Methods for Presenting Subject Matter

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The word educate comes from Latin, meaning "to bring up, to rise, and to nourish, to train." To educate is an active enterprise. In comparison, the word  teach comes from German, meaning  "show, declare, warn, persuade." To teach is a more passive activity. 

The difference between these words, educate and teach, has resulted in many different instructional strategies, some more active and some more passive. The teacher has the option to choose one in order to successfully deliver content.

In choosing an active or passive instructional strategy, the teacher must also consider for other factors such as subject matter, the resources available, the time allotted for the lesson, and the background knowledge of the students. What follows is a list of ten instructional strategies that can be used to deliver content regardless of grade level or subject matter.

Lectures are instructor-centered forms of instruction given to a whole class. Lectures come in many different forms, some more effective than others. The least effective form of lecture involves a teacher reading from notes or the text without differentiating for student needs. This makes learning a passive activity and students may quickly lose interest.

The lecture is the most used strategy. An article  in "Science Educator" titled "Brain Research: Implications to Diverse Learners" (2005) notes:

"Although lecturing continues to be the most widely employed method in classrooms across the country, research on the way we learn indicates that lecturing is not always very effective."

Some dynamic teachers, however, lecture in a more free-form manner by including students or providing demonstrations. Some skilled lecturers have the ability to engage students using humor or insightful information.

The lecture is often coined as "direct instruction" which can be can be made into a more active instructional strategy when it is part of a mini- lesson .

The lecture portion of the mini-lesson is designed in a sequence where the teacher first makes a connection to previous lessons. Then the teacher delivers the content using a demonstration or a think-aloud . The lecture part of the mini-lesson is revisited after students have an opportunity for hands-on practice when the teacher restates the content one more time. 

Socratic Seminar

In a whole group discussion , the instructor and the students share the focus of the lesson. Typically a teacher presents information through questions and answers, trying to ensure that all students are involved in learning. Keeping all students on task, however, may be difficult with large class sizes. Teachers should be aware that using an instructional strategy of whole-class discussions may result in passive engagement for some students who may not participate .

To increase engagement, whole-class discussions may take several different forms. The Socratic seminar is where an instructor asks open-ended questions allowing students to respond and build on each others thinking. According to education researcher Grant  Wiggins , the Socratic seminar leads to more active learning when,

" becomes the student’s opportunity and responsibility to develop habits and skills that are traditionally reserved for the teacher."

One modification to the Socratic Seminar is the instructional strategy known as the fishbowl. In the fishbowl, a (smaller) inner circle of students respond to questions while a (larger) outer circle of students observes. In the fishbowl, the instructor participates as a moderator only.

Jigsaws and Small Groups

There are other forms of small group discussion. The most basic example is when the teacher breaks the class up into small groups and provides them with talking points that they must discuss. The teacher then walks around the room, checking on the information being shared and ensuring participation by all within the group. The teacher may ask students questions to ensure that everyone's voice is heard.

The Jigsaw is one modification on small group discussion that asks each student to become an expert on a particular topic and then share that knowledge by moving from one group to another. Each student expert then "teaches" the content to the members of each group. All members are responsible to learn all content from one another.

This method of discussion would work well, for example, when students have read an informational text in science or social studies and are sharing information to prepare for questions posed by the instructor. 

Literature circles are another instructional strategy that capitalizes on active small group discussions. Students respond to what they have read in structured groups designed to develop independence, responsibility, and ownership. Literature circles can be organized around one book or around a theme using many different texts.

Role Play or Debate

Roleplay is an active instructional strategy that has students take on different roles in a specific context as they explore and learn about the topic at hand. In many ways, role-play is similar to improvisation where each student is confident enough to offer an interpretation of a character or an idea without the benefit of a script. One example could be asking students to participate in a luncheon that is set in a historical period (ex: a Roaring 20s "Great Gatsby" party). 

In a foreign language class, students might take on the role of different speakers and use dialogues to help learn the language . It is important that the teacher has a firm plan for including and assessing the students based on their role-playing as more than participation.

The use of debates in the classroom can be an active strategy that strengthens skills of persuasion, organization, public speaking, research, teamwork, etiquette, and cooperation. Even in a polarized classroom, student emotions and biases can be addressed in a debate that begins in research. Teachers can foster critical thinking skills by requiring students to provide evidence to support their claims before any debate.

Hands-on or Simulation

Hands-on learning allows students to participate in an organized activity best evidenced in stations or science experiments. The arts (music, art, drama) and physical education are those recognized disciplines that require hands-on instruction.

Simulations are also hands-on but are different than role-playing. Simulations ask students to use what they have learned and their own intellect to work through an authentic problem or activity. Such simulations might be offered, for example, in a civics class where students create a model legislature in order to create and pass legislation. Another example is having students participate in a stock market game. Regardless of the kind of activity, a post-simulation discussion is important for assessing student understanding.

Because these kinds of active instructional strategies are engaging, students are motivated to participate. The lessons do require extensive preparation and also require the teacher to make clear how each student will be assessed for their participation and then be flexible with the results.

Software Program(s)

Teachers can use a variety of educational software on different platforms to deliver digital content for student learning. The software might be installed as an application or a program that students access on the internet. Different software programs are selected by the teacher for their content ( Newsela ) or for the features that allow students to engage ( Quizlet ) with the material.

Longterm instruction, a quarter or semester, can be delivered over software platforms online such as Odysseyware or Merlot . These platforms are curated by educators or researchers who provide specific subject materials, assessment, and support materials.

Short term instruction, such as a lesson, can be used to engage students in learning content through interactive games ( Kahoot !) or more passive activities such as reading texts.

Many software programs can collect data on student performance which can be used by teachers to inform instruction in areas of weakness.  This instructional strategy requires that teacher vets the materials or learns the software processes of the program in order to best use the data that records student performance.

Presentation Through Multimedia

Multimedia methods of presentation are passive methods of delivering content and include slideshows (Powerpoint) or movies. When creating presentations, teachers should be aware of the need to keep notes concise while including interesting and relevant images. If done well, a presentation is a kind of lecture that can be interesting and effective for student learning. 

Teachers may want to follow a 10/20/30 rule which means there are no more than 10  slides , the presentation is under 20 minutes, and the font is no smaller than 30 points. Presenters need to be aware that too many words on a slide can be confusing to some students or that reading every word on the slide aloud can be boring for an audience that can already read the material.

Movies present their own set of problems and concerns but can be extremely effective when teaching certain subjects. Teachers should consider the pros and cons of using movies before using them in the classroom.

Independent Reading and Work

Some topics lend themselves well to individual classroom reading time. For example, if students are studying a short story, a teacher might have them read in class and then stop them after a certain time to ask questions and check for understanding. However, it is important that the teacher is aware of student reading levels to make sure that students do not fall behind. Different leveled texts on the same content may be necessary.

Another method some teachers use is to have students select their own reading based on a research topic or simply on their interests. When students make their own choices in reading, they are more actively engaged. On independent reading  selections, teachers may want to use more generic questions to assess student understanding such as:

Research work in any subject area falls into this instructional strategy. 

Student Presentation

The instructional strategy of using student presentations as a way to present content to the class as a whole can be a fun and engaging method of instruction. For example, teachers can divide up a chapter into topics and have the students "teach" the class by presenting their "expert" analysis. This is similar to the Jigsaw strategy used in small group work.

Another way to organize student presentations is to hand out topics to students or groups and have them present information on each topic as a short presentation. This not only helps students learn the material in a deeper manner but also provides them with practice in public speaking. While this instructional strategy is largely passive for the student audience, the student presenting is an active demonstrating a high level of understanding.

Should students choose to use media, they should also adhere to the same recommendations that teachers should use with Powerpoint (ex: a 10/20/30 rule) or for films.

Flipped Classroom

Student use of all manner of digital devices (smartphones, laptops, i-Pads, Kindles) that allow access to content brought the beginning of the Flipped Classroom. More than a switch of homework to classwork, this relatively new instructional strategy is where the teacher moves the more passive elements of learning such as watching a powerpoint or reading a chapter, an activity outside of the classroom, usually the day or night before. This design of the flipped classroom is where valuable class time is available for more active forms of learning.

In flipped classrooms, one goal would be to guide students to make decisions on how to learn better on their own rather than having the teacher deliver information directly.

One source of materials for the flipped classroom is Khan Academy, This site originally began with videos that explained math concepts using the motto "Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere."

Many students preparing for the SAT for college entry might be interested to know that if they are using Khan Academy, they are participating in a flipped classroom model.

modes of presentation in literature

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How to Prepare a Presentation in Literature: Boost Creativity but Rely on Science

If mathematics is the queen of all sciences, then literature is definitely the love of a lifetime for all students of humanities. And already this fact will significantly speed up the task of creating a presentation on literature. Right now, there is a complete guide in front of you that will help to cope with this task even for those who have more mathematical than creative abilities.

How to Prepare a Presentation in Literature: The Correct Algorithm of Actions

Below we have described how to properly distribute your time and organize your work in such a way that this task becomes a fascinating and calm scientific research, and not a source of stress and tension.

Set the Correct Time Frame

Most likely, you have already seen from personal experience that putting off homework at the last moment is a bad idea. This is a direct way to get in a bad sense a magical but sleepless night, impaired concentration and productivity, a sense of rush that only harms the quality, plus an inability to think soberly the next day.

When you need to prepare a presentation, this is especially true. A presentation is not a movie review of a 500-word text, which is quite realistic to write overnight, especially if you watched the movie. It will be a long work consisting of several stages. Therefore, we recommend allocating time this way.

The next day:

Plus, it is advisable to leave at least one day in reserve so that you can take a break from this work, be able to look at the result with a fresh look, plus make changes if the insight comes to you at the last moment.

Choose a Topic

So, it all starts with a topic selection. Two options will be available here. Either your teacher will independently distribute the topics between the students, or you will have the opportunity to choose. Both approaches have their advantages.

Try a quicker way

But in any of the options, it’s still really possible to cope with a presentation on literature.

A Short List of Relevant Topics

Well, if you really don’t know where to start, here are a few topics that are definitely suitable. And in any case, you will be able to customize them a little, so that they correspond as much as possible to the studied section of the literature, plus they give you interesting opportunities for research.

Search for Scientific Materials

So, any research, including literature, begins with a search for suitable scientific articles which you will rely on in the course of your presentation. Of course, the specifics of the materials will depend on your topic. Sometimes it happens that one literary work that you are considering is enough, while other topics require a strong scientific reinforcement. The universal rule is as follows: do not use obsolete research. Although the literature is eternal, science does not stand still. Or use the thoughts of previous scientific generations to compare with current scientific results.

Try to immediately grasp the main idea of the author of each scientific article, and even better write it down. This will help you to formulate your thesis and plan.

Thesis Development

If you followed the previous advice and wrote down the main ideas of all the researchers whose work you looked at, then it would not be difficult to write a thesis. But try to come up with something individual. Compare different ideas, find common and different features.

And remember that your thesis statement should be capacious, not contain more than two sentences, and it should give room for argument.

Justification of the Thesis

Since literature is science and art in one package, it is obvious that you can use the most winning combination to substantiate your thesis. So, you can use personal and scientific evidence. The top of skill is to give personal proof and back it up with science.

Presentation Planning

Everything is simple here. If you ever wrote an essay, then you can immediately catch the point.

