CHM Office of Reseach

Writing a Case Report

This page is intended for medical students, residents or others who do not have much experience with case reports, but are planning on writing one.  

What is a case report?  A medical case report, also known as a case study, is a detailed description of a clinical encounter with a patient.  The most important aspect of a case report, i.e. the reason you would go to the trouble of writing one, is that the case is sufficiently unique, rare or interesting such that other medical professionals will learn something from it.   

Case reports are commonly of the following categories :

- Rare diseases

- Unusual presentation of disease

- Unexpected events

- Unusual combination of diseases or conditions

- Difficult or inconclusive diagnosis

- Treatment or management challenges

- Personal impact

- Observations that shed new light on a disease or condition

- Anatomical variations

It is important that you recognize what is unique or interesting about your case, and this must be described clearly in the case report.

Case reports generally take the format of :

1. Background

2. Case presentation

3. Observations and investigation

4. Diagnosis

5. Treatment

7. Discussion

Does a case report require IRB approval?

Case reports typically discuss a single patient. If this is true for your case report, then it most likely does not require IRB approval because it not considered research.    If you have more than one patient, your study could qualify as a Case Series, which would require IRB review.  If you have questions, you chould check your local IRB's guidelines on reviewing case reports.

Are there other rules for writing a case report?

First, you will be collecting protected health information, thus HIPAA applies to case reports.   Spectrum Health has created a very helpful guidance document for case reports, which you can see here:   Case Report Guidance - Spectrum Health

While this guidance document was created by Spectrum Health, the rules and regulations outlined could apply to any case report.  This includes answering questions like: Do I need written HIPAA authorization to publish a case report?  When do I need IRB review of a case report?  What qualifies as a patient identifier?

How do I get started?

1. We STRONGLY encourage you to consult the CARE Guidelines, which provide guidance on writing case reports -

Specifically, the checklist -  - which explains exactly the information you should collect and include in your case report.  

2. Identify a case.  If you are a medical student, you may not yet have the clinical expertise to determine if a specific case is worth writing up.  If so, you must seek the help of a clinician.  It is common for students to ask attendings or residents if they have any interesting cases that can be used for a case report. 

3. Select a journal or two to which you think you will submit the case report.   Journals often have specific requirements for publishing case reports, which could include a requirement for informed consent, a letter or statement from the IRB and other things.  Journals may also charge publication fees (see Is it free to publish? below)   

4. Obtain informed consent from the patient (see " Do I have to obtain informed consent from the patient? " below).  Journals may have their own informed consent form that they would like you to use, so please look for this when selecting a journal.

Once you've identified the case, selected an appropriate journal(s), and considered informed consent, you can collect the required information to write the case report.

How do I write a case report?

Once you identify a case and have learned what information to include in the case report, try to find a previously published case report.  Finding published case reports in a similar field will provide examples to guide you through the process of writing a case report.    

One journal you can consult is BMJ Case Reports .  MSU has an institutional fellowship with BMJ Case Reports which allows MSU faculty, staff and students to publish in this journal for free.  See this page for a link to the journal and more information on publishing-

There are numerous other journals where you can find published case reports to help guide you in your writing. 

Do I have to obtain informed consent from the patient?

The CARE guidelines recommend obtaining informed consent from patients for all case reports.  Our recommendation is to obtain informed consent from the patient.  Although not technically required, especially if the case report does not include any identifying information, some journals require informed consent for all case reports before publishing.  The CARE guidelines recommend obtaining informed consent AND the patient's perspective on the treatment/outcome (if possible).  Please consider this as well.  

If required, it is recommended you obtain informed consent before the case report is written.

An example of a case report consent form can be found on the BMJ Case Reports website, which you can access via the MSU library page - .  Go to "Instructions for Authors" and then "Patient Consent" to find the consent form they use.  You can create a similar form to obtain consent from your patient.  If you have identified a journal already, please consult their requirements and determine if they have a specific consent form they would like you to use.

Seek feedback

Once you have written a draft of the case report, you should seek feedback on your writing, from experts in the field if possible, or from those who have written case reports before.   

Selecting a journal

Aside from BMJ Case Reports mentioned above, there are many, many journals out there who publish medical case reports.   Ask your mentor if they have a journal they would like to use.  If you need to select on your own, here are some strategies:

1. Do a PubMed search.

   a. Do a search for a topic, disease or other feature of your case report 

   b. When the results appear, on the left side of the page is a limiter for "article type".  Case reports are an article type to which you can limit your search results.  If you don't see that option on the left, click "additional filters". 

   c. Review the case reports that come up and see what journals they are published in.

2. Use JANE -

3. Check with specialty societies.  Many specialty societies are affiliated with one or more journal, which can be reviewed for ones that match your needs

4. Search through individual publisher journal lists.  Elsevier publishes many different medical research journals, and they have a journal finder, much like JANE  ( ).  This is exclusive to Elsevier journals.  There are many other publishers of medical journals for review, including Springer, Dove Press, BMJ, BMC, Wiley, Sage, Nature and many others.

Is it free to publish ?

Be aware that it may not be free to publish your case report.  Many journals charge publication fees. Of note, many open access journals charge author fees of thousands of dollars.  Other journals have smaller page charges (i.e. $60 per page), and still others will publish for free, with an "open access option".  It is best practice to check the journal's Info for Authors section or Author Center to determine what the cost is to publish.  MSU-CHM does NOT have funds to support publication costs, so this is an important step if you do not want to pay out of pocket for publishing

*A more thorough discussion on finding a journal, publication costs, predatory journals and other publication-related issues can be found here:

Gagnier JJ, Kienle G, Altman DG, Moher D, Sox H, Riley D. 2013. The CARE guidelines: Consensus-based clinical case reporting guideline development.  Glob Adv Health Med . 2:38-43. doi:  10.7453/gahmj.2013.008

Riley DS, Barber MS, Kienle GS, AronsonJK, von Schoen-Angerer T, Tugwell P, Kiene H, Helfand M, Altman DG, Sox H, Werthmann PG, Moher D, Rison RA, Shamseer L, Koch CA, Sun GH, Hanaway P, Sudak NL, Kaszkin-Bettag M, Carpenter JE, Gagnier JJ. 2017.  CARE guidelines for case reports: explanation and elaboration document . J Clin Epidemiol . 89:218-234. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2017.04.026 

Guidelines to writing a clinical case report. 2017. Heart Views . 18:104-105. doi:  10.4103/1995-705X.217857

Ortega-Loubon C, Culquichicon C, Correa R. The importance of writing and publishing case reports during medical education. 2017. Cureus. 9:e1964. doi:  10.7759/cureus.1964

Writing and publishing a useful and interesting case report. 2019. BMJ Case Reports.

Camm CF. Writing an excellent case report: EHJ Case Reports , Case of the Year 2019. 2020. European Heart Jounrnal. 41:1230-1231.  

*content developed by Mark Trottier, PhD

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Presenting a Clinical Vignette: Deciding What to Present

If you are scheduled to make a presentation of a clinical vignette, reading this article will improve your performance. We describe a set of practical, proven steps that will guide your preparation of the presentation. The process of putting together a stellar presentation takes time and effort, and we assume that you will be willing to put forth the effort to make your presentation successful. This and subsequent articles will focus on planning, preparation, creating visual aids (slides), and presentation skills. The intent of this series of articles is to help you make a favorable impression and reap the rewards, personal and professional, of a job well done.

The process begins with the creation of an outline of the topics that might be presented at the meeting. Your outline should follow the typical format and sequence for this type of communication: history, physical examination, investigations, patient course, and discussion. This format is chosen because your audience understands it and uses it every day. If you have already prepared a paper for publication, it can be a rich source of content for the topic outline.

To get you started, we have prepared a generic outline to serve as an example. Look over the generic outline to get a sense of what might be addressed in your presentation. We realize that the generic outline will not precisely fit all of the types of cases; nevertheless, think about the larger principle and ask yourself, "How can I adapt this to my situation?" In order to help you visualize the type of content you might include in the outline, an example of a topic outline for a clinical vignette is presented.


The main purpose of the introduction is to place the case in a clinical context and explain the importance or relevance of the case. Some case reports begin immediately with the description of the case, and this is perfectly acceptable.

1. Describing the clinical context and relevance

i. Ergotism is characterized by intense, generalized vasoconstriction of small and large blood vessels. ii. Ergotism is rare and therefore difficult to diagnose. iii. Failure to diagnose can lead to significant morbidity.

Case Presentation

The case report should be chronological and detail the history, physical findings, and investigations followed by the patient's course. At this point, you may wish to include more details than you might have time to present, prioritizing the content later.

i. A 34-year-old female smoker has chronic headaches, dyspnea, and burning leg pain. ii. Clinical diagnosis of mitral valve stenosis is made. iii. She returns in one week because of burning pain in the legs. iv. One month after presentation, cardiac catheterization demonstrates severe mitral valve stenosis. v. Elective mitral valve commisurotomy is scheduled, but the patient is admitted to hospital early because of increased burning pain in her feet and a painful right leg.

2. Physical Examination

i. Normal vital signs. ii. No skin findings. iii. Typical findings of mitral stenosis, no evidence of heart failure. iv. Cool, pulseless right leg. v. Normal neurological examination.

3. Investigations

i. Normal laboratory studies. ii. ECG shows left atrial enlargement. iii. Arteriogram of right femoral artery shows subtotal stenosis, collateral filling of the popliteal artery, and pseudoaneurysm formation.

4. Hospital Course

i. Mitral valve commisurotomy is performed, as well as femoral artery thombectomy, balloon dilation, and a patch graft repair. ii. On the fifth postoperative day, the patient experienced a return of burning pain in the right leg. The leg was pale, cool, mottled, and pulseless. iii. The arteriogram of femoral arteries showed smooth segmental narrowing and bilateral vasospasm suggesting large-vessel arteritis complicated by thrombosis. iv. Treatment was initiated with corticosteroids, anticoagulants, antiplatelet drugs, and oral vasodilators. v. The patient continued to deteriorate with both legs becoming cool and pulseless. vi. Additional history revealed that the patient abused ergotamine preparations for years (headaches). She used 12 tables daily for the past year and continued to receive ergotamine in hospital on days 2, 6, and 7. vii. Ergotamine preparations were stopped, intravenous nitroprusside was begun, and she showed clinical improvement within 2 hours. Nitroprusside was stopped after 24 hours, and the symptoms did not return. viii. The remainder of hospitalization was uneventful.

The main purpose of the discussion section is to articulate the lessons learned from the case. It should describe how a similar case should be approached in the future. It is sometimes appropriate to provide background information to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with the patient's presentation, findings, investigations, course, or therapy.

1. Discussion

i. The most common cause of ergotism is chronic poisoning found in young females with chronic headaches. ii. Manifestations can include neurological, gastrointestinal, and vascular (list each in a table). iii. Ergotamine poisoning induces intense vasospasm, and venous thrombosis may occur from direct damage to the endothelium. iv. Vasospasm is due primarily to the direct vasoconstrictor effects on the vascular smooth muscle. v. Habitual use of ergotamine can lead to withdrawal headaches leading to a cycle of greater levels of ingestion. vi. In addition to stopping ergotamine, a direct vasodilator is usually prescribed. vii. Lesson 1: Physicians should be alert to the potential of ergotamine toxicity in young women with chronic headaches that present with neurological, gastrointestinal, or ischemic symptoms. viii. Lesson 2: The value of a complete history and checking the medication list.

Creating a topic outline will provide a list of all the topics you might possibly present at the meeting. Since you will have only ten minutes, you will prioritize the topics to determine what to keep and what to cut.

