## GSVAELP: integrating graphSAGE and variational autoencoder for link prediction

- Published: 31 August 2024

## Cite this article

- Fatima Ziya 1 &
- Sanjay Kumar ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-8951-5996 1

Link prediction (LP) plays a crucial role in network science, which forecasts potential connections or relationships between nodes or entities within the network. Link prediction has found many applications, such as suggesting new connections to users in social networks, personalized recommendations in e-commerce, predicting new routes in transportation networks, and many others. This paper introduces a deep learning-based link prediction model in social networks by leveraging graphSAGE (graph sample and aggregation) and Variational Autoencoders (VAE). The proposed work starts by utilizing a graphSAGE to generate node embeddings of the input network by sampling and aggregating information from neighborhood nodes. The generated embeddings are sufficiently expressive to capture the local and global network structure. Further, we adopt VAE to learn a latent space representation of the graphSAGE embeddings. The VAE helps to refine the node embeddings and learn a meaningful latent space representation of the input data, which can be useful for the downstream link prediction task. The encoder’s output (latent space) can capture important features that aid link prediction. Finally, we train a logistic regression classifier using the latent representations from the VAE as features to predict the upcoming links in the network. The necessary hyperparameter studies are performed to obtain the optimal values of the various model parameters. The experiments and simulations conducted on eight different real-world network datasets illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed link prediction model. Additionally, we evaluate the average performance of each comparative link prediction method across all datasets to assess the efficacy of the proposed approach.

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Fatima Ziya- Conceptualization, Methodology, Visualization, Software, Investigation, Writing - original draft Sanjay Kumar- Conceptualization, Methodology, Visualization, Writing - Final Version.

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Ziya, F., Kumar, S. GSVAELP: integrating graphSAGE and variational autoencoder for link prediction. Multimed Tools Appl (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-024-20123-z

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Received : 04 November 2023

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Published : 31 August 2024

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-024-20123-z

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## Computer Science > Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition

Title: ensemble predicate decoding for unbiased scene graph generation.

Abstract: Scene Graph Generation (SGG) aims to generate a comprehensive graphical representation that accurately captures the semantic information of a given scenario. However, the SGG model's performance in predicting more fine-grained predicates is hindered by a significant predicate bias. According to existing works, the long-tail distribution of predicates in training data results in the biased scene graph. However, the semantic overlap between predicate categories makes predicate prediction difficult, and there is a significant difference in the sample size of semantically similar predicates, making the predicate prediction more difficult. Therefore, higher requirements are placed on the discriminative ability of the model. In order to address this problem, this paper proposes Ensemble Predicate Decoding (EPD), which employs multiple decoders to attain unbiased scene graph generation. Two auxiliary decoders trained on lower-frequency predicates are used to improve the discriminative ability of the model. Extensive experiments are conducted on the VG, and the experiment results show that EPD enhances the model's representation capability for predicates. In addition, we find that our approach ensures a relatively superior predictive capability for more frequent predicates compared to previous unbiased SGG methods.

Subjects: | Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (cs.CV) |

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## JSmol Viewer

Work route for the inclusion of learning analytics in the development of interactive multimedia experiences for elementary education.

## 1. Introduction

2. analytics in interactive multimedia experiences, 2.1. the role of ime in elementary education, 2.2. learning analytics guidelines, 2.3. work route to include la guidelines into ime, 3.1. case study, 3.1.1. methodology, 3.1.2. creation of work teams, 3.1.3. coco shapes, 3.1.4. evolution of coco shapes, 3.2. expert judgments, 4. results and discussion, 4.1. case study results, 4.1.1. application of guidelines to coco shapes, 4.1.2. results, 4.2. expert judgments results, 4.3. discussion, 5. conclusions, author contributions, institutional review board statement, informed consent statement, data availability statement, conflicts of interest.

