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Procedia Environmental Sciences

Case study of mumbai: decentralised solid waste management ☆.

Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR), spread over 4,355sq. km is home to seven municipal corporations. All Municipal Corporations in India are mandated to look into solid waste management in their functional domains under the 74th Constitutional Amendment. At present, all the seven municipal corporations depend upon centralised means of managing waste which is dumped at assigned landfills post collection. Apart from the corporation, there are multiple players who play a crucial role in managing the waste. Much of this is managed by informal sector and now emerging recyclers who are setting up processes for decentralised waste management.

This paper explores the scale at which different institutions/communities have taken efforts to successfully manage their waste. Most people are unable to achieve 100% decentralized management due to lack of appropriate channels for managing rejects and sanitary waste. More importantly, it is imperative to understand the failure and limitations of the municipal corporation since they are financially dependent on the centre and state for their functioning. But despite all those constraints, it makes sense to gauge energy and material recovery potentials and correlate to municipal waste management. By means of different examples and a technology provider for bio-medical waste, we are able to make an impact towards creating greener, sustainable communities.

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Waste Management Project with 2 Case Studies – Economics

Emadh Dawre February 16, 2021 CBSE 12th Commerce , Economics Leave a comment

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case study for waste management in india

February 2, 2022


waste management project

Waste management (or waste disposal) includes the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal. This includes the collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste, together with monitoring and regulation of the waste management process. It is important to let cildren learn from a young age about waste management, the best way for it is a waste management project.

Waste can be solid, liquid, pr gas & each type has different methods of disposal and management. Waste management deals with all types of waste including industrial, biological and household. In some cases, waste can pose a threat to human health.

Health issues are associated with the entire process of waste management. Health issues are associated can also arise indirectly or directly. Directly through the handling of solid waste and directly through the consumption of water soil and food.

Waste is produced by human activity, for example, the extraction and processing of raw materials waste management are intended to reduce the adverse effects of waste on human health, the environment or aesthetics.  Waste management practices are not uniform among countries (developed and developing nations); regions (urban and rural areas), and residential and industrial sectors can all take different approaches.

Proper management of waste is important for building sustainable and livable cities, but it remains a challenge for many developing countries and cities. Effective waste management is quite expensive, usually comprising 20 % – 50% of the municipal budget.


Managing waste is a tedious take and thus the role of waste management services comes into play. Each organization has its way of tackling waste or trash. But, waste management services can extend a helping hand in managing the waste more efficiently and effectively. Some of the various techniques and practices which are an extremely important part of waste management services include :

Proper Mechanism For Waste Collection:

Be it school, company, factories or corporate office proper disposal of waste materials is important for every organisation. Hence each organization can aim at providing adequate baskets, bins and barrels for collecting waste materials to ensure good hygiene

Regular Cleaning & Waste Removal Practices:

All interior spaces of any organization ranging from schools, commercial buildings, etc must be well maintained and properly cleaned. It would generally include the removal of sanitary and food waste, trash and other waste materials. This would ensure a healthy working environment for the public, employees, workforce, teachers, etc.

Greener Practices For Cleaning:

Waste can be categorized into biodegradable and non-biodegradable. Further mores.  It can be subdivided into recyclable. Such categorization can help to clean in a better way through safe and eco-friendly means. Green practices should thus be encouraged in organizations for the health and safety of employees.


Population and household growth in Hertfordshire put increasing pressure on waste management in the country.

Consequently, the need to actively manage waste streams in Hertfordshire has never been more significant.

Sustainable waste management can be actively addressed through the planning process in the following ways :


case study for waste management in india

The green coloured bin is used to dump biodegradable waste. The bin could be used to dispose of off wet/organic material including cooked food/leftover food, vegetable/fruit peels, eggshell rotten eggs, chicken/fish bones, tea bags/coffee grinds, coconut shells and garden waste including fallen leaves/twigs or the puja flowers/garlands will all go into the green bin.

The blue coloured bin is used for segregating dry or recyclable left over. This category includes waste like plastic covers, bottles, boxes, cups, toffee wrappers, soap or chocolate wrappers and paper waste including magazines, newspaper, tetra packs, cardboard cartons, pizza boxes or paper cups/plates will have to be thrown into the white bin. Metallic items like tins/can foil paper and containers and even the dry waste including cosmetics, hairs, rubber/thermocol (polystyrene), old mops/dusters/sponges.

Black bins, make up the third category, which is used for domestic hazardous waste like sanitary napkins, diapers, blades, bandages, CFL, tube lights, printer cartridges, broken cells, expired medicine etc.


The nationally accepted framework or approach for achieving reductions in waste arisings and sustainable waste management is the waste hierarchy.

Various Methods of Waste Disposal :

Although there are many methods of disposing of waste, in the section let’s take a look at some of the most commonly used methods that you should know about the waste management

case study for waste management in india

Throwing daily waste/garbage in landfills is the most popularly used method of waste disposal used today. This process of waste disposal focuses on the land. Landfills are commonly found in developing countries.

There is a process used that eliminates the orders and danger of waste before it is placed into the ground. While it is true this is the most popular form of waste disposal, it is certainly for from the only procedure and one that many also bring with it an assortment of space.

This method is becoming lets these days, thanks to the lack of space available and the strong presence of methane and other landfill gases, both of which can cause numerous contamination problems.

Landfills give rise to air and water population which severely affects the environment and can prove fatal to the lives.


Incineration or combustion is a type of disposal method in which municipal solid wastes are burned at high temperatures. The process eventually converts them into residues and gaseous products. The biggest advantage of this type of method is that it can reduce the volume of solid waste to 20 to 30 per cent of the original volume. Additionally, it also decreases the spaces they take up while also reducing the stress on landfills.

Incinerators are primarily used in thermal treatment where solid waste materials are converted to heat, gas, steam, and ash. Incineration is also widely popular in countries where landfill space is no longer available, such as the US and Japan.

Recovery & Recycling:

case study for waste management in india

Resource recovery is the process of taking the useful discarded item for a specific next use. These discarded items are then processed to extract or recover materials and resources or convert them to energy in the form of useable heat, electricity or fuel. Recycling is the process of converting waste products into new products to prevent energy usage and consumption of fresh raw materials. Recycling is the third component of the reducing, reusing and recycling waste hierarchy.

The idea behind recycling is to reduce energy usage, reduce the volume of landfills, reduce air and water pollution reduce greenhouse gas emissions and preserve natural resources for future use.

Plasma gasification is another form of waste management plasma that is primarily an electrically charged or high ionized gas. Lighting is one type of plasma that produces temperatures that exceed 12,600’F with this method of waste disposal, a vessel uses characteristic plasma torches operating at +10,000’F which is creating a gasification zone till 3,000’F for the conversion of solid or liquid wastes into a gas.

During the treatment of solid waste by plasma gasification, the waste’s molecular bonds are broken down as a result of the intense heat in the vessels and the elemental components. Thanks to the process, the destruction of waste and dangerous materials are found. This form of waste disposal provides renewable energy and an assortment of other fantastic benefits.


case study for waste management in india

Composting is an easy and natural biodegradation process that takes organic wastes i.e. remains of plants and garden and kitchen waste and turns them into nutrient-rich food for your plants. Composting, normally used for organic farming occurs by allowing organic materials to sit in one place for months until microbes decompose them.

Note that composting is often deemed to be one of the best methods of waste disposal as it can turn unsafe organic products into downsides. Some people have found it to be slow, while others have observed that it takes a lot of space. But regardless of these issues, many people are still embracing home composting approaches to manage and reduce waste.


case study for waste management in india

Liquid waste is a major problem in the world, due to approximately 71% of the earth’s surface being covered in water. According to the environmental protection agency (EPA), liquid waste is defined as any waste material that passes the definition of a “liquid” This means that the material must, “pass through a 0.45-micron filter at a pressure differential of 75 psi,” according to the EPA’s provided definition of a liquid


There are three stages for the treatment of sewage water they are :

Primary Treatment:

It is the process of mechanically removing the solid materials present in the water through metal screening. Gruit chambers and sedimentation. Metal screening removes large floating objects such as a small pieces of wood, rags, masses of garbage and dead insects and animals. The gruit chamber allows the settlement of heavier solids such as sand into the bottom layer.