Visual Presentation Design

Now, after you have thought through the structure, developed the thesis and gathered evidence, it’s time to move on to the visual design of your work. Here are some rules:

How to Find a Balance Between Science and Creativity

And yet, since literature is primarily art and creativity, and only then science, it is impossible to study this subject without the use of creative abilities and without the involvement of one’s personal life experience. And if in the case of anthropology, for example, everything depends on science, then in the case with a presentation on literature, creative and personal initiatives are welcomed. But here, too, you need to maintain a reasonable balance. The academic rules are such that you will have to reinforce every creative impulse of your personality with scientific justification. Here’s how to do it.

This is the case when literature comes into reality. You can analyze literary heroes and transfer them to modern conditions, you can analyze modern literary trends and transfer them to the plane of ancient Greek literature. This is the case when creativity and science work in conjunction, creating more and more creative ideas and approaches.

The Most Important Stage – Rehearsal Before the Speech

Now we finally got to the main task and to the deepest essence of the presentation – you need to present it. A presentation is not just about collecting scientific material, not just about forming a thesis, your vision, and its justification, and not even about visualizing the result. It is also about the ability to convey your thoughts to the target audience, reinforcing each of your words with an appropriate slide.

Therefore, in the end, you get as many as three papers that will help you – this is a draft plan of your presentation, which we used to fill the slides, the slides themselves, and the text of your speech.

Obviously, it would be wrong to just go to the pulpit, turn on the projector and read everything from the slides. This is what your audience will do without your help. And you need to compose the text of your speech. But fortunately, this will be easy to do.

Go back to your plan again and open the slides. Now imagine that right now you need to tell everything in such a way as if the audience does not see the slides, but only hears your speech. And start writing down your thoughts. If you start your presentation with a quote, then you can start like this.

Scientist X said XYZ. This phrase most accurately conveys the essence of my literary research. It is devoted to topic Y, and the key problem of literary science within the framework of this topic is … I conducted a study of available resources and concluded that …

Next, you move on to your argument, reinforcing each of your evidence with an appropriate slide.

When working on the text of your speech, try to write as you speak. You should not complicate your speech with long constructions and complex terms, at least in situations where it is possible to do without it. Your speech should sound like an interesting story, which will lead the audience along a logical chain, and they will pay attention to the slides in order to maximize the visualization of your story.

So, as you see, everything is not as difficult as it might seem to you before starting work. Presentation is an invaluable experience that allows you to develop research, writing, visualization and public speaking skills at the same time. Therefore, do not ignore this task, but rather, give yourself a chance to get such a cool arsenal of skills in one action.

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Mode of presentation

Glossary of literary terms.

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literary terms

Definition of mode of presentation

Mode of presentation: basically there are two different ways of narrating a story. the author may tell his story in a very detailed fashion so that the reader has the feeling of participating in the action. that is called scenic presentation. the use of dialogue is a typical feature of scenic presentation. - if the author merely gives a selected summary of what happens within a certain period we call this mode panoramic presentation..


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Module 4: Writing in College

The five modes, learning objective.

The way we communicate is not simply through text or reading material but also through many different modes. What are the differences between a classroom lecture by your professor and his or her lecture notes? What about the differences between a group chat with your classmates and a group project meeting in the library? These situations involve different modes. The first step to learning how to negotiate a multimodal world is to understand what multimodality is.

A mode , quite simply, is a means of communicating . According to the New London Group, there are five modes of communication: visual , linguistic , spatial , aural , and gestural . [1]

A mode is different from a medium , which is the substance through which communication is conveyed. Examples of a visual medium, for instance, would be photography, painting, or film.

When a given text makes use of more than one mode, the text can be characterized as multimodal. Most texts are multimodal – we make sense out of their messages through decoding the different modes of communication that they employ.

The five modes of communication: visual. aural, gestural, spatial,. linguistic

Figure 1 . A multimodal world includes visual, linguistic, aural, spatial, and gestural communication.

What is the Relationship Between Modes and Media?

A mode is a means of communicating. A medium is the channel or system through which communications are conveyed. The plural form of medium is media. So, for example, if we want to communicate in the linguistic mode, we might choose the medium of print. If we want to communicate in the aural mode, we might choose the medium of a podcast. Both print and podcasts are forms of media.

When analyzing or producing multimodal compositions, it is important to recognize the operation of multiple modes within artifacts (or what we might call multimedia texts). But it is also useful to think about which mode generally predominates in any given medium. Both photographs and films, for instance, employ the visual mode. Films differ from photographs, however, in that they involve movement of bodies and objects through space (spatial mode). We might say, then, that the visual mode dominates in photographs, while the spatial mode dominates in film (although obviously some photographs employ the spatial mode powerfully in how objects are arranged in relation to each other). Being aware of dominant modes within a medium will prove helpful later when choosing powerful claims and persuasive evidence for composing your own multimodal argument.

The visual mode refers to the images and characters that people see.

Appropriate alternative text for this image can be found in the caption and/or surrounding text.

Figure 2 . A “no guns” symbol.

It is sometimes possible to find compositions that almost, if not completely, rely on a single mode. For instance, the “No Guns” symbol has no alphabetic text and no sound. Like many signs, it relies for its meaning on visual information. However, we might be able to say that the sign uses the spatial mode as well, since the gun appears behind the red bar that signals “no” or “not allowed.” So while the visual dominates in signs, even this composition is not “purely” visual.

The aural mode is focused on sound including, but not limited to, music, sound effects, ambient noises, silence, tone of voice in spoken language, volume of sound, emphasis, and accent. [2]

An example of an aural mode— one that depends almost exclusively on sound—might be the recording of a public speech that is delivered orally to a live audience, a radio address, or a podcast.

The gestural mode refers to the way movement is interpreted. Facial expressions, hand gestures, body language, and interaction between people are all gestural modes. This has always been important in face-to-face conversations and in theater, but it has become more apparent on the web lately with the wide use of YouTube and other video players. The gestural mode works with linguistic, visual, aural, and sometimes even spatial modes in order to create more detail and communicate better to the reader or consumer of the gestural text.

Linguistic (or Alphabetic)

The linguistic mode refers to written or spoken words. The mode includes word choice, the delivery of written or spoken text, the organization of words into sentences and paragraphs, and the development and coherence of words and ideas. Linguistic is not always the most important mode; this depends on the other modes at play in the text, the type of text, and other factors. Linguistic is probably the most widely used mode because it can be both read and heard on both paper or audio. The linguistic mode is the best way to express details and lists.

Appropriate alternative text for this image can be found in the caption.

Figure 3 . A traditional classroom setting with orderly class rows.

The spatial mode, as the name implies, refers to the arrangement of elements in space. It involves the organization of items and the physical closeness between people and objects.

A good example of the spatial mode might be the different ways in which chairs and desks are arranged in a classroom.

Here is a “traditional” classroom: Individual desks are arranged in orderly rows, facing the front of the room to make the teacher who would stand before the chalkboard the center of attention. The teacher also stands at a distance from the students; the students who sit in the back could hardly even see the board!

By contrast, in this advertisement for “collaborative classrooms,” we see the chairs and desks clustered in small groups so that students can work together on projects. The classroom is also de-centered, which suggests that the teacher and students are working together as partners rather than in a hierarchical manner. All of the people are in close proximity to one another.

Think about how a teacher communicates her ideas about learning through the way in which she arranges her classroom. In that sense, the arrangement of desks and chairs can be “read” as a message about teaching and learning.

Appropriate alternative text for this image can be found in the caption.

Figure 4 . A classroom where students interact with each other in different groups.


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Modes of Presentation


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Types, Methods and Modes of Communication

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Modes of Communication

What is communication? To put it simply, Communication can be explained as the process of transmitting information from one person, place or group to another. It is through communication that we share messages with each other. There are three integral elements of communication, i.e. Sender, Message and Receiver. A mode is the means of communicating, i.e. the medium through which communication is processed. There are three modes of communication: Interpretive Communication, Interpersonal Communication and Presentational Communication.

This Blog Includes:

1. verbal communication, 2. non-verbal communication, 3. written communication, 4. listening, 5. visual communication, 1. interpretive communication, 2. interpersonal communication, 3. presentational communication, 4. linguistical or alphabetic communication, 5. gestural communication, 6. aural communication, 7. visual communication, 8. spatial communication, 9. multimodal communication, 10. various cultural and intercultural modes of communication, interpersonal vs interpretive vs presentational communication, 10 methods of communication, best books to learn modes of communication.

5 Types of Communication

The types of communication represent the different ways used to communicate messages while the modes of communication focus on the mediums. Here are the 5 types of communication:

Through spoken words and the use of speech and language to convey messages. It occurs when we speak to others. Verbal communication can be formal and informal. However, when it takes place in person, verbal communication and non-verbal communication go together.

Body language, facial expressions, eye contact, appearance, sign language. Non-verbal communication complements verbal communication and also helps when words don’t help. It is an important type of communication in interviews and discussions as they value a lot.

The use of written words to convey messages. Written communication happens through email, memos, texts, posts, etc. While written communication helps you share your thoughts well, sometimes it does not fully convey the emotion that you are trying to share.

Listening is one of the most important parts of communication as it helps you understand the perspective of the communicator and effectively engage with them. The process of any communication takes a crucial value at listening correctly and responding appropriately.

Through visual messages like pictures, graphs, objects and other visual facets. Visual Communication is a crucial part of today’s methods of conveying important information. It is used in presentations, televisions, etc.

10 Modes of Communication

Communication is the process of sharing information between individuals using a set of common rules, behaviour, symbols, and signs. Thus, there are five modes of communication:

Before we delve deep into the topic, let us first understand the importance of different modes of communication.

Also referred to as the “ one-way communication ”, in this mode, the information conveyed by the sender is interpreted by the receiver in its original form. The target has to understand the message in both written and spoken form keeping various aspects in mind. For example, in a class, the learners may not understand every word said by the teacher but are expected to understand the main crux of the topic. Some of the main highlights of Interpretative Communication are:

Interpersonal communication is the process by which people exchange information through verbal and nonverbal messages. It is an unmediated mode of communication that occurs when we interact and attempt to mutually influence each other, simultaneously, in order to manage relationships. Although interpersonal communication can encompass oral, written, and non-verbal forms of communication, the term is usually applied to spoken communication that takes place between two or more individuals on a  personal or face-to-face level. Examples of Interpersonal Communication include:

Presentational Communication is another type of one-way communication, which facilitates interpretation by members of another group where no direct opportunity for the active negotiation of meaning between members of the two groups exists. With this mode of communication, a person is speaking to an audience that can be rehearsed, pre-prepared, or scripted. Some of the main highlights of Presentational Communication have been given a rundown below.

As one of the popular modes of communication, Linguistical or Alphabetic Communication mainly refers to written or spoken communication where the sender conveys their message through writing on a paper or through speaking. Examples: Text messages, audio messages, emails, speech, notes and lists, etc .

Gestural Communication has its quintessential emphasis on body language and physical movements to communicate messages. Sign Language is the best example of the gestural mode of communication as those who can’t talk or hear are able to communicate best through their gestures and have their own set of unique languages to converse in. While this mode of communication is mainly combined with spatial, aural or linguistic ones, it can also be used individually given that both the sender and receiver have common points of reference and meanings to have an understandable communication.

As the name suggests, oral communication uses audio mode to convey messages whether it is through sounds or spoken audio. The speaker’s voice and pronunciation need to be clear and precise with no background noise. Example: Radio, audio messages, music, recordings, songs, audiobook .