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LAD1 | The dashboard must offer mechanisms for configuring the level of detail of the query results, such as, for example, in terms of the student, course, topic, activity, or learning objective. Filters are crucial for segmenting data; they should be easy to use and allow multiple selections to enable a comparative analysis [ ]. |

LAD2 | The dashboard should allow teachers to view the data distribution per student or course using various graph types (bar, point, line, heat maps, etc.). Teachers could assess student levels, compare courses, and analyze performance indicators. The X-axis should represent time for temporal data to ensure clarity and consistency. Graph selection should align with user preference and data nature. Effective data visualization simplifies user comprehension, facilitating effortless monitoring of learning objectives or activities [ ]. |

LAD3 | The graphics must be clear and differentiated. For example, in a pie chart, distinctive colors should be used for each section, and clear labels should be provided. For a scatter plot, the axes should be well-defined, and each point should be easily identifiable by hovering over it with the cursor [ ]. |

LAD4 | Implement interactive features like zooming the charts, clicking details, and dragging and selecting a group of points on the scatter chart to see more details [ ]. |

LAD5 | The dashboard should include clear, educationally relevant, performance indicators, such as pass rates, student progress (see guideline LAP3), and comparisons with benchmark averages. Recording data from the user’s interaction with the multimedia experience is important to allow for subsequent interventions and to monitor learning progress by teachers. |

LAD6 | Options should be provided for the user to export graphs or raw data so that managers or other stakeholders can perform an additional analysis or prepare reports outside the system [ ]. |

LAD7 | In a graph that includes a variable that can take different values, we recommend enabling the user to select values of interest to enable comparisons. For example, for a variable called “Level”, which can take four possible values (“Very high”, “High”, “Basic” and “Low”), the user should be able to select the level of interest to view it in greater detail. |

LAS1 | The IME must record the student’s name and grade, which are the minimum data needed to track their progress over time and compare it with the course average. The teacher can provide individualized feedback and specific assessments for each student by collecting identifying information. |

LAS2 | Good information-security practices must be implemented to ensure the user data’s privacy, integrity, and confidentiality. Mechanisms, such as removing addresses, personal identification numbers, dates of birth, or other characteristics that could be used to identify a person, must be applied. This aims to anonymize the data and comply with the relevant privacy regulations [ ]. In addition, users should be informed about the collected data, and their consent should be obtained where necessary. |

LAS3 | It is important to identify student learning problems before, during, or after interaction with the multimedia experience so that the experience can be adjusted to their learning pace through AI. Adaptive learning is based on the effort made by the student to complete subsets of exercises successfully and quickly. It should respect each student’s learning style and pace of work [ ]. |

LAS4 | Information about students’ interests, preferences, and culture should be recorded. This will allow the IME to capture their interest and align with their motivations. The digital content of the IME must include examples and situations that are relevant and attractive to students. |

LAS5 | Tools should gather data on students’ emotions during multimedia interactions, including facial expressions, verbal reactions, movements, or heart rates. Utilizing these data, teachers can employ algorithms or systems to categorize emotions like boredom, frustration, interest, or joy. Subsequently, teachers can tailor feedback, support, or incentives to students’ emotional states, fostering a positive learning environment. |

LAS6 | An IME should include stories and narratives that relate directly to students’ interests and contexts based on the data collected about their preferences and backgrounds. Story characters and virtual settings should reflect students’ expectations based on the demographic information collected. |

LAS7 | Data should be used to understand students’ sensory preferences and the multimedia experience should be designed around this information. In the design process, information must be obtained about what types of images, graphics, videos, or digital content interest users. |

LAT1 | The multimedia experience must include the teacher’s name and email address as the minimum mandatory data. Actions carried out by an administrator, such as creating a teacher account, assigning a course, or registering a new student in a course, will be notified via email. |

LAT2 | The pedagogical methodologies known to the teacher must be considered in the conception of an IME. Thus, a multimedia experience can encourage students’ active construction of knowledge by allowing them to explore, discover, and solve problems [ ]. |

LAT3 | The teacher should use the data recorded from the student’s interactions with the multimedia experience to offer personalized interventions or additional resources to students who may need additional support. |

LAA1 | Learning activities should log key data reflecting student performance, including (i) activity status (e.g., paused, canceled, or finished); (ii) error count, aiding teachers in diagnosing issues (e.g., lack of knowledge, inattention, or question complexity), (iii) correct answer count; (iv) obtained grade or score; (v) completion time, indicating concentration and interest; and (vi) difficulty level. These data inform and enhance teaching strategies. |

LAA2 | Based on student grades or scores, successes, and failures, we propose a scoring system (e.g., points, stars, badges, or other gamification methods) to boost motivation and engagement [ ]. Aligning scores with institutional performance levels (e.g., very high to low) enables teachers to assess student distribution across IME-defined levels. |