The wastewater is then allowed to pass into a big sedimentation tank where the liquid spends about 6.8 hours. During this time about 50 to 70 % of the solids settle down under the influence of gravitational force. During the process, a small amount of decomposition takes place by the microorganisms present in sewage breaking down the organic matter present.

The organic matter after breaking down settles down into a larger called sludge. This sludge is removed mechanically primary treatment removes about 60 per cent of floating solid bodies, 30 per cent of oxygen demanding wastes, 20 per cent of nitrogen compounds, and 10 per cent of phosphorous compounds.

Secondary Treatment:

It is the biological oxidation of organic matter. It is achieved by filter method or by sludge process. In the filter method, the wastewater is sprinkled over the surface of a bed of small stones one to two meters deep. When the water percolates through the stone bed, a very complex biological growth of algae, fungi, protozoa and bacteria occurs. By their formation, the wastewater gets oxidised. The oxidised wastewater is then passed into the sedimentation tanks.

The sludge process is a modern method of management of wastewater. The liquid from the sedimentation tank is mixed with sludge collected from the final tank. This sludge is called active sludge as it is rich in aerobic bacteria. (bacteria that can survive only in presence of oxygen). The activated sludge is then subjected to aeration. By aeration, the organic matter of waste liquid gets oxidised into carbon dioxide, water and nutrients. Organisms causing diseases like typhoid cholera are destroyed in the stage.

The oxidised waste liquid is then passed into a secondary sedimentation tank where activated sludge is collected. The volume and characteristics of the sludge are reduced through anaerobic (devoid of oxygen) autodigestion. In this process, complex compounds are broken down into the water, carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia. This substance works as a good fertilizer.

The residue from the earlier two treatment processes still leaves about 10 per cent of suspended solid bodies, 10 per cent oxygen demanding wastes, 30 per cent of nitrogen and 70 per cent phosphorous. This tertiary treatment method is an advanced form of a chemical and physical process. The most common methods in this treatment are the precipitation of suspended particles, filtration with carbon to resolve to dissolve organic compounds and reverse osmosis by passage through a membrane to remove dissolve. Organic-inorganic materials. Chlorination is also required at the end to remove disease-causing bacteria and other germs.


Waste management costs:.

Costs most commonly associated with waste management are the capital cost of infrastructure and equipment and the labour costs of those employed within the system. The costs can be considerably high, especially for a city or region that has to establish new infrastructure.

The costs relate to the type and performance of the system; local factors; and the amount of waste that is generated therefore ideally the amounts collected and treated financing of waste management is an ongoing challenge for many developing economies, municipalities have an insufficient budget and access to finance or funding to carry out basic solid waste management operation such as collect and safe disposal.

The current policy trend is moving toward investment in projects and infrastructure that promote the green economy concept, particularly for low carbon growth.

Waste Prevention:

Through the implementation of waste prevention and waste minimisation practices economic savings can be made across the entire production and manufacturing recycling is one of the main areas receiving funding. Compared to the total amount of donor funds awarded to green projects, these amounts are shamefully and unreasonably low however by raising awareness of the significant contribution that the waste sector can make to the economy this potential could and should be increased.

Recycling & Recovery:

‘waste’ itself is an economic concept given that it implies that resources are produced and used in ways that lead to their disposal as waste, the loss of those resources is an economic loss. When resources can be saved, reused, recovered or used more efficiently there is a net economic gain. The materials recovery industry makes a significant contribution to the economy. The figure below shows the materials recovery industry turnover for the UK and the significant development in recent years.

Residual Waste:

When residual waste is minimised, through waste prevention measures, recycling and recovery operations this results in fewer costs for residual waste management, from collection through to disposal of waste results in net economic costs whereas when waste is considered a resource (material or energy)value can be obtained from it, offsetting the management costs.


Waste management in India falls under the preview of the union ministry of environment, forests and climate change (MOEF & CC). in 2016, this ministry released the solid wastage management (SWM) rules, these rules replaced the municipal solid waste (management and handling) rules, 2000 which had been in place for 16 years. This national policy is not able in that it has acknowledged and included the informal sector (waste pickers) in the waste management process for the first time.

Urban India (about 377 million people) generates 62 million tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) each year. Of this, about 43 million tonnes (70%) are collected and 11.9 million tonnes (20%) are treated. About 31 million tonnes (50%) are dumped at landfill sites. With changing consumption patterns and rapid economic growth it is estimated that urban municipal solid waste generation will increase to 165 million tonnes in 2030.


Urban India generates 62 million tonnes of waste (MSW) annually. & it has been predicted that this will reach 165 million tonnes in 2030. 45 million tonnes of municipal solid waste is collected annually, out of which 31 million are dumped in landfill sites and just 11.9 million are treated. There are not enough public bins and the available bins are not even covered in many cases, waste overflows out of those bins and ends up going all over the streets.

Waste transporting vehicles is not even covered in many cases which also causes littering of the streets. Many citizens in India recklessly litter the streets with banana leaves or bowls made of dried leaves a few years earlier, those kinds of litter were not that harmful as they were biodegradable and could even be eaten by stray animals. But in India today, what is mostly littered is plastic and in any society, it’s not easy to bring a quick cultural change.

India’s informal recycling sector consists of waste pickers who play a crucial role in segregating and recycling waste, but in most cases, they are not formally trained and at times they burn waste at landfills to keep themselves warm at night and end up setting up landfill fires that cause air pollution and because of inadequate gear, they are also exposed to diseases and injuries.

The size of landfills in India is constantly increasing and that is fast becoming a major concern contrary to the composition of waste in western countries the majority of India’s waste is organic which means that there is a tremendous opportunity to compost a lot of it, but to make it possible, Indians need to adopt the practice of segregating waste at its source, that is why Indian needs to follow the guidelines that are set by the Indian Government in its official solid waste management rules.


Waste management rules in India are based on the principles of “sustainable development”, “precaution” and “polluter pays”. Their principles mandate municipalities and commercial establishments to act in an environmentally accountable and responsible manner restoring balance if their actions disrupt it.

The increase in waste generation as a by-product of economic development has led to various subordinate legislation for regulating the manner of disposal and dealing with generated waste are made under the umbrella law of the environment protection act, 1986 (EPA). Specific forms of waste are the subject matter of separate rules and require separate compliance mostly like authorizations, maintenance of records and adequate disposal mechanisms.

With rapid urbanisation, the country is facing massive waste management challenges. Over 377 million urban people live in 7,935 towns and cities and generate 62 million tonnes of municipal solid waste per annum. Only 43 million tonnes (MT) of the waste is collected 11.9 MT is treated and 31 MT is dumped at landfill sites. Solid waste management (SWM) is one of the basic essential services provided by municipal authorities in the country to keep urban centres clean.

However, almost all municipal authorities deposit solid waste at a dump yard within or outside the city haphazardly. Experts believe that India is following a flawed system of waste disposal and management.


Around 100 cities are set to be developed as smart cities. Civic bodies have to redraw their long term vision in solid waste management and rework their strategies as per changing lifestyles. They should reinvent garbage management in cities so that we can process waste and not landfill it (with adequate provisioning in processing and recycling). To do this, households and institutions must segregate their waste at the source so that it could be managed as a resource.

The centre aims to do away with landfill sites in 20 major cities. There is no spare land for dumping garbage, the existing ones are in a critical state. It is reported that almost 80 per cent of the waste at Delhi landfill sites could be recycled provided civic bodies start allowing ragpickers to segregate waste at the source and recycle it.

Compost pits should be constructed in every locality to process organic waste. Community participation has a direct bearing on efficient waste management. Recovery of e-waste is abysmally low, we need to encourage recycling of e-waste on a very large scale level so that problem of e-waste disposal is contained.


case study for waste management in india

The union government is working on the second phase of its flagship Swachh Bharat mission. The first phase of the mission, which was to end in march 2020 has been extended till 2021. While the ministry of housing and urban affairs is looking to finalise the draft of the second phase it could have increased focus on waste and sludge. It is a wonderful waste management project.