How do you decide what to cut? First, identify the basic information in the three major categories that you simply must present. This represents the "must-say" category. If you have done your job well, the content you have retained will answer the following questions:

What happened to the patient? What was the time course of these events? Why did management follow the lines that it did? What was learned?

After you have identified the "must-say" content, identify information that will help the audience better understand the case. Call this the "elaboration" category. Finally, identify the content that you think the audience would like to know, provided there is enough time, and identify this as the "nice-to-know" category.

Preparing a presentation is an iterative process. As you begin to "fit" your talk into the allotted time, certain content you originally thought of as "elaboration" may be dropped to the "nice-to-know" category due to time constraints. Use the following organizational scheme to efficiently prioritize your outline.

Prioritizing Topics in the Topic Outline

1. Use your completed topic outline.

2. Next to each entry in your outline, prioritize the importance of content.

3. Use the following code system to track your prioritization decisions:

A = Must-Say B = Elaboration C = Nice-to-Know

4. Remember, this is an iterative process; your decisions are not final.

5. Review the outline with your mentor or interested colleagues, and listen to their decisions.

Use the Preparing the Clinical Vignette Presentation Checklist to assist you in preparing the topic outline.

Home Blog PowerPoint Tutorials How To Prepare and Deliver a Business Case Presentation

How To Prepare and Deliver a Business Case Presentation

How to Write and Present a Business Case

No matter how junior or senior an individual is in an organization, there will always be times when they need to convince others why they should fund them, choose them, or do anything else they want them to do. Sometimes an informal, but convincing, argument is enough. Often, it isn’t. Those are the times you’ll need to prepare a business case in order to change their mind.

What is a Business Case?

A business case is a document that presents the costs, risks, and benefits of a particular initiative, justifies the investment , and pitches why decision-makers should approve of the recommendation. Students pursuing an  MBA with a specialization in marketing  are often asked to prepare different business case studies to improve their business forecasting and analytics skills.

Depending on your organization and endeavor, this will be anything from an informal document to a formal presentation before stakeholders. Regardless of the format, a business case aims to convince people if a project or initiative is worth investing in and why one particular approach is better than others.

A Business Case Is Not a Project Proposal or a Project Plan

Don’t get a business case mixed up with a project proposal . While they have similar goals and will cover some of the same topics, they’re not quite the same thing. A project proposal focuses on what a project is, delving into many of the details like deliverables and timelines. They are also different from project plans , which explain how a project will be executed and have much more detail. A business case, on the other hand, is about why people should invest in your initiative.

When You Should Create a Business Case Presentation?

You should create a business case presentation any time you need to convince a manager or stakeholder to make a decision, where an informal conversation is not appropriate or enough.

Common reasons to create a business case presentation:

How to Create a Business Case Presentation?

While you might be eager to jump in and share the initiative you believe in, it’s a good idea to step back and make sure you prepare a solid case. The more concrete details, facts, and figures you have, the stronger your business case will be. The main sections of a business case will be the context of the situation, problem statement, opportunities, financial analysis, and solution description.

If you’ve never made a business case presentation before, consider using a business case template to help guide you through each step. Here’s a short summary of each of the parts of a convincing business case presentation.

Business Case Presentation PowerPoint Template

Step 1. Establish Context about the Current Situation

Not all audience members will immediately know what the current situation is leading up to your initiative. Briefly lay out the background of the idea. Note that this isn’t the problem statement, which will follow.

Business Case Context PowerPoint Templates

Step 2. State the Problems

This slide is where you can impress upon your audience the importance of the problem, and therefore, why the solution you’ll soon present is necessary.

When describing the problems, think about the direct and indirect effects of the situation, as well as the internal and external implications. Include statistical analysis if you’re already seeing negative effects because of the situation.

State the Problems Business Case PowerPoint Templates

Step 3. Evaluate Opportunities

Your solution needs to be directly related to the stated problem. Here you can list, side-by-side, the opportunities you foresee to address problems. This section is a segway from your problem to your solution.

Another way to present this section is to analyze potential causes of the previously stated problem. This would then be the step to introduce the possible approaches, before settling on the one you’ve chosen to pitch.

Step 4. Analyze Finances

The numbers are probably the most important thing on stakeholder’s minds. They can make or break your business case. Present the current financial situation and compare it to the numbers you could be achieving if they choose to fund your initiative.

Step 5. Describe Solution

Now that you’ve impressed the need for a change on your audience, it’s time to propose your solution. The format of your solution description will depend on what kind of decision you’re promoting. Generally speaking, you’ll want to briefly outline what needs to be done, how it will be done, who will do it, and when it will be done. Let’s look at sample solution formats for each of the examples from the introduction:

10 Tips for Presenting Effective Business Cases

Conclusion: Do Your Initiative Justice

You have a good idea. Maybe it’s a project you really believe in, a decision that just has to be made, or a strategy that will change the game for your organization. Whatever the case, your initiative won’t get approval if you communicate it ineffectively. Create a convincing business case and present it effectively and you’ll see decisions going your way in no time.

how to do a case presentation

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how to do a case presentation

Student Doctor Network

How To Present a Patient: A Step-To-Step Guide

Last Updated on June 24, 2022 by Laura Turner

Updated and verified by Dr. Lee Burnett on March 19, 2022.

The ability to deliver oral case presentations is a core skill for any physician. Effective oral case presentations help facilitate information transfer among physicians and are essential to delivering quality patient care. Oral case presentations are also a key component of how medical students and residents are assessed during their training.

At its core, an oral case presentation functions as an argument. It is the presenter’s job to share the pertinent facts of a patient’s case with the other members of the medical care team and establish a clear diagnosis and treatment plan. Thus, the presenter should include details to support the proposed diagnosis, argue against alternative diagnoses, and exclude extraneous information. While this task may seem daunting at first, with practice, it will become easier. That said, if you are unsure if a particular detail is important to your patient’s case, it is probably best to be safe and include it.

Now, let’s go over how to present a case. While I will focus on internal medicine inpatients, the following framework can be applied to patients in any setting with slight modifications.

Oral case presentations are generally made to a medical care team, which can be composed of medical and pharmacy students, residents, pharmacists, medical attendings, and others. As the presenter, you should strive to deliver an interesting presentation that keeps your team members engaged. Here are a few things to keep in mind:

The length of your presentation will depend on various factors, including the complexity of your patient, your audience, and your specialty. I have found that new internal medicine inpatients generally take 5-10 minutes to present. Internal medicine clerkship directors seem to agree. In a 2009 survey , they reported a range of 2-20 minutes for the ideal length of student inpatient presentations, with a median of 7 minutes.

While delivering oral case presentations is a core skill for trainees, and there have been attempts to standardize the format , expectations still vary among attending physicians. This can be a frustrating experience for trainees, and I would recommend that you clarify your attending’s expectations at the beginning of each new rotation. However, I have found that these differences are often stylistic, and content expectations are generally quite similar. Thus, developing a familiarity with the core elements of a strong oral case presentation is essential.

How to Present a Patient

You should begin every oral presentation with a brief one-liner that contains the patient’s name, age, relevant past medical history, and chief complaint. Remember that the chief complaint is why the patient sought medical care in his or her own words. An example of an effective opening is as follows: “Ms. X is a 78-year-old female with a past medical history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who presents to the hospital after she felt short of breath at home.”

Following the opener, elaborate on why the patient sought medical care. Describe the events that preceded the patient’s presentation in chronological order. A useful mnemonic to use when deciding what to report is OPQRST , which includes: • The Onset of the patient’s symptoms • Any Palliative or Provoking factors that make the symptoms better or worse, respectively • The Quality of his or her symptoms (how he or she describes them) • The Region of the body where the patient is experiencing his or her symptoms and (if the symptom is pain) whether the patient’s pain Radiates to another location or is well-localized • The Severity of the symptoms and any other associated Symptoms • The Time course of the symptoms (how they have changed over time and whether the patient has experienced them before) Additionally, include any other details here that may support your final diagnosis or rule out alternative diagnoses. For example, if you are concerned about a pulmonary embolism and your patient recently completed a long-distance flight, that would be worth mentioning.

The review of systems is sometimes included in the history of present illness, but it may also be separated. Given the potential breadth of the review of systems (a comprehensive list of questions that may be asked can be found here ), when presenting, only report information that is relevant to your patient’s condition.

The past medical history comes next. This should include the following information: • The patient’s medical conditions, including any that were not highlighted in the opener • Any past surgeries the patient has had and when they were performed • The timing of and reasons for past hospitalizations • Any current medications, including dosages and frequency of administration

The next section should detail the patient’s relevant family history. This should include: • Any relevant conditions that run in the patient’s family, with an emphasis on first-degree relatives

After the family history comes the social history. This section should include information about the patient’s: • Living situation • Occupation • Alcohol and tobacco use • Other substance use You may also include relevant details about the patient’s education level, recent travel history, history of animal and occupational exposures, and religious beliefs. For example, it would be worth mentioning that your anemic patient is a Jehovah’s Witness to guide medical decisions regarding blood transfusions.

Once you have finished reporting the patient’s history, you should transition to the physical exam. You should begin by reporting the patient’s vital signs, which includes the patient’s: • Temperature • Heart rate • Blood pressure • Respiratory rate • Oxygen saturation (if the patient is using supplemental oxygen, this should also be reported) Next, you should discuss the findings of your physical exam. At the minimum, this should include: • Your general impressions of the patient, including whether he or she appears “sick” or not • The results of your: • Head and neck exam • Eye exam • Respiratory exam • Cardiac exam • Abdominal exam • Extremity exam • Neurological exam Additional relevant physical examination findings may be included, as well. Quick note: resist the urge to report an exam as being “normal.” Instead, report your findings. For example, for a normal abdominal exam, you could report that “the patient’s abdomen is soft, non-tender, and non-distended, with normoactive bowel sounds.”

This section includes the results of any relevant laboratory testing, imaging, or other diagnostics that were obtained. You do not have to report the results of every test that was ordered. Before presenting, consider which results will further support your proposed diagnosis and exclude alternatives.

The emergency department (ED) course is classically reported towards the end of the presentation. However, different attendings may prefer to hear the ED course earlier, usually following the history of present illness. When unsure, report the ED course after the results of diagnostic testing. Be sure to include initial ED vital signs and any administered treatments.

You should conclude your presentation with the assessment and plan. This is the most important part of your presentation and allows you to show your team how much you really know. You should include: • A brief summary (1-2 lines) of the patient, the reason for admission, and your likely diagnosis. This should also include information regarding the patient’s clinical stability. While it can be similar to your opener, it should not be identical. An example could be: “Ms. X is a 78-year-old female with a past medical history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who presents with shortness of breath in the setting of an upper respiratory tract infection who is now stable on two liters of supplemental oxygen delivered via nasal cannula. Her symptoms are thought to be secondary to an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.” • A differential diagnosis . For students, this should consist of 3-5 potential diagnoses. You should explain why you think each diagnosis is or is not the final diagnosis. Be sure to rule out potentially life-threatening conditions (unless you think your patient has one). For our fictional patient, Ms. X, for example, you could explain why you think she does not have a pulmonary embolism or acute coronary syndrome. For more advanced trainees, the differential can be more limited in scope. • Your plan . On regular inpatient floors, this should include a list of the patient’s medical problems, ordered by acuity, followed by your proposed plan for each. After going through each active medical problem, be sure to mention your choice for the patient’s diet and deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis, the patient’s stated code status, and the patient’s disposition (whether you think they need to remain in the hospital). In intensive care units, you can organize the patient’s medical problems by organ system to ensure that no stone is left unturned (if there are no active issues for an organ system, you may say so).