LAA3 | The most frequently viewed topics, modules, sections, or activities should be recorded, as well as the time spent on a topic/module. Knowledge of the options or sections that students explore through the IME allows the teacher to identify possible topics that interest the students or that are complex, which can be leveraged as part of their teaching strategy. |

LAA4 | We suggest recording the number of steps or stages of a completed activity so that the teacher can later identify specific points at which problems arise and adjust the teaching strategy accordingly. |

LAA5 | Data from student interactions with multimedia content, like videos, animations, simulations, and interactive images, should be captured. Metrics include video watch time, interaction frequency with elements, or reviewed content sections. These data allow teachers to monitor digital tools and content usage within the IME and assess their impact on comprehension and retention. |

LAA6 | We suggest allowing users to record feedback, comments, and evaluations of the learning activities. This information can enable the teacher to make changes to the teaching strategy and consider updating the design of the IME. This guideline is suggested to be applied to students trained to provide useful information. |

LAA7 | We suggest recording messages or chats between students during collaborative activities. Based on these data, the teacher can observe the frequency and duration of participation in collaborative activities and identify the exchange of ideas. |

LAA8 | LA should be used to provide relevant feedback and personalized recommendations to users. The collected data can be used to identify strengths, find opportunities for improvement, and adapt the learning experience to the individual needs of each user. In addition, feedback should be given to explain to students why their answer was wrong, and clues, as to how to carry out an activity, should be provided. |

LAA9 | Obtain data such as (i) the time spent viewing different visual elements and (ii) the frequency and duration of viewing specific elements. The learning activities of an IME should include a variety of digital content (text, audio, images, 2D and 3D animations, and virtual objects, among others) to address different learning styles [ ] and motor, visual, cognitive disabilities, etc. and allow students to access information in multiple ways. Digital content must be aligned with the learning objectives, and topics should be relevant and appropriate to the level of the students. |

LAA10 | Obtain student preferences and identify accessibility needs, as well as cultural traits. The digital content of learning activities should be suited to student preferences. It should be inclusive and accessible [ ] to everyone, considering different skill levels, aspects of gender, poverty, forced migration, functional differences, possible limitations, and cultural diversity [ ]. |

LAA11 | The learning activities of an IME should actively engage students and should encourage interaction with the content. They may include educational games, interactive questions, simulations, or problem-solving activities. |

LAA12 | Obtain data such as (i) the time spent listening to different audio or sound effects and (ii) the frequency of volume adjustment or changes to songs/sounds. Learning activities should integrate sound effects and music that complement and reinforce the presented concepts to stimulate positive emotions and maintain student interest. |

LAA13 | Obtain relevant data for the teacher, such as (i) participation in tactile activities, (ii) usage frequency of touch functions or physical interactions (e.g., drag and drop and clicks), (iii) navigation patterns across sections, indicating sensory and content preferences, and (iv) frequency of switching among presentation modes (e.g., images, videos, and text). Learning activities should include interactive touch elements (e.g., buttons, drag and drop, and touch interactions) to engage students. |

LAA14 | In learning activities, we suggest using technologies that allow for immersive sensory experiences, such as virtual or augmented reality. These technologies can enable students to explore three-dimensional environments or overlay digital information in the real world, significantly enriching the sensory experience. |

LAA15 | In learning activities, the possibility of offering multiple interaction styles (gesture, pressure, vibration, tangible interfaces, voice commands, or others) should be considered to adapt the system to students’ individual needs and preferences. |

LAP1 | Progress tracking over time is essential to discern long-term trends or improvements in student performance. Essential data per course include (i) schedule, (ii) duration, (iii) modules, (iv) completed modules (noting student progress or areas of delay), and (v) topics/modules. |

LAP2 | The time spent using the IME and the frequency at which students access it should be recorded. This information can indicate the student’s level of commitment and participation, since there is a correlation between the frequency of use of the resource and success in learning [ ]. |

LAP3 | Student performance and progress visualization are crucial. Teachers should track and compare students’ current and past performances. Detailed reporting and analysis are vital to pinpointing improvement areas and refining teaching methods. A dashboard, for instance, might display success and failure rates, student progress percentages, and course averages during the multimedia experience usage. Graphs, adhering to guideline LAD3, should depict student performance against course averages, aiding teachers in identifying teaching-strategy enhancement opportunities for underperforming students over time [ ]. |