The Swachh Bharat mission was announced by prime minister Narendra Modi in 2014 to make the country garbage and open defecation free. According to the government, since the launch of the scheme 62.09 lakh individual household toilets 5.94 lakh community toilets have been constructed and 99% of the cities have been declared open defecation free (ODF).

Hardeep Singh puri, minister for housing and urban affairs said the mission was constantly evolving and various parameters including tackling the use of single-use plastic have been added to the scheme.

“The Swachh Bharat mission is constantly evolving. The start objective was to build toilets and we have met that target. India has been made open defecation free except for one state. We have gone into ODF++. There has also been an increased focus on reducing the use of single-use plastic. We have morphed into the next level, “puri said.

case study for waste management in india

An Eco brick is a plastic bottle packed with used plastic to a set density. They save as reusable building blocks. Eco bricks can be used to produce various items, including furniture, garden walls and other structures. Eco bricks are produced primarily as a means of managing consumed plastic by sequestering it and containing it safely, by terminally reducing the net surface area of the packed plastic to effectively secure the plastic from degrading into toxins and microplastics.

Eco bricking is both an individual & collaborative endeavour. The Eco bricking movement promotes the personal Eco bricking process as a means to raise awareness of the consequences of consumption & the dangers of plastic. It also promotes encourages communities to take collective responsibility for their used plastic and to use it to produce a useful products.

To enable the production of Eco bricks at minimal environmental costs, the global Eco brick alliance promotes low technology methods that do not require capital, fuel electricity or specialized equipment. Typically, producers use a wood or bamboo stick to manually pack plastic into the plastic bottles. Any size of transparent polyethene terephthalate (PET) plastic bottle can be used to make an Eco brick.

The bottle and the packed plastic are clean and dry to prevent the growth of bacteria. Plastic is cut or ripped into small pieces and then packed little by little, alternating between adding the plastic and compacting it, layer by layer. The bottle is rotated with each press to ensure the plastic is evenly compounded throughout the bottles.

This helps prevents voids and that the packing reaches the requisite solidity needed for building block applications. Completed Eco bricks are packed solid of a person without deforming-a density range between 0.33g/ml and 0.7glml.


case study for waste management in india

Emphasising waste management project & renewable sources of energy, this new theme park in Delhi, waste To wonders, features the seven wonders of the world, constructed using waste metal products. The park is located near Sarai kale khan inter state bus terminus and is spread across seven across of land. It was inaugurated by the home minister Rajnath Singh on April 18. By Swastika Mukhopadhyay.

World’s 1 st theme with all the seven wonders replicated using waste products!

The park houses miniature replicas of the Taj Mahal (India) Eiffel Tower(France), Leaning Tower of Pisa (Italy), The Statue of Liberty (USA), Christ the Redeemer (Brazil), The Great Pyramid of Giza (Egypt ), Colosseum (Italy). Waste to wonders park is inspired by the T wonders park in Kota, Rajasthan

The park project was born out of the ‘Filmy’ idea. The film was “Badrinath Ki Dulhania.” Really!

About 150 tonnes of industrial and other waste was used! kind of material used: waste auto parts, a cycle chain, can engines, truck springs, petrol tanks and what not!

The cost of the project is 7,50,00,000 Rupees (that’s 7.5 crores or 75 million )!


case study for waste management in india

Priti International ltd. Is led by the team of Mr G. Lohiya, Mr Hritesh Lohiya & Mrs Priti Lohiya. Who started this business from home with self-motivation and ideas.

Priti International Ltd has become a household name in the home furnishing segment by offering products of great value which has redefined the category itself. Started as a furniture manufacturer. Company lifestyle. We are one of the fastest-growing establishments that have rejuvenated the traditional concept.

Something similar happened to us in 2005. Priti International Ltd (PIL) was established with a hang jodhpur. Our first step on the journey to success. Our commitment to high standards of quality enabled our path. Our vision enabled us to deliver perfection with each order and helped us to leaver and improve ourselves with each product we delivered. Buyers from US, EU & Australia appreciated are work and repeat orders poured in. it didn’t take us long to realize that we had grown into a company with 80 employees & other 100+skilled artisans.

PIL has rightfully earned a favourable reputation for high-quality designs and products in both domestic and international markets. Customers recognize Priti as a name they can trust. At present, our products are exported to the USA, Spain, Holland, Turkey China and many other destinations. For us, the journey has been fabulous and we plan to continue on it. Learning and evolving with each step we take.

Priti International Ltd – Strength:

We believe our workers are the ones who have helped us achieve everything that we have today. They are the ones delivering the quality products that make us the customers favoured choice we value our workers and have provided. Them with the best working facilities and conveniences. We are committed to our workers, vendors & preserving the environment.

Priti International Ltd – The Indian Edge:

Lifestyle changes have attributed to design developments & impact on the types of furniture desired while elegance has become more mainstream, the blending of traditional and contemporary styling is quite evident in consumer tastes. Priti International Ltd. Not only excel in exquisite artistry but also reflect the rich cultural heritage in the form of colours, motifs and raw materials.

Friends, we Indians have a knack for hacks. There’s a couple in Jodhpur who have hacks up their sleeve. They have changed people’s mindset towards waste with their hacks.

These hacks are happening in the Priti International workshop. Where waste is recycled into a new and is sold in the International market

Hitesh and Priti have made such amazing products which makes them our Recycle couple. Before making these Funky products, they tried many other businesses like chemical factory stone cutting factories but they were not successful. Then one day they got a life-changing brilliant idea.

They wanted to start with something different so there was a very old tin box and they through of making something unique out of it. So keeping the recycling concept in mind, they made a cushion and by chance that product was a hit. First-order was from Denmark for 100 drums stools and slowly their business started picking up after getting so many orders, the demand for raw materials also increased and in search of the raw materials they visited the dump yards all over the country.


Globally there are considerable differences in waste management practices. In some regions, formal services for the collection of waste are absent (or limited) and when waste is collected the prevailing practice is uncontrolled open dumping causing social, health and environmental risks. To quantify the situation, around half of the world’s population has no access to waste services and around ¼ of the world’s waste is wantonly dumped.

At the other end of the scale highly sophisticated integrated and sustainable waste management practices exist where waste is considered and used as a resource and only used very small quantities of waste remain and are safely disposed of. A sound investment in waste management infrastructure, equipment and services that support the local economy, utilise local expertise and minimise environmental and social costs can be costly, but their absence can be equally as costly.

A poorly managed waste system imposes social and environmental costs and economic losses, whereas a properly functioning resources management/waste system brings benefits across all of these elements. Many of the best strategies for waste reduction, recycling and composting produce benefits for a quadruple bottom line.

They require less capital investment, create more jobs and sustain more livelihoods, protect public health, provide secondary material to production processes and minimize CO2 es emissions. For the waste sector to support the progression toward a green economy not only do we need to maximize resource efficiency considering the whole lifecycle of products (cradle to cradle approach) but also the way we value enterprises where factors such as the creation of sustainable employment and protection of the environment are valued alongside economic growth and profit.



This is to certify that class Xll, of ——, has completed the waste management project under my supervision. He has taken proper care and shown almost sincerity in the completion of this project. I certify that this project is up to my expectations and as per the guidelines issued by CBSE.


I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my teacher as well as our principal of the school who gave me the golden opportunity to do this wonderful WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT which also helped me in doing a lot of research and I came to know about so many new things, I am thankful to them. Secondly, I would also like to thank my parent and friends who helped me a lot In finalizing this project within the limited time frame.


case study for waste management in india


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case study for waste management in india

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Waste Management Cooperative: Pune, India

case study for waste management in india

Jump to a section

Background and Context

The Initiative

How was the importance of SWM and waste workers’ rights presented and communicated?

What was the extent and nature of citizen collaboration?

What was the level of action addressed by the public engagement?

The Public Impact

Further Considerations and Lessons from this Case


The Solid Waste Collection and Handling (SWaCH) Cooperative Society was formed in 2008 as a public-private partnership to tackle the growing problem of solid waste management (SWM) in the city of Pune, in India. It is a workers’ Cooperative run by informal waste workers *, which receives infrastructure and policy support from the Pune Municipal Corporation.