Presenting Patients Who Have Been in the Hospital for Multiple Days

After the initial presentation, subsequent presentations can be delivered via SOAP note format as follows:

Presenting Patients in Different Specialties

Before you present a patient, consider your audience. Every specialty presents patients differently. In general, surgical and OB/GYN presentations tend to be much quicker (2-3 minutes), while pediatric and family medicine presentations tend to be similar in length to internal medicine presentations. Tailor your presentations accordingly.

Presenting Patients in Outpatient Settings

Outpatients may be presented similarly to inpatients. Your presentation’s focus, however, should align with your outpatient clinic’s specialty. For example, if you are working at a cardiology clinic, your presentation should be focused on your patient’s cardiac complaints.

If your patient is returning for a follow-up visit and does not have a stated chief complaint, you should say so. You may replace the history of present illness with any relevant interval history since his or her last visit.

And that’s it! Delivering oral case presentations is challenging at first, so remember to practice. In time, you will become proficient in this essential medical skill. Good luck!

2 thoughts on “How To Present a Patient: A Step-To-Step Guide”

To clarify, it should take 5-10 minutes to present (just one) new internal medicine inpatient? Or if the student had 4 patients to work up, it should take 10 minutes to present all 4 patients to the preceptor?

Good question. That’s per case, but with time you’ll become faster.

Comments are closed.

How to do a case study presentation

15 best investor pitch deck examples from successful startups.

How to do a case study presentation

Case studies are one of the most effective marketing tools you can have at your disposal and for good reason. Instead of just talking about what your product or service does, case studies allow you to show potential clients why your product or service is useful and the positive experiences your past clients have had. When done right, a good case study is visual, engaging, and weaves a captivating narrative that embodies the value of your business.

Moreover, they are also hugely effective teaching tools that can engage your students and help them to develop problem-solving skills, understand analytical tools, and learn complex decision making. Additionally, they provide an effective way for students to present their projects or research.   Below are some helpful tips for writing your own case study. While this article focuses primarily on case studies as marketing tools, the same concepts apply across the board for educational case studies as well.

Pick the perfect case

Image contains a notebook

First things first—to create a great case study you need a great case. Any random client won't necessarily translate into a story that will result in new customers, so use the following list and tick off to see who stacks up:  

As a bare minimum, your candidate should meet all three of the above criteria. Once you've narrowed down your customers, see if any of them stand out. Companies with big, recognizable names are great because it gives your service credibility. Additionally, customers who had unique or complicated situations make for effective case studies because they can help to eliminate doubt. Another worthwhile quality for a case study to have is if the client left one of your competitors to work with you instead. Use your best judgment to determine who has the most compelling story, and run with it. The same concept can be applied to an educational case study, bearing in mind the goal of the analysis. Choose a case with a powerful outcome that is exemplary as far as the point you plan to get across is concerned. Then start constructing your case study.


Use a case study template

Quite seriously, this is one of the best things you can do when it comes to making an outstanding presentation and avoiding the dreaded death by PowerPoint. Beautiful and intriguing case study templates can make your job much easier and will allow you to spend your time focused on content rather than aesthetics. While easy to overlook, the way your case study looks is just as important as what it says.

Think of it this way: Are you more likely to trust a company with a presentation riddled with clip art, visual inconsistencies, and reckless use of Comic Sans, or would a company with an attractive, streamlined presentation that is pleasant to look at, make the case study more credible? The same goes for an educational case study—you want to grab the attention of your students, and putting thought into the visual aspects of your case study is the best way to start. Looks aside, case study templates can also help you to structure your presentation. Templates with pre-filled decks (such as those from Slidebean) contain curated slides to guide you and save you time that you can devote to putting together your content!

“While easy to overlook, the way your case study looks is just as important as what it says.

Tell a story

A case study is a narrative. As a business, the narrative is about how your client came to work with you, and why they're happy they did, so why not construct it accordingly? A jumble of numbers and data is simply not as intriguing without the build up and flow of a story, so start at the beginning and walk your potential customer through the process by answering these questions:  

Answer these questions the best you can to construct a story from beginning to end, then work with your sample customer to help you fill in the blanks. Some customers may be enthusiastic and take the initiative by providing you with information for the case study, but others may simply be too busy. For that reason, it's best to provide as much information as you can from the start to make it easier on your customer. Educational case studies, while different, have sufficient similarities for you to follow the same fundamental route map: You're still building a story from beginning to end, explaining the issue and how it panned out. When creating an educational case study, ask yourself the following questions:  

Related Read: Basic Storytelling

Gather quotes—or come up with your own

Image contains a hand holding a group of photos

This part is going to be specific to businesses and startups and for their purposes, it is key. As far as direct testimonials are concerned, you have two main options when creating a case study you plan to use as a marketing tool. First, of course, is to obtain actual quotes from your sample client. This has a few advantages. Most importantly, the quote will be in your client's own words, and they may be able to make some points and address issues that may not be as obvious to you, but could be very compelling to potential customers. Your second option is to write your own quotes and then obtain written approval from your sample client to attribute the quote to them. This is advantageous because it saves your customer time. Some customers may simply not be confident in their writing skills and prefer to have the quote created by someone else. In addition to doing your busy customer a favor, it gives you the ability to focus the quote on whatever you think is the most important aspect of the study.

No matter which option you go with, it should be the choice of the customer you are featuring in the case study. If whatever information they've provided during the process of creating the case study is lacking usable quotes, simply get in touch with them and ask for some. Tell them you would love a few short testimonials (no more than a sentence or two, each) for your case study, and if they're too busy or prefer not to write them themselves, you'd be happy to draft a few for their approval. If you do wind up writing them yourself, always get written approval from the person to whom you are attributing these quotes; you wouldn't want things to get nasty for whatever reason later on!

Use real numbers and appealing visuals

Image contains a notebook with numbers and a computer on the table

This is vital. While the story will grab your potential customer and keep them engaged, it's the numbers that will ultimately show them what you were able to do for your client. Vague statements such as you tripled engagement doesn't lend much credence if there aren't actual numbers behind them, so dig up that data and find the most compelling proof of your success. Additionally, when creating an educational case study, real numbers have the same effect—credibility.

Once you've gathered those numbers, it's time to decide how best to show them off. Sometimes the numbers speak for themselves, but often you can make solid impact by showing them visually. Were you able to help your customer to boost sales after a trend of sales being limp? Consider an attractive line graph to show the spike. Did you help your client to increase traffic from their target demographic? Two before-and-after bar charts are a nice way to show how you helped them improve. As the adage goes: seeing in believing, so give your potential customers something smashing to consider.

Related Read: Presentation Design Inspiration

Case studies are powerful. They can attract clients to you as a startup, engage your class as an educator, or give you a clear way to present projects and research as a student. Use the simple tips outlined above and you'll wind up with an attractive case study that is as entertaining as it is educational.

how to do a case presentation

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how to do a case presentation

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Creating a Professional Case Study Presentation: Templates & Tips

Creating a Professional Case Study Presentation: Templates & Tips

Written by: Unenabasi Ekeruke

Creating a Professional Case Study Presentation

Winning over clients is tough work. You're going to need cold hard proof and real-world results to prove the value of your solution.

One of the best ways to show your product or solution works is by using compelling case studies . According to a Content Marketing Institute report, 69% of B2B marketers believe in the persuasive power of case studies and use them for marketing.

Case studies weave captivating stories about the positive results and experiences previous clients have had with your solution. When done right, a professional presentation around your case study can help you market your brand, win over new customers and increase sales .

Not sure how to create or deliver top-notch case study presentations? You've come to the right place.

In this article, we'll show you how to create winning case study presentations, plus templates you can use right away.

Let's get to it.

Here’s a short selection of 6 easy-to-edit case study presentation templates you can edit, share and download with Visme. View more templates below:

how to do a case presentation

Table of Contents

What is a case study presentation, why are case study presentations important, what to include in a case study presentation, case study example, 6 case study presentation templates, tips to nail your case study presentation, your turn: put together compelling case study presentations with visme.

A case study is an in-depth examination of a subject, group, event, or entity within a real-world context. The goal is to better understand key functionalities, outcomes and successes.

When used for educational purposes, they are effective teaching tools. They are engaging and enable students to:

When it comes to marketing, case studies are stories that highlight the effectiveness of your solution and your success in solving client problems.

Case study presentations help you tell these compelling stories using written content, visuals, charts, graphs and other tools. This type of sales and marketing presentation can come in handy during sales pitches, trade shows, workshops, conferences, networking events and more. You can either pre-record it, present it virtually, or opt for an in-person presentation.

No matter the type of business you're doing, case studies can be invaluable for sales and marketing.

If you're still in doubt about the potency of case studies, check out these compelling statistics.

Content Marketing Statistics

According to the Content Marketing Institute, 80% of tech content marketers use case studies in their marketing strategy.

There's often a misconception that case studies are just marketing content meant to stroke your company's ego. The truth, however, is that case studies are more about making customers understand how your company can help them.

When pitching your solution, case studies add a layer of social proof. Rather than focusing solely on your product or its features, your case study should spotlight real-world results and the impact of your solution on customers, industry and society.

There are various scenarios for developing case studies, including:

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how to do a case presentation

Before we show you how to present your case study, let's discuss what should go in a case study. A well-written case study design should include the following sections:

1. Executive Summary

This section provides a brief overview of the entire case study. Readers should be able to scan it and get the hang of everything you want to discuss.

2. Problem Statement

This section should detail the goals and purpose of your case study.

You should highlight the problem you've identified that your study is looking to solve or questions you intend to answer through your case study. What are the main issues that led to the case study and what will your audience learn?

Food Analytic Platform Case Study

3. Solution

This section forms the core of your case study. Here you want to explain how you solved the problem.

Discuss how other clients found you, what solutions they chose, why they chose them and how you implemented them.

4. Execution

This section should detail the journey to helping the client achieve the results.

You want to touch on the planning, processes, risks, metrics, KPI and factors you need to get an even better result. Describe the issues you faced during execution and how you mitigated them.

Here, you need to explain the positive impact or benefits of your solution on the client's project or business.

It could be financial results, growth results, improvements, or increases in productivity. Be sure to provide clear evidence like images, videos, statistical data and numbers.

6. Conclusion

Share reviews, quotes, testimonials and recommendations from existing customers about your solution.

Healthcare Information System Case Study Modern

Here's an example of a case study we created for Lincoln Learning Solutions, an online K12 curriculum provider founded in 2005.

Problem: The company was forced to downsize and ended up without a professional graphics designer on its team. As a result, they struggled to create visually appealing graphics.

Solution: By using Visme, they're now able to create visually appealing marketing content, graphics and visuals without the aid of any professional graphic designer. They use Visme to create various visual content, including educational infographics, presentations, newsletters, social media graphics and more.

Results: Lincoln Learning Solutions now creates 3x more content and other collaborative projects with Visme than if they had opted to continue working with a single graphic designer.

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To help you weave a captivating narrative about the effectiveness of your solution, we've put together stunning case study templates for creating your case study.

1. Marketing Case Study

This generic case study template is a powerful marketing tool for businesses of any size.

You can use it to elaborate on projects or solutions provided to satisfied clients—from the problem that led them to use your tool to your approach to the outcomes or results they've seen. Each section tells a compelling story, offers social proof and spotlights your biggest achievements.

In addition to its rich and bright color combination, this template is interactive. You can liven up your presentations by embedding images, videos and animations. Make this template work for you by editing content and inserting your logo, fonts, images and other design assets.

how to do a case presentation

2. Business Case Presentation

Whether you're doing an in-person or virtual case study presentation, this template has everything you need to impress your audience. You can present a compelling business case that wins over your prospective clients and partners.