Visual Communication can be simply termed non-verbal communication as it comprises visual messages from the sender to the receiver. It is one of the oldest modes of communication when the ancient people didn’t know a language to communicate with, it is through pictures, drawings and symbols that they were able to talk and converse with each other. Examples: Pictures, Videos, Charts, Graphs, Symbols

Spatial Communication elaborates upon the use of physical space in the text as well as its overall structure to convey certain meanings and messages. The physical layout of any written text is deliberately designed to make it look a certain way and adhere to a particular theme. Websites also use this unique mode of communication in choosing a certain font, style, design and layout to make any website user-friendly and more interactive.

Multimodal Communication can be simply referred to as communication through varied modes such as verbal, written, gestures, etc. There are different modes under multimodal communication and it is popularly used in higher education to accentuate the learning experience for students. Here are the major 5 modes of communication:

Several cultural modes of communication are specific to each area and culture. It can be symbolic usage of actions, body language, etc. The culture of a person is not just what they eat or wear but also how they communicate. 

Cultural Differences in Communication

In verbal communication, different cultures have different languages, dialects, and even accents. Even the tone and volume of communication differ from place to place. For example, the tone of a native German speaker might angry with a British speaker, even if they both are speaking in English. 

In non-verbal communication, several differences can cause miscommunication in intercultural discussions. Some of the major non-verbal modes of communication that change from place to place are:

Here, let’s take an example to understand the difference in intercultural communication. A stranger from America is likely to make eye contact to express a sense of equality between you while Asians prefer to avoid eye contact as a sign of respect. 

Another example would be, that it is custom in France to kiss on both cheeks as a form of starting a conversation. But in India, people greet you with Namaste avoiding any touch-based communication. 

Different types of communication methods are used to deliver your message. Here, the 10 mediums of communication are different from the previous ones. Interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational modes of conversation are based on human interaction during that communication. While these are based on the type of source we use. These are some of the real-world communication methods. Let’s have a look at them:

Here are some excellent books on modes of communication: 

Hope this blog helped you in understanding the fundamental concepts related to the different modes of communication. Be it in an organisation or for competitive exams like IELTS and TOEFL , your communication skills are evaluated on various parameters, and to create a lasting impression, one needs to overcome the barriers of communication . Enrol in Leverage Edu ’s Leverage Live classes where the British Council certified experts, through one-on-one sessions, mock tests, and updated study materials will assist you in improving your communication skills in an effective way!

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What is Multimodal?

drone shot of quad

More often, composition classrooms are asking students to create multimodal projects, which may be unfamiliar for some students. Multimodal projects are simply projects that have multiple “modes” of communicating a message. For example, while traditional papers typically only have one mode (text), a multimodal project would include a combination of text, images, motion, or audio.

The Benefits of Multimodal Projects

How do I pick my genre?

Depending on your context, one genre might be preferable over another. In order to determine this, take some time to think about what your purpose is, who your audience is, and what modes would best communicate your particular message to your audience (see the  Rhetorical Situation  handout for more information). For example, if your argument is articulated through images and graphs, it might make more sense to design a website rather than creating a podcast. Below, we’ve provided some examples of different genres and programs that can be used to create a multimodal project to get you started.

What features can I control?

Like a well-designed advertisement, all elements of your project should work together to create one cohesive message. Compositions can contain visual, motion, audio, and textual elements. Some traits under these elements will be emphasized to stress importance while others will be deemphasized. Your choices regarding how these elements and traits are used will be crucial—there is a large difference between choosing a background color because it “looks cool” and picking a background color that corresponds with your message and highlights the important features in your document.

Multimodal Example

Below are some screen shots of a Sway designed by a UIS student entitled “Community Gardens and the Local UIS Community,” which argues how local community gardens can solve a national issue of food insecurity and food deserts. You can view the Sway online  here  to get a better sense of the background, motion, and organization, but we’ve highlighted a couple of important components of this Sway.

screenshot of sway introduction

Use of headings and bolding keeps the reader organized.

Smaller paragraphs, as opposed to large, blocky paragraphs, engages the reader better.

Image of Sway background, a black and white vine design

Background and colors should be intentionally selected. Here, the floral background and the green headings gives a natural feel, which matches the theme of the Sway.

screenshot of sway page of an image accompanying text

Images and videos allow for readers to process information visually. Posting videos also allows readers to choose how they interact with the argument.

image of sway headings on a green background showing how the sway has been organized

Organization of the topics follow in a logical order. The paper begins with defining the problem, moves to a solution, and then defines what is happening at UIS.

modes of presentation in literature

The Writing Cooperative

Lyndsay K

Feb 19, 2017

Five Forms of Storytelling

And some ideas to inspire your writing.

If you are like me, you love a good story. And as a writer, hearing from fellow storytellers is inspiring.

Books are wonderful. I am an avid reader and hoarder of novels. I lug my books around with me in a growing number of boxes each time I move (no Kindle or Nook for me, thanks), and I have a long — and also growing — list of books on my to-read list.

But I do enjoy other forms of storytelling.

One of the most fascinating parts of the internet for me is how many different ways stories are being told and shared — through photographs, short posts, letters, interviews, audio recordings, presentations, and other mediums. Stories are everywhere, and many storytellers are doing important work.

As a teacher, I used these varied forms of storytelling to engage my students. As a writer, I look to these forms of storytelling for inspiration.

In the spirit of storytelling, writing, and opening ourselves to different lived experiences, here are some of my favorite storytelling sources and some ideas to inspire a new story.

Ashley Gilbertson — Stories Told Through Photographs

I discovered Ashley Gilbertson’s photography when I stumbled on The NY Times Magazine feature piece “ The Shrine Down the Hall ” in 2010. The multimedia piece displays Gilbertson’s photographs, along with an article, essay, and interactive page.

When I found Gilbertson’s photography, I had just started teaching. I wanted to show my students how powerful images can be — how a single photograph can tell a full story. Gilbertson tells a story through each of his photographs, and he tells each story beautifully.

To honor fallen soldiers who served in Iraq and Afghanistan, he visited the homes of the soldiers to talk with their family members and photograph their bedrooms. Through the pictures, posters, awards, mementos, and decor in the room, each photograph gives us a glimpse of who the soldier was. The photographs pay tribute to their lives.

When I showed Gilbertson’s work to my students, I asked each of them to select one of his photographs and write what they learned about the soldier just by looking at the picture of the bedroom. These photographs revealed a great deal about the people who had lived in these rooms before serving in combat, and my students had plenty to write.

Since 2010, Gilbertson wrote and published a book about these photographs called Bedrooms of the Fallen . He also developed several projects, including Uncertain Journeys — photographs of refugees arriving in Lesvos, Greece — and 100% Wall Street — photographs of the financial crash in 2008 and the Occupy Wall Street movement in 2011.

Gilbertson’s photographs tell a range of stories and reveal the wide variation of human experiences.

Start Writing — Find a photograph (any photograph) and write a story about what you see.

Dear Photograph — Stories Told Through Photographs and Letters

Where we are from and where we have lived since childhood — the settings of our lives — are central to our life stories. The places we occupy influence the people we meet, the experiences we have, and the memories that we make.

The website Dear Photograph demonstrates the importance of setting and features photographs posted with corresponding letters. The top of the homepage encourages visitors to “[t]ake a picture of a picture from the past in the present.” (If that sounds confusing, just visit the site — you’ll see. But make sure you have extra time on your hands to browse. You’ve been warned. )

The letters are written to the photographs themselves. Each writer reflects on the photograph within a photograph and the significance of that moment. While some of the writers reflect on photos of events etched in our national memory— for example, this photograph taken on 9/11 — others reflect on photos of moments in their daily lives — like this photograph taken on the day the woman in the photo moved from Georgia to St. Louis .

The combination of past and present existing together in one image creates an opportunity for insightful reflection. Then and now — how are the two related? It’s a question worth considering.

Start Writing — Submit to Dear Photograph. Take a picture of a picture from the past in the present, and write a letter to your photograph.

StoryCorps — Stories Told Through Recorded Conversations

Sit two people down to have a conversation, and you just might get a great story. StoryCorps is an oral history project that began in 2003 in Grand Central Terminal in New York City. They had one story booth they used to conduct interviews and encourage meaningful conversations between people. Those conversations were recorded and are now preserved at the American Folklife Center at the Library of Congress in Washingston, D.C.

Today, there are StoryCorps sites in Atlanta, Chicago, and San Francisco, along with a mobile tour. They also have a StoryCorps app that guides you through the interview process and allows you to record and upload your conversation. The organization’s mission is “to preserve and share humanity’s stories in order to build connections between people and create a more just and compassionate world.”

Through their website and archives, StoryCorps successfully shares “humanity’s stories.” In addition to their regular interviews and recorded conversations, the organization developed several projects to highlight specific experiences. These projects include The Justice Project , which features stories of people who have been affected by mass incarceration, and StoryCorps Legacy , which features stories of people with serious illnesses and their family members.

Start Writing —Download the StoryCorps app and find somebody who you would love to have a conversation with. Upload your conversation and write about the interview experience or turn your conversation into a story.

If you are feeling really motivated, submit a request to bring the StoryCorps Mobile Tour to your city . Then write about your experience.

Project VOICE — Stories Told Through Poetry and Performance

If you have ever taught poetry, you know that getting students to appreciate poems can sometimes be a challenge. Enter Sarah Kay, an accomplished poet, performer, and educator, as well as the founder and co-director of Project VOICE . When I watched Kay’s TEDx talk “How Many Lives Can You Live?” I knew I had found my angle in presenting poetry to my students — poems as captured moments of our human experience.

In this talk, Kay performs one of her poems, which tells the story of her father — who is a photographer — and his experience of documenting moments in the world with his camera. At the end of the poem, Kay compares her experience as a poet to her father’s experience as a photographer and says, “We have both learned the art of capture.”

Father and daughter are capturing aspects of the human experience — one through a camera lens and one through the written word. I encouraged my students to use this analogy to help them “get” poetry — and it worked.

From Kay’s TEDx talk, I was led to Project VOICE. This organization has six poets on its team — including Kay — who perform their poetry and conduct educational workshops for students and educators around the world. Their workshops give participants the skills they need to perform poetry. The goal of each workshop is to “encourage people to engage with the world around them and use spoken word poetry as an instrument through which they can explore and better understand their community, their society, and ultimately themselves.”

Project VOICE’s use of poetry and performance to tell and share stories is powerful and an effort worthy of note.

Start Writing — Watch the Project VOICE poets perform their poetry. Then write a poem that captures an aspect of the human experience.

This American Life — Stories Told Through Radio

This American Life is a weekly radio broadcast. Each episode has a theme and tells different stories related to that theme. The first episode of This American Life I ever listened to was Episode 360: “Switched at Birth .” This episode tells the stories of Sue and Marti, two women who were switched at birth, and their mothers, Kay and Mary. I was teaching at the time and looking for a new resource to teach listening skills to my students. What I found were some incredible stories.

On the “About Us” page of This American Life’s website, the description does not communicate what the radio show is, but instead communicates what it isn’t :

“We’re not a news show or a talk show or a call-in show. We’re not really formatted like other radio shows at all. Instead, we do these stories that are like movies for radio. There are people in dramatic situations. Things happen to them. There are funny moments and emotional moments and — hopefully — moments where the people in the story say interesting, surprising things about it all. It has to be surprising. It has to be fun.”