Having begun as a workers’ movement focused on establishing informal waste workers’ right to safe and secure livelihoods, the SWaCH Cooperative has evolved organically to be a critical actor in Pune’s SWM system. It achieved this through awareness-raising exercises, demonstrations, and grassroots mobilisation around waste worker rights and SWM, and by instituting a democratic governance process involving all its 3,500+ waste workers. It has attained significant success in improving the SWM system in Pune, while also uplifting and protecting the livelihoods of its 3500+ informal waste worker members.

Due to the SWaCH Cooperative’s initiatives, today, 60 MT of waste is diverted away from landfills per day, with 80-85% of the waste generated in the city being recycled/processed, resulting in annual GHG emission savings of approximately 50,000 tonnes of CO2.

The city of Pune, the 8th largest city in India and one of the fastest growing urban agglomerations in the country, has struggled with managing its waste over the years. Waste levels grew from 300 tonnes per day in 1991 1 to 1700 tonnes per day in 2016. 2 Prior to 2005, the municipal waste collection system in Pune involved residents making use of public containers to dispose of their daily waste, and informal waste workers scavenging from the containers to find recyclable items to sell. Waste segregation at source was virtually non-existent, and the collected waste was transported by the municipal workers to open dump sites & landfills. The lax waste management system led to high levels of pollution and public health concerns in the city, while also creating unsafe and unsanitary working conditions for formal and informal waste workers in the city. 3 , 4  

Informal waste workers in Pune are among the most vulnerable and marginalised communities in the country. In the early 1990s,around 800 informal waste workers from across Pune assembled for a “Convention of Waste Workers” and formed their own Union - Kagad Kach Patra Kashtakari Panchayat (KKPKP), meaning ‘Paper Glass Tin Pickers’ Union. 5, 6 Over the years, KKPKP focused on increasing its membership, running targeted campaigns to bring public attention to waste management, while also advocating for integrating informal waste workers into the municipal system. 7 In 2008, KKPKP’s efforts received wide recognition and the Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC), the civic body that governs Pune, signed an agreement with KKPKP, paving the way for the Solid Waste Collection and Handling (SWaCH)Cooperative Society to be established. 8 , 9

The Solid Waste Collection and Handling (SWaCH) Cooperative is a pro-poor partnership aimed at establishing itself as a self-sustaining social enterprise of waste workers, focussed on sustainable solid waste management (SWM) and waste worker rights. 10 It began as a pilot in 2005, led by the KKPKP. The operational costs of running the initiative (equipment, vehicles) are covered by the PMC, while waste workers are paid by customers (through a user-fee) and scrap recyclers (to whom they sell recyclable material). Initially only focused on uplifting the lives of waste workers, the SWaCH Cooperative has since diversified its actions to also provide SWM services such as composting, responsible disposal of e-waste, cleaning up the city’s water bodies through organised activities etc. By late 2007, the State Government mandated the implementation of Municipal Solid Waste Laws 2000, across all cities, which acted as a catalyst for the growth of the SWaCH Cooperative. 11

Before SWaCH was set up

KKPKP’s early members commissioned several studies to quantify the economic savings amassed by the efforts of informal waste workers, for the PMC. These were published in local journals, as well as discussed on public platforms of well-established NGOs, creating a strong foundation from where KKPKP was able to present its case. The studies estimated:

Informal waste workers collect approximately 144 tonnes of recyclable scrap before it is transported, thus saving approximately INR 16M (approx. USD 220,000) per annum in transportation costs alone. 

Increased transactions between informal waste collectors and their local retail scrap store amounted to an estimated daily income contribution of INR 375,000 (approx. USD 5,100), generating an estimated annual income of INR 185M (approx. USD 2.5M) 12

KKPKP employed a host of measures, including organising and mobilising waste workers through public rallies and demonstrations, to convince the PMC to provide administrative and policy support for its user fee-based door-to-door waste collection pilot. The PMC, after in-person consultation sessions with key stakeholders (municipal officials and elected representatives), accepted the proposal. The pilot was able to demonstrate the larger impacts of formalising this working arrangement with informal waste workers. During the pilot, 1,500 waste workers transitioned from rummaging through landfills to providing door-step services to 150,000 households a day. 13 The success of the pilot cleared the way for the formal setting up of the SWaCH Cooperative and the subsequent signing of a formal partnership agreement with the PMC. 14 , 15

After SWaCH was set up

The SWaCH Cooperative communicated the needs of Pune’s waste workers to the PMC, while also engaging with the public to create wider awareness about safe & environment-friendly waste management practices. 

The SWaCH Cooperative runs regular campaigns and webinars to promote its environment-friendly SWM approach, and establish the legitimacy of its waste worker members, and the crucial role they play in keeping the city clean. Their website acts as the key node for facilitating such campaigns with a consolidated repository of resources – pamphlets, fliers, and posters, both in English and the local language. The website hosts a dedicated section on short films and documentaries highlighting the cause the SWaCH Cooperative is fighting for as well as the challenges it faces. Videos on meetings and consultations on waste and recycling, involving both the SWaCH Cooperative members and the public are also published on the website. The SWaCH Cooperative regularly leverages social media platforms to promote its activities to the wider public. 16 , 17 Their outreach team, comprising 160+ coordinators, also liaises directly with stakeholders through door-to-door campaigns. 18

The waste workers themselves are the most critical actors in driving public engagement around waste management. On their daily rounds they speak to people about their work, advise them on best practices on waste management, and also seek on-the-spot feedback. 19 They also regularly do media events and participate on international platforms to discuss their work and cause. 20 , 21 The SWaCH Coopertive’s initiatives are still ongoing today and are regularly adapted to the most pressing environmental issues at the time.

Since its inception, the SWaCH Cooperative followed a coordinated outreach strategy to engage, involve, and act in synergy with the City’s policy aspirations. Through demonstrations, petitions, meetings, and research advocacy, they engaged with the PMC to keep pushing for institutionalisation of their members into the formal municipal waste management system. Through community outreach and media campaigns, documentaries, and awareness campaigns, the SWaCH Cooperative involved the city residents in the cause, gaining wider acceptance and support.

Collaboration among waste workers

The SWaCH Cooperative, when initially set up, was small and depended on its payroll staff to work on specific geographic areas in the city to engage with other waste workers. The staff were responsible for reaching out to the waste worker community, building awareness on the need for formalising their work status and being able to access health and welfare protections, and driving up membership. The SWaCH Cooperative follows a democratic governance process led by a Board consisting of founder members, and Pratinidhis (representative leaders from the waste worker group). Pratinidhis are elected on the basis of an in-person show-of-hands voting system from among the 3,500+ waste workers associated with the SWaCH Cooperative. The board facilitates and builds the capacity of the Pratinidhis for self-governance. Decision-making is based on a consultative process and grassroots waste workers can influence decision-making and prioritisation through their representative leaders. 

As its membership grew, the SWaCH Cooperative began onboarding its members via thematic orientation programs at Union offices, regular workshops, training on grievance redressal processes etc. The thematic sessions focused on areas such as health or education and were participatory in nature, providing the waste workers with an opportunity to share their knowledge and experiences. 22 With time, the SWaCH Cooperative also brought the family members of the waste workers within its ambit by providing them with work opportunities within local teams. The prospect of working in a formal office set-up and transitioning away from manual waste picking and its associated health risks was seen positively by waste workers’ families, leading to successful uptake and deeper engagement.

Collaboration between waste workers and the public

The SWaCH Cooperative runs periodic campaigns that bring waste workers, NGOs, and city residents together on a common platform to raise awareness and enable interaction and discussions on waste management issues and policy.

One key initiative was the Red dot campaign, which was initiated to build awareness around safe and hygienic sanitary waste disposal practices. The need for such an initiative was first pointed out by waste workers in one of their regular consultation sessions with the Board. Daily, the SWaCH workers collect ~20,000 Kg of dirty diapers and sanitary pads. Exposed sanitary waste is harmful for the health of waste workers who need to segregate it from other scrap. 