LAP4 | Historical data on students’ learning activities, participation, performance, and progress in previous courses must be recorded and stored. These data should be available for analysis by teachers and administrators, allowing for a more complete understanding of student performance and learning patterns over time [ ]. |

Id | Activity | Description | Techniques |
---|---|---|---|

A1 | Define the purpose of applying learning analytics in the project. | The value purpose for which you want to apply LA in designing an IME is defined and associated with the project objectives. | - TLA1: Trend analysis. - TLA2: Convergence mapping. - TLA3: Value analysis. - TLA4: Interviews with stakeholders. - TLA5: Database of user observations. - TLA6: Identification of value tensions. - TLA7: Analysis of user responses. - TLA8: Identification of patterns. - TLA9: Identification of policies and regulations. - TLA10: Focus group. - TLA11: Definition of key performance indicators (KPI). |

A2 | Define the principles and guidelines of LA that meet the needs of the school’s stakeholders. | Define the set of LA guidelines that need to be applied to define the data and the people involved, as well as the mechanisms that guarantee the respect, responsibility, and transparency of the information and the specific questions you want to answer. | - TLA1: Trend analysis. - TLA2: Convergence mapping. - TLA3: Value analysis. - TLA4: Interviews with stakeholders. - TLA12: Surveys and questionnaires. - TLA13: Focus group. - TLA14: Observation and analysis of human beings’ cognitive, social, cultural, emotional, and physical aspects. |

A3 | Define the sources and types of the required data. | The source and nature of data required to apply the selected analytics guidelines must be defined based on them. These data can be quantitative or qualitative. Please take ethical and privacy considerations into account when collecting data. | - TLA4: Interviews with stakeholders. - TLA1: Trend analysis. - TLA7: Analysis of user responses. - TLA14: Observation and analysis of human beings’ cognitive, social, cultural, emotional, and physical aspects. - TLA5: Database of user observations. - TLA15: Historical data analysis. - TLA16: Educational Data Mining (EDM) - TLA17: Data-Driven Assessment (DDA) - TLA18: Social Network Analysis (SNA) - TLA19: Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). - TLA20: Text mining and sentiment analysis. - TLA21: Analysis of navigation and usage patterns. |

A4 | Produce the design and implementation of the IME. | The contents and interaction mechanics in the interactive multimedia experience must be designed or adapted for subsequent implementation so that the required data can be captured according to the selected guidelines. The data visualization elements required for review and feedback must also be implemented. | - TLA22: Production of metaphors and analogies. - TLA23: Storyboard creation - TLA24: Wireframe creation. - TLA25: Creation of the journey map for the multimedia experience. - TLA26: Prototype production of user behavior against the multimedia experience. - TLA27: Concept prototypes. |

A5 | Testing of the IME that incorporates LA guidelines. | A set of tests must be carried out related to the content, interaction mechanics, recovered data, and its visualization on the dashboard, as well as validating these elements with the stakeholders. | - TLA4: Interviews with stakeholders. - TLA12: Surveys and questionnaires. - TLA28: A/B Testing. - TLA29: Usability testing. - TLA30: Expert judgment. - TLA31: Unit tests. - TLA32: Component integration tests. - TLA33: Test of performance. - TLA34: Privacy and security evaluation. |

