolved with discussions with those directly involved. As a rhetoric, it is an assumption that it may not have been easy to follow the Government and Ministry of Defenses’ drift for the finer nuances of the argument but that does not seem to the case here.
In the larger discourse, it edifies a conduct for a competition that was initiated by the Government, and the successful implementation of a programme, especially one where a young firm with limited influence could propose a purposeful, zealous plan which was veritably realised. Relatively, this is in sharp contrast to its correlative programme, awarded fairly to Sameep Padora & Associates, which was dragged into an irredeemable controversy owing to professional insecurities.
At a time when the architectural fraternity in India is debating the vicissitudes of projects of national significance in the same vicinity, one realises that a competition of this kind is too infrequent to claim a space of change. While it is important to see the architecture of this Memorial as a sensitive design, and a product of history, it is also crucial that it is seen as a demonstration of a successful a state-sponsored design competition that empowers any firm through an accessible system of participation.
In conversation with MATTER, Yogesh Chandrahasan of WeBe Design Lab discusses the development and curation of the design, the implications of the National War Memorial and the rewarding response to the project.
An insight into the making.
Q: The Global National War Memorial & Museum Competition for India completely reimagined the way architects could engage with a public project. Could you give us a background on the competition process for you? Please tell us about your experience. Did the composition of the Jury Panel make it different than any other architectural competition?
Yogesh Chandrahasan [YC]: We rarely see such initiatives taken for designing the public spaces in our country. It is one of the successful design competitions conducted that was also executed. We were lucky to see what we envisioned to also be executed. The competition was floated in the Government portal: mygov.in . We were surprised to see that the portal had many open competitions not only for special projects but also varied scales and expert areas giving opportunity for all age groups and fields of work. The Ministry of Defence hosted this as an international two-stage competition. Stage 1, being the concept scheme submitted online and Stage 2, as the detailed design presentation to the Jury panel.
We were not in a great circumstance at the time of the competition. Especially after Chennai Floods, the construction field was completely down. It is the time we were looking for other possibilities and practices to build our portfolio. Working for this competition was one of the best experiences that took us back to our school days.
It was definitely an unusual jury panel consisting of about 20 renowned experts and bureaucrats from diverse fields.
Panel: Architects : Ar Christopher Benninger, Ar Jaisim Krishna Rao, Ar PSN Rao, Ar C N Raghvendran Academicians : Prof Chetan Vaidya, Prof Mandeep Singh, Dr K S Anantha Krishna Actor /Director: Mr Amol Palekar Artist: Mr Jatin Das Singer: Ms Hema Sardesai Social Worker: Ms Sudha Murthy Ministry of Defence : Mr JRK Rao, Ar Mala Mohan, Lt Gen Anil Chauhan, Lt Gen Rakesh Sharma, Lt Gen Satish Dua, Air Marshal Ajit S Bhonsle Committee: Ar Divya Kush (IIA), Ar Ashutosh Kumar Agarwal (IIA)
Q: How did the design develop internally within the team – how was the studio organised in the process? How did the design evolve through the competition stages? What were some of the defining moments in the design for you? It is a project arranged in many thematic layers – it is an urban project, it is a project of nation building, it symbolises pride, memory, patriotism, legacy et al. What has been the main approach conceptually to resolve this in the design? What were your main observations?
YC: As a firm we believe in co-working and co-creation. We are a partnership concern. The set-up is interesting and enriching bringing in varied perspectives through the process. We had open feedback sessions on the design with all partners and their teams in our office during the competition process. It was made sure that the sessions were critical and every feedback was taken in a positive way. The design is an outcome of the entire team.
Two entries from our office got shortlisted for Stage 2. The entire office was divided into two of which one half was helping our team and the other was working with another partner, Ar Karthikeyan. Some of our old interns too joined us to help then. The responsibilities were split and given to individuals to manage and execute it.
As part of WeBe’s Process we believe every space should bring in a sense of connection between people, their culture, and the surrounding to build a collective sense of belonging. This in itself had varied aspects that drove the design.
While developing we were also very conscious that the design should:
1) Reflect the brief given in the competition. 2) Be simple and provoke emotion. 3) Have very less built (covered) space. 4) Respect and merge the existing landscape and setup. 5) Create a common connecting point for anyone who walks in to experience it.
Q: Were there any memorials/ influences/ mentors that served as an inspiration or recall for you?
YC: We did study about memorials across the world but that was not an influence. As a firm we believe that every project starts a clean state. We were looking through history, context and the project backdrop for a strong initiation point.
“Either I will come back after hoisting the Tricolour, or I will come back wrapped in it, but I will be back for sure.” This quote of Captain Vikram Batra made us place the design around the concept of ‘Rebirth’.
There were many metaphorical interpretations:
The Rajpath (Path of Life) cuts across the Yudh Path (Life of a soldier). Similarly, each circle has a story and emotion built around it. For example, the Tyag Chakra (Circle of Sacrifice) is inspired from the ancient war formation “Chakrvyuh”. The soldiers form a concentric arrangement to protect their king. Every circle is an interpretation of different acts of a soldier which is translated as different emotions for people to experience.
Q: Located in one of the most significant, and historic avenues of the country, and visited by people irrespective of class, creed, race and religion, context and community must have been one of the core concerns to address. Could you elaborate on the focus of these aspects specifically?
YC: To work on a site like this is a big dream for many. Being rich in history, architecture, culture, people’s footfall, these were all thought through. The design brief was very clear that the Memorial will be designed as a public space. Irrespective of the typology, the space had to be designed and experienced by everyone.
For people from varied cultures and ethnicity a common connection had to be established. As mentioned earlier, the life of a soldier was that common point. We went into looking at it deeper to build the experience around it.