Door-to-door campaigns for 30,000 city residents were organised, raising awareness on how sanitary waste could be wrapped and marked with a red dot. To facilitate easy uptake, the SWaCH workers themselves also made paper bags labelled with red dots, which they sold for a nominal amount during their rounds. 23 , 24 Waste collection vehicles were also fitted with red-dot marked compartments, that acted as a daily reminder of the campaign. 25 Posters were put up in public places and t-shirts, mugs and gift items carrying similar messaging were also made widely available. 26 The SWaCH Cooperative also runs various workshop sessions on menstrual health & sanitary disposal. 

The SWaCH Cooperative also initiated the “Send it back” campaign in 2013, where sanitary pads were sent back to the companies that manufactured these products (including Kimberly-Clark, Procter & Gamble) to nudge them to think more responsibly about disposal and packaging waste when developing their product strategy. The awareness raised through this move has led to SWaCH workers now actively engaging with Procter & Gamble to find ways for product packaging to be repurposed as degradable red-dot disposal bags.

Another initiative is the Recycling Trail - a shadowing field exercise organized by the SWaCH Cooperative, where volunteers follow SWaCH’s waste workers on their door-to-door rounds and get first-hand experience on the waste management value chain in Pune. It is a voluntary activity wherein interested individuals/organisations/institutions can formally sign up through the SWaCH website. 27 , 28

The community engagement process targeted action at the individual, community and systems-level. The objective of the initiatives and associated public engagement, carried out by SWaCH was to protect the rights of informal waste workers in the city, and work in close partnership with the PMC to manage SWM in Pune. Their secondary objective was to raise wide-spread awareness on the issues of SWM and waste worker rights with the public, and other communities of informal waste workers across the country.

Through SWaCH initiatives, 60 MT of waste is diverted away from landfills every day, with 80-85% of the waste generated in the city being recycled/processed, resulting in annual GHG emission savings of approximately 50,000 tonnes of CO2. 29

The SWaCH Cooperative’s door-to-door collection model has helped PMC save ~ INR 900M rupees (USD 12.5M) per year in labor, processing and transportation costs, which is 46 percent of the capital budget for Pune’s SWM system. 30

KKPKP and the SWaCH Cooperative’s efforts also helped with socio-economic upliftment of its 3500+ waste worker members, from formalising their work contracts and getting them access to health and welfare protections to supporting their families and children access loans, scholarships, vocational skills training etc.

As the SWaCH Cooperative’s contract with the PMC is due for renewal in 2021, the waste workers have gathered signatures from 600,000+ households in Pune to be submitted to the PMC, a testament to the levels of support they have built among the residents and the important role they play in city’s waste management value chain31

The SWaCH Cooperative has influenced policy decisions on SWM beyond Pune, and elements of the SWaCH model are being implemented across other Indian cities. 32

From CPI’s extensive work on public engagement, we have found three important drivers to public impact that are relevant to discuss when designing public engagement processes around climate change: Enabling Adaptability and Learning; Designing for Inclusion; and Embracing Complexity. We discuss the relevance of each to the case study below:

Enabling Adaptability and Learning

The SWaCH Cooperative is a worker-led initiative where the 3,500+ waste workers are empowered to make decisions on the focus areas of the sustainable waste management campaigns, and where and how they will be run. As was outlined with the Red dot campaign on sanitary waste, the issue was first raised by one of the waste workers in a consultation meeting with the SWaCH board. Post the meeting, various initiatives and sub-campaigns addressing the issue were run by the SWaCH members. This included large-scale awareness campaigns, media engagement and workshop sessions. Since the SWaCH members conduct door-to-door waste collection services daily, they are also well-placed to experiment with and test campaign-related messaging, and relay lessons back to the wider group. In this way, the democratic decision-making structure, and the bottom-up delivery model provides waste workers the autonomy to tailor their strategy in a flexible and adaptive manner, that allows them to experiment and learn along the way. 

This flexibility also enables them to more effectively deal with exigencies and uncertainties. During the COVID-19 lockdown, the SWaCH Cooperative modified its outreach and services to suit the restrictions. For example, several additional information leaflets in both English and Marathi were posted on the website to raise awareness on how to sort and collect waste during the lockdown. The SWaCH Cooperative also promoted several short videos through its website and social media platforms to engage the public’s support. For example, some videos featured SWaCH workers holding placards such as - WE stayed at work for you. YOU stay at home for us and help. 33  

Designing for Inclusion

The SWaCH Cooperative was designed for inclusion and justice from the outset. The driving force for the initiative was KKPKP’s efforts to bring its marginalised waste worker members within the formalised ambit of the municipal waste management system, which it achieved while also driving the uptake of SWM across the city. KKPKP made it their goal to provide formal recognition to its waste worker members by providing them with ID cards, lobbying with the PMC to consider waste worker rights, while also providing basic economic services such as insurance, micro credit to them. At the same time, the waste workers operated autonomously, making independent and collective decisions on their work hours and on campaigns, a freedom that they had been unable to enjoy in their earlier mode of operation. Further, efforts were made to involve and support the families of the waste workers in gaining access to education, vocational training in order to help them earn a stable source of income.

While the overall initiative has driven forward the tenets of inclusion and justice, the internal governance model with representative leaders speaking for the waste workers, unless facilitated consciously, could breed majoritarianism with a tendency to favour more vocal spokespersons and/or feed interpersonal politics over broader inclusion goals within the waste worker community. 

Embracing Complexity

Keeping the city clean and pollution-free in a cost-effective manner by managing the burgeoning waste and keeping the waste disposal process environmentally friendly was a challenging prospect in itself, before adding in the complexities of providing worker protection and rights to marginalised informal waste workers. In addition to this, the areas of waste management, public health, pollution, worker rights etc. are each handled by different government departments, further limiting the success of interventions. However, the SWaCH Cooperative managed to bring together these various objectives, and align their work model to address the broader value chain of SWM in Pune, and highlight the interlinkages and interdependencies between them. This enabled the SWaCH Cooperative to drive a successful advocacy campaign and subsequently partner with the PMC. 

The SWaCH Cooperative also seems to have made efforts to drive forth a similar narrative with city residents. According to SWaCH workers, many residents of Pune were already quite aware about SWM, however making them understand the urgency of this issue was a major challenge.34 Following a coordinated strategy that involved citizen-led volunteerism and proactive outreach campaigns, the SWaCH Cooperative works continually to present a big picture view of SWM and the roles that the waste workers can play and the role that citizens and businesses can also play in the system.

[1] Garbage crisis may render Pune’s ‘Smart City’ ambitions a dream, Shoumojit Banerjee, January 2016, The Hindu news report, , Accessed 23 February 2021

[2] Pune Municipal Corporation - Waste Management Statistics, , Accessed 23 February 2021

[3][5][29][30] Closing the loop - Innovative partnerships with informal workers to recover plastic waste, in an inclusive circular economy approach, Harri Moora and Harshad Barde, March 2019, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, , Accessed 15 February 2021

[4] Involving waste-pickers to improve door-to-door collection, SWaCH Resources, SWaCH Cooperative Pune, , Accessed 15 February 2021

[6][12][22] Organising the Unorganised: A Case Study of the Kagad Kach Patra Kashtakari Panchayat (Trade Union of Waste-pickers), Poornima Chikarmane and Laxmi Narayan, January 2005, Women in Informal Employment: Globalizing and Organizing (WIEGO),,Organising%20the%20Unorganised%3A%20A%20Case%20Study%20of%20the%20Kagad%20Kach,Trade%20Union%20of%20Waste%2Dpickers)&text=WIEGO.,Abstract%3A&text=The%20union%20is%20also%20aiming,into%20official%20garbage%20collection%20schemes ., Accessed 15 February 2021

[7][8][15] The Story of Waste and its Reclaimers: Organising Waste Collectors for Better Lives and Livelihoods, Anjor Bhaskar and Poornima Chikarmane, 2012, The Indian Journal of Labour Economics, Vol. 55, No. 4, , Accessed 15 February 2021