The radio show covers a broad range of topics. The episode that aired this week — “ Grand Gesture ” — tells the stories of people who have gone to extreme measures to demonstrate their feelings. The episode that aired last week — “ When the Beasts Come Marching In ” — tells the stories of what happens when the animal world and the human world mix.

Living in a world inundated with images and screens, having the chance to sit and just listen to a story is refreshing and freeing.

Start Writing — Pick an episode of This American Life and write a story related to that episode’s theme.

I am always on the lookout for new forms of storytelling and sources of inspiration. What are your favorites? Please share! Include them in the comments below.

The Writing Cooperative is a community of people helping each other write better. Become a member to join our Slack team, get fresh eyes on your writing, and participate in the 52-Week Writing Challenge !

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Telling vs. Showing

The telling vs. showing distinction captures two different modes of presenting events in a narrative. In a first approximation, the distinction can be taken quite literally: in the showing mode, the narrative evokes in readers the impression that they are shown the events of the story or that they somehow witness them, while in the telling mode, the narrative evokes in readers the impression that they are told about the events. Using a spatial metaphor, the showing mode is also called a narrative with “small distance,” presumably because readers get the impression that they are somehow near the events of the story, while the telling mode correspondingly evokes the impression of a “large distance” between readers and the events.


In current narratology, the labels ‘telling’ and ‘showing’ are widely used, but there appears to be little consensus as to the exact distinction they are supposed to cover. Thus narratologists do not always agree on the classification of examples, or even about the grounds for the classification. This can be seen when considering an example which has been proposed to illustrate the distinction. Compare the sentences “John was angry with his wife” and “John looked at his wife, his eyebrows pursed, his lips contracted, his fists clenched. Then he got up, banged the door and left the house” (Rimmon-Kenan [1983] 2002 : 109). The first sentence is introduced by Rimmon-Kenan as an example of telling and the latter as an example of showing. However, whether one thinks that these two sentences differ with respect to the telling vs. showing distinction depends on what criteria are taken to be decisive (for references, see section 3 below):

If the presence or absence of a narrator is taken to be the decisive criterion, then both sentences may be on a par. The same is true if the presence or absence of dialogue is considered crucial, or, arguably, if the ‘partiality’ or ‘objectivity’ of the narration are regarded as lying at the heart of the distinction.

A difference between the modes of presentation emerges if it is taken for granted that both example sentences feature a narrator; hence, if one compares the relations of a narrator to the events told, including the narrator’s spatial, temporal or general epistemic position, then the first sentence (“John was angry with his wife”) may count as an instance of telling and the second as an instance of showing. Similarly, the first sentence is explicit about at least one of John’s traits (“John was angry with his wife”) and hence is in the telling mode, while the second leaves any facts about John’s traits to be inferred by the reader. What is more, the first sentence exhibits a higher degree of narrative speed, and it conveys a comparatively less detailed description of the event (or events) than the second; hence the first sentence may count as telling and the second as showing. Similarly, the first sentence may invoke the impression on the reader’s side that the events of the story are being reported (telling), while the second may invoke the impression of somehow witnessing the events, which constitutes showing. Finally, the first sentence might be taken to draw the implied reader’s attention to the storyteller, while the second sentence draws the implied reader’s attention to the story.

It is not clear whether the different interpretations of the telling vs. showing distinction share a common denominator. Also, while some accounts can be easily combined, others cannot. Most notably, several of the accounts take the fictional narrator to be important in one way or the other. But this need not mean that the accounts basically establish the same distinction. For instance, a clearly perceptible narrator, whose presence constitutes ‘telling’ according to some interpretations, may, but need not be explicit about the traits of the characters, which constitutes ‘showing’ according to other interpretations of the distinction. Moreover, two different accounts of ‘showing’ can be mutually exclusive. For instance, if the absence of a narrator from the narration is taken to constitute showing, as is the case in passages of pure dialogue, then this is incompatible with the claim that showing is constituted by the narrator’s particularly close temporal or spatial position relative to the events of the story, as another account has it. Note also that the presence or absence of dialogue suggests that neither ‘telling’ nor ‘showing’ are gradable predicates, while accounts relying on e.g. the amount of narrative information, or the ‘speed’ of the narration, suggest that telling and showing allow of degrees.

Finally, there are a number of different labels attached to the distinctions in question. Amongst them are ‘mimetic mode,’ ‘objectivity,’ ‘impersonal mode,’ ‘scenic mode,’ ‘dramatic mode,’ ‘rendering’ or ‘small distance’ as (more or less) synonymous for ‘showing,’ and ‘diegetic mode,’ ‘partiality’ or ‘large distance’ as (more or less) synonymous for ‘telling’ (cf. e.g. Booth [1961] 1983 : 8; Rabinowitz 2005 : 530; Wiesenfarth 1963 ; Genette [1972] 1980 : 162–89; Stanzel [1979] 2008 : 190–92).

Aspects and History of the Concept

Some variants of the telling vs. showing distinctions have been traced back to the diegesis/mimesis-distinctions known from the writings of Plato (Halliwell → Diegesis – Mimesis ; Willems 1989 ).

An early modern treatment of distinguishing between commentary (“Reflection”), on the one hand, and a detailed description of characters, events, and actions, on the other, can be found in Spielhagen ( [1883] 1967 ). Spielhagen maintains that only the latter is in accordance with the “laws of the epic” (“epische Gesetze”), and hence must be rated superior to the former (ibid.: 67–69). This verdict is criticized by Friedemann ( 1910 ), who argues that the “essence” of narrative fiction consists precisely in the foregrounding of the narrator (“das Wesen der epischen Form [besteht] gerade in dem Sichgeltendmachen eines Erzählenden”, ibid.: 3). Both Spielhagen and Friedemann thus deal with the question to what extent the author (resp. a narrator) may intrude in the narration, e.g. by commenting on the events, filling in narrative gaps or taking a subjective stance. Friedemann ( 1910 : 26) holds that by commenting on the events a narrator need not disturb the “epic illusion”; rather, the narrator may become an “organic” part of the composition. Moreover, Friedemann in effect shifts the theoretical focus from the presence or absence of narratorial commentary to the effect such commentary may have on the reader; thus for her, the real question is whether, upon reading, our “illusion suffers damage” (“leidet unsere Illusion Schaden”, ibid.: 27).

The modern popularity of distinguishing ‘telling’ and ‘showing’ is usually said to be due to Lubbock. Lubbock underscores some normative implications of the distinction. Thus he holds that “the art of fiction does not begin until the novelist thinks of his story as a matter to be shown, to be so exhibited that it will tell itself” (Lubbock [1922] 1954 : 62). He also compares Flaubert’s novels with a “picture” or “drama” and states that a “writer like Flaubert—or any other novelist whose work supports criticism at all—is so far from telling a story as it might be told in an official report, that we cease to regard him as reporting in any sense. He is making an effect and an impression, by some more or less skilful method” (ibid.: 63).

Lubbock was able to base his account of the distinction on the comments of several authors of fiction. Henry James and Ford Madox Ford likewise held that “showing” is clearly superior to “telling.” James claims that “Processes, periods, intervals, stages, degrees, connexions, may be easily enough and barely enough named, may be unconvincingly stated, in fiction, to the deep discredit of the writer, but it remains the very deuce to represent them […]” (James [1884] 1957 : 94; see also Wiesenfarth 1963 , esp. ch. 1, for elaboration). Ford claims that the novelist “has to render and not to tell.” And he explains: “If I say ‘The wicked Mr. Blank shot nice Blanche’s dear cat!’ that is telling. If I say: ‘Blank raised his rifle and aimed it at the quivering, black-burdened topmost bough of the cherry-tree. After the report a spattered bunch of scarlet and black quivering dropped from branch to branch to pancake itself on the orchard grass!’ that is rather bad rendering, but is still rendering” (Ford [1930] 1983 : 122). Neither of these authors really contributes to the theoretical understanding of the phenomenon. Their treatment, however, underscores the importance the distinction had in the authors’ discourse about fiction, and this in turn explains why it has been taken up by an evolving narratology.

Booth ( [1961] 1983 : 16, 154–55) criticizes clear-cut versions of the showing vs. telling distinction. What he seems to be primarily interested in is the question of how an author manages to combine authorial (or narratorial) comments and ‘showing’. Thus, Booth in effect tried to correct the view that the distinction hinges on the presence of explicit commentary, be it the author’s or a narrator’s.

Genette introduces an influential new term into the debate, namely “distance.” He explains that “the narrative can furnish the reader with more or fewer details, and in a more or less direct way, and can thus seem (to adopt a common and convenient spatial metaphor, which is not to be taken literally) to keep at a greater or lesser distance from what it tells” (Genette [1972] 1980 : 162). Genette further maintains that one needs to distinguish the ‘narrative of events’ from a ‘narrative of words,’ for only the latter is said to be ‘mimetic’ in the full sense of the word: “The truth is that mimesis in words can only be mimesis of words. Other than that, all we have and can have is degrees of diegesis” (ibid.: 164). 

In sum, and as indicated in section (2) above, current narratology shows a broad diversity of possible meanings of the telling vs. showing distinction. The label ‘telling vs. showing’ is taken to refer to the following distinctions:

First, the very presence of a narrator (telling) vs. the absence of a narrator (showing) in the story is taken to be decisive (cf. Chatman 1978 : 32, 146; Nünning & Sommer 2008 : 341).

Second, the relations of a narrator to the events told, including his or her spatial, temporal or general epistemic position, which can be remote (telling) or close (showing), are said to constitute the distinction. Thus Toolan explains that “[m]imesis [i.e. showing ] presents ‘everything that happened’ in one sense, but really only everything as it would be revealed to a witness within the scene,” while “[d]iegesis [i.e. telling ] presents ‘everything that happened’ in another sense, but only everything that a detached external reporter decides is worth telling” (Toolan [1988] 2001 : 134, cf. also Linhares-Dias 2006 : 7).

Third, the presence (showing) or absence (telling) of dialogue in the narrative are said to be involved in the telling vs. showing distinction (cf. Fludernik [2006] 2009 : 36 and 161; cf. already Chatman 1978 : 32; Genette [1983] 1988 : 45). The reason for this is that only dialogue is taken to constitute an ‘unmediated’ presentation, and hence ‘showing’, of what happens in the story world.

Fourth, the explicitness (telling) or implicitness (showing) of e.g. a character’s traits or dispositions as well as the themes, meanings or morals of the story are taken to be decisive (cf. Friedman 1955 : 1169–70, passim ; Lubbock [1922] 1954 : 67-68; Rimmon-Kenan [1983] 2002 : 108). Again, one can argue that these features of a narrative indicate the presence of a narrating subject whose presence in turn accounts for a ‘mediated’ presentation of what happens in the story world.

The same holds true for, fifth, the ‘partiality’ (telling) or ‘objectivity’ (showing) of the narration (cf. Rabinowitz 2005 : 530), since a ‘partial’ rendering of the story that includes commentary and evaluation also indicates the presence of a narrator. As a consequence, the direction of the implied reader’s attention either to the story (showing) or to the storyteller (telling) may be affected (cf. ibid.).

Sixth, the ‘speed’ of the narration, which can be comparatively fast (telling) or slow (showing), and which can convey more (showing) or less detailed (telling) information, is taken to be decisive (cf. Genette [1972] 1980 : 166).