Q: Did the design evolve/change post the competition? Were there any limitations or areas that you were unable to realize or that transformed over the course?
YC: As I said earlier we strongly believe in co-creation. Apart from WeBe we had 8 expert teams working with us on making the project what it is now. Lighting, planting, artworks, information design, structure and services are some of them. Everyone contributed to enrich the design.
Yes. It was not easy to have a dialogue and convince the officials in some circumstances. One of the key components of the memorial, “resurrecting soldiers” reflecting the idea of “rebirth” was removed during the course of translation.
Q: The Memorial itself extends into a permanent exhibition space. Was the exhibition curated by your practice? If so, what were the ideas behind its curation?
YC: More than an exhibition it is a space to experience. In which the Circle of the Bravery ( Virta Chakra) is a gallery holding some significant stories of Indian armed forces for people to think, to know our defence history and more.
The required content was given by the officials and we curated the space along with the help of artist Lt Col.Arul Raj, Sculptor Mr Ram Sutar and Mr Anil Ram Sutar.
Q: Considering the spectrum and typologies of work you were dealing with prior to the competition, what have been some of the challenges and opportunities for you to embark on a project of this scale, in public eye and dealing with a large government project? For the project, and also for the studio.
YC: When we look at spaces through the lens of people, culture and surrounding to build an experience, typology does not matter. However, our portfolio had smaller projects then, partners are specialised to work across varied scales – both, big and small. There are two simple but important aspects around which any project is developed – Every project is unique and begins with a clean slate and Every project needs a unique team. This works across typology and scale.
Definitely the Memorial is a project of different nature and was a new experience. For a firm like ours, the major challenge in working for the Government was on funding, their preset procedures and protocols.
Q: Has the project influenced the way you think about the building, architecture and your practice?
YC: As much as we plan, spaces unfold and are not always the way we think. Subtle but crucial, the spaces should give the scope for adaptations and interpretations. Allowing it to take form naturally. Beauty lies in natural adaptation.
Q: The project was completed in 2016. It is one of the most visited public spaces in our country. What sort of a response and reaction has it received?
YC: So far, the response is positive most times and surprising sometimes. We envision something. Reality always holds something in store. Not everything turns up the way we want. This place ended up being much more than what we had thought it would be. From the silence it brings in everyone, to the patriotic shout outs during wreath laying ceremonies, this space has brought us many surprises. The thanks and blessings showered by the soldiers themselves! By nature, this place carries so much more than anyone can plan for. No doubt that it remained a void in so many’s life. I read the Google Reviews for the project once in a while to understand the thoughts. It is very fascinating to see the translation the space has taken and the emotion everyone undergoes inside the memorial. It is truly overwhelming.
Global Design Competition for National War Memorial and Museum. New Delhi: Ministry of Defence, Government of India , 2016
Plot Area: 42 Acres Year of Completion: February 2019
Location: C- Hexagon, Lawn 1,2 ,3 4, Central Delhi, India Client: Executive Agency of National War Memorial and Museum, Ministry of Defence, Government of India
Architect: Yogesh Chandrahasan, WeBe Design Lab, Chennai Project Team: (WeBe) Satish Vasanth Kumar Udhayarajan Malli Saravanan Visuwanathan, ViJay Prakash Ranganathan Ravi Balachandar Baskaran Abhishek Tiwari Anjana Sudhakar
Consultants Project Management: Turner Project Management India Pvt Ltd Planting Design: Mrs Savita Punde, Design Cell, Gurgaon Structural: Roark Consulting Engineers LLP, Delhi MEP Consultants: Edifice – Delhi & ATE – Chennai Lighting: AWA Lighting Designers Fountain: Ripples & Mr Premkumar Signages: Ishan Khosla Design Artist: Lt Col A J Arul Raj (Retd) Bronze Sculpture/Murals: Ram Vanji Sutar Visual Documentation: Maniyarasan
Photographs: WeBe Design Lab, Maniyarasan, Madhumitha, Government of India Drawings: WeBe Design Lab Text: Maanasi Hattangadi
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Submitted by Sarbjit Bahga
National war memorial at new delhi designed by webe design lab inaugurated, india architecture news - mar 14, 2019 - 00:53 30640 views.
Recently built, a state-of-the-art, National War Memorial at New Delhi has been dedicated to the nation by the Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi on February 25, 2019. With the completion of this memorial, about six-decade-old demand of Indian armed forces and their veterans has been fulfilled. The memorial is a tribute to over 25942 soldiers from Indian Army, Air Force and Indian Navy who attained martyrdom in all the wars India fought after Independence in 1947.
The memorial has been designed by a Chennai-based architectural practice ‘ WeBe Design Lab ’ headed by architect Yogesh Chandrahasan. The firm got the commission to design this prestigious project through a global design competition held in 2016-17 in which 427 firms participated. Built at a cost of Rupees 176 crores, the memorial has been got constructed by the Military Engineering Services in a very short span of time of about 20 months.
The National War Memorial is located near India Gate in the heart of the Lutyens’ Zone of New Delhi Capitol Complex. It is spread over an area of 42 acres which falls at the culminating point of prestigious Raj Path on the east. The Raj Path is the strong central axis of the Capitol Complex which connects the India Gate with the Rashtrapati Bhavan and ends in the circular Mughal Gardens in the presidential complex.
Like the Mughal Gardens at the west end of the Raj Path, the Lutyens’ plan envisaged a similar garden on its east-end near India Gate. This site has now been befittingly utilized by the National War Memorial.
Keeping in view the historical importance of this site and the guidelines of the Central Vista Committee, the memorial has been planned as a subterranean facility with built-form not exceeding 1.5m above the ground level. The design of the memorial is thus in sync with the character of the existing open space and aesthetical sanctity of Lutyens’ planning.