Visme has an extensive repository of customizable assets, including icons, charts, shapes, backgrounds, animated assets, stock photos and videos. Customizing this template takes only a few minutes, thanks to our intuitive and easy-to-use drag and drop template.

how to do a case presentation

3. Clinical Case Study Presentation

This presentation template is ideal for drawing attention to rare clinical cases. It provides details about the patient's medical history, medications, results and follow-up. The template heavily relies on bright colors, icons, shapes and visuals to make important data stand out.

There's no limit to what you can achieve with Visme's presentation software . You can use charts and graphs to show compelling figures, patterns and relationships and leave important clues for your audience. The tool supports collaboration across teams. It lets you work with your team on your presentation and get feedback in real-time.

how to do a case presentation

4. UX Case Study

Showcase your past clients' impressive results after working with your company using this stunning case study template. The cover page features a unique style, layout and color theme that blends with the rest of the document.

Notice how the template chronicles the customer's journey, starting with the problem. It elaborates on the approach to solving the problem and the measurable outcomes.

This template makes good use of shapes, images and icons to present the results in a captivating way. You can customize this template for different niches in which you've found notable success.

Use our intuitive editor to add or remove slides and swap your content, images, fonts and other assets to suit your taste.

how to do a case presentation

5. Software Demo Platform Case Study

This case study examines the importance of using demos to increase sales. With this case study format, you can position your brand as a topical authority in your niche.

The template introduces the subject in the case study, their approach to ramping up sales and the effect. It highlights the results and key takeaways from the case study.

Here's what makes this template stand out. The template has a dark blue background while using bright-colored fonts and charts to maintain a strong visual contrast.

Go ahead and customize this template to reflect your brand image and content. Once done, you can embed it on your site using a snippet of code, download it in PDF or PPTX format or share it online with a public or private link.

how to do a case presentation

6. HR Consulting Case Study

If you're looking to entice prospects with the success stories of your previous clients, this case study template is a perfect fit. In it, you'll find real-world examples of how your product or service addressed a client's challenge and impressive results backed by data.

The cover page has a bold headline and summary of the results that catches the eye. At a glance, the reader gets a sneak peek of your notable accomplishments and the type of results they can expect from your brand.

Create your ideal case study presentation by adding new design elements like elegant fonts and icons, high-resolution images, videos and animations.

how to do a case presentation

Below are some helpful tips for designing and presenting your case study to clients, prospects, investors and key stakeholders.

1. Determine Your Goals

This is the first step to designing your case study. What are you looking to achieve, or what message do you want to convey in your case study?

We get it. Case studies are created to demonstrate the value of your solution to customers. However, we recommend aligning your objectives with the value (solution and results) you want your customers to see.

For example, depending on your client's pain points, your objective may be to show your solution helped other clients to:

2. Pick a Compelling Case Study

Once you have outlined what your case study is set to achieve, you need to pick a suitable case study.

We recommend having an arsenal of case studies at your disposal. This will give you the variety you need to whip out and present the best and most relevant case study for each prospect.

Stand-out case studies boost credibility and drive prospects' interest in your solution. For example, you should prioritize case studies featuring reputable brands.

Another top choice is case studies of clients who had complicated problems or clients who left your competitors to work with you. These case study examples typically provide a more compelling story and outcomes.

3. Use Templates

Case studies riddled with design and visual flaws can put off prospects. Using templates keeps your presentation structure organized and visually appealing. Beautiful case study templates like the ones above make your job much easier. It allows you to spend your time on content rather than aesthetics.

4. Use High-Quality Visual Aids

When preparing your presentation, use quality visual aids to break up the text and keep your audience engaged.

You don't want to bore your audience with large walls of irrelevant text and vague statements. Instead, use more numbers and visual aids like charts , graphs , images and videos to show compelling proof of success. They make your message clear and lend credence to your arguments.

Did you help your clients increase sales? If yes, show the percentage increase in numbers and charts or graphs to show a spike.

Notice how the case study template highlights compelling figures using graphs and charts.

Food Analytic Platform Case Study

5. Deliver a Flawless Presentation

You've already put in a lot of effort to create a solid professional case study. However, even the best-written case study will fail to deliver without a winning delivery.

So how do you get your clients to buy into your case study during the critical presentation phase? How do you present your case study in a simple, clear and persuasive way?

Keep reading.

Tell an Emotional Story

Think of storytelling as a hook that draws your audience into your presentation. Your story could clearly describe the problem a similar client faced, the solution you implemented and what they're currently enjoying.

It's not enough to use facts and figures alone. Injecting an emotional appeal into your narrative will make your case study memorable and impactful.

One way to create a human connection is by painting a clear picture that your audience can relate to. You want to visualize their journey to success based on your results with existing clients.

Focus on the Client

Remember that the case study is not about you or your salesperson. Companies that focus more on themselves often come off as self-centered.

You should research your prospects and focus on their needs and challenges. Not only will your presentation be relatable, but it will have an emotional appeal and motivate your clients to take action.

So dig deep to find out these things:

The more you can align your presentation with the client's needs and clearly articulate them, the faster you can secure their buy-in. Otherwise, your case study will sound like a thinly disguised sales pitch.

Connect and Engage Your Audience

Do you want to avoid situations where your audience zones off or nods off to sleep during your presentations?

Make your presentation a two-way dialogue. The more you can engage your audience, the more impactful your presentation will be.

Here are some effective ways to engage your audience.

You can also use Visme's interactive presentation tool to wow your audience by zooming into a key point in your presentation.

Keep It Brief and Interesting

No matter how much time you're allotted, keep your presentation brief.

Why does it matter? Humans have short attention spans. So to avoid losing audience attention, spend more time on slides that drive home your points.

In the middle of the presentation, you may be asked to dive deeper into a particular aspect or answer other questions.

Whatever happens, be prepared to answer questions in the middle of your presentations. You can create appendix slides to expand on some aspects of your case study.

So there you have it. We've discussed everything you need to know about creating and delivering a stunning case study presentation.

Case studies can be an effective sales and marketing tool for convincing and converting prospects into paying customers. However, to deliver a smashing presentation that wows your audience, we recommend using Visme's case study templates . You'll find templates for every niche and use case.

Visme offers a wide array of design assets, visual aids, images, videos and animations to make your presentation pop. After tweaking your template, you can embed your case study on your blog or website. Also, you can share it online using a link or download it for offline use in multiple formats, like PDF and HTML5.

Easily put together professional case study presentations that impress your clients

how to do a case presentation

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how to do a case presentation

About the Author

Unenabasi is a content expert with many years of experience in digital marketing, business development, and strategy. He loves to help brands tell stories that drive engagement, growth, and competitive advantage. He’s adept at creating compelling content on lifestyle, marketing, business, e-commerce, and technology. When he’s not taking the content world by storm, Unenabasi enjoys playing or watching soccer.

how to do a case presentation

How to make an oral case presentation to healthcare colleagues

The content and delivery of a patient case for education and evidence-based care discussions in clinical practice.

how to do a case presentation

BSIP SA / Alamy Stock Photo

A case presentation is a detailed narrative describing a specific problem experienced by one or more patients. Pharmacists usually focus on the medicines aspect , for example, where there is potential harm to a patient or proven benefit to the patient from medication, or where a medication error has occurred. Case presentations can be used as a pedagogical tool, as a method of appraising the presenter’s knowledge and as an opportunity for presenters to reflect on their clinical practice [1] .

The aim of an oral presentation is to disseminate information about a patient for the purpose of education, to update other members of the healthcare team on a patient’s progress, and to ensure the best, evidence-based care is being considered for their management.

Within a hospital, pharmacists are likely to present patients on a teaching or daily ward round or to a senior pharmacist or colleague for the purpose of asking advice on, for example, treatment options or complex drug-drug interactions, or for referral.

Content of a case presentation

As a general structure, an oral case presentation may be divided into three phases [2] :

how to do a case presentation

Specifically, the following information should be included [3] :

Patient and complaint details

Patient details: name, sex, age, ethnicity.

Presenting complaint: the reason the patient presented to the hospital (symptom/event).

History of presenting complaint: highlighting relevant events in chronological order, often presented as how many days ago they occurred. This should include prior admission to hospital for the same complaint.

Review of organ systems: listing positive or negative findings found from the doctor’s assessment that are relevant to the presenting complaint.

Past medical and surgical history

Social history: including occupation, exposures, smoking and alcohol history, and any recreational drug use.

Medication history, including any drug allergies: this should include any prescribed medicines, medicines purchased over-the-counter, any topical preparations used (including eye drops, nose drops, inhalers and nasal sprays) and any herbal or traditional remedies taken.

Sexual history: if this is relevant to the presenting complaint.

Details from a physical examination: this includes any relevant findings to the presenting complaint and should include relevant observations.

Laboratory investigation and imaging results: abnormal findings are presented.

Assessment: including differential diagnosis.

Plan: including any pharmaceutical care issues raised and how these should be resolved, ongoing management and discharge planning.

Any discrepancies between the current management of the patient’s conditions and evidence-based recommendations should be highlighted and reasons given for not adhering to evidence-based medicine ( see ‘Locating the evidence’ ).

Locating the evidence

The evidence base for the therapeutic options available should always be considered. There may be local guidance available within the hospital trust directing the management of the patient’s presenting condition. Pharmacists often contribute to the development of such guidelines, especially if medication is involved. If no local guidelines are available, the next step is to refer to national guidance. This is developed by a steering group of experts, for example, the British HIV Association or the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence . If the presenting condition is unusual or rare, for example, acute porphyria, and there are no local or national guidelines available, a literature search may help locate articles or case studies similar to the case.

Giving a case presentation

Currently, there are no available acknowledged guidelines or systematic descriptions of the structure, language and function of the oral case presentation [4] and therefore there is no standard on how the skills required to prepare or present a case are taught. Most individuals are introduced to this concept at undergraduate level and then build on their skills through practice-based learning.

A case presentation is a narrative of a patient’s care, so it is vital the presenter has familiarity with the patient, the case and its progression. The preparation for the presentation will depend on what information is to be included.

Generally, oral case presentations are brief and should be limited to 5–10 minutes. This may be extended if the case is being presented as part of an assessment compared with routine everyday working ( see ‘Case-based discussion’ ). The audience should be interested in what is being said so the presenter should maintain this engagement through eye contact, clear speech and enthusiasm for the case.

It is important to stick to the facts by presenting the case as a factual timeline and not describing how things should have happened instead. Importantly, the case should always be concluded and should include an outcome of the patient’s care [5] .

An example of an oral case presentation, given by a pharmacist to a doctor,  is available here .

A successful oral case presentation allows the audience to garner the right amount of patient information in the most efficient way, enabling a clinically appropriate plan to be developed. The challenge lies with the fact that the content and delivery of this will vary depending on the service, and clinical and audience setting [3] . A practitioner with less experience may find understanding the balance between sufficient information and efficiency of communication difficult, but regular use of the oral case presentation tool will improve this skill.

Tailoring case presentations to your audience

Most case presentations are not tailored to a specific audience because the same type of information will usually need to be conveyed in each case.

However, case presentations can be adapted to meet the identified learning needs of the target audience, if required for training purposes. This method involves varying the content of the presentation or choosing specific cases to present that will help achieve a set of objectives [6] . For example, if a requirement to learn about the management of acute myocardial infarction has been identified by the target audience, then the presenter may identify a case from the cardiology ward to present to the group, as opposed to presenting a patient reviewed by that person during their normal working practice.