Seventh, the impression on the reader’s side that he or she is being told about the events of the story (telling) or rather somehow witnesses them (showing) is taken to lie at the core of the telling vs. showing distinction (cf., amongst others, Martínez & Scheffel [1999] 2012 : 50; Stanzel 1964 : 13; Stanzel [1979] 2008 : 192; Linhares-Dias 2006 ; Wiesenfarth 1963 : 2).

It remains an open question whether, or to what extent, these accounts allow for unification. A promising candidate for a unified account might be the idea that the telling vs. showing distinction captures different impressions a reader may have upon reading the text. This idea finds its predecessors, inter alia , in Socrates (Halliwell  → Diegesis – Mimesis [§ 7]), Friedemann ( 1910 : 26–27, 89, 91), Lubbock ( [1922] 1954 : 63), or Stanzel ( 1964 : 13), to name but a few. What is more, this way of setting up the distinction between telling and showing allows for taking some, if not all, of the other items on the list to constitute evidence for either ‘telling’ or ‘showing’ (rather than being identical with it). Hence, for instance, the speed of the narration or explicit commentary may be taken to be evidence for the presence of a fictional narrator, whose presence can be taken to evoke the impression on the reader’s side of being told about the events which, in turn, constitutes telling. Finally, in this account, the distinction between ‘telling’ and ‘showing’ is by no means superfluous (cf. Genette [1983] 1988 : 44), for it does not reduce to any of the narrative phenomena (presence or properties of narrator, speed of narration, objectivity, dialogue, amount of detail, etc.) that help establish it.

Related Terms

Which terms one takes to be related to the telling vs. showing distinction of course depends on what one takes the distinction to be in the first place. Accordingly, possible candidates for related terms include: Margolin → Narrator ; Alber & Fludernik  → Mediacy and Narrative Mediation ; McHale → Speech Representation . Proponents of the view that ‘showing’ and ‘telling’ refer to the impression on the part of the reader of witnessing the events of the story (as opposed to having the impression of being told about the events) may want to explore connections to the concepts of ‘immersion,’ ‘transportation,’ or ‘aesthetic illusion’ (cf. Gerrig 1993 ; Green & Brock 2000 ; Giovanelli 2008 ; Wolf  → Illusion (Aesthetic) ).

Topics for Further Investigation

To date, there is no systematic study that explores connections as well as distinctions between the major current accounts of the telling vs. showing distinction. The same holds true for a comprehensive study of the history of the concepts. It seems that such studies are needed, not least in order to evaluate the importance of the distinction(s). Some narratologists feel that the telling vs. showing distinction is superfluous, mainly because they take it to refer to other narrative phenomena, such as the speed of the narration or the presence or absence of a narrator, which can be dealt with directly (cf. Rimmon-Kenan [1983] 2002 : 109; Bal 1983 : 238–40; Genette [1983] 1988 : 44). Others maintain that the distinction lies at the very heart of narrative, showing in particular being regarded as a mode of presentation that is most peculiar and in need of close scrutiny (cf. Linhares-Dias 2006 ).


Works cited.

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Showing and telling.

This is a great article! Very sophisticated review. I've done a much simpler job of it over at my page: But my hat is off to you for this one! :)

The most mimetic literary genre is drama (and film), which consists mainly of direct presentation of speech and action, i.e. the audience actually watches people speak and act. In narrative prose (and poetry) one is necessarily limited to verbal representation. Nonetheless, even in narrative prose and poetry degrees of mimesis and diegesis can be distinguished in four main narrative modes (following Bonheim 1982):

Apart from these four narrative modes, there are possible non-narrative elements in any given narrative which are not strictly speaking part of the narrative itself: such as for instance an interpolated song, poem (for instance in J.R.R. Tolkien 's The Lord of the Rings or in A.S. Byatt 's Possession ), essay (discussions of the techniques of writing a novel for instance in Henry Fielding 's Tom Jones ), or chapter mottoes (as in George Eliot 's Middlemarch ). Sometimes these elements give a clue to the narrative's meaning, but sometimes they are simply decorations or digressions and not an integral part of the story itself.

Direct speech is the most mimetic narrative mode, since it gives an almost complete illusion of direct, i.e. unmediated, representation:

'Have the police done anything Godfrey?' 'Nothing whatever.' 'It is certain, I suppose, that the three men who laid the trap for you were the same three men who afterwards laid the trap for Mr. Luker?' 'Humanly speaking, my dear Rachel, there can be no doubt of it.' 'And not a trace of them has been discovered? 'Not a trace.' ( Collins , Moonstone , p. 229)

In this excerpt only the quotation marks and the fact that the speakers address each other by name indicate that different people are speaking. Sometimes direct speech is introduced by a reporting phrase, so-called inquit formulas ('She said', 'The hoarse voice answered', etc.). Direct speech itself is nowadays usually indicated by quotation marks or other forms of punctuation (sometimes by a dash, sometimes merely by the beginning of a new paragraph). Direct speech tends to use present tense as its main tense and uses the first person when the speaker refers to him- or herself, the second person when other participants of the conversation are addressed. The use of sociolect or dialect also serves to indicate spoken language (see also Representation of Consciousness : thought as silent speech).

The element of mediation is more noticeable when speech or thought is rendered indirectly in indirect (or reported) speech .

Original utterance : She said: "I am tired, I am going to bed." Indirect speech : She said she was tired and was going to bed.

Indirect speech also uses inquit formulas but no quotation marks. The tense of the original utterance is changed from present into past, from past into past perfect and references to the first person are rendered in the third person. (All this can be looked up in any ordinary grammar book).

The effect of indirect speech can easily be perceived as somewhat monotonous and certainly it creates a distance between the utterance and the reader's perception of it; it is less immediate than direct speech. In the following example we focus less on the young son's speech than on Moll's, i.e. the homodiegetic narrator's rendering of it.

After some time, the young Gentleman took an Opportunity to tell me that the Kindness he had for me, had got vent in the Family; he did not Charge me with it, he said, for he knew well enough which way it came out; he told me his plain way of Talking had been the Occasion of it, for that he did not make his respect for me so much a Secret as he might have done, and the Reason was that he was at a Point; that if I would consent to have him, he would tell them all openly that he lov'd me, and that he intended to Marry me: ( Defoe , Moll Flanders )

But indirect speech does not inevitably create monotony. In the following excerpt Charles Dickens uses indirect speech to vary and enliven the narrator’s (heterodiegetic) report when he reproduces Jo the streetsweeps’s (ungrammatical) way of speaking when Jo is asked to give evidence at an inquest:

Name, Jo. Nothing else that he knows on. Don’t know that everybody has two names. Never heerd of sich a think. Don’t know that Jo is short for a longer name. Thinks it long enough for him. He don’t find fault with it. Spell it? No. He can’t spell it. No father, no mother, no friends. Never been to school. What’s home? Knows a broom’s a broom, and knows it’s wicked to tell a lie. Don’t recollect who told him about the broom, or about the lie, but knows both. Can’t exactly say what’ll be done to him arter he’s dead if he tells a lie to the gentlemen here, but believes it’ll be something wery bad to punish him, and serve him right – and so he’ll tell the truth. (Dickens, Bleak House, ch. 9)

This passage displays many of the characteristics of direct speech, except the use of the first person pronoun. Thus it technically remains the narrator’s voice who speaks about Jo even though he adopts Jo’s syntax, vocabulary and pronunciation.

Report is the mode that informs the reader about events and actions in the story.

Dick Boulton came from the Indian camp to cut up logs for Nick's father. He brought his son Eddy and another Indian named Billy Tabeshaw with him. They came in through the back gate out of the woods, Eddy carrying the long cross-cut saw. ( Hemingway , The Doctor and the Doctor's Wife )

Report can be identified mainly through its use of action verbs ('come', 'bring', 'carry' in the example above). In practice it is often difficult to clearly separate between report and description. Also, it is very rare that a narrative presents an absolutely neutral report. Reports are mingled with narrator comment (see narrator comment ).

Key-Terms: • narrative modes • mimesis • diegesis • speech • direct speech • indirect (reported) speech • report

Overview of multimodal literacy

A multimodal text conveys meaning th​​rough a combination of two or more modes, for example, a poster conveys meaning through a combination of written language, still image, and spatial design. Each mode has its own specific task and function (Kress, 2010, p. 28) in the meaning making process, and usually carries only a part of the message in a multimodal text. In a picture book, the print and the image both contribute to the overall telling of the story but do so in different ways.

Images may simply illustrate or expand on the written story, or can be used to tell different aspects of the story, even contradicting the written words (Guijarro and Sanz, 2009, p. 107).

Effective multimodal authors creatively integrate modes in various configurations to coherently convey the meaning required, ‘moving the emphasis backwards and forwards between the various modes' (Cope and Kalantzis, 2009. p. 423) throughout the text.

The complexity of the relationships between the various meaning or semiotic systems in a text increases proportionately with the number of modes involved. For example, a film text is a more complex multimodal text ​​than a poster as it dynamically combines the semiotic systems of moving image, audio, spoken language, written language, space, and gesture (acting) to convey meaning. 

Multimodal texts incorporating English and EAL/D learners’ home languages can be a source of authentic model texts. For EAL/D learners and other students who are plurilingual, it is important to consider how English and home languages can be integrated through different modes.

These include:

Multilingual multimodal texts demonstrate clearly the author’s word and visual choices. Examples of discussion questions around the multimodal text could be:

The foll​​owing overview of how meaning can be composed through different semiotic resources for each mode (spoken language, written language, visual, audio, gestural, and spatial) is informed by The New London Group (2000), Cope and Kalantzis, (2009), and Kalantzis, Cope, Chan, and Dalley-Trim (2016). EAL/D learners engage with all of these meaning making practices through multicultural and/or multilingual lens.

Currently, there is extensive pedagogic support for teaching meaning making through spoken and written language, and some resources developed to support teaching meaning making in the visual mode, through ‘viewing’. However, as yet there are few resources available for teaching young students how to comprehend and compose meaning in the other modes. 

Written​​ meaning

Conveyed through written language via handwriting, the printed page, and the screen. Choices of words, phrases, and sentences are organised through linguistic grammar convention​​​​s, register (where language is varied according to context), and genre (knowledge of how a text type is organised and staged to meet a specific purpose). See: Writing  and Reading and Viewing

In bilingual or multilingual texts, written meaning may be conveyed through different scripts and laid out differently, whether typed or handwritten. EAL/D learners may also write words from their home languages using English letters (transliteration).

Spoken (​​oral) meaning

Conveyed through spoken language via live or recorded speech and can be monologic or ​​dialogic. Choice of words, phrases, and sentences are organised through linguistic grammar conventions, register, and genre. Composing oral meaning includes choices around mood, emotion, emphasis, fluency, speed, volume, tempo, pitch, rhythm, pronunciation, intonation, and dialect. EAL/D learners may make additional choices around the use of home languages to create mood or emphasise meaning. See: Speaking and listening pedagogic resources​ .

Visual ​​meanin​​g

Conveyed through choices of visual resources and includes both still image and moving images. Images may include diverse cultural connotations, symbolism and portray different people, cultures and practices. Visual resources include: framing, vectors, symbols, perspective, gaze, point of view, colour, texture, line, shape, casting, saliency, distance, angles, form, power, involvement/detachment, contrast, lighting, naturalistic/non-naturalistic, camera movement, and subject movement. See Visual literacy metalanguage .