Guidelines | Perception Indicator (%) | |
---|---|---|

Usefulness | Clarity | |

Data Analytics Dashboard Guidelines | ||

LAD1 | 71.85 | 70.37 |

LAD2 | 70.37 | 68.15 |

LAD3 | 74.07 | 74.84 |

LAD4 | 71.11 | 69.63 |

LAD5 | 72.59 | 73.33 |

LAD6 | 69.63 | 69.63 |

LAD7 | 71.11 | 67.41 |

Guidelines related to students | ||

LAS1 | 74.07 | 75.56 |

LAS2 | 72.59 | 71.85 |

LAS3 | 74.07 | 74.07 |

LAS4 | 72.59 | 71.85 |

LAS5 | 71.11 | 71.85 |

LAS6 | 72.59 | 73.33 |

LAS7 | 69.63 | 68.89 |

Guidelines related to the teacher | ||

LAT1 | 69.63 | 73.33 |

LAT2 | 71.11 | 70.37 |

LAT3 | 71.85 | 71.11 |

Guidelines related to learning activities | ||

LAA1 | 71.11 | 66.67 |

LAA2 | 73.33 | 71.85 |

LAA3 | 74.81 | 73.33 |

LAA4 | 74.07 | 71.85 |

LAA5 | 71.85 | 74.81 |

LAA6 | 73.33 | 72.59 |

LAA7 | 70.37 | 74.07 |

LAA8 | 74.07 | 73.33 |

LAA9 | 67.41 | 69.63 |

LAA10 | 71.85 | 72.59 |

LAA11 | 71.85 | 71.85 |

LAA12 | 70.37 | 71.85 |

LAA13 | 68.89 | 70.37 |

LAA14 | 73.33 | 70.37 |

LAA15 | 71.85 | 69.63 |

Guidelines related to student progress | ||

LAP1 | 72.59 | 74.07 |

LAP2 | 68.15 | 71.11 |

LAP3 | 71.85 | 72.59 |

LAP4 | 73.33 | 74.07 |

General average | 71.78 | 71.72 |

Guidelines | Test Statistic (W) | p-Value |
---|---|---|

LAD | 33.5 | 0.27 |

LAS | 25 | 1.00 |

LAT | 3.5 | 0.83 |

LAA | 120.5 | 0.75 |

LAP | 4.5 | 0.38 |

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## Share and Cite

Solano, A.; Peláez, C.A.; Ospina, J.A.; Luna-García, H.; Parra, J.A.; Ramírez, G.M.; Moreira, F.; López Sotelo, J.A.; Villalba-Condori, K.O. Work Route for the Inclusion of Learning Analytics in the Development of Interactive Multimedia Experiences for Elementary Education. Appl. Sci. 2024 , 14 , 7645. https://doi.org/10.3390/app14177645

Solano A, Peláez CA, Ospina JA, Luna-García H, Parra JA, Ramírez GM, Moreira F, López Sotelo JA, Villalba-Condori KO. Work Route for the Inclusion of Learning Analytics in the Development of Interactive Multimedia Experiences for Elementary Education. Applied Sciences . 2024; 14(17):7645. https://doi.org/10.3390/app14177645

Solano, Andrés, Carlos Alberto Peláez, Johann A. Ospina, Huizilopoztli Luna-García, Jorge Andrick Parra, Gabriel Mauricio Ramírez, Fernando Moreira, Jesús Alfonso López Sotelo, and Klinge Orlando Villalba-Condori. 2024. "Work Route for the Inclusion of Learning Analytics in the Development of Interactive Multimedia Experiences for Elementary Education" Applied Sciences 14, no. 17: 7645. https://doi.org/10.3390/app14177645

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## Graphical Representation of Data

Graphical representation of data is an attractive method of showcasing numerical data that help in analyzing and representing quantitative data visually. A graph is a kind of a chart where data are plotted as variables across the coordinate. It became easy to analyze the extent of change of one variable based on the change of other variables. Graphical representation of data is done through different mediums such as lines, plots, diagrams, etc. Let us learn more about this interesting concept of graphical representation of data, the different types, and solve a few examples.

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## Definition of Graphical Representation of Data

A graphical representation is a visual representation of data statistics-based results using graphs, plots, and charts. This kind of representation is more effective in understanding and comparing data than seen in a tabular form. Graphical representation helps to qualify, sort, and present data in a method that is simple to understand for a larger audience. Graphs enable in studying the cause and effect relationship between two variables through both time series and frequency distribution. The data that is obtained from different surveying is infused into a graphical representation by the use of some symbols, such as lines on a line graph, bars on a bar chart, or slices of a pie chart. This visual representation helps in clarity, comparison, and understanding of numerical data.

## Representation of Data

The word data is from the Latin word Datum, which means something given. The numerical figures collected through a survey are called data and can be represented in two forms - tabular form and visual form through graphs. Once the data is collected through constant observations, it is arranged, summarized, and classified to finally represented in the form of a graph. There are two kinds of data - quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative data is more structured, continuous, and discrete with statistical data whereas qualitative is unstructured where the data cannot be analyzed.