Alternatively, a presenter could focus on a particular condition within a case, which will dictate what information is included. For example, if a case on asthma is being presented, the focus may be on recent use of bronchodilator therapy, respiratory function tests (including peak expiratory flow rate), symptoms related to exacerbation of airways disease, anxiety levels, ability to talk in full sentences, triggers to worsening of symptoms, and recent exposure to allergens. These may not be considered relevant if presenting the case on an unrelated condition that the same patient has, for example, if this patient was admitted with a hip fracture and their asthma was well controlled.

Case-based discussion

The oral case presentation may also act as the basis of workplace-based assessment in the form of a case-based discussion. In the UK, this forms part of many healthcare professional bodies’ assessment of clinical practice, for example, medical professional colleges.

For pharmacists, a case-based discussion forms part of the Royal Pharmaceutical Society (RPS) Foundation and Advanced Practice assessments . Mastery of the oral case presentation skill could provide useful preparation for this assessment process.

A case-based discussion would include a pharmaceutical needs assessment, which involves identifying and prioritising pharmaceutical problems for a particular patient. Evidence-based guidelines relevant to the specific medical condition should be used to make treatment recommendations, and a plan to monitor the patient once therapy has started should be developed. Professionalism is an important aspect of case-based discussion — issues must be prioritised appropriately and ethical and legal frameworks must be referred to [7] . A case-based discussion would include broadly similar content to the oral case presentation, but would involve further questioning of the presenter by the assessor to determine the extent of the presenter’s knowledge of the specific case, condition and therapeutic strategies. The criteria used for assessment would depend on the level of practice of the presenter but, for pharmacists, this may include assessment against the RPS  Foundation or Pharmacy Frameworks .


With thanks to Aamer Safdar for providing the script for the audio case presentation.

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[1] Onishi H. The role of case presentation for teaching and learning activities. Kaohsiung J Med Sci 2008;24:356–360. doi: 10.1016/s1607-551x(08)70132–3

[2] Edwards JC, Brannan JR, Burgess L et al . Case presentation format and clinical reasoning: a strategy for teaching medical students. Medical Teacher 1987;9:285–292. doi: 10.3109/01421598709034790

[3] Goldberg C. A practical guide to clinical medicine: overview and general information about oral presentation. 2009. University of California, San Diego. Available from: (accessed 5 December 2015)

[4] Chan MY. The oral case presentation: toward a performance-based rhetorical model for teaching and learning. Medical Education Online 2015;20. doi: 10.3402/meo.v20.28565

[5] McGee S. Medicine student programs: oral presentation guidelines. Learning & Scholarly Technologies, University of Washington. Available from: (accessed 7 December 2015)

[6] Hays R. Teaching and Learning in Clinical Settings. 2006;425. Oxford: Radcliffe Publishing Ltd.

[7] Royal Pharmaceutical Society. Tips for assessors for completing case-based discussions. 2015. Available from: (accessed 30 December 2015)

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Case Presentation Skills

Communicating patient care information to colleagues and other health professionals is an essential skill regardless of specialty. Internists have traditionally given special attention to case presentation skills because of the comprehensive nature of patient evaluations and the various settings in which internal medicine is practiced. Students should develop facility with different types of case presentation: written and oral, new patient and follow-up, inpatient and outpatient.


Basic written and oral case presentation skills, obtained in physical diagnosis courses.

Specific Learning Objectives


How to Give a Killer Presentation

how to do a case presentation

For more than 30 years, the TED conference series has presented enlightening talks that people enjoy watching. In this article, Anderson, TED’s curator, shares five keys to great presentations:

According to Anderson, presentations rise or fall on the quality of the idea, the narrative, and the passion of the speaker. It’s about substance—not style. In fact, it’s fairly easy to “coach out” the problems in a talk, but there’s no way to “coach in” the basic story—the presenter has to have the raw material. So if your thinking is not there yet, he advises, decline that invitation to speak. Instead, keep working until you have an idea that’s worth sharing.

Lessons from TED

A little more than a year ago, on a trip to Nairobi, Kenya, some colleagues and I met a 12-year-old Masai boy named Richard Turere, who told us a fascinating story. His family raises livestock on the edge of a vast national park, and one of the biggest challenges is protecting the animals from lions—especially at night. Richard had noticed that placing lamps in a field didn’t deter lion attacks, but when he walked the field with a torch, the lions stayed away. From a young age, he’d been interested in electronics, teaching himself by, for example, taking apart his parents’ radio. He used that experience to devise a system of lights that would turn on and off in sequence—using solar panels, a car battery, and a motorcycle indicator box—and thereby create a sense of movement that he hoped would scare off the lions. He installed the lights, and the lions stopped attacking. Soon villages elsewhere in Kenya began installing Richard’s “lion lights.”

The story was inspiring and worthy of the broader audience that our TED conference could offer, but on the surface, Richard seemed an unlikely candidate to give a TED Talk. He was painfully shy. His English was halting. When he tried to describe his invention, the sentences tumbled out incoherently. And frankly, it was hard to imagine a preteenager standing on a stage in front of 1,400 people accustomed to hearing from polished speakers such as Bill Gates, Sir Ken Robinson, and Jill Bolte Taylor.

But Richard’s story was so compelling that we invited him to speak. In the months before the 2013 conference, we worked with him to frame his story—to find the right place to begin and to develop a succinct and logical arc of events. On the back of his invention Richard had won a scholarship to one of Kenya’s best schools, and there he had the chance to practice the talk several times in front of a live audience. It was critical that he build his confidence to the point where his personality could shine through. When he finally gave his talk at TED , in Long Beach, you could tell he was nervous, but that only made him more engaging— people were hanging on his every word . The confidence was there, and every time Richard smiled, the audience melted. When he finished, the response was instantaneous: a sustained standing ovation.

Since the first TED conference, 30 years ago, speakers have run the gamut from political figures, musicians, and TV personalities who are completely at ease before a crowd to lesser-known academics, scientists, and writers—some of whom feel deeply uncomfortable giving presentations. Over the years, we’ve sought to develop a process for helping inexperienced presenters to frame, practice, and deliver talks that people enjoy watching. It typically begins six to nine months before the event, and involves cycles of devising (and revising) a script, repeated rehearsals, and plenty of fine-tuning. We’re continually tweaking our approach—because the art of public speaking is evolving in real time—but judging by public response, our basic regimen works well: Since we began putting TED Talks online, in 2006, they’ve been viewed more than one billion times.

On the basis of this experience, I’m convinced that giving a good talk is highly coachable. In a matter of hours, a speaker’s content and delivery can be transformed from muddled to mesmerizing. And while my team’s experience has focused on TED’s 18-minutes-or-shorter format, the lessons we’ve learned are surely useful to other presenters—whether it’s a CEO doing an IPO road show, a brand manager unveiling a new product, or a start-up pitching to VCs.

Frame Your Story

There’s no way you can give a good talk unless you have something worth talking about . Conceptualizing and framing what you want to say is the most vital part of preparation.

Find the Perfect Mix of Data and Narrative

by Nancy Duarte

Most presentations lie somewhere on the continuum between a report and a story. A report is data-rich, exhaustive, and informative—but not very engaging. Stories help a speaker connect with an audience, but listeners often want facts and information, too. Great presenters layer story and information like a cake and understand that different types of talks require differing ingredients.

From Report . . .

(literal, informational, factual, exhaustive).

Research findings. If your goal is to communicate information from a written report, send the full document to the audience in advance, and limit the presentation to key takeaways. Don’t do a long slide show that repeats all your findings. Anyone who’s really interested can read the report; everyone else will appreciate brevity.

Financial presentation. Financial audiences love data, and they’ll want the details. Satisfy their analytical appetite with facts, but add a thread of narrative to appeal to their emotional side. Then present the key takeaways visually, to help them find meaning in the numbers.

Product launch. Instead of covering only specs and features, focus on the value your product brings to the world. Tell stories that show how real people will use it and why it will change their lives.

VC pitch. For 30 minutes with a VC, prepare a crisp, well-structured story arc that conveys your idea compellingly in 10 minutes or less; then let Q&A drive the rest of the meeting. Anticipate questions and rehearse clear and concise answers.

Keynote address. Formal talks at big events are high-stakes, high-impact opportunities to take your listeners on a transformative journey. Use a clear story framework and aim to engage them emotionally.

. . . to Story

(dramatic, experiential, evocative, persuasive).

Nancy Duarte is the author of HBR Guide to Persuasive Presentations , Slide:ology , and Resonate . She is the CEO of Duarte, Inc., which designs presentations and teaches presentation development.

We all know that humans are wired to listen to stories, and metaphors abound for the narrative structures that work best to engage people. When I think about compelling presentations, I think about taking an audience on a journey. A successful talk is a little miracle—people see the world differently afterward.

If you frame the talk as a journey, the biggest decisions are figuring out where to start and where to end. To find the right place to start, consider what people in the audience already know about your subject—and how much they care about it. If you assume they have more knowledge or interest than they do, or if you start using jargon or get too technical, you’ll lose them. The most engaging speakers do a superb job of very quickly introducing the topic, explaining why they care so deeply about it, and convincing the audience members that they should, too.

The biggest problem I see in first drafts of presentations is that they try to cover too much ground. You can’t summarize an entire career in a single talk. If you try to cram in everything you know, you won’t have time to include key details, and your talk will disappear into abstract language that may make sense if your listeners are familiar with the subject matter but will be completely opaque if they’re new to it. You need specific examples to flesh out your ideas. So limit the scope of your talk to that which can be explained, and brought to life with examples, in the available time. Much of the early feedback we give aims to correct the impulse to sweep too broadly. Instead, go deeper. Give more detail. Don’t tell us about your entire field of study—tell us about your unique contribution.

A successful talk is a little miracle—people see the world differently afterward.

Of course, it can be just as damaging to overexplain or painstakingly draw out the implications of a talk. And there the remedy is different: Remember that the people in the audience are intelligent. Let them figure some things out for themselves. Let them draw their own conclusions.

Many of the best talks have a narrative structure that loosely follows a detective story. The speaker starts out by presenting a problem and then describes the search for a solution. There’s an “aha” moment, and the audience’s perspective shifts in a meaningful way.

If a talk fails, it’s almost always because the speaker didn’t frame it correctly, misjudged the audience’s level of interest, or neglected to tell a story. Even if the topic is important, random pontification without narrative is always deeply unsatisfying. There’s no progression, and you don’t feel that you’re learning.

I was at an energy conference recently where two people—a city mayor and a former governor—gave back-to-back talks. The mayor’s talk was essentially a list of impressive projects his city had undertaken. It came off as boasting, like a report card or an advertisement for his reelection. It quickly got boring. When the governor spoke, she didn’t list achievements; instead, she shared an idea. Yes, she recounted anecdotes from her time in office, but the idea was central—and the stories explanatory or illustrative (and also funny). It was so much more interesting. The mayor’s underlying point seemed to be how great he was, while the governor’s message was “Here’s a compelling idea that would benefit us all.”

Further Reading

Storytelling That Moves People

As a general rule, people are not very interested in talks about organizations or institutions (unless they’re members of them). Ideas and stories fascinate us; organizations bore us—they’re much harder to relate to. (Businesspeople especially take note: Don’t boast about your company; rather, tell us about the problem you’re solving.)

Plan Your Delivery

Once you’ve got the framing down, it’s time to focus on your delivery . There are three main ways to deliver a talk. You can read it directly off a script or a teleprompter. You can develop a set of bullet points that map out what you’re going to say in each section rather than scripting the whole thing word for word. Or you can memorize your talk, which entails rehearsing it to the point where you internalize every word—verbatim.