The design concept of the National War Memorial is based on ‘Chakravyuha’ - an ancient circular battle formation for laying an efficient trap for the enemy. Based on this concept, the architects created an experience of walking amidst soldiers in a war field in different layers. The circular plan of the memorial incorporates five concentric rings of varied elements. These rings serve different functions and convey different emotions.
The outermost layer is conceived as ‘Circle of Protection’ or ‘Rakshak Chakra’ which personifies the territorial control of the armed forces. On the ground, the ‘ Rakshak Chakra’ has been translated in the form of the thick jungle by planting more than 600 trees in a circular arrangement. When these trees will be fully grown, this space will give a feeling of walking through a fleet of disciplined soldiers who are deployed to protect their country.
The second concentric layer is called the ‘Circle of War’ or ‘Yudh Path’ . This is a wide paved footpath which runs on the inner side of the ‘urban jungle’ in the outer circle. It gives ceremonial access to the memorial from all the four directions. This Yudh Path’ also holds two underground galleries and convenience stores at the north and south end. The galleries are aimed to provide information on the history of some of the important battles fought by the Indian soldiers.
The third ring is the ‘Circle of Sacrifice’ or ‘Tyag Chakra’ . It represents the soldiers standing in a number of rows in the formation of concentric circles. Two rows of memorial walls form the ‘Circle of Sacrifice’. These walls have been designed as a modular self-balancing structural stacking system with a height of 1.5m. Granite stone slabs on which names and ranks of martyrs have been engraved are arranged in a linear strip formation. These continuous horizontal bands of stones hold and protect themselves and its occupants within, symbolising discipline, order, and commitment of bravehearts towards the nation. The names of 25942 martyrs have been inscribed on the walls of sacrifice.
The fourth concentric layer is the ‘Circle of Bravery’ or ‘Veerta Chakra’ . It is designed as an underground colonnaded semi-open gallery which holds six bronze murals in bas-relief. These murals depict six important battles fought by the Indian soldiers which were the turning point in the history of nation building. These murals have been designed and sculpted by non-other than Ram Sutar - a 93-year-old, and most celebrated sculptor of India.
The fifth and innermost layer of the memorial is the ‘Circle of Immortality’ or ‘Amar Chakra’ . This is the focal point of the memorial which symbolises the immortality of the soldiers who laid down their lives. The epicentre of ‘Amar Chakra’ is marked by a 15-metre-high obelisk which holds the ‘Amar Jawan Jyoti’ at the base and the State Emblem of India at the top.
All the open spaces in and around the memorial are meticulously landscaped with earth forms, water features, and flora and fauna. The landscape design is based on the concept of Mughal Gardens which emphasises the belief that ‘gardens are a door to the heaven’.
Yet another feature of the campus is the ‘Param Yodha Sthal’ which is a separate garden developed on a large expanse of land adjacent to the National War Memorial towards its north-west. This garden is exclusively dedicated to the 21 ‘Param Vir Chakra’ awardees. The ‘Param Vir Chakra’ is India’s highest military decoration awarded for displaying distinguishing acts of valour during wartime.
The ‘Param Yodha Sthal’ incorporates bronze statues of the ‘Param Vir Chakra’ awardees. The park is designed with existing large trees in position and well laid out pathways, flower beds, and grassy lawns.
The success of the National War Memorial can be gauged from the fact that thousands of visitors visit it daily.
All images © Sarbjit Bahga .
> Via ‘ WeBe Design Lab ’.
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The National War Memorial, New Delhi
by Giles Tillotson Published on : Jun 04, 2019
The problem – all at once the inspiration, the challenge and the obstacle – for the National War Memorial has always been India Gate. There, at the foot of Rajpath, looms a gigantic arch. It stands firm, proud and solid; but it is also ambiguous. Inscribed on its walls are the names of members of India’s armed forces who were killed overseas in the First World War. The vast majority of those names are Indian, and yet there are English names too that still cling to the monument: not just the smattering of English captains and majors who rub shoulders in death with their havildars, naiks and sepoys, but even more potently – though it is not written there – the name of its architect, Edwin Lutyens. More so than Rashtrapati Bhavan (the President House), India Gate retains something of its British imperial character. Perhaps this is on account of its form. The dome and portico of Rashtrapati Bhavan look towards Sanchi and Ashokan columns; but India Gate is a classical triumphal arch that looks towards Rome, Paris and London. Simply calling it ‘India Gate’ – rather than its original official name, the All India War Memorial Arch – does not make it more Indian.
So, here is the first problem. Given the prominence of this memorial to the war dead of an imperial age, if we are to commemorate those who have died for the Republic, it cannot be located in any inferior position. It has to be equal to India Gate, and it has to be next to it. Anything else would look like being shunted off to the margins. However, building next to India Gate presents further problems. How does one emulate such a grand edifice? And, given the deference accorded to Lutyens, wouldn’t building anything new in this heritage zone amount to some kind of desecration? Many have thought so, including, it seems, Sheila Dixit, who as the then Chief Minister of Delhi opposed the idea of building a new memorial at this site.
It is hardly surprising, then, that it has taken nearly 60 years to implement – if we count from the first proposal for a new memorial, put forward in 1960, to commemorate all those in the Indian forces killed in action from 1947 onwards. Since then the passing decades have seen many changes of government, and several more wars. And then it all came together in a rush. A design competition was opened in August 2016, the winner was declared in April 2017, and the completed scheme was inaugurated less than two years later, on 25 February 2019.