[10] SWaCh Cooperative Pune - Impact – Website, , Accessed 15 February 2021

[11] SWaCh Cooperative Pune - History – Website, , Accessed 15 February 2021

[13][32], , Accessed 15 February 2021

[14] Integrating Waste Pickers into Municipal Solid Waste Management in Pune, India, Poornima Chikarmane, July 2012, WIEGO Policy Brief (Urban Policies) No 8, , Accessed 15 February 2021

[16] SWaCH Facebook page, , Accessed 15 February 2021

[17] SWaCh Cooperative Pune - Resources – Website, , Accessed 15 February 2021

[18][19] SWaCH YouTube resources, , Accessed 15 February 202SWaCh Cooperative Pune - Organogram, , Accessed 15 February 2021

[20] Global Alliance of Waste Pickers at COP17, December 5, 2011, gearsofchange, , Accessed 15 February 2021

[21] COP17 Durban: While indecision reigned…, December 8, 2011, Anil Agarwal, , Accessed 15 February 2021 

[23] A Simple Red Dot On Your Menstrual Waste Can Change A Sanitation Worker’s Life, Gopi Karelia, February 2018, NDTV India, , Accessed 15 February 2021

[24] SWaCH Cooperative Pune - VIDEO: Red Dot Campaign, , Accessed 15 February 2021

[25] PMC starts red dot campaign in three wards, Manjula Nair, July 2019, Times of India, , Accessed 15 February 2021

[26] Red-Dot campaign launched across Pune, Staff report, February 2017, Indian Express, , Accessed 15 February 2021

[27] SWaCH Cooperative Pune - VIDEO: Red Dot Campaign, , Accessed 15 February 2021

[28] Business Education students go on a waste recycling trail to examine opportunities in the fast emerging waste management sector, Staff report, February 2020, Punekar News, , Accessed 15 February 2021

[31][34] Interview with Suschismita Pai, SWaCH Outreach Manager, 19 February 2021

[33] SWaCh Cooperative Pune, , Accessed 15 February 2021

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NCACE - 2016 (Volume 4 - Issue 23)

Solid waste management: a case study of jaipur city.

case study for waste management in india

Creative Commons License

Sudarshan Kumar, Somendra Sharma, Suraj Jaluthriya

Department of Civil Engineering, Poornima Group of Institutions, Jaipur (Rajasthan), India

Abstract Solid Waste Management is a major concern worldwide. Inadequate handling of generated solid waste causes serious hazards to environment as well as living beings. This worldwide problem is also predominating in Jaipur city also. This case study is done to look out for obstacles and prospects of Solid Waste in Jaipur. Acomprehensive study was done regarding collection, transportation, handling, storage, disposal and treatment of solid wastegenerated in Jaipur city. The data acquired related to SWM was collected through site visits and interfacing with people. This study discloses that there is no proper mechanism in the city for treatment of solid waste generated, this leads to dumping of waste in open areas which causes various problems to environment as well as humans living in that vicinity.

Key Words: Solid waste management, Individual field test, Urban environment, Environmental Pollution


Like many cities of India, Jaipur is undergoing rapid development. In Jaipur, the population was 2.34 million according to the 2001 census, and is now estimated to be over

3.5 million Solid waste management is an important part of urban and environmental management, like other infrastructural services has come under great stress, consider low priority areas, solid waste management was never takenup sincerelynor by public nor by concerned agency or authorities and in present time the solid waste is impacting our heath, environment and well-being. Waste minimization is a techniquewhich isused for waste reduction, primarily through reduction at source, it also includes recycling and re- use of waste materials. The benefits ofminimizing of waste is both environmental friendly and of less cost. To execute proper waste management, various points have to be considered such as: Source reduction, Onsite storage, Collection & transfer, Processing, and Disposal. Solid waste may be defined as production of unacceptable substances which is left after they are used once [1].With the increase in various sectors exponentially, more inputs are required. This necessarily means more output is also produced, and established itself in a large amount of waste. Waste is simply something that is no longer deemed useful and is dumped. However, a change in approach to view waste as a resource rather than as something useless is the first step needed to decrease it. Waste can be divided into four categories: solid waste, hazardous waste, biomedical waste, and electronic waste. Municipal solid waste (MSW) includes what is thrown out by households and the commercial sector, such as food leftover, yard abstract, and construction debris. It isvery important to consider because it is the waste that the

normal public has the most contact with, and has a high political profile because the public is made up of voters. Also, MSW is one of the harder types of wastes to manage as it has many different elements, so if it can be managed efficiently, then management of other types of solid waste that are homogenous by nature will be easy to manage.

Jaipurs daily production of solid waste is almost1150 MT/day. Out of which around200-250 MT still remains on the streets and roads, that means lifting efficiency is around 80%. The per capita solid waste generation per day isaround 450 gm, which withafamily size of almostfive, results in 1.75 kg/day.There is none of data published on the composition of waste in Jaipur, although the figures of India in generally are reasonably accuratedepiction for Jaipur also. In India, thecomposition of waste is around 50% biodegradable, 25% inertwaste 9% plastic, 8% paper, 4%scraps, and 1% glass. The composition of different wastes keeps varying from season to season. In thesummer time there is more biodegradable waste produced because of more vegetation.The composition ofplastic in waste has probably been decreasing due to the recent ban on plastic bags in Rajasthan from beginning August 2010[2].Solid waste management was selected as the topic of this study because it is a visible environmental sustainability issue that India is confronting, since Jaipur is a rapidly developing city, effective waste management practices is especially needed. The objective of the study was to learn as much as possible about Jaipurs SWM through a broad-based approach.

Management of the transfer station or community bin.Secondary collection and transport to the waste disposal site. Waste disposal in landfill sitesbut in most of the Indian cities open dumping is the Common Practices which ispolluting environment and Public health.

Main sources of Solid Waste

Household waste, Commercials waste, Hotels, Clinics and dispensaries waste, Construction and demolition waste, Horticulture, Sludge

Solid Waste Management in Jaipur

Central Pollution Control Board conducted a study on the status of Municipal Solid Waste Collection, Treatment & Disposal in and around Jaipur City in 2007-2008. Most of the population of the city does not store the waste at source and instead disposes the waste into the garbage bins, roads, open

spaces, drainage pipes, etc. Isolation of recyclable waste is not practiced. Most of the recyclable material is also disposed of with domestic and trade waste. Therefore, recyclable waste is generally found mixed with rubbish on the streets, into the garbage bins and at the dumping zones from where part of this waste is picked up by the street sweepers. There is no door-to-door collection systemavailable of waste except in case of few housing societies. Street sweeping is thus the only process of primary collection of waste. There has been a momentous increase in the production of solid waste in Jaipur over the last few decades. The daily predicted generation of municipal solid waste in Jaipur city is about 1050 to 1150 TPD (tonnes per day), which is collected through street sweepers and from community waste storage sites. Thewaste generally transported every day is 900 TPD, which is about 85% of the waste generated in the city. Remaining solid waste is transported through specialdrives which happen weekly. This report further explain about SWM of Jaipur city is that the main system of primary collection of waste is street sweeping. There are about6400 streets sweepers in the city for street cleaning. Some roads are cleaned each day and some are cleaned periodically, twice a week or once in a week. Transportation of waste is done through a variety of vehicles such as 3-wheelers, tractors and trucks. Thevehicles are loaded manually with help of labours and these are used for 2-3 shifts in a day. Insufficient number of transport vehicles is also a major concern. The transportation system also does notis in sync with the systemof primary collection and waste storage facilities.

Status of SWM in Jaipur City

It was seen that there was lack of community garbage collection facility in slums; slum dwellers community dump their garbage nearby the living area.

The refuse bins in old Jaipur area were very dirty and overflowing. People often threw thegarbage outside the garbage bins. The inconvenience of huge garbage on streets and sorting by the sweepers or moving stray animals on thestreets represent very ugly scene.

It was observed at many places in the morning, thick black smoke spreaded over large areas on the roads due to burning of fallen leaves, plastics and other wastes.