Audio me​​aning

Conveyed through sound, including choices of music representing different cultures, ambient sounds, noises, alerts, sil​​ence, natural/unnatural sounds, and use of volume, beat, tempo, pitch, and rhythm. Lyrics in a song may also include multiple languages.

Spatial meanin​​g

Conveyed through design of spaces, using choices of spatial resources including: scale, proximity, boundaries, direction, layout, and organisation of objects in the space. Space ​extends from design of the page in a book, a page in a graphic novel or comic, a webpage on the screen, framing of shots in moving image, to the design of a room, architecture, streetscapes, and landscapes.

Gestural meaning

Conveyed through choices of body movement; facial expression, eye movements​ and gaze, demeanour, gait, dance, acting, action sequences. It also includes use of rhythm, speed, stillness and angles, including ‘timing, frequency, ceremony and ritual’ (Cope and Kalantzis, 2009. p. 362). Gestures and body language may have diverse cultural connotations.

Types of multim​​odal texts

Multimodality do​​es not necessarily mean use of technology, and multimodal texts can be paper-based, live, or digital. 

Paper-​​based multimodal texts include picture books, text books, graphic novels, comics, and posters.

Live ​​multimodal texts , for example, dance, performance, and oral storytelling, convey meaning through combinations of various modes such as gestural, spatial, audio, and oral language. 

Digital multimodal texts include film, animation, slide shows, e-posters, digital stories, podcasts, and we​​b pages that may include hyperlinks to external pronunciation guides or translations.

Why teac​​hing multimodal literacy is important

Effecti​​ve contemporary communication requires young people to be able to comprehend, respond to, and compose meaning through multimodal texts in diverse forms.

To do this, students need to know how each mode uses unique semiotic resources to convey meaning (Kress, 2010) and this needs to be taught explicitly. In a visual text, for example, representation of people, objects, and places can be conveyed using choices of visual semiotic resources such as line, shape, size, line and symbols, while written language would convey this meaning through sentences using noun groups and adjectives (Callow, 2013) written or typed on paper or a screen. 

Students also need to be taught how authors juggle the different modes to determine the most apt way t​​o tell their story, and how meaning in a multimodal text is ‘orchestrated’ through the selection and use of different modes in various combinations (Jewitt, 2009. p.15).

Multimodal texts allow a broader range of communication options for EAL/D learners that do not rely solely on traditional spoken and print based texts. Reading, viewing and creating multimodal texts provides EAL/D learners with additional ways to understand and communicate complex ideas despite a language barrier, therefore ensuring they are provided with a more equitable access to learning and communication (Walsh et al. 2015). For example, EAL/D learners with very low English proficiency can still use gestures and draw pictures to communicate their meaning. With support, they can view and understand new and abstract concepts through a digital text that can then be associated with new language.

EAL/D learners engage in multimodal texts in their everyday lives. Research demonstrates that students learn best when school practices reflect familiar home and community practices (Gutiérrez, Baquedabo-Lopez & Turner, 1997, Gutiérrez, 2008). Most EAL/D learners can confidently create content using familiar digital tools. This can then be used as a platform to expand their use of language in combination with other modes of communication (Walsh et al. 2015).

To teach multimodal literacy, the teacher selects model multimodal texts that are appropriate to the purpose of a task or lesson. The teacher explicitly scaffolds how language combines with paper, live and digital multimedia platforms to communicate effectively.

Modes and mean​ing making: three sub-strands

Students need to understand how authors can control and use the unique semiotic resources available in​​​ each different mode used in a multimodal text. Currently, the Victorian Curriculum organises teaching about language around three types of meaning organised as sub-stands: Expressing and developing ideas; Language for interaction; and Text structure and organisation. Similarly, teaching meaning making in other modes can be approached through three sub-strands.

Expressing and developing i​​deas

What is happening in the text? Students learn how the different m​​​​eaning making resources can be used to: construct the nature of the events, the objects and participants involved, and the setting and circumstances in which they occur – who, what, where and when, and to express actions and ideas.

Interactin​​g and relating with ​​others

How do we interact with and relate to others? How do we feel? Students learn how design of interactive meaning in a multimodal text includes consideration of the social setting, how interactions between the viewer/reader/listener and the subject can be established, and how to build and maintain relationships. Students need to learn how to express knowledge, skills, feelings, attitudes and opinions, credibility, and power through different modes. 

Text structure and ​​organisation

How do design and layout build meaning and guide the reader/viewer/listener through the text? Students learn how different modes are used to structure ​​a text in a particular way to create cohesive and coherent texts, with varying levels of complexity. For example, students learn how the image maker guides the viewer through the text through the deliberate choices of visual design at the level of the whole text, and components within the text. In examining how the image or text is organised, students learn how visual design choices can prioritise some meanings and background others (Painter, Martin, & Unsworth, 2013). 

(For fu​​rther information, see Anstey and Bull, 2009; Callow, 2013; Cloonan, 2011, Kalantzis, Cope, Chan, and Dalley-Trim, 2016.) 

The Victorian Curriculum F-10 EAL organises the strands and sub-strands for each language mode (Speaking and listening, Reading and viewing and Writing) differently from the English curriculum. The three strands in the EAL curriculum are Communication; Cultural and plurilingual awareness; and Linguistic structures and features. These strands are divided further into sub-strands. For example, Cultural and plurilingual awareness contains two sub-strands: Cultural understandings and Plurilingual strategies.


How can teachers support their EAL/D students to make meaning clear to their audience? EAL/D students learn to understand, analyse and produce a range of text types. To create different multimodal texts, the teacher scaffolds EAL/D learners to consider:

Plurilingual strategies

How do teachers support the EAL/D learners to use plurilingual strategies? Teachers should teach the EAL/D students about how the different cultural conventions of text design and layout enhance the message of the text. They also teach the processes of planning, producing and revising and provide worked examples to show how this can help create a high quality final text. At each stage, students consider how they can enhance the text by incorporating their knowledge of English, home languages and cultural knowledge. For example, EAL/D learners preparing a program for a school production might consider whether there should be multiple versions of the program in different languages or if only some aspects of the program needed to be translated (e.g. the synopsis).

Linguistic structures and features

In the EAL curriculum, the Linguistic structures and features strand encompasses the Text structure and organisation sub-strand. EAL/D students learn to control language at the word, sentence and whole text level. With support students learn to choose language appropriate for the topic. As they became more proficient, they will be able to make choices about expressing that language in more spoken-like or more written-like ways to suit their text type. Students also consider their relationship with the audience and how this can be communicated through language choices including through appropriate and accurate ways of expressing their meaning through language. At all stages of this process, EAL/D students will require scaffolded support to develop an awareness and understanding of the impact of their language choices.


Anstey, M., & B​​ull, G. (2009). Using multimodal texts and digital resources in a multiliterate classroom. In e:lit (Vol. 004, pp. 1-8). Sydney: Primary English Teaching Association.

Callow, J. (20​​​13). The Shape of Text to Come: How Image and Text Work. Sydney: Primary English Teaching Association of Australia.

Cloonan, A. (2011). Creating multimodal metalanguage with teachers. English Teaching, 10(4), 23.

Cope​​, B., & Kalantzis, M. (2009). A grammar of multimodality. The International Journal of Learning, 16(2), 361-423.

Guijarro, J​​. M., & Sanz, M.J. (2009) On interaction of image and verbal text in a picture book. A Multimodal and Systemic Functional Study. In E. Ventola & J. M Guijarro (Eds), The World Told and the World Shown: Multisemiotic Issues (pp. 107-123). Palgrave Macmillan.

Jewitt, C. (ed.) (2009) The Routledge Handbook of Multimodal Analysis, London: Routledge.

Kala​​ntzis, M., Cope, B., Chan, E., & Dalley-Trim, L. (2016). Literacies (2nd ed.). Port Melbourne, VIC, Austalia: Cambridge University Press.

Kress, G. (2010). Multimodality: a social semiotic approach to contemporary communication. London; New York: Routl​​edge.

Painter, C., Martin, J. R., & Unsworth, L. (2013). Reading Visual Narratives: image analysis of children​​​'s picture books: Equinox Publishing Limited 

The New London G​​roup. (2000). A pedagogy of Multiliteracies designing social futures. In B. Cope & M. Kalantzis (Eds.), Multiliteracies: Literacy Learning and the Design of Social Futures (pp. 9-38). South Yarra: MacMillan.

Walsh, M., Durrant, C., & Simpson, A. (2015). Moving in a Multimodal Landscape: Examining 21st Century Pedagogy for Multicultural and Multilingual Students. English in Australia, 50(1), 67-76.

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modes of presentation in literature

Genre and Medium

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This resource provides writing guidance for administrative and clerical staff, including, audience awareness, conventions of particular genres, and general business writing tips such as concision and tone management.

Genre and medium are closely related, although a bit different. Genre is the form of your writing (a business letter, memo, report). A medium is the way in which a piece of writing is delivered (email versus a mailed paper copy, for example). Genre and medium are both determined by audience and purpose. For example, if you need to let people in your office know that there will be a test of the alarm system in a few days, a brief email might be the easiest and most efficient way to get that information across. If you need to send an acceptance letter to a job candidate, a formal letter sent by mail or attached to an email might be most appropriate. Expectations of formality will affect what genre you choose. The more formal the purpose, then the more formal the genre.

Choosing a Genre

Genre is a form of writing with set functions determined by its social need. For example, a grocery list is a genre that developed out of a need to remember what you are shopping for at the grocery store. It is a set form of writing with general expectations – brief and to-the-point, in a list format, usually following the store’s layout. Genre is determined by need and audience expectation. A memo delivers information in an expedient way that helps an audience understand a recent event or issue. Meanwhile, a business letter is more formal and detailed, with an audience that might need more background information. It is important to know what information your audience wants and needs in order to establish what genre you will use.

Conversely, sometimes the genre is set for you. You may be asked to write in a specific genre and then have to figure out how the rules of a genre determine what information you will include and why that information must be included. If you are asked to write in a specific, new genre, you can use what you already know about similar genres to help you figure out what you should do. You can also use resources here on the OWL or in business writing manuals to help you better understand a genre. Looking at samples or models of an unfamiliar genre is particularly helpful and a good habit to get into as a writer. Most writers use models as a way to write in unfamiliar genres or to help them improve in genres they already know well.

Choosing a Medium

Along with understanding the genre features of what you are writing, you must also consider the medium in which your writing will be delivered. Although many of these genres will be sent via email , there are still considerations to make about what to include and how to include it. Official letters or correspondence should probably be attached as separate documents to emails. A short memo or note is suitable for just the body of an email. Depending on length and audience expectations, meeting minutes can be sent in the body of an email or attached as a separate document.

Social media posts are the one exception to email rules. Social media is distributed via various platforms, including Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, or weblogs. It is important to remember that social media is meant for a wide and often undefined audience. Your office’s public tweets may be accessed by anyone in the world, for example. For this reason, the medium will be particularly important to how you want to convey information. Please see the section on social media on the next page in order to better understand the particular media demands of social media genres.

Note: It is important to remember that each office or department has unique genre and medium needs and concerns. If supervisors or colleagues ask you to use a specific set of guidelines or formatting for any business writing genre, you should follow those guidelines first.

Common Business Writing Genres

Genres you may encounter regularly in the workplace include memos, business letters or official correspondence, meeting minutes, and social media posts. Some of these genres already have separate OWL pages built for them (links included), but others are described in some detail below.