The station was envisioned such that it acts like an extension of its picturesque context. “The building slowly appears and rises from the ground with an exterior spiralled promenade that provides all-round vistas of the valley. A panoramic balcony extends out, where locals, tourists and transit travellers can equally enjoy the landscape. Our aim is to avoid the new station becoming a stranger within the valley,” say the lead architects. With the design giving equal importance to where it belongs, it intends the station to truly become one with the serene alpine environment. And while the design principles have not changed from the beginning of the project, the design itself has evolved through various phases.
Multiple access paths have been considered while designing the site layout – the old train route, new high speed train line, bus route, cycling paths, pedestrian walkways and car entry and exit points. This has been intricately designed keeping in mind ease and comfort to arrive and depart while also making it comfortable for passengers in transit.
The design is by Yogesh Chandrahasan of WeBe Design Lab in Chennai. The new memorial is laid out behind India Gate, axially aligned with it, responding to its ambiguity with ambiguities of its own. At its core is an obelisk, placed on a circular podium in a larger circular court. So it answers the classical forms of India Gate with other classical forms: the void round arch with a solid circle, the blunt slab of a gate with a piercing needle. And while India Gate soars to a height of 130 feet, this modest obelisk stands in a sunken courtyard. The area has been excavated, placing half of the new memorial below ground level. In one sense, this seems to address the conservationists. “Look,” it seems to say, “we are barely touching your precious heritage landscape. If you just drive around the hexagon, you will scarcely notice us, hidden away as we are.” And at the same time this sunken circle is a deliberately modest gesture, a quiet honouring of the martyrs. Here is a republican style of mourning, offered in riposte to the imperial one, which was triumphalist, even when counting its dead.
This much any visitor might fathom as it depends on elemental forms, but there are other aspects of the design that involve more complex symbolism that might elude most people. Helpful notices unpack the architect’s intention. The obelisk on its podium is said to be an Amar Chakra , a Circle of Immortality, symbolising the soldier’s spirit and standing at the core of a series of concentric rings. First around it is the Veerta Chakra , the Circle of Bravery, a covered gallery that shelters some large bronze plaques depicting moments in famous recent battles. Here, there is a discordant note of jingoism, of celebration of violence, aided by the cheesy recorded martial music that blares from loudspeakers. Surrounding all this, at ground level, is the Tyag Chakra , the Circle of Sacrifice, with low walls like embankments, inscribed with the names of the fallen soldiers. I will come back to those, but first, to complete the scheme there is the outer enclosing Rakshak Chakra , the Circle of Protection, with a forest of trees, nature’s offering of concealment. All of these rings together are said to amount to a chakravyuh – an ancient battle formation. It is just possible that educated visitors will be familiar with that word, but highly unlikely that even they will associate it with any visual form, and be able to read the symbolism here without the help of the explanatory panels. It is just all too complicated and contrived. There is no point in symbolism that requires a manual to explain it. Symbolism is successful when it deploys a visual language that is already widely known and understood.
Which is why the third ring, the Tyag Chakra or Circle of Sacrifice – if taken on its own – works so well. In segments of two circles in fact – with fountains and flowerbeds in between – are banks composed of blocks of polished red granite, each inscribed with the name of a martyred soldier. Each block is the size, shape and colour of a brick. One’s first thought might be that this reduces each fallen soldier to just another brick in the wall, an anonymous component part of a meaningless whole. Except that they are not anonymous. The whole point is that each brick is there to bear a name. So each fallen soldier, in making the sacrifice, becomes another brick in the nation’s defensive wall.
This roll call of names – each with its rank and regiment and number, but with no other explanatory text – is immensely moving and powerful. It is the names that matter. These are the individuals who gave their lives to keep us free. Ah, but what exactly is that freedom? Freedom, among other things, to question the point of war, the value of their sacrifice. As soldiers, they surrendered nothing else except that right. They fought as they were ordered, and paid the price, not saying whether they deemed it worthwhile. Could you do that? I know I couldn’t. That thought excites reverence. So stop and read a few names out loud. It feels – as it should – like an act of gratitude and homage.
The odd thing is, it is the same on India Gate. There too are no wordy descriptions or elaborate depictions of battles. No symbols of religion. Just names. Around the world, this is now the norm. But it began with India Gate, and the National War Memorial’s best response to its imperial neighbour is to sustain its best feature, by making us think of India’s fallen soldiers, not as a force, or idea or national symbol, but as people.