## Principles of Graphical Representation of Data

The principles of graphical representation are algebraic. In a graph, there are two lines known as Axis or Coordinate axis. These are the X-axis and Y-axis. The horizontal axis is the X-axis and the vertical axis is the Y-axis. They are perpendicular to each other and intersect at O or point of Origin. On the right side of the Origin, the Xaxis has a positive value and on the left side, it has a negative value. In the same way, the upper side of the Origin Y-axis has a positive value where the down one is with a negative value. When -axis and y-axis intersect each other at the origin it divides the plane into four parts which are called Quadrant I, Quadrant II, Quadrant III, Quadrant IV. This form of representation is seen in a frequency distribution that is represented in four methods, namely Histogram, Smoothed frequency graph, Pie diagram or Pie chart, Cumulative or ogive frequency graph, and Frequency Polygon.

## Advantages and Disadvantages of Graphical Representation of Data

Listed below are some advantages and disadvantages of using a graphical representation of data:

- It improves the way of analyzing and learning as the graphical representation makes the data easy to understand.
- It can be used in almost all fields from mathematics to physics to psychology and so on.
- It is easy to understand for its visual impacts.
- It shows the whole and huge data in an instance.
- It is mainly used in statistics to determine the mean, median, and mode for different data

The main disadvantage of graphical representation of data is that it takes a lot of effort as well as resources to find the most appropriate data and then represent it graphically.

## Rules of Graphical Representation of Data

While presenting data graphically, there are certain rules that need to be followed. They are listed below:

- Suitable Title: The title of the graph should be appropriate that indicate the subject of the presentation.
- Measurement Unit: The measurement unit in the graph should be mentioned.
- Proper Scale: A proper scale needs to be chosen to represent the data accurately.
- Index: For better understanding, index the appropriate colors, shades, lines, designs in the graphs.
- Data Sources: Data should be included wherever it is necessary at the bottom of the graph.
- Simple: The construction of a graph should be easily understood.
- Neat: The graph should be visually neat in terms of size and font to read the data accurately.

## Uses of Graphical Representation of Data

The main use of a graphical representation of data is understanding and identifying the trends and patterns of the data. It helps in analyzing large quantities, comparing two or more data, making predictions, and building a firm decision. The visual display of data also helps in avoiding confusion and overlapping of any information. Graphs like line graphs and bar graphs, display two or more data clearly for easy comparison. This is important in communicating our findings to others and our understanding and analysis of the data.

## Types of Graphical Representation of Data

Data is represented in different types of graphs such as plots, pies, diagrams, etc. They are as follows,

Data Representation | Description |
---|---|

A group of data represented with rectangular bars with lengths proportional to the values is a . The bars can either be vertically or horizontally plotted. | |

The is a type of graph in which a circle is divided into Sectors where each sector represents a proportion of the whole. Two main formulas used in pie charts are: | |

The represents the data in a form of series that is connected with a straight line. These series are called markers. | |

Data shown in the form of pictures is a . Pictorial symbols for words, objects, or phrases can be represented with different numbers. | |

The is a type of graph where the diagram consists of rectangles, the area is proportional to the frequency of a variable and the width is equal to the class interval. Here is an example of a histogram. | |

The table in statistics showcases the data in ascending order along with their corresponding frequencies. The frequency of the data is often represented by f. | |

The is a way to represent quantitative data according to frequency ranges or frequency distribution. It is a graph that shows numerical data arranged in order. Each data value is broken into a stem and a leaf. | |

Scatter diagram or is a way of graphical representation by using Cartesian coordinates of two variables. The plot shows the relationship between two variables. |

## Related Topics

Listed below are a few interesting topics that are related to the graphical representation of data, take a look.

- x and y graph
- Frequency Polygon
- Cumulative Frequency

## Examples on Graphical Representation of Data

Example 1 : A pie chart is divided into 3 parts with the angles measuring as 2x, 8x, and 10x respectively. Find the value of x in degrees.

We know, the sum of all angles in a pie chart would give 360º as result. ⇒ 2x + 8x + 10x = 360º ⇒ 20 x = 360º ⇒ x = 360º/20 ⇒ x = 18º Therefore, the value of x is 18º.

Example 2: Ben is trying to read the plot given below. His teacher has given him stem and leaf plot worksheets. Can you help him answer the questions? i) What is the mode of the plot? ii) What is the mean of the plot? iii) Find the range.

Stem | Leaf |

1 | 2 4 |

2 | 1 5 8 |

3 | 2 4 6 |

5 | 0 3 4 4 |

6 | 2 5 7 |

8 | 3 8 9 |

9 | 1 |

Solution: i) Mode is the number that appears often in the data. Leaf 4 occurs twice on the plot against stem 5.