My advice: Don’t read it, and don’t use a teleprompter. It’s usually just too distancing—people will know you’re reading. And as soon as they sense it, the way they receive your talk will shift. Suddenly your intimate connection evaporates, and everything feels a lot more formal. We generally outlaw reading approaches of any kind at TED, though we made an exception a few years ago for a man who insisted on using a monitor. We set up a screen at the back of the auditorium, in the hope that the audience wouldn’t notice it. At first he spoke naturally. But soon he stiffened up, and you could see this horrible sinking feeling pass through the audience as people realized, “Oh, no, he’s reading to us!” The words were great, but the talk got poor ratings.

Many of our best and most popular TED Talks have been memorized word for word. If you’re giving an important talk and you have the time to do this, it’s the best way to go. But don’t underestimate the work involved. One of our most memorable speakers was Jill Bolte Taylor , a brain researcher who had suffered a stroke. She talked about what she learned during the eight years it took her to recover. After crafting her story and undertaking many hours of solo practice, she rehearsed her talk dozens of times in front of an audience to be sure she had it down.

Obviously, not every presentation is worth that kind of investment of time. But if you do decide to memorize your talk, be aware that there’s a predictable arc to the learning curve. Most people go through what I call the “valley of awkwardness,” where they haven’t quite memorized the talk. If they give the talk while stuck in that valley, the audience will sense it. Their words will sound recited, or there will be painful moments where they stare into the middle distance, or cast their eyes upward, as they struggle to remember their lines. This creates distance between the speaker and the audience .

Getting past this point is simple, fortunately. It’s just a matter of rehearsing enough times that the flow of words becomes second nature. Then you can focus on delivering the talk with meaning and authenticity. Don’t worry—you’ll get there.

But if you don’t have time to learn a speech thoroughly and get past that awkward valley, don’t try. Go with bullet points on note cards. As long as you know what you want to say for each one, you’ll be fine. Focus on remembering the transitions from one bullet point to the next.

Also pay attention to your tone. Some speakers may want to come across as authoritative or wise or powerful or passionate, but it’s usually much better to just sound conversational. Don’t force it. Don’t orate. Just be you.

If a successful talk is a journey, make sure you don’t start to annoy your travel companions along the way. Some speakers project too much ego. They sound condescending or full of themselves, and the audience shuts down. Don’t let that happen.

Develop Stage Presence

For inexperienced speakers, the physical act of being onstage can be the most difficult part of giving a presentation—but people tend to overestimate its importance. Getting the words, story, and substance right is a much bigger determinant of success or failure than how you stand or whether you’re visibly nervous. And when it comes to stage presence, a little coaching can go a long way.

The biggest mistake we see in early rehearsals is that people move their bodies too much. They sway from side to side, or shift their weight from one leg to the other. People do this naturally when they’re nervous, but it’s distracting and makes the speaker seem weak. Simply getting a person to keep his or her lower body motionless can dramatically improve stage presence. There are some people who are able to walk around a stage during a presentation, and that’s fine if it comes naturally. But the vast majority are better off standing still and relying on hand gestures for emphasis.

How to Pitch a Brilliant Idea

Perhaps the most important physical act onstage is making eye contact. Find five or six friendly-looking people in different parts of the audience and look them in the eye as you speak. Think of them as friends you haven’t seen in a year, whom you’re bringing up to date on your work. That eye contact is incredibly powerful, and it will do more than anything else to help your talk land. Even if you don’t have time to prepare fully and have to read from a script, looking up and making eye contact will make a huge difference.

Another big hurdle for inexperienced speakers is nervousness—both in advance of the talk and while they’re onstage. People deal with this in different ways. Many speakers stay out in the audience until the moment they go on; this can work well, because keeping your mind engaged in the earlier speakers can distract you and limit nervousness. Amy Cuddy, a Harvard Business School professor who studies how certain body poses can affect power, utilized one of the more unusual preparation techniques I’ve seen. She recommends that people spend time before a talk striding around, standing tall, and extending their bodies; these poses make you feel more powerful. It’s what she did before going onstage, and she delivered a phenomenal talk. But I think the single best advice is simply to breathe deeply before you go onstage. It works.

Nerves are not a disaster. The audience expects you to be nervous.

In general, people worry too much about nervousness. Nerves are not a disaster. The audience expects you to be nervous. It’s a natural body response that can actually improve your performance: It gives you energy to perform and keeps your mind sharp. Just keep breathing, and you’ll be fine.

Acknowledging nervousness can also create engagement. Showing your vulnerability, whether through nerves or tone of voice, is one of the most powerful ways to win over an audience, provided it is authentic. Susan Cain , who wrote a book about introverts and spoke at our 2012 conference, was terrified about giving her talk. You could feel her fragility onstage, and it created this dynamic where the audience was rooting for her—everybody wanted to hug her afterward. The fact that we knew she was fighting to keep herself up there made it beautiful, and it was the most popular talk that year.

Plan the Multimedia

With so much technology at our disposal, it may feel almost mandatory to use, at a minimum, presentation slides. By now most people have heard the advice about PowerPoint: Keep it simple; don’t use a slide deck as a substitute for notes (by, say, listing the bullet points you’ll discuss—those are best put on note cards); and don’t repeat out loud words that are on the slide. Not only is reciting slides a variation of the teleprompter problem—“Oh, no, she’s reading to us, too!”—but information is interesting only once, and hearing and seeing the same words feels repetitive. That advice may seem universal by now, but go into any company and you’ll see presenters violating it every day.

Many of the best TED speakers don’t use slides at all, and many talks don’t require them. If you have photographs or illustrations that make the topic come alive, then yes, show them. If not, consider doing without, at least for some parts of the presentation. And if you’re going to use slides, it’s worth exploring alternatives to PowerPoint. For instance, TED has invested in the company Prezi, which makes presentation software that offers a camera’s-eye view of a two-dimensional landscape. Instead of a flat sequence of images, you can move around the landscape and zoom in to it if need be. Used properly, such techniques can dramatically boost the visual punch of a talk and enhance its meaning.

Artists, architects, photographers, and designers have the best opportunity to use visuals. Slides can help frame and pace a talk and help speakers avoid getting lost in jargon or overly intellectual language. (Art can be hard to talk about—better to experience it visually.) I’ve seen great presentations in which the artist or designer put slides on an automatic timer so that the image changed every 15 seconds. I’ve also seen presenters give a talk accompanied by video, speaking along to it. That can help sustain momentum. The industrial designer Ross Lovegrove’s highly visual TED Talk , for instance, used this technique to bring the audience along on a remarkable creative journey .

Another approach creative types might consider is to build silence into their talks, and just let the work speak for itself. The kinetic sculptor Reuben Margolin used that approach to powerful effect. The idea is not to think “I’m giving a talk.” Instead, think “I want to give this audience a powerful experience of my work.” The single worst thing artists and architects can do is to retreat into abstract or conceptual language.

Video has obvious uses for many speakers. In a TED Talk about the intelligence of crows, for instance, the scientist showed a clip of a crow bending a hook to fish a piece of food out of a tube—essentially creating a tool. It illustrated his point far better than anything he could have said.

Used well, video can be very effective, but there are common mistakes that should be avoided. A clip needs to be short—if it’s more than 60 seconds, you risk losing people. Don’t use videos—particularly corporate ones—that sound self-promotional or like infomercials; people are conditioned to tune those out. Anything with a soundtrack can be dangerously off-putting. And whatever you do, don’t show a clip of yourself being interviewed on, say, CNN. I’ve seen speakers do this, and it’s a really bad idea—no one wants to go along with you on your ego trip. The people in your audience are already listening to you live; why would they want to simultaneously watch your talking-head clip on a screen?

Putting It Together

We start helping speakers prepare their talks six months (or more) in advance so that they’ll have plenty of time to practice. We want people’s talks to be in final form at least a month before the event. The more practice they can do in the final weeks, the better off they’ll be. Ideally, they’ll practice the talk on their own and in front of an audience.

The tricky part about rehearsing a presentation in front of other people is that they will feel obligated to offer feedback and constructive criticism. Often the feedback from different people will vary or directly conflict. This can be confusing or even paralyzing, which is why it’s important to be choosy about the people you use as a test audience, and whom you invite to offer feedback. In general, the more experience a person has as a presenter, the better the criticism he or she can offer.

I learned many of these lessons myself in 2011. My colleague Bruno Giussani, who curates our TEDGlobal event, pointed out that although I’d worked at TED for nine years, served as the emcee at our conferences, and introduced many of the speakers, I’d never actually given a TED Talk myself. So he invited me to give one, and I accepted.

It was more stressful than I’d expected. Even though I spend time helping others frame their stories, framing my own in a way that felt compelling was difficult. I decided to memorize my presentation, which was about how web video powers global innovation, and that was really hard: Even though I was putting in a lot of hours, and getting sound advice from my colleagues, I definitely hit a point where I didn’t quite have it down and began to doubt I ever would. I really thought I might bomb. I was nervous right up until the moment I took the stage. But it ended up going fine. It’s definitely not one of the all-time great TED Talks, but it got a positive reaction—and I survived the stress of going through it.

10 Ways to Ruin a Presentation

As hard as it may be to give a great talk, it’s really easy to blow it. Here are some common mistakes that TED advises its speakers to avoid.

Ultimately I learned firsthand what our speakers have been discovering for three decades: Presentations rise or fall on the quality of the idea, the narrative, and the passion of the speaker. It’s about substance, not speaking style or multimedia pyrotechnics. It’s fairly easy to “coach out” the problems in a talk, but there’s no way to “coach in” the basic story—the presenter has to have the raw material. If you have something to say, you can build a great talk. But if the central theme isn’t there, you’re better off not speaking. Decline the invitation. Go back to work, and wait until you have a compelling idea that’s really worth sharing.

The single most important thing to remember is that there is no one good way to do a talk . The most memorable talks offer something fresh, something no one has seen before. The worst ones are those that feel formulaic. So do not on any account try to emulate every piece of advice I’ve offered here. Take the bulk of it on board, sure. But make the talk your own. You know what’s distinctive about you and your idea. Play to your strengths and give a talk that is truly authentic to you.

how to do a case presentation

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How to Write a Case Study

Original Editor - Mariam Hashem

Top Contributors - Mariam Hashem , Kim Jackson and Admin  

Introduction [ edit | edit source ]


In evidence-based hierarchy , case studies come in the in the fifth level. Although they cannot be considered as guidelines, case studies are powerful material to share clinical experience and knowledge. You could write a case study to represent a typical or an unusual case presentation and share your successful program with your colleagues.

There are general guidelines for case studies but if you are writing for publication you have to be aware of the journal's specific requirements. If you're writing a case study as part of Plus program assignment the following instructions will take you a step by step into the writing process.

The Anatomy of a case study article [ edit | edit source ]

Instructions [ edit | edit source ]

A case study should be limited to clinical relevant information. In order to eliminate unnecessary details begin by asking yourself a set of questions: what is my purpose of writing this article? what is my message? Then gather all needed information and search similar cases in literature to make relations. Try to keep interpretations on the development of the pathology and disease development as simple as possible and keep your article limited to proven facts [1] .

Throughout the whole writing process, you should support your case with evidence by citing information properly.

Title [ edit | edit source ]

Expressive and concise titles attract readers. Highlight the most essential keywords in your topic.

You may chose either of these suggested formulas:

'' A case study of cervicogenic headache responding to mobilisation with movement technique'' or ''Mobilisation with movement technique in cervicogenic headache: a case study''

Example of an expressive title:

Abstract [ edit | edit source ]

A narrative abstract includes a summary of the purpose, case presentation, intervention and outcomes.