Giles Tillotson’s most recent book is Delhi Darshan: The History and Monuments of India’s Capital (Penguin Random House)
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DELHI >> INDIA GATE COMPLEX >> PRINCESS PARK >> PROPOSED SITE. CASE STUDY 1..... SAURYA SMARAK , BHOPAL. CASE STUDY 2..... NATIONAL MAUSEUM , DELHI. CASE STUDY 3..... JANG - E - AZADI , KARTARPUR , PUNJAB
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- 1. 1947-48 1962 1965 1971 1999 1947-48 1962 1965 1971 1999 1947-48 1962 1971 1999 1947-4819621965197119991947-4819621965197119991947-4819621965197119991947-48196219651971 ARCHITECTURAL THESIS NATIONAL WAR MUSEUM THESIS GUIDE AR.NEERAJ GUPTA CO. GUIDE AR. ANKITA SINGH ALOK KR. KUREEL Rollno..1213323903 B.Arch 5th yr. C A S E S T U D Y SAURYA SMARAK BHOPAL EAST SOUTH WEST Project : Saurya Smarak Location : Arera hills near Chinar park , Bhopal Co-Ordinates : 23.231N , 77.428 E Client : EPCO , ( GOM ) Area : 12.67 Acres (51,250 sq. mt) Seismic Zone : 4 Drainage : River Halali ( Drains out in Betwa) About the Project Climate : Moderate Climate Rainfall : 1000 mm approx Wind Direction : South -Western ( 4 to 9 km/h ) Water Bodies : Upper Lake Soil : Red and Black CottonSoil Topography : Slopy rising from South to North ARCHITECT SHONA JAIN FOUNDATION STONE FEB 2009 INAUGURATION 14 OCT 2016 TIME PERIOD 7 YEARS PROJECT COST 41 CRORE FEATURES 62 FEET SHAURYA STAMBHA , AN AMPITHEATRE,GALLERIES TO DISPLAY ARMED FORCES SITE AREA 12.67 ACRE F.A.R 1.2 FOOT FALL 3000 - 5000 T.BUILT UP AREA 8000 SQ MT PUBLIC ENTRY / EXIT 2 SERVICE ENTRY 1 VIP ENTRY / EXIT 1 PLANTATION HEAVY To mantralaya
- 2. 1947-48 1962 1965 1971 1999 1947-48 1962 1965 1971 1999 1947-48 1962 1971 1999 1947-4819621965197119991947-4819621965197119991947-4819621965197119991947-48196219651971 ARCHITECTURAL THESIS NATIONAL WAR MUSEUM THESIS GUIDE AR.NEERAJ GUPTA SIR CO. GUIDE AR. ANKITA MAAM ALOK KR. KUREEL Rollno..1213323903 B.Arch 5th yr. C A S E S T U D Y 1 Red sculpture Looks like Namaskar from Entrance And Drop Of Blood From Exit Represents the Sacrifice of Soldiers. Material : Wrought Iron Saurya Stambha Height : 62 ft. Depicts the life of soldiers. Earth Represents as ARMY. Water Represents as Navy . Black Granite Repr. as Airforce Amar Jyoti lamp : To Pay Tribute to Soldiers Glass flask : 14 ( Each have 20 soldiers names) A direct Focussed Light has been Given at the Bottom of Each FlaskARCHITECT INTENT’S Memorial is divided into Four Zones JEEVAN Represented in a Square envelope. The Steps of Ampitheatre represents the Up’s and Down’s in a life. Grass and Water Represents the Softness in One’s Life Material : Brick Made made up of Red Sand Stone. YUDH KA RANGMANCH Circular Structure depicting Cobweb of Wars . Represents by using the Un even Rough Stones on Land . It Gives the Feeling Of Sadness and Decay MRITYU Represents a Cube Structure with Complete Darkness Only a single Diya (Earthen Lamp) is kept . To make the visitors Feel the Silence of Death MRITYU PAR VIJAY Fibre Optic Lights Represents the Soul of Soldiers. Height Of Fibre Optic Sticks is 2 to 3 mt. Arrange in such a manner that Army Standing In a Position to March Water in a Bottom Represents the Silence and Purity 1 2 3 4 1 1 22 3 4 4 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 4 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 910 9 10 101 MAIN PUBLIC ENTRANCE AMPITHEATRE VIEW OF DB MALL GENERATOR PATHWAY TO MUSEUM GUN AND HELMET SCULPTURE BOOTS SCULPTURE CANTEEN 1 MAIN PUBLIC ENTRANCE SERVICE ENTRANCE INDE. VIP ENTRY / EXIT P1 P2 P3 TWO WHEELER FOUR WHEELER 12 17 17 35 23 23 jeevan Yudh ka rangmanch MRITYU MRITYU PAR VIJAY
- 3. 1947-48 1962 1965 1971 1999 1947-48 1962 1965 1971 1999 1947-48 1962 1971 1999 1947-4819621965197119991947-4819621965197119991947-4819621965197119991947-48196219651971 ARCHITECTURAL THESIS NATIONAL WAR MUSEUM THESIS GUIDE AR.NEERAJ GUPTA CO. GUIDE AR. ANKITA SINGH ALOK KR. KUREEL Rollno..1213323903 B.Arch 5th yr. C A S E S T U D Y SAURYA SMARAK BHOPALMUSEUM AND ART GALLERY IT WORTH APPROX ABOUT 5 CRORE INCLUDES PAINTINGS, MEDALS, AND MEMORIAL FROM ARMY, NAVY, AIRFORCE. DISPLAY OF AIRCRAFTS AND SHIPS AND VARIOUS WEAPONS USED BY OUR WARRIORS. SOLDIERS POTRAIT WITH THEMTIC STORY AND A DIROMA ( A 3D REPRESENTATION OF WAR TIME LIGHT AND SOUND WITH THEMATIC SONG RUN ALLTIME A SOUVENIER SHOP UNDERGROUND STRUCTURE BASEMENT PORTION IS USED FOR ART GALLERY , CAFE , ADMINISTRATION OFFICE , STORE ROOM ,AHU AND LT PANEL ROOM AND PUBLIC UTILITIES UNDERGROUND AHU DUCT AHU AND ELECTRICAL ROOM CAFE WITH PANTRY ADMINISTRATION ROOM STORE ROOM PUBLIC AND STAFF TOILET LT PANEL ROOM ENTRY PLUS EXIT HANDICAPPED TOILET TEMPERATURE 25 C FOR MAIN GALLERY DISPLAY TEMP IDEAL 25 – 30 C STORE TEMP IDEAL 22 C HVAC PLANT FOR GALLERY 90 TON FOR STORE 30 TON FIRE FIGHTING CO2 EXTINGUISHERS , WATER SPRINKLES , IDEAL TEMP 62 C UNDERGROUND CAFE 40 PEOPLE AUDITORIUM 50 SEATER RAMP RATIO 1 : 9 1 3 4 5 9 8 7 6 2 10 11 12 8 4 8 7 6 53221 5 77 9 1099 10 12 11 11 11 Movement of Art Gallery Movement of Art GalleryMovement of Art Gallery Movement of Art Gallery Movement of Art Gallery Movement of Art Gallery Movement of Art Gallery Movement of Art GalleryMovement of Art Gallery MEMORIAL 2321 SQMT GALLERY 2320 SQMT STAMBHA 270 SQMT AMPITHEATRE 2029SQMT INTERPRETATION CENTR 70 SQ MT CAFETERIA 341 SQ MT TOILET 1000SQMT