Mot of the drains along the road and even main sewer lines near Mother Dairy, Bais Godam, Durgapura and Pratapnagar were found blocked due to indiscriminate dumping ofGarbage

Graph I. Waste generation rate

The use of commercial trucks with or without hydraulic system for waste transportation was very common in Jaipur City. It has a carrying capacity of 3.5 to 8.0 Tonwaste at a time. Garbage from the roadside garbage bins is lifted manually and thrown into thetrucks. Besides this, tractor, dumper placer, mobile compactor etc. were also used to transportwaste to the dumping site.

JMC had one mechanized sweeping machine to pick garbage from not reachable places.Presently, JMC uses this machine on highways, mainly in traffic congested areas.

Quantities of Waste Generated and its characteristics in City

Waste Quantity-916 TPD

Waste Generation Rate-0.59 kg/c/day Compostables-45.50%

Recyclables-12.10 % Moisture Present-21%

System Implementation

Solid waste is managed by the JMC.Sweepers bring the waste to a municipal bin. Two to three sweepers come to one container. The JMC bought about 800 waste disposal bins to be distributed throughout the city. In theory, one-cubic-meter waste disposal bins with a storage capacity of half ton of waste are placed every 250 meters along streets. Currently 55 of the 77 wards have containers; the wards of the Old City are notcontainerized due to past objections, likely regarding space concerns.Those containersthat are in usage are often in very poor condition, with holes so big that waste is spilling out the sides. There are approximately 40 such bins in Civil Lines, according to a permanent garbage worker who works there. In Civil Lines at least, JMC lorries are observed to arrive around 7:30 AM to remove the waste. Two large bins of 2.5 or 3.5 cubic meters can fit on each lorry. Each bin is mechanically hoisted up onto the back of the lorry, and in its place an empty bin is left. In other areas such as along JLN Marg, residents dispose of their own waste in community bins which are shared by about 20-25 homes. A municipal van comes daily topick it up.

Issues in waste management in Jaipur

There is a rate of 10-20% absenteeism at thework place.30 At times, rather than coming to work, workers will just send someone else in their place. There are about 100 days off a year (including Sundays) when the formal sector workers do not collect garbage and it just sits on the streets. However even the percentage Jaipur spends on staff salaries seems disproportionately high. This is likely a result of hiring more employees every year without increasing each of their duties accordingly, so more people are covering the same work. The C/N ratio ranges from 20 to 30. Calorific value ranges between 800-1000 Kcal/kg. In cities, the major fraction is compostable materials is 40-60% and that of inert 30-50%. The organic fraction increases while moving from rural to urban areas. The percentage of recyclable waste is verymuch low as these are picked up by the street sweepers from the houses. Treatment and disposal methods in use in India for MSW mainly include land filling, composting and very few wastes to energy initiatives (incineration, RDF and bio methane). Jaipur is also facing the similar situation where open, uncontrolled and poorly managed land filling is common.

Disposal sites in Jaipur

Mathura Das Pura: This site is located in the east of the city. Total area for the site was 176 Bighas. This site is the old most site and is about 17 Km from the main city. Approximately 300-400 TPD of garbage is being dumped every day at this site.

Langariyawas: This site is located in the east direction of the city, 3-4 Km from the Mathura-Das-Pura. The area of this landfill site is 483 bigha.

Sewapura: This site is located at a distance of 20 Km from the main city on Jaipur-Delhi highway. Its total area is

Total amount of waste dumped in these 3 dumping sites and vehicles taking number of trips to these sites in a particular time period (source JMC)

200 bigha.Approximately, 200-300 TPD of garbage was being gone every day to this site.

The overall objective of this study was to investigate Jaipurs solid waste management system by how the system is implemented, the successes and challenges and how those

challenges are being addressed, and the nature of public- private partnerships and how they can be improved. At the conclusion of the study, it was found that Jaipurs waste management system involves many types of workers who all have specialized jobs, including government executives in political and administrative positions, a permanent and impermanent faction in the formal sector, the informal sector and private contractors. The formal sector seems to be carrying out their duties effectively and on time, and there are few complaints from citizens about their interaction with waste service providers. Still there are many areas for improvement, including better law implementation and reinforcement, reduction of corruption, updated technology, better-trained staff, more manpower, increased education and awareness, and more funding. With growing population and economy of the urban regions in the state, generation of municipal solid waste is on the rise. The usage of plastics is despoiling the landscape, blocking drainage systems, and affecting health ofanimals. There is a need to ensure proper collection, segregation, processing and disposal of solid waste.


In improving collection mechanism

Waste must be collected at pre-informed timings.The arrival of waste collectors should be announced through methods such as ringing a bell.

Waste can be kept inside or outside the house.Different bins for different varieties of wastes must be kept so that each category of wastewill follow a different path.

In improving storage of solid waste

The transfer station needed to be so designed such that the waste can directly be transferred into a large vehicle or container.Large vehicles having containers with a capacity of 20-30 cubic meters are typically used for disposal sites which are at long distance.The design and capacity of transfer stations and storage equipment largely depends on thequantity of waste and on type of vehicles used for primary and secondary waste.

In improving Transportation of solid waste

Under the 2000 rules, the transport vehicle must be covered. In the beginning, therefore,municipal authorities needed to provide a cover for existing vehicles.The transport of waste can be managed and monitored centrally and through a largedecentralized settlement. In either case, municipal officers should ensure the efficiency ofthe arrangement. Transport services can be contracted out to private operators.The transport system must be coordinated with the secondary storage system of waste toprevent manual and multiple handling of waste.

In improving Disposal of solid waste

Treatment of organic waste -Household waste can contain 40 or 50 percent organic waste. Waste from vegetable markets contain even higher in amounts. As organic waste cause major hygienic and environmental problems in cities and at landfills, the 2000 rules mandate improved management and treatment of this fraction before final disposal [3]. Several treatment methods for organic waste are available like composting, anaerobic digestion, Incineration etc.

Treatment of Inorganic Waste-The inorganic portion of municipal household waste can be divided into recyclable materials and non-recyclable materials. The earlier recyclable materials are separated from the solid waste, the higher their value and the easier will be the further processing methods. The appropriate treatment method or inorganic waste will depend on its physical and chemical characteristics and also

on its reuse potential. In India, the principal treatment method for inorganic waste is recycling.

Disposal in Landfills

L Oliver Solid waste management of Jaipur-An overview and analysis. 2011

Amit Singh Municipal Solid Waste Management in current Status and Way2011

Rahul Nandwana and R C Chhipa Impact of Solid Waste Disposal on Ground Water Quality in Different Disposal Site at Jaipur, India.2014

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case study for waste management in india

Plastic Waste Management: A case study from Dehradun, India

To enhance the Plastic Waste Management at Dehradun, India, Earth5R, an Environmental Organization based in India initiated a project called ‘ Know Your Plastics ’. The project aims at raising awareness about plastic waste and also aspires to increase recycling rates of products.

Clean-Up and Classification of Plastic Waste 

As part of the project, volunteers visited 10 locations in their neighborhood to collect the maximum amount of plastic waste possible. A time limit was dedicated to segregating waste into six different categories:   MLP(multi-layer packaging), PET( Polyethylene terephthalate) plastics, LDPE(Low Density Polyethylene), HDPE(High Density Polyethylene), Tetra packs and Synthetic fibers. Any other kind of waste that was found was included in the ‘other’ category.

Mumbai-India-Environmental NGO-Circular Economy-Plastic Waste

Categories of plastic waste used for segregation

After the waste was segregated, the data put together is analyzed to figure out what category contributes to most of the pollution. It also assists in finding out which companies are generating most of the plastic waste.

Waste Data Utilised for Research Work and Creating Awareness 

As an effort to bring into perspective the ongoing issue of plastic waste and how it hinders the implementation of sustainable development goals and environmental growth, some data has been represented below:

Mumbai-India-environmental NGO-ciruclar economy-recycling-plastic waste management-csr

Major Companies contributing to Plastic Pollution (Source: Statista)

Recklessly increasing dependency on plastics simply because of their durability is choking our waterways and is becoming an immeasurable threat to the terrestrial as well as the aquatic ecosystem!

Predictions say that the amount of plastic waste in the environment will only keep increasing if no strict action is taken against it.