Memos have increasingly been replaced by more generalized emails. However, the guidelines for memos are incredibly important, no matter the medium in which a memo is circulated. Memos should be to-the-point, offer a clear summary, and prioritize the most important information first. Memos should also have a positive tone appropriate for the intended audience. See the our memo resources for more information.

Business Letters

Business letters are still an important genre in business writing. Formal letters that give news or ask for information rely on set guidelines in order to help the reader get the necessary information efficiently and with respect to the reader’s attention. Business letters can be sent by mail or via email attachment, but no matter the medium in which a business letter is circulated, the formal guidelines given for business letters are incredibly important to the genre. See the OWL's business letter resource for more information.

Meeting Minutes

Meeting minutes are a record of the most important parts of meetings. If you are asked to take minutes for a meeting, you should follow several basic guidelines.

Social Media

As social media becomes more prevalent in business communication, you may be asked to help develop or run your office or department’s social media accounts. The most popular social media platforms are Facebook and Twitter. Facebook allows you to post information without a word limit, and you can easily include external links, photos, videos, and other media in your posts. Twitter has a 140-character limit, so information needs to be concise and external media or links must be considered carefully before including. Social media writing tends to be more informal than other forms of business writing, but it does require a strong understanding of your audience. Are you giving information to fellow staff members? To current students? To prospective students or donors? How you convey the information and which social media platform you use will be determined by the audience, so it is important to understand what it is your audience needs to know and why they need to know it.

It is also helpful to look at examples of other social media accounts to understand the ways in which social media is used to reach out to specific audiences. The search functions in Twitter, Facebook, and most other platforms allow you to look up similar types of departments or offices or other departments or offices at your own institution easily. Each account should have its own voice, but you can use other accounts as a way to help figure out an appropriate tone for your own social media writings.

modes of presentation in literature

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Transcript: What is Halloween? and What do people do on Halloween? Origins of Halloween Why we (as Ahmadi Muslims) should avoid celebrating halloween? What is Shirk? Do Muslims believe in ghosts and supernatural things? What is Halloween? Celebrated on the night of October 31st Traditional activities include: Trick-or-treating Carving jack-o-lanterns Costume parties Visiting "haunted houses" Origin of Halloween celebration of the end of the harvest season Samhain was a time used by the ancient pagans to take stock of supplies and prepare for winter The ancient Gaels believed that on October 31, the boundaries between living and the dead overlapped and the deceased would come back to cause havoc such as sickness or damaged crops Masks and costumes were worn in an attempt to mimic the evil spirits or appease them. Why we should avoid celebrating Halloween? Halloween is a harmful innovation among Christians which takes one closer to shirk. The Bible forbids witches, satanic practices etc. but Halloween is generally regarded as fun. Hudhur said it should always be remembered that any ‘fun’ that is based on shirk or any harmful way is to be avoided. We must give up on worldly traditions like these to follow the right path Faith Matters These practices makes children do wrong things in the name of “fun” These practices makes children do wrong things in the name of “fun” Agenda Friday Sermon October 29th 2010 ... small Conclusion Even a hint of shirk is unacceptable to God What is Shirk? Associate anyone in the name, action, or worship of Allah constitutes shirk Condition of Baiat number 6 says that we “shall refrain from following ______________ Ahmadi muslims do not believe in ghosts and other supernatural things (witches, goblins...) Do Muslims believe in ghosts and supernatural being? Heaven is a better reward than the candy get from you get from trick or treat QUESTIONS? “Badness attracts and leads man to adopt it with intensity, while forgetting traditions and beliefs. Some Ahmadis, considering such matters trivial, also get inclined in this way, resulting in very bad consequences” Shirk causes man to sink morally and spiritually. Belief in Divine Unity is a seed out of which grows all virtues, and lack of which lies at the root of all sins Halloween and what do people do on halloween? What other holidays do we not celebrate? Originated from the ancient celtic festival known as Samhain It is extremely wrong to believe in things that are supernatural even if it is for fun We must give up on worldly traditions like these to follow the right path Halloween is a tradition when many people celebrate it with extravagant parties, elaborate costumes and spending more $$$ Hudhur’s Friday Sermon October 29th 2010 Why should Ahmadi Muslims avoid celebrating Halloween? Bringing of dead spirits is WRONG and it goes against what we believe as Muslims

modes of presentation in literature

Transcript: Title Number Three Here are some bullet points Because everyone loves these Also, mustache Another Title Body of the conclusion. Title Number One subtitle Concluding Title ... and subtitle Insert Title Body of the point With BIGGER points.

modes of presentation in literature

Transcript: and subtitle We have the conclusion. So make any final notes you can think of, within this box. Then make jokes. Tear off your break away pants. Party. Example Title Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Mustache Coalition And Finally, Mega Point #1 Social Media Because who doesn't? With Bullet Points Because People Love Bullet Points Also, Mustaches

modes of presentation in literature

Transcript: Opportunities for development My vision for English Independent writing Sufficient opportunities for children to write both in context and out of genre, and in genre out of context, choice of independent writing tasks, shadowing English manager and liaising with a SLE to ensure extended independent writing is part of the planning cycle. 'Bridging' gaps in English: Supporting progression from year 5 to year 6, building a set of skills to transfer, adapting units to challenge, booster group for 'inspired writers'. Purpose for writing: Using trips to stimulate writing, sharing work with year 3, providing 'real life' learning to motivate and excite, parent topic morning workshops. A language-rich learning environment: A strong focus on the importance of speaking, reading, and writing for all learners, a variety of books, reading awards and class book display, real-life literacy. Pupil generated success criteria Inspirational interventions in place for identified vulnerable groups of learners Develop marking policy to ensure feedback encourages children to identify their next steps and focus on progression Foster a culture of editing and improving writing Learning walks to improve the level of challenge (e.g. displays, modelling, working wall) Peer work/ group work (e.g. peer coaching/ peer questioning) Personalised writing targets regularly reviewed and updated " If your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more, you are a leader" (John Quincy Adams) "A good leader inspires others with confidence in him; a great leader inspires them with confidence in themselves" (anon) Orchard Lea is a creative, innovative and well-known primary school providing an outstanding curriculum and learning environment for all of the children. Parents are involved in their child's education and have excellent relationships with the school. Children learn from themselves and each other in an exciting and challenging way. Staff are proud to be part of a team at Orchard Lea and have a strong desire to help the children on their individual journeys to become the very best they can be! My vision for English “The best leaders don’t know just one style of leadership – they are all skilled at several, and have the flexibility to switch between styles as the circumstances dictate.” – Daniel Goleman Develop our taught curriculum including increased opportunities for maths and English in light of the new National Curriculum and our school values. Leading and managing improvement Develop provision through outstanding teaching and learning so all pupils are enabled to make good progress within every lesson. There will be a special focus on the able pupil and pupil premium children. Develop Writing mentors Advance use of book corners and class book Empowering children to have more choice in their reading and writing Ensure planning shows coverage, content and progression; support year groups in planning new units/developing existing units. Form cluster moderation opportunities for each year group Monitor and observe the use of guided writing to develop good practice Create opportunities for more peer observation Develop an increased transparency in our partnership working with parents incorporating learning, behaviour and pupil wellbeing. My vision for English Reading mentors in every class Children working with class teachers to support peers, launched summer reading challenge, planned visits to the infant school, reading mentor handbooks used. Shape coding integrated into English teaching and learning Staff meeting delivered, resource packs given to teachers, Shape coding displays, extra support given to SENCO and support staff for use as an intervention. Spelling strategy consolidating the aims of the New Curriculum: Encourage progression, develop exploration of vocabulary, multisensory approach. Reading for pleasure: Combined into guided reading sessions, class reading champions, class book built into timetable, home- school reading journals monitored by reading mentors, paired reading opportunities. Develop ‘Parent Power’ within our library Parent workshops Informal parent evenings on key areas of our English curriculum Create English home learning toolkits for parents and children Parent readers and training Increase the profile of home/ school reading records Aspirational shared values: The school and the team have a clear sense of direction. Focus on improvement and explicit expectations: Detailed criteria and definitions to support high-performance teaching and learning. Data-rich decision taking: To develop targeted interventions Clear targets: Explicit outcomes e.g. reviewing target setting Job-related development strategies: Supporting other colleagues with effective development Coaching to improve performance: Sustained support to build confidence and enable change Team-based learning and working: Working as a team with a common purpose, high trust, complementary skills and mutual confidence. High

modes of presentation in literature

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modes of presentation in literature

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Transcript: Wisdom does not flow like water Plato’s Critique of Pederasty Pederasty Background Symposium Pederasty My Project Pausanias' Speech Pausanias' Speech Two Aphrodites Uranian Heavenly Pandemos Common Text Text Pictures Pictures "Here, Socrates, lie down alongside me, so that by my touching you, I too may enjoy the piece of wisdom that just occurred to you while you were in the porch. It is plain that you found it and have it, for otherwise you would not have come away beforehand." Agathon and Socrates “It would be a good thing, Agathon, if wisdom were the sort of thing that flows from the fuller of us into the emptier, just by our touching one another, as the water in wine cups flows through a wool thread from the fuller to the emptier. For if wisdom too is like that, then I set a high price on my being placed alongside you, for I believe I shall be filled from you with much fair wisdom. My own may turn out to be a sorry sort of wisdom, or disputable like a dream; but your own is brilliant and capable of much development, since it has flashed out so intensely from you while you are young; and yesterday it became conspicuous among more than thirty thousand Greek witnesses." "You are outrageous, Socrates," Agathon said. "A little later you and I will go to court about our wisdom, with Dionysus as judge, but now first attend to dinner." how water flows Principle at play When they do engage in a contest about love Timeline YEAR Alcibiades' Speech Socrates, he claims, is like “those silenuses that sit in the shops of herm sculptors, the ones that craftsman make holding reed pipes or flutes; and if they are split in two and opened up they show they have images of gods within.” (215b) Alcibiades' Speech You, in my opinion,' I said, 'have proved to be the only deserving lover of mine; and it seems to me that you hesitate to mention it to me. Now I am in this state: I believe it is very foolish not to gratify you in this or anything else of mine—my wealth or my friends—that you need; for nothing is more important to d me than that I become the best possible; and I believe that, as far as I am concerned, there is no one more competent than you to be a fellow helper to me in this. So I should be far more ashamed before men of good sense for not gratifying a man like you than I should be before the many and senseless for gratifying you.' Seduction Scene 'Really, my dear Alcibiades, you're no sucker if what you say about me is really true and there is some power in me e through which you could become better. You must see, you know, an impossible beauty in me, a beauty very different from the fairness of form in yourself. So if, in observing my beauty, you are trying to get a share in it and to exchange beauty for beauty, you are intending to get far the better deal. For you are trying to acquire the truth of beautiful things in exchange for the seeming and opinion of beautiful things; and you really have in mind to exchange "gold for bronze." But blessed one do consider better: Without your being aware of it—I may be nothing. Thought, you know, begins to have keen eyesight when the sight of the eyes starts to decline from its peak; and you are still far from that.' Conclusion conclusion If Socrates were to have sex with Alcibiades, he would perpetuate: 1) the idea that people can make each other wise. impact: prevent Alcibiades from realizing his ignorance about wisdom 2) Alcibiades belief that his physical attractiveness is the most important thing about him impact: the belief could harm Alcibiades as he begins to decline from his physical peak, when “Thought begins to have keen eyesight.” (219a) 3) Socrates would be no better than the sophists who cannot acknowledge the ways in which they are ignorant, and thus, risk self-deception. Advantages Advantages to my account: -Fits with the well-known picture of a Socrates who: 1) proclaims his own ignorance. 2) critiques the Sophists for i. both not acknowledging what they do not know ii. exchanging money for wisdom -Makes explicit the way Plato critiques the customs of his time -Throws into question a vision of Socrates as someone who consistently denies bodily urges -Makes clear that the container model is supposed to function in opposition to the image of pregnancy and birth. Accounts of “Plato’s Appropriation of Reproduction” run these two images together.