- 4. Acess to Museum is from main Maulana Azad Road on the Western Side Of the Road Two Main Entries From Main Road, One is Temporarily Closed. Ashoka Devdaru , Meetha Neem , Palm etc are provided on all Four sides of the SITE. SITE SURROUNDINGS :- EAST - VIGYAN BHAWAN , INDIA GATE WEST - JAWAHARLAL NEHRU BHAWAN NORTH - RAJPAT ROAD SOUTH - ARCHEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA 1947-48 1962 1965 1971 1999 1947-48 1962 1965 1971 1999 1947-48 1962 1971 1999 1947-4819621965197119991947-4819621965197119991947-4819621965197119991947-48196219651971 ARCHITECTURAL THESIS NATIONAL WAR MUSEUM THESIS GUIDE AR.NEERAJ GUPTA CO. GUIDE AR. ANKITA SINGH ALOK KR. KUREEL Rollno..1213323903 B.Arch 5th yr. C A S E S T U D Y NATIONAL MUSEUM , DELHI Delhi >> INDIA GATE >> MAULANA AZAD ROAD >> Site National Capital Territory Of India Accessibility The National Museum , Delhi has been connected to all the Mother City by 4 Major roads from all Directions Central Secretariat metro station – 1.2 k.m. Nearest stops :- National Museum bus stop New Delhi Railway station – 3.8 k.m. IGI Airport - 14.5 km Project : National Museum , Delhi ARCHITECT : Gurgaryear Committee Location : Maulana Azad Road , New Delhi Co-Ordinates : 28.62 N , 77.23 E Client : Ministry of Culture , GOI Established : 1949 Area : 9.5 Acre Zoning : Socio – Cultural and institutional Seismic Zone : 4 About the Project Climate : Humid Sub – Tropical Climate Soil : Alluvium Soil Water table : 5.5 to 6 mt Water Bodies : Yamuna river Topography : Flat Land SITE at a glance If we look at the Building the Built Form Seems to be Merged in the Surrounding Buildings. First Planned Museum At the National Level. Building Comprises Of Four Storied with a Basement. Basic Plan of the Building Is Fan Shaped with a circular courtyard in between Surrounded by a Covered Verandah. Wings are Linked With the Courtyard according to different Requirements and Need. Hence , One’s Find that After Watching the Exhibits One Finds Himself Again in the Same Place From Where He/She Started. Public areas Entrance Lobby Auditorium Library Exhibition Galleries Canteen Administration Directors Office Clerical Staff DISTRIBUTION OF FACILITIES Entrance lobby Auditorium Library Corridor Space Central Open Space Toilets Office Ticket Counter 1 – 13 Various Exhibition Space Reception Sales Office Services Electical SubStations Plant Room Machine Room Laboratories Storage EAST SOUTH WEST P P P
- 5. 1947-48 1962 1965 1971 1999 1947-48 1962 1965 1971 1999 1947-48 1962 1971 1999 1947-4819621965197119991947-4819621965197119991947-4819621965197119991947-48196219651971 ARCHITECTURAL THESIS NATIONAL WAR MUSEUM THESIS GUIDE AR.NEERAJ GUPTA CO. GUIDE AR. ANKITA SINGH ALOK KR. KUREEL Rollno..1213323903 B.Arch 5th yr. C A S E S T U D Y NATIONAL MUSEUM , DELHI The Museum has 200,000 Works of Art. Range Varies From Pre – Historic Archeology to Sculpture. It Also Houses ManuScripts , Musical Instrument of Ancient time , Paintings ,Jewellory , Decorative Art and textiles, Western Art and Armour. Museum Shop Museum institute Corridor Space Central Open Space Administr. Section Office of the D.G. Services 1 – 7 Various Exhibition Space Ajanta Painting Corridor Space Central Open Space Conservatory Lab 1 & 2 Cafe Services 1 – 6 Various Exhibition Space Store First Floor SECOND Floor ART GALLERY GALLERY CIRCULATION All the Galleries are in Closed Space Therefore Binding Oneself to Reach on Every Display. Main Corridor is approx. 6 mt wide all along the O.T.S. Galleries are mostly Rectangular in shape. Staircase are Provided for Vertical Circulation. Height Varies From 2.4 to 3.5 mt Display Techniques Haphazard circulative movement The shape of the Room is Itself useful in Display Columns Coming in Between Is also Used for Display Linear Arrangements Along the Corridors Some Paintings are Boxed Inside the Walls, while most of them are Hanged on Walls . Display To Display Distance Is 3.5 m to 4 m Each Display Has its own Focussed Light , Difussed Light. Lights are used in False Ceilings Or Hanged By Steel Section No Natural light are Used Inside The Museum. Interiors are Done With the Help of Wood , Glass and Stone. Flooring Used Is Marble and Wood. Different wall Colour and Rendering Is Done To Avoid Monotony