Plastic Waste Management Initiative at Dehradun, India

Arya Mitra , an Earth5R volunteer from Dehradun took the initiative to go about the Global Plastic Waste Crisis from his hometown. He conducted a sequence of 10 cleanup sessions, analysed the waste collected and provided the material.

Mumbai-India-Environmental NGO-recycling

Dehradun, India (Source: India Map)

His views on why he wanted to join the project were, “I wanted to join the ‘Know Your Plastics’ project because I wanted to understand the types of waste and how I could help in achieving  a long term goal, not only by picking up waste right now but actually encouraging the society around me to assist in accomplishing the objective of sustainable development. With the help of Earth5R, I would like to raise awareness about plastic waste not only in my city but outside the boundaries too and also do the required steps that need to be implemented in order to bring the crisis under control and gradually solve it.”

With the help of Earth5R, I would like to raise awareness about plastic waste not only in my city but outside the boundaries too and also do the required steps that need to be implemented in order to bring the crisis under control and gradually solve it -Arya Mitra, Earth5R Volunteer @Dehradun, India

Plastic Waste Data Collected in Dehradun

Cleanup and segregation of data was carried out in 10 different locations by Arya Mitra in his locality.

Mumbai-India-recycling-circular economy-environmental NGO

Plastic Waste collected by Earth5R Volunteer, Arya Mitra in Dehradun at 10 different locations in Dehradun

He collected and analyzed the data, the results are as follows:

Mumbai-India-Environmental NGO-plastic waste management-csr-epr

Types of Plastic Waste found in Dehradun

Lack of proper waste management leads to waste being found at places which are harmful for the environment. Arya also stated, “According to my findings, most of the waste was found near school boundaries and comparatively lesser around the residential areas. I also wanted to mention that most of the plastic waste material consisted of things which are usually tabooed in the society for example: pregnancy test kits other contraceptives and packets of tobacco. Maybe people are not comfortable with disposing these off at home and so unfortunately, they happen to litter the streets outside!”

I also wanted to mention that most of the plastic waste material consisted of things which are usually tabooed in the society for example: pregnancy test kits other contraceptives and packets of tobacco. Maybe people are not comfortable with disposing these off at home and so unfortunately, they happen to litter the streets outside! – Arya Mitra, Earth5R Volunteer

Burning of Plastic Waste

Due to lack of management in the city, all the waste is littered on the roads and is highly hazardous for the environment. As an outcome of lack of segregation and recycling, plastic is left in the soil to decompose or to be burnt which again poses detrimental effects on the environment.

Mumbai-India-Environmental NGO-recycling-circular economy-epr-plastic waste management

Types of solid waste found in India (Source: RSC Publishing – The Royal Society of Chemistry )

Another important point that Arya brings up is “I am positive that the rate of plastic consumption in my city is very high. People are not even responsible enough to throw their plastic waste in segregated dustbins that have been set up. Due to their careless behaviour, the entire ecosystem has to bear the consequences.” 

This behavior highlights the lack of education and awareness of the people belonging to the city. 

How to solve the Global Plastic Waste Issue?

The responsibility of solving the Plastic Waste Crisis falls directly on the shoulders of the people. They must switch to recyclable and reusable plastics or things that do not pose a threat to the environment. 

The government must make policies or laws encouraging plastic ban, use economic incentives to stimulate manufacturers to adopt alternatives to plastic or create revenue that can fund plastic waste cleanup efforts.

As Sylvia Earle, a marine biologist says, “It is the worst of times but it is the best of times because we still have a chance,” we must not let go of that chance to protect our ecosystem and the environment around us. Instead, we must work together towards a brighter plastic-free future leading us on the road to sustainable development. It is all in the hands of those in power after all and as citizens of the world we must be responsible enough to give back to Mother Earth for she has granted to us the gift of life.

Reported by Arya Mitra; Edited by Krishangi Jasani

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Construction Innovation

ISSN : 1471-4175

Article publication date: 13 April 2012

The growth of Indian economy has brought with it significant increase in construction activities. These increased construction activities have further highlighted the problem of waste generation on construction sites. The purpose of this paper is to provide important insights and highlight some issues related to the implementation of effective waste management practices on construction sites in India.


This paper presents two cases and results from semi‐structured interviews which shed light on some of the major issues, challenges and drivers associated with the implementation of waste management in construction in India.

One of the key findings was that client preference and enforcement of existing laws could actually facilitate the implementation of waste minimisation effectively. Some of the practices being followed, and which are gaining more popularity, are waste quantification, waste segregation, and the implementation of 3Rs (reduce, recycle, and reuse). Congested construction sites, sites in heavily built‐up areas with no ability to have an alternate storage or staging location for materials, lack of ownership of waste due to the presence of multiple contractors on the construction site and lack of awareness and education among the construction workforce were regarded as major challenges associated with the implementation of waste minimisation practices in India.

Research limitations/implications

The cases and the interviewees chosen were through the authors' links with the Indian Green Building Council (IGBC). The cases were LEED registered projects therefore issues dealing with green construction had been taken into account. These cases might not be representative of the entire country, as there are significantly high proportions of construction projects that are not as green, especially in smaller cities in India. However, the two cases do provide important insights and highlight some issues related to the implementation of effective waste management practices on construction sites in India. The individuals interviewed also had link with IGBC. They had been involved with the green building movement in India for a significant length of time. But the length and breadth of their experience gave them the ability to comment on state of the construction sector and its green as well as non‐green practices associated with waste management.


This paper presents an exploratory study which assesses the implementation of waste management practices in the Indian construction industry. It also highlights activities within different stages of a construction project that can lead to more effective waste management in the construction sector.

Arif, M. , Bendi, D. , Toma‐Sabbagh, T. and Sutrisna, M. (2012), "Construction waste management in India: an exploratory study", Construction Innovation , Vol. 12 No. 2, pp. 133-155.

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Copyright © 2012, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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Investigating barriers to sustainable management of construction and demolition waste: the case of India

Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management ( 2023 ) Cite this article

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The generation of construction and demolition (C&D) waste is increasing, while management of it is a major issue which has detrimental effects on environment, economy and society. On the other side, there is increase in demand for construction materials which leads to depletion of natural resources. This highlights the need for sustainability in management of C&D waste; hence, factors that hinder sustainable C&D waste management (CDWM) have to be explored. This study aims to find the barriers for Sustainable CDWM, investigate the interrelationships among the barriers and to develop a conceptual framework in Indian context. From literature review, 48 barriers were identified which were categorized under six groups: People (PE), Top Management (TM), Process (PR), Legislation (LE), CDWM-Strategies and Technologies (ST) and Sustainable CDWM (SM). DEMATEL method was employed to examine the relationship among the barrier groups and results showed that TM and LE belong to cause-group while PE, PR and ST belong to effect-group. A conceptual framework was developed and validated by PLS-SEM (partial least squares-structural equation modeling) method. It was found that Legislation and Top Management have significant effect on overall Sustainable CDWM. An in-depth discussion on the barriers was done and the outcomes have practical implications for law-makers and all stakeholders involved in CDWM in India and other developing countries.

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The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

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We express our sincere gratitude to all the respondents who participated in the Questionnaire Survey. We wish to confirm that there is no funding for this research work.

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Devaki, H., Shanmugapriya, S. Investigating barriers to sustainable management of construction and demolition waste: the case of India. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag (2023).

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Case Study - Present Scenario of E-Waste Management in India

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2017, International Journal for Scientific Research & Development

"E-waste" is a popular, informal name for electronic products nearing the end of their "useful life. "Ewastes are considered dangerous, as certain components of some electronic products contain materials that are hazardous, depending on their condition and density. The hazardous content of these materials pose a threat to human health and environment. Discarded computers, televisions. VCRs. stereos, copiers, fax machines, electric lamps, cell phones, audio equipment and batteries if improperly disposed can leach lead and other substances into soil and groundwater. Many of these products can be reused, refurbished, or recycled in an environmentally sound manner so that they are less harmful to the ecosystem. This paper highlights the hazards of e-wastes, the need for its appropriate management and options that can be implemented.

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