modes of presentation in literature

Transcript: Title Name of Presenters Date PLACE YOUR LOGO HERE Agenda Agenda 1. 2. 3. Introductory materials Facts Data Graphs Heading #1 Heading #1 Subheading Going into details here Introduce detailed information Insert images, data, etc subheading More related detailed information Heading #2 Deliverables? Heading #2 Graph/Dataset 1 Deliverable #1 1. 2. 3. Insert Data and Graphs here Graph/Data set #2 Deliverable #2 Insert link to website Analysis Reminders Heading #3 Summary Summary A B C Questions Questions

modes of presentation in literature

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Transcript: Assessment and management of stroke in the pre-hospital setting Sam, Sam, Shawn, Andy, Charlie & Owen WHAT There are three types of stroke: Transiant ischaemic attack (TIA) - Ischemic stroke and Hemorrhagic stroke (Stroke Association, 2017). The World Health Organisation,( 2017) deffines a stroke as, the interruption of the blood supply to the brain, usually because a blood vessel bursts or is blocked by a clot. This cuts off the supply of oxygen and nutrients, causing damage to the brain tissue. what is a stroke? Stroke classification what comorbidities or health risk factors lead to strokes or increase the risk of strokes? why do people experience strokes? why treatment how do we assess and treat stroke? FAST campaign and treatment pre-hospital / hospital epidemiology What are the UK and international statistics on stroke death and survival chart? bla bla bla! how can we as studet paramedics increase the quality of treatment for stroke patients? how References WHO. (2017). WHO | Stroke, Cerebrovascular accident. Available at: [Accessed 2 Oct. 2017]. Stroke Association. (2017). Types of stroke. Available at: [Accessed 2 Oct. 2017]. Sibson, L. (2017). Stroke assessment and management in pre-hospital settings. Journal of Paramedic Practice, 9(8), pp.354-361. References

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The Mode of Presentation

Frege did not define the notion of mode of presentation, but he did give two quite illustrating examples of it.

The first one is taken from geometry: a particular point may be presented as intersection of two lines a and b or as intersection of the lines b and c . Though the intersections take place at the very same point, we would say that the two modes of presentation differ: one refers to the lines a and b , the other to the lines b and c .

Assuming a suitable axiom system for geometry, this system will provide terms which serve as definitions for the intersections expressed by, say, Intsec(a, b) and Intsec(b, c) . Assuming that both terms refer to the same point p of the plane, it requires some reasoning in the given axiomatic framework to derive the equality

Intsec(a, b) = Intsec(b, c) . This equality is epistemically different from a simple reflexive equality, like Intsec(a, b) = Intsec(a, b) .

We propose to use Intsec(a, b) to obtain a mode of presentation of p, and

Intsec(b, c) to obtain another mode of presentation of the same point.7 We may say that a term t of our formal language expresses (to use Frege's wording) a mode of presentation if it may be used as a mathematical expression to define a newly introduced constant A . We do not say that the term is the mode of presentation, as—with Frege—the latter is surely not a syntactic object (this would be the mode of designation , [5, p. 157]). The way the mode of presentation should be located between the purely syntactical level and the semantical level will be discussed in more detail below. But let us note, that our mode of presentation is clearly different from any form of reference in model-theoretic terms.

Let us now turn to the more prominent example given by Frege. By “morning star”, Venus is presented as the star8 visible in the morning, by “evening star” as visible in the evening. Thus, the sense of “morning star” differs from that of “evening star”, although both refer to the same object. We may use “the star visible in the morning” and “the star visible in the evening” as the expressions which give us the mode of presentation, using the same argument as above: these expressions may serve as terms t defining a constant A (“morning star”, “evening star”, or even “Venus”).9

Thus, we may extend our working definition of mode of presentation given above for mathematical terms to terms in general, saying that a term t may express a mode of presentation if it can be used as definiens in a clause like “Let A be t .” Later we shall see how proofs enter.

modes of presentation in literature

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Literature Lesson

Literature lesson presentation, free google slides theme and powerpoint template.

Get your students excited about the world of literature and all it has to offer with our latest lesson template for the subject! From the traditional Shakespeare and Jane Austen to the more modern authors, help them appreciate the beauty of words and text.

Engage your classroom with the latest education template by Slidesgo. For this presentation, we’ve gone back to the classic white and incorporated a powerful tone of red to encourage curiosity and get your pupils inquisitive. Keeping in line with the nature of the course, its background is also scattered with alphabets. This layout follows a lesson structure with slides designed for diagrams, assignments, exercises, etc. to assist your teaching. For typography, we use a classic bread-and-butter title font for easy reading.

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  1. PDF Fregean Senses, Modes of Presentation, and Concepts

    Modes of presentation and concepts will be identified, therefore, in terms ∗Published in Philosophical Perspectives (Noˆus Supplement) 15 (2001): 335-359. This paper originally circulated, and may have been cited, under the titles 'Modes of Presentation and Belief Reports' and 'Modes of Presentation and Fregean Senses'.

  2. Strategies for Presenting Content in the Classroom

    Multimedia methods of presentation are passive methods of delivering content and include slideshows (Powerpoint) or movies. When creating presentations, teachers should be aware of the need to keep notes concise while including interesting and relevant images.

  3. Find Out How to Prepare a Presentation in Literature Here

    The main part of the presentation is compiled according to the rules for writing paragraphs in an essay. At the same time, you can write down the argument short enough but justify it more extensively already in the process of speaking. Conclusion. The conclusion is necessary to systematize all thoughts.

  4. Mode of presentation

    Literary Definition of mode of presentation Mode of presentation: Basically there are two different ways of narrating a story. The author may tell his story in a very detailed fashion so that the reader has the feeling of participating in the action. That is called scenic presentation.

  5. The Five Modes

    According to the New London Group, there are five modes of communication: visual, linguistic, spatial, aural, and gestural. [1] A mode is different from a medium, which is the substance through which communication is conveyed. Examples of a visual medium, for instance, would be photography, painting, or film. When a given text makes use of more ...

  6. language

    Mode of presentation: (Darstellungsart) There are two modes of presentation to be found in pieces of literature: the panoramic and the scenic modes. The panoramic mode is employed when the author summarizes several events, whereas scenic mode is used when the author describes scenes in great detail. Means of presentation: (Darstellungsmittel)

  7. Lit terms detail Flashcards

    the modes and devices of expression in prose or verse. Thus diction, grammatical constructions, figurative language, alliteration and other sound patterns all enter into style. ... the techniques and modes of presentation an author uses to reveal or create attitudes in a literary piece; the author's attitude toward his subject and audience ...

  8. Presentation on literature review

    80) "A literature review is the presentation, classification and evaluation of what other researchers have written on particular subject. A literature review may form a part of a research thesis, or may stand alone as a separate document." (Txt_lit_review.pdf) "A literature review is text written by someone to consider the critical points ...

  9. Modes of Presentation

    Modes of Presentation Oral contributions will be the main part of sessions at LLL2023. Sessions will take place in parallel with a duration of 90 minutes. Each session will contain six speakers and opportunities for in depth discussions. Please note that oral presentations should last no longer than 15-20 minutes ( including 3 mins for questions).

  10. PDF I'm different; not dumb Modes of presentation (V.A.R.K.) in the

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  11. Modes of Communication: Types, Meaning and Examples

    10 Modes of Communication 1. Interpretive Communication 2. Interpersonal Communication 3. Presentational Communication 4. Linguistical or Alphabetic Communication 5. Gestural Communication 6. Aural Communication 7. Visual Communication 8. Spatial Communication 9. Multimodal Communication 10. Various Cultural and Intercultural Modes of Communication

  12. What is Multimodal?

    For example, while traditional papers typically only have one mode (text), a multimodal project would include a combination of text, images, motion, or audio. The Benefits of Multimodal Projects Promotes more interactivity Portrays information in multiple ways Adapts projects to befit different audiences

  13. Five Forms of Storytelling. And some ideas to inspire your writing

    One of the most fascinating parts of the internet for me is how many different ways stories are being told and shared — through photographs, short posts, letters, interviews, audio recordings, presentations, and other mediums. Stories are everywhere, and many storytellers are doing important work.

  14. Rhetorical modes

    The rhetorical modes (also known as modes of discourse) are a long-standing attempt to broadly classify the major kinds of language-based communication, particularly writing and speaking, into narration, description, exposition, and argumentation.First attempted by Samuel P. Newman in A Practical System of Rhetoric in 1827, the modes of discourse have long influenced US writing instruction and ...

  15. Telling vs. Showing

    Amongst them are 'mimetic mode,' 'objectivity,' 'impersonal mode,' 'scenic mode,' 'dramatic mode,' 'rendering' or 'small distance' as (more or less) synonymous for 'showing,' and 'diegetic mode,' 'partiality' or 'large distance' as (more or less) synonymous for 'telling' (cf. e.g. Booth [1961] 1983: 8; Rabinowitz 2005: 530; Wiesenfarth 1963; …

  16. Narrative Modes 01

    The most mimetic literary genre is drama (and film), which consists mainly of direct presentation of speech and action, i.e. the audience actually watches people speak and act. In narrative prose (and poetry) one is necessarily limited to verbal representation.

  17. Overview of multimodal literacy

    Overview of multimodal literacy. A multimodal text conveys meaning th rough a combination of two or more modes, for example, a poster conveys meaning through a combination of written language, still image, and spatial design. Each mode has its own specific task and function (Kress, 2010, p. 28) in the meaning making process, and usually carries ...

  18. Genre & Medium

    Genre and medium are closely related, although a bit different. Genre is the form of your writing (a business letter, memo, report). A medium is the way in which a piece of writing is delivered (email versus a mailed paper copy, for example). Genre and medium are both determined by audience and purpose. For example, if you need to let people in ...

  19. Literature presentation template

    Presentation Template. Transcript: Opportunities for development My vision for English Independent writing Sufficient opportunities for children to write both in context and out of genre, and in genre out of context, choice of independent writing tasks, shadowing English manager and liaising with a SLE to ensure extended independent writing is part of the planning cycle.

  20. Mode (literature)

    Mode (literature) In literature and other artistic media, a mode is an unspecific critical term usually designating a broad but identifiable kind of literary method, mood, or manner that is not tied exclusively to a particular form or genre. Examples are the satiric mode, the ironic, the comic, the pastoral, and the didactic.

  21. The Mode of Presentation

    Presentment Modes A well-defined and valid market requirement will include all four of its components. Once defined, there are two ways to present a market requirement—Story Mode and Data Mode. With Story Mode all components are interwoven into the directive, and the result is a long sentence or...

  22. Literature Lesson Google Slides Theme and PowerPoint Template

    Free Google Slides theme and PowerPoint template. Get your students excited about the world of literature and all it has to offer with our latest lesson template for the subject! From the traditional Shakespeare and Jane Austen to the more modern authors, help them appreciate the beauty of words and text. Engage your classroom with the latest ...