Write your abstract after finishing the article.

In the introduction, you give your readers an idea on the background of the case. Then discuss relevant cases and similar literature briefly. However, the most important aim of the introduction is driving your readers' attention to the purpose of your report. They should have a clear vision of your objectives.

If there is anything interesting or challenging you met when diagnosing or managing this case, it's worth mentioning in the introduction.

Client Characteristics [ edit | edit source ]

Here is where you mention the demographic data, nature of the condition and answer this question: why the patient sought your help? Try to use the patient's own words in describing the chief complaint.

History-taking usually gives us lots of information but in client characteristics it's better to eliminate non relevant data. Inform your readers about the information that guided your diagnosis and directed your hypothesis.

Examination Findings [ edit | edit source ]

What tests have you utilised to guide your decision and reach your final diagnosis? What results have you obtained from your examination? Were there any related observations?

Give details on the tests and examination you have used and make sure they are valid and cited. You may want to describe the test application and response. Again, restrict yourself to relevant information and eliminate unnecessary details.

If you are writing your case study on Physiopedia, you may want to link the test to a relevant page or add a video or an image of the test. If you are using an image for your patient(s), please respect their privacy and make sure to ask for permission before publishing.

Clinical Hypothesis/Impression [ edit | edit source ]

From your findings on the physical examination, what decision have you reached? What helped you in clinical reasoning ?

Remember, your hypothesis should be supported with evidence.

Intervention [ edit | edit source ]

Mention your treatment goals and discuss your management program. Name your techniques, describe them in details and make sure to cite them properly. If you had to apply certain modifications to your treatment, write about them.

Outcome [ edit | edit source ]

Report the degree of response and the tools/methods you've used to measure improvement or worsening. Also, here you tell your readers about your discharge plan or referrals to another healthcare specialist.

Discussion [ edit | edit source ]

In the discussion, you summarise the whole experience and share you you have learnt.

Discuss your hypothesis and support your theories with evidence. However, it's better to keep it simple and concise with regards to theoretical aspects.

References [ edit | edit source ]

Your writing should end with a reference list. Only include references that you have used in your case.

Resources [ edit | edit source ]

See the Physiopedia case studies category:

See these examples of case studies in Physiopedia:

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how to do a case presentation

Sandy Wong, MD

Associate Professor Division of Hematology/Oncology Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center University of California, San Francisco San Francisco, California

Sandy Wong, MD, has the following relevant financial relationships: Consultant or advisor for: Catalent Biologics; Dren Biosciences; Sanofi Research funding from: Bristol Myers Squibb Company; Caleum; Fortis; Genentech; GlaxoSmithKline; Janssen; Patient Discovery

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how to do a case presentation


Case challenges in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.

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how to do a case presentation

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This activity is intended for community-based hematologists/oncologists.

The goal of this activity is for learners to be better able to evaluate patients with newly diagnosed MM and select appropriate therapy in this setting.

Upon completion of this activity, participants will:


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Successful completion of this CME activity, which includes participation in the evaluation component, enables the participant to earn up to 1.0 MOC points in the American Board of Internal Medicine's (ABIM) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program. Participants will earn MOC points equivalent to the amount of CME credits claimed for the activity. It is the CME activity provider's responsibility to submit participant completion information to ACCME for the purpose of granting ABIM MOC credit. Aggregate participant data will be shared with commercial supporters of this activity.

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There are no fees for participating in or receiving credit for this online educational activity. For information on applicability and acceptance of continuing education credit for this activity, please consult your professional licensing board. This activity is designed to be completed within the time designated on the title page; physicians should claim only those credits that reflect the time actually spent in the activity. To successfully earn credit, participants must complete the activity online during the valid credit period that is noted on the title page. To receive AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™ , you must receive a minimum score of 70% on the post-test. Follow these steps to earn CME/CE credit*:

You may now view or print the certificate from your CME/CE Tracker. You may print the certificate, but you cannot alter it. Credits will be tallied in your CME/CE Tracker and archived for 6 years; at any point within this time period, you can print out the tally as well as the certificates from the CME/CE Tracker. *The credit that you receive is based on your user profile.

The following cases are modeled on the interactive grand rounds approach. The questions within the activity are designed to test your current knowledge. After each question, you will be able to see whether you answered correctly and read evidence-based information that supports the most appropriate answer choice. The questions are designed to challenge you; you will not be penalized for answering the questions incorrectly. At the end of the activity, there will be a short post-test assessment based on the material presented.


Bethany is a 64-year-old principal at an elementary school. She has been married for 40 years and has 2 adult children and 4 grandchildren. She is active and healthy, with a history of well-controlled hypertension and hypothyroidism. She had mild atrial fibrillation following COVID-19 infection 3 years ago, which has now improved and does not require medication. She presents to her primary care physician (PCP) with worsening back pain, and a chest x-ray shows multiple lytic lesions. Biopsy confirms the presence of plasma cells and she is referred to a hematologist. Her hematology workup is summarized in Table 1.

Table 1. Bethany's Hematology Workup

Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; CBC, complete blood count; CT, computed tomography; ECOG, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; FDG, fluorodeoxyglucose; FISH, fluorescence in situ hybridization; HGB, hemoglobin; IgG, immunoglobulin G; PET, positron emission tomography; PS, performance status; SIFE, serum immunofixation electrophoresis; WBC, white blood cell.

how to do a case presentation

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The material presented here does not necessarily reflect the views of Medscape, LLC, or any individuals or commercial entities that support companies that support educational programming on These materials may include discussion of therapeutic products that have not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, off-label uses of approved products, or data that were presented in abstract form. These data should be considered preliminary until published in a peer-reviewed journal. Readers should verify all information and data before treating patients or employing any therapies described in this or any educational activity. A qualified healthcare professional should be consulted before using any therapeutic product discussed herein.

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Case Presentation Interview: New Style of Case Interview

Management consulting is a decades old industry, and the case interview has been a consistent staple in the consulting recruiting process throughout this time. Consulting firms, however, continue to tweak their interview processes and have introduced the “case presentation interview” to test candidates in a new way.

Firms use this to test more than just your ability to crack a case. Instead, in a case presentation interview, your ability to understand which data is important, remain focused on solving the core business problem, and making a concise yet persuasive presentation is paramount.

Are you an auditory learner? Listen to a podcast our team recorded on case presentation interviews here .

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What is the Case Presentation Interview?

The case presentation interview comes in various forms, but you’ll almost always encounter it during your final round interviews.

There are two kinds of case presentation interviews: solo and group.

Whether you have to face down a case presentation interview alone or with others, the process looks similar across formats:

As a consultant, you’ll need to analyze information quickly and present actionable recommendations to clients. The case presentation interview is how firms test your ability to identify good data from bad, extract insights, turn them into actionable recommendations, and present these recommendations in a persuasive way. As a bonus, the firm also gets a firsthand look at the strength of your PowerPoint skills and teamwork ability .

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The Biggest Challenge in Case Presentation Interviews

The biggest challenge you’ll face in the case presentation interview is time management . Usually, the firm will provide you with a large set of data and extraneous information. Don’t try to read through every detail . Instead, form a hypothesis quickly and find the data that will either prove or disprove it. If your hypothesis is disproven, start over with a different (and now more informed) hypothesis.

When you first receive the packet of information for the case presentation interview, budget your time. Set a hard stop for how much time you’ll give yourself to review the information and force yourself to start by building an Executive Summary on paper. Identify what you think the key takeaway is and choose 2-3 underlying arguments to support your hypothesis, building a storyboard on paper.

Then, source the data you need. Reshape your story based on the data you find. Once you have a final narrative arc, port your paper slides over to PowerPoint. It may seem counterintuitive to start with a draft Executive Summary, but this will keep you focused during the limited time you have. Following The Pyramid Principle is our recommended approach to building a case presentation.

Tips on Crushing the Case Presentation Interview

Keep these 4 things in mind as you navigate the case presentation interview:

Your goal isn’t to prove an academic point, it’s to gain buy-in and motivate action.

Don’t fall into the trap of trying to prove why your recommendation is “correct” by utilizing all of the data. Your goal in this process is to display your ability to identify what’s most important for the client and only include data in your presentation that directly backs up your main recommendation. This isn’t an academic project; it’s a proxy for how persuasive you’ll be on the job!

Use the case presentation interview structure to your advantage.

One of the biggest advantages you have is that the data you need is all right in front of you. Unlike most traditional case interviews where you have to mine for relevant data, the packet of information will have everything you need. After forming your hypotheses , you can instantly start testing to see which direction you should be headed.

Practice putting it all together.

If you know you’re about to face a case presentation interview, work with one of our MBB coaches . We have a private bank of presentation-style cases we use to prepare our 1:1 coaching clients. Not only will we help you analyze the data and develop a recommendation, we’ll help you build a presentation to communicate it too.

Maintain confidence when delivering your presentation.

After spending all of that time building your presentation, you don’t want your efforts to go to waste with a shaky delivery! According to a recent study published in HBR , 76% of your perception is based on your delivery (which means only 24% is determined by your content!). No matter how you feel about your recommendation and the process you took to get there, sell it to your interviewers. It’s exactly what you’ll have to do on the job as a consultant.

Which Firms use the Case Presentation Interview?

The case presentation interview is becoming more widespread across the management consulting industry. We’ve seen our clients encounter this kind of interview at niche boutiques and large global firms alike. However, you are most likely to see a case presentation interview at ZS Associates , Deloitte , and EY-Parthenon . No matter where you’re applying, you should at least be familiar with this style of case interview.

Concluding Thoughts

The case presentation interview is fantastic opportunity for you to highlight a breadth of transferable skills – analysis, communication, problem solving and more. With the right practice, and by following the tips we’ve laid out in this article, you’ll be well on your way to success in the case presentation interview.

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Video: From Commitment to Completion – Promises Made/Promises Kept an energy case study

This presentation examines a single-owner office building approximately 250,000 sq ft showing the project’s progress from the initial energy audit and its findings to today’s energy footprint..

how to do a case presentation

Learning Objectives:

Video courtesy:  CxEnergy


This presentation is a case study of a single-owner office building approximately 250,000 sq ft showing the project’s progress from the initial energy audit and its findings & predicted energy savings to today’s energy footprint. The presentation is a collaborative effort, indicating the same project from both the design teams and the owner’s perspectives.

It will go through the entire process: Audit, decisions made, implementation thru measurement and verification. The presentation displays, where applicable, audit predictions and their actual outcome.

CxEnergy is the premier conference & expo in commissioning, building technology, and energy management. CSE subscribers receive a 10% discount to the CxEnergy 2023 with promo code CSE10 (May 2-5, Dallas/Ft. Worth, TX).  Learn more and register .

CxEnergy is presented by the  AABC Commissioning Group (ACG) , the  Energy Management Association (EMA) , and the  Associated Air Balance Council (AABC) . Together, these Authorities in Building Performance represent over 600 member companies and 2,500 certified professionals in the testing, adjusting, and balancing, commissioning, and energy management industries.

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9 Tips For Delivering A Stellar Case Presentation Interview

Recently, case presentation interviews are used for analyst-level employees in many healthcare, tech, and e-commerce consulting firms. 

In this article, you will learn what skills a case presentation interviewer is looking for, the biggest challenge of a case presentation interview, the major tips you can use to ace your case presentation interview and land your dream job! + a bonus Insightful video with tons of examples for consulting case interviews.

Please enable JavaScript

What is a case presentation interview?

Case Presentation Interviews usually follow this process:

What skills are the interviewer looking for during a case presentation interview?