- 6. 1947-48 1962 1965 1971 1999 1947-48 1962 1965 1971 1999 1947-48 1962 1971 1999 1947-4819621965197119991947-4819621965197119991947-4819621965197119991947-48196219651971 ARCHITECTURAL THESIS NATIONAL WAR MUSEUM THESIS GUIDE AR.NEERAJ GUPTA CO. GUIDE AR. ANKITA SINGH ALOK KR. KUREEL Rollno..1213323903 B.Arch 5th yr. C A S E S T U D Y NATIONAL MUSEUM , DELHI SERVICES Air conditioning A.H.U - 4 / Floor 3 % of Floor Area Water System Chillers ( 2 ) Terrace Plant Room : 2 AC Plant Room Are Provided One is Provided Inside The Building in the Basement. Other is Provided Outside the Building Electricity PHASE - 1 Sub station Transformer Location : Basement Capacity 1000 kv Fire 5000 Lt Tank Underground Pump Room – Rear side of the Building. sprinklers 3 m centre to centre Hydrants : 4 Fire and Smoke Detectors are Used All Over the Museum Heat Detectors are Present In the Base ment, working on Halogen Gas Lifts Total Lift : 2 Inside the Building Passenger Lift 6 Persons at a time Barrier Free Movement Service Lift Transfer Goods Art , Paintings, Jewellory Toilets 1 Male and 1 Female Unit On Each Floor Each Unit Has 4 WC and 2 Wash Basin PHASE – 2 Sub station Transformer Location : Outside Capacity 1500 kv Water Supply Under Ground Nos. 1 ( Capacity 50,000 Lt) Use For Fire Over Head Nos. 3 ( 10,0000 Lt ) Use For Drinking , Toilets aUDITORIUM 250 Seating Capacity. 190 Seats on Groung level. 60 seats in balcony With Projector room in Between Balcony Only used for VIP Purpose Used For Showing Movies Of Art and Culture Connected with main Entrance Lobby. Area : 340 mt sq Other Parking Provided in Three Sides Of the Building Except in The Front. Parking In the main Road is Prohibited ASI building Used For Parking Security CCTV Camera at Every Exit And Entrance of the Gallery and Site. Attendants and Security guards are present at Each Gallery. Other Features Building is made using high strength R.C.C. and red sandstone. Floor to floor height is approxima. 4m. Only front facade was articulated , rear facade was only plastered.
- 7. 1947-48 1962 1965 1971 1999 1947-48 1962 1965 1971 1999 1947-48 1962 1971 1999 1947-4819621965197119991947-4819621965197119991947-4819621965197119991947-48196219651971 ARCHITECTURAL THESIS NATIONAL WAR MUSEUM THESIS GUIDE AR.NEERAJ GUPTA CO. GUIDE AR. ANKITA SINGH ALOK KR. KUREEL Rollno..1213323903 B.Arch 5th yr. C A S E S T U D Y JANG –E– AZADI MEMORIALProject : Jang - e – Azadi memorial Location : Kartarpur , Punjab Co-Ordinates :31.26N , 75.29 E Client : Director Department of Tourism and Cultural Affairs , Punjab Area : 25 Acres (1,01,171 sq. mt) About the Project Climate : Sub tropical Climate Rainfall : 100 mm approx Wind Direction : North -Western Soil : Alluvial and Black Soil Topography : Flat land ARCHITECT RAJ REWAL FOUNDATION STONE OCTOBER 2014 TIME PERIOD 3 YEARS PROJECT COST 200 CRORE FOOT FALL 8000-10000 THOUSAND SITE AREA 1,01,171 SQ MT T. BUILT UP AREA 31204 SQMT G. COVERAGE 17,907 SQMT (17.69 %) F.A.R 1.7 PARKING 600 CARS 6-7 BUSES SHAHID -E- MINAR HEIGHT 146 FT DIA 31 FT SHRADHANJALI KAKSH IS MADE TO PAY TRIBUTE TO SOLDIERS MEMORIAL ICON HEIGHT 139 FT DIA 93 FT GALLERY HT 32 FT MAIN ICONIC STRUCTURE OF THE SITE. MATERIAL USED ARE KOTA MARBLE AND SAND STONE. IT WILL HOUSE STATUES OF ABOUT 10 MARTYRS , HAVING A HUGE ATRIUM WITH SPACIOUS GALLERY EQUIPPED WITH LIGHT ENTRANCE HEIGHT 146 FT DIA 62 FT IT WILL HOUSE THE SCULPTURE THEMATIC WALL . HAVING A LED AND LIGHT AND SOUND SHOW TO SHOW CAST THE HISTORY OF PUNJAB’S SOLDIERS CENTRAL SPACE AND O.A.T 5 ACRE OF LAND IS PROPOSED FOR OPEN PARKING. IN FRONT OF MAIN ENTRANCE ICON. CURRENTLY UNDERCONSTRUCTION. MOVIE THEATRE HEIGHT 60 FT DIA 53FT CAPACITY 150 SEATS AUDITORIUM AND AMPITHEATRE HEIGHT 68 FT DIA 69 FT 300 SEATS AUDITORIUM 500 SEATS AMPITHEATRE PARKING WIDE CENTRAL SPACE AVAILABLE CENTALISE LIGHTING AND VENTILATION. RAMP AND STAIRS TO CONNECT THE DIFFERENT STRUCTURE. CENTALISE O.A.T TO SHOWCASE DAILY CULTURAL PROGRAM. CAPACITY : 1000 PERSONS SERVICES ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION SUBSTATION 2000 KVA 2 TRANSFORMERS 4 SUBSTATION IS CONNECTED WITH EXTERNAL ELECTRIFICATION OF JALANDHAR VIDHUT BOARD. PANELLING IS DONE PORTION WISE. PROVIDED AT THE CORNER OF THE SITE TECHNICAL AREA DETAIL STORM WATER PLANT 1.5 LACKS 70,000 LT – 2 AREA 300SQMT FIRE WATER TANK 300KL RAW WATER TANK 150KL DOMESTIC 1.5KL EAST
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National War Memorial
Invisible but strongly present
History of National War Memorial and its need:
The National War Memorial of India was proposed by the armed forces of the country commemorating the fallen war hero’s way back in 1960.The princess park which was located in the vicinity of the National Monument India gate, New Delhi which itself was a tribute to the soldiers who died in the First World war(1914-1918) and the Third Anglo-Afghan war (1919) was considered as the potential site for the envisaged memorial. ‘In 2006 world’s renowned architect Charles Correa presented a concept scheme to the president but however later Government of India decided to conduct an international competition.
In 2016 August, An International two stage design competition was proposed for the design and implementation of the National War Memorial by the Ministry of Defence, Government of India. Around 427 designers participated globally and 9 architects were shortlisted. Shortlisted 9 architects were asked to develop the design further and present it to the 20-member jury committee. The winners were announced in 2017 march. WeBe Design Lab won both the first and the third place.It took six decades for the memorial to come into existence.
Jury panel consisting of about 20 renowned experts and bureaucrats from diverse fields.
Architects : Ar Christopher Benninger, Ar Jaisim Krishna Rao, Ar PSN Rao, Ar C N Raghvendran Academicians : Prof Chetan Vaidya, Prof Mandeep Singh, Dr K S Anantha Krishna Actor /Director: Mr Amol Palekar Artist: Mr Jatin Das Singer: Ms Hema Sardesai Social Worker: Ms Sudha Murthy Ministry of Defence : Mr JRK Rao, Ar Mala Mohan, Lt Gen Anil Chauhan, Lt Gen Rakesh Sharma, Lt Gen Satish Dua, Air Marshal Ajit S Bhonsle Committee: Ar Divya Kush (IIA), Ar Ashutosh Kumar Agarwal (IIA)
Invisible but strongly present,
The NWM is the spatial manifestation of the idea of rebirth, gestated on the stories of, the life and struggle of unsung soldiers who have sacrificed themselves for the sake of nation.Culminating the Raj Path of the Lutyens Delhi, behind the India gate, this semi-subterranean intervention, spreads over 42 acres in the C- hexagon, retaining the identity as “people’s place” and embracing the memory of love, affection and pain. Each fallen soldier is imagined as a brick in the process of nation building and arranged as series of concentric rings, symbolizing the act of protection, sacrifice and bravery culminating in the immortal presence in the form of eternal flame.
The Lawns in the C-Hexagon was laid consciously to the formal rhythm and geometry of Lutyen’s zone. The lawns in the C Hexagon was developed as
- The Param Yodha Sthal: A dedicated walkway connecting statues of the 21 Paramveer Chakra awardees.
- The Rashtriya Samar Smarak (National War Memorial) : consisting of the central zone (Circles of Emotions) and utility complex on both north and southern side.
- Public plazas as public event spaces.
The National War Memorial consists of three zones, The central zone, North zone and the South zone. The central zone is the main memorial designed as concentric design circles of different emotions namely Circle of Protection (Rakshak chakra) , Circle of Bravery (Tyag Chakra), Circle of Bravery (Veer Chakra) and Circle of Immortality (Amar Chakra). The North and South zone as utility spaces for the memorial.
Design Layers :
A- Circle of Immortality
The focal point of the memorial is the innermost circle symbolizing the immortality of the Jawans with the obelisk placed on a circular podium in a larger circular court holding the eternal flame and Ashoka emblem at the top. The court cannot be seen from the outside. The sunken circle is a deliberate attempt to honor the martyrs and the existing historic structures.
B- Circle of Bravery (Veer Chakra)
Conceived as subterranean colonnaded semi open corridor holding the brave stories. Veerta Chakra Gallery holds 6 bronze murals which depicts the six important battles fought by the Indian soldiers after the independence. It also holds a large semicircular rain water harvesting tank. The water from the paved areas and landscaped areas in the central zone are collected and reused for irrigation.
C- Circle of Sacrifice (Tyag Chakra)
Metaphorically represents the formation of the soldiers in the war. As derived from the concept of chakravyuha the soldiers stand in the endless rows in the formation of concentric circles protecting the nation.The Circle has 8 segments. Each segment has 2 walls at different levels.The base of the wall is made of concrete structure with self-interlocking granite blocks. Each granite block is made to shape precisely and represents a martyr, on which his name and ranks are engraved. The wall holds names of 25942 martyrs, who sacrificed their life post-independence for the Nation. The wall segments are categorically organized based on the timeline of the wars fought.
Path of war
The path hidden underneath the lush lawns above symbolizes the life of a soldier amidst the lives of the common. A gallery is designed as a pause space which displays a brief history of Indian Defence force.
D- Circle of Protection
The Circle of protection personifies the territorial control. The trees are arranged in a specific order which reflects the disciplined life led by the soldiers. This also creates a screen for the memorial which is built at the India gate lawns, the center of Delhi’s busy life.Thereby secluding the memorial.
The circles represent a nexus to the intersection formed by the Rajpath with the Yudhpath (life of a soldier). On either sides, the landscape extends and the edges expand into these subterranean pathways – Path of War. The upward ramp from the gallery does not reveal what stays ahead. All that one could see the pinnacle of the obelisk – the destination. On climbing up there is a sudden opening up of the entire spread of the memorial which is a parallel drawn to the war moment.’ These pathways were connecting the site of the War Museum and the lawns. The connections drawn at the central core also illustrated ‘a symbolic intersection of the Rajpath and the Yudhpath- “Path of life” and “Path of war”.’
The material palette used is another conscious nod to the context, and because of that, the space innately responds to the heritage zone. The lighting in each circle enhances its emotional component differently. The lighting in the central court around the eternal flame spearheads sideways and up building a sense of eternity as it fades out. The Tyag Chakra seems floating with a series of small lights which resembles the oil lamps (diya) that are light in memory of the beloved ones in any Indian home. The streaks of light on the steps create a sense of transition through the concentric rings.
Team and collaborators, more projects, our design process.
Our unique design process allows us to work on a wide range of projects.
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