Hence, mode = 54

ii) The sum of all data values is 12 + 14 + 21 + 25 + 28 + 32 + 34 + 36 + 50 + 53 + 54 + 54 + 62 + 65 + 67 + 83 + 88 + 89 + 91 = 958

To find the mean, we have to divide the sum by the total number of values.

Mean = Sum of all data values ÷ 19 = 958 ÷ 19 = 50.42

iii) Range = the highest value - the lowest value = 91 - 12 = 79

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## Practice Questions on Graphical Representation of Data

Faqs on graphical representation of data, what is graphical representation.

Graphical representation is a form of visually displaying data through various methods like graphs, diagrams, charts, and plots. It helps in sorting, visualizing, and presenting data in a clear manner through different types of graphs. Statistics mainly use graphical representation to show data.

## What are the Different Types of Graphical Representation?

The different types of graphical representation of data are:

- Stem and leaf plot
- Scatter diagrams
- Frequency Distribution

## Is the Graphical Representation of Numerical Data?

Yes, these graphical representations are numerical data that has been accumulated through various surveys and observations. The method of presenting these numerical data is called a chart. There are different kinds of charts such as a pie chart, bar graph, line graph, etc, that help in clearly showcasing the data.

## What is the Use of Graphical Representation of Data?

Graphical representation of data is useful in clarifying, interpreting, and analyzing data plotting points and drawing line segments , surfaces, and other geometric forms or symbols.

## What are the Ways to Represent Data?

Tables, charts, and graphs are all ways of representing data, and they can be used for two broad purposes. The first is to support the collection, organization, and analysis of data as part of the process of a scientific study.

## What is the Objective of Graphical Representation of Data?

The main objective of representing data graphically is to display information visually that helps in understanding the information efficiently, clearly, and accurately. This is important to communicate the findings as well as analyze the data.

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Graphical Representation of Data

Graphical Representation of Data: Graphical Representation of Data,” where numbers and facts become lively pictures and colorful diagrams . Instead of staring at boring lists of numbers, we use fun charts, cool graphs, and interesting visuals to understand information better. In this exciting concept of data visualization, we’ll learn about different kinds of graphs, charts, and pictures that help us see patterns and stories hidden in data.

There is an entire branch in mathematics dedicated to dealing with collecting, analyzing, interpreting, and presenting numerical data in visual form in such a way that it becomes easy to understand and the data becomes easy to compare as well, the branch is known as Statistics .

The branch is widely spread and has a plethora of real-life applications such as Business Analytics, demography, Astro statistics, and so on . In this article, we have provided everything about the graphical representation of data, including its types, rules, advantages, etc.

Table of Content

## What is Graphical Representation

Types of graphical representations, line graphs, histograms , stem and leaf plot , box and whisker plot .

- Graphical Representations used in Maths

## Value-Based or Time Series Graphs

Frequency based, principles of graphical representations, advantages and disadvantages of using graphical system, general rules for graphical representation of data, frequency polygon, solved examples on graphical representation of data.

Graphics Representation is a way of representing any data in picturized form . It helps a reader to understand the large set of data very easily as it gives us various data patterns in visualized form.

There are two ways of representing data,

- Pictorial Representation through graphs.

They say, “A picture is worth a thousand words”. It’s always better to represent data in a graphical format. Even in Practical Evidence and Surveys, scientists have found that the restoration and understanding of any information is better when it is available in the form of visuals as Human beings process data better in visual form than any other form.

Does it increase the ability 2 times or 3 times? The answer is it increases the Power of understanding 60,000 times for a normal Human being, the fact is amusing and true at the same time.

Check: Graph and its representations

Comparison between different items is best shown with graphs, it becomes easier to compare the crux of the data about different items. Let’s look at all the different types of graphical representations briefly:

A line graph is used to show how the value of a particular variable changes with time. We plot this graph by connecting the points at different values of the variable. It can be useful for analyzing the trends in the data and predicting further trends.

A bar graph is a type of graphical representation of the data in which bars of uniform width are drawn with equal spacing between them on one axis (x-axis usually), depicting the variable. The values of the variables are represented by the height of the bars.

This is similar to bar graphs, but it is based frequency of numerical values rather than their actual values. The data is organized into intervals and the bars represent the frequency of the values in that range. That is, it counts how many values of the data lie in a particular range.

It is a plot that displays data as points and checkmarks above a