A case presentation interview is an interviewee’s opportunity to prove to their interviewer that their soft skills and analytical skills are relevant within a realistic business context. 

Highly Recommended Next Articles to Read:

What is the biggest difficulty in case presentation interviews?

Time management tops the list of difficulties that would be faced during a case presentation interview. The firm often provides the interview candidate with a large set of data and extrinsic information. 

9 Tips on how to deliver an excellent Case Presentation Interview Please enable JavaScript 9 Elements of a Great Speech

You can do this by randomly giving yourself a short but budgeted time to solve semi-difficult maths problems without using a calculator.

There are three things you can do to help yourself:

Just so you know, whether the allotted time is 30 minutes or 2 hours, it would go by very quickly, hence the need for a time budget. Interviewers often understand the limited time constraints, but you must move on from spending your time analyzing the information and draw out their presentation quickly.

Case Interview for Beginners Video

We hope that this article has helped simplify the preparation process – one way or the other. Check back soon for more tips and guides on a similar subject matter. 

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how to do a case presentation

Business case presentation: how to prepare, write, and present

Business case presentation: how to prepare, write, and present

A compelling business case and its high-quality presentation are the primary keys to the problem transformation and success. Most organizations fail to address both the critical success factor and business case presentation that can display benefits, reveal costs, and attract investments of key stakeholders, decision-makers, and funders. Addressing PowerPoint presentation services is the best way to make sure you are prepared well, but you can always start doing it on your own with our tips from the article below.

Let’s review what business case PPT should include and how to improve it to gain the expected effect and financial result.

business case presentation

What is a Business Case?

Initially, the business case is a short document or presentation that justifies a specific project and required investments. It describes why your organization should invest in some initiative or tells your audience (senior management, project sponsor) why they need to do so. The purpose of the business case is to convince people that the challenge or opportunity your organization is facing is significant enough to tackle and worth implementing the solution and taking advantage.

Any business case consists of:

Indeed, no management would approve solutions that give no profitability. That is why business analysts exist. And that is why a PowerPoint business case is required to outline and deliver your message clearly while attractively.

What Is a Business Case Presentation?

Most companies mistake seeing the business case presentation as a nice nuance to have in stock. However, there’s a complete lack of direction, vision, and governance without a solid business case PowerPoint that depicts numbers, main statements, and all necessary context.

It also helps manage and assess the viability of the proposed solution.

To prepare for the presentation, make sure you’ve completed these steps:

Never start doing the presentation when the text is not ready. Words are easy to rewrite but replacing charts every time one number changes takes too much time.

Business Case Presentation Structure

A business case presentation aims to present and demonstrate some problem analysis and proposed solutions. To make your thinking process clear for your audience, make sure you follow this body structure and include these elements in your business case slides:

1. Problem Statement

Give a brief description of your problem, its importance, and its urgency. You can also include background and what contributed to the problem’s occurrence.

2. Gap Analysis

This slide, or better, a set of 2-3 slides, has to show the difference between your current business situation and your desired achievements in the future. A thorough analysis must include shortcomings and steps to be taken to achieve the necessary results.

3. Action Plan

The slides of this section have to display a detailed list of steps to be taken to incorporate the proposed solution to your specific business case. We advise adding no more than 3 steps per slide, or you can add one step per slide with, e.g., some relevant infographics.

4. Costs and Benefits

If you know how, estimate and calculate the size of investment required, and do not forget about extra checks that will always appear from nowhere. Address intangible benefits, higher morale, etc. Use pies, lines, and charts.

Develop a plan or at least punctual actions to mitigate risks or omit them at all if possible.

6. Organizational Impact

It can be both negative and positive. Do not hide any 🙂

7. Comparison of Alternatives

Here, add an overview of different solutions related to your case. Comparison in charts or tables will help better visualize differences in time and resources needed to gain every solution.

business case presentation ppt

How to Make a Business Case Presentation More Engaging?

You can benefit greatly from attractive slides that keep the audience’s attention and still deliver information effectively. Here are design tips for your business case presentation PPT:

You will more likely have a long business speech with terms and statistics, so make sure your audience doesn’t sleep when you finally present solutions and plan to fulfill them.

Consider the business case PowerPoint presentation as the opportunity to bundle your project idea to demonstrate what it means, what it requires, and what benefits it offers. As we’ve defined, it is an extended piece that should include your strategies, goals, and ways and terms to achieve them. In other words, it is your business proposal that can be depicted attractively with the power of PowerPoint. Infographics, animation, and other special effects and tools can make your slides more engaging and understandable to your specific audience.

If you struggle with the design of your business case, make sure you contact us and get a free consultation on how your material can be improved.

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How to create a business plan presentation?

How to create a business plan presentation?

Inspiration for PPT: how to find design ideas

Inspiration for PPT: how to find design ideas

Difference between business plan and pitch deck: 2022 ultimate guide

Difference between business plan and pitch deck: 2022 ultimate guide


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The makers of ChatGPT just released a new AI that can build websites, among other things

What you need to know about GPT-4, the latest version of the buzzy generative AI technology.

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how to do a case presentation

When ChatGPT came out in November, it took the world by storm.

Within a month of its release, some 100 million people had used the viral AI chatbot for everything from writing high school essays to planning travel itineraries to generating computer code.

Built by the San Francisco-based startup OpenAI, the app was flawed in many ways, but it also sparked a wave of excitement (and fear) about the transformative power of generative AI to change the way we work and create.

ChatGPT, which runs on a technology called GPT-3.5, has been so impressive, in part, because it represents a quantum leap from the capabilities of its predecessor from just a few years ago, GPT-2.

On Tuesday, OpenAI released an even more advanced version of its technology: GPT-4 . The company says this update is another milestone in the advancement of AI. The new technology has the potential to improve how people learn new languages, how blind people process images, and even how we do our taxes.

OpenAI also claims that the new model supports a chatbot that’s more factual, creative, concise, and can understand images, instead of just text.

Sam Altman, the CEO of OpenAI, called GPT-4 “our most capable and aligned model yet.” He also cautioned that “it is still flawed, still limited, and it still seems more impressive on first use than it does after you spend more time with it”

GPT4 is capable of turning a picture of a napkin sketch to a fully functioning html/css/javascript website. — Lior⚡ (@AlphaSignalAI) March 14, 2023

In a livestream demo of GPT-4 on Tuesday afternoon, OpenAI co-founder and president Greg Brockman showed some new use cases for the technology, including the ability to be given a hand-drawn mockup of a website and, from that, generate code for a functional site in a matter of seconds.

Brockman also showcased GPT-4’s visual capabilities by feeding it a cartoon image of a squirrel holding a camera and asking it to explain why the image is funny.

“The image is funny because it shows a squirrel holding a camera and taking a photo of a nut as if it were a professional photographer. It’s a humorous situation because squirrels typically eat nuts, and we don’t expect them to use a camera or act like humans,” GPT-4 responded.

This is the sort of capability that could be incredibly useful to people who are blind or visually impaired. Not only can GPT-4 describe images, but it can also communicate the meaning and context behind them.

how to do a case presentation

Still, as Altman and GPT-4’s creators have been quick to admit, the tool is nowhere near fully replacing human intelligence. Like its predecessors, it has known problems around accuracy, bias, and context. That poses a growing risk as more people start using GPT-4 for more than just novelty. Companies like Microsoft, which invests heavily in OpenAI, are already starting to bake GPT-4 into core products that millions of people use.

Here are a few things you need to know about the latest version of the buzziest new technology in the market.

It can pass complicated exams

One tangible way people are measuring the capabilities of new artificial intelligence tools is by seeing how well they can perform on standardized tests, like the SAT and the bar exam.

GPT-4 has shown some impressive progress here. The technology can pass a simulated legal bar exam with a score that would put it in the top 10 percent of test takers, while its immediate predecessor GPT-3.5 scored in the bottom 10 percent (watch out, lawyers).

GPT-4 can also score a 700 out of 800 on the SAT math test, compared to a 590 in its previous version.

how to do a case presentation

Still, GPT-4 is weak in certain subjects. It only scored a 2 out of 5 on the AP English Language exams — the same score as the prior version, GPT-3.5, received.

Standardized tests are hardly a perfect measure of human intelligence, but the types of reasoning and critical thinking required to score well on these tests show that the technology is improving at an impressive clip.

It shows promise at teaching languages and helping the visually impaired

Since GPT-4 just came out, it will take time before people discover all of the most compelling ways to use it, but OpenAI has proposed a couple of ways the technology could potentially improve our daily lives.

One is for learning new languages. OpenAI has partnered with the popular language learning app Duolingo to power a new AI-based chat partner called Roleplay. This tool lets you have a free-flowing conversation in another language with a chatbot that responds to what you’re saying and steps in to correct you when needed.

Another big use case that OpenAI pitched involves helping people who are visually impaired. In partnership with Be My Eyes, an app that lets visually impaired people get on-demand help from a sighted person via video chat, OpenAI used GPT-4 to create a virtual assistant that can help people understand the context of what they’re seeing around them. One example OpenAI gave showed how, given a description of the contents of a refrigerator, the app can offer recipes based on what’s available. The company says that’s an advancement from the current state of technology in the field of image recognition.

“Basic image recognition applications only tell you what’s in front of you,” said Jesper Hvirring Henriksen, CTO of Be My Eyes, in a press release for GPT-4’s launch. “They can’t have a discussion to understand if the noodles have the right kind of ingredients or if the object on the ground isn’t just a ball, but a tripping hazard — and communicate that.”

If you want to use OpenAI’s latest GPT-4 powered chatbot, it isn’t free

Right now, you’ll have to pay $20 per month for access to ChatGPT Plus, a premium version of the ChatGPT bot. GPT4’s API is also available to developers who can build apps on top of it for a fee proportionate to how much they’re using the tool.

However, if you want a taste of GPT-4 without paying up, you can use a Microsoft-made chatbot called BingGPT . A Microsoft VP confirmed on Tuesday that the latest version of BingGPT is using GPT-4. It’s important to note that BingGPT has limitations on how many conversations you can have a day, and it doesn’t allow you to input images.

GPT-4 still has serious flaws. Researchers worry we don’t know what data it’s being trained on.

While GPT-4 has clear potential to help people, it’s also inherently flawed. Like previous versions of generative AI models, GPT-4 can relay misinformation or be misused to share controversial content, like instructions on how to cause physical harm or content to promote political activism.

OpenAI says that GPT-4 is 40 percent more likely to give factual responses, and 82 percent less likely to respond to requests for disallowed content. While that’s an improvement from before, there’s still plenty of room for error.

Another concern about GPT-4 is the lack of transparency around how it was designed and trained. Several prominent academics and industry experts on Twitter pointed out that the company isn’t releasing any information about the data set it used to train GPT-4. This is an issue, researchers argue, because the large datasets used to train AI chatbots can be inherently biased, as evidenced a few years ago by Microsoft’s Twitter chatbot , Tay. Within a day of its release, Tay gave racist answers to simple questions. It had been trained on social media posts, which can often be hateful.

OpenAI says it’s not sharing its training data in part because of competitive pressure. The company was founded as a nonprofit but became a for-profit entity in 2019, in part because of how expensive it is to train complex AI systems. OpenAI is now heavily backed by Microsoft, which is engaged in a fierce battle with Google over which tech giant will lead on generative AI technologies.

Without knowing what’s under the hood, it’s hard to immediately validate OpenAI’s claims that its latest tool is more accurate and less biased than before. As more people use the technology in the coming weeks, we’ll see if it ends up being not only meaningfully more useful but also more responsible than what came before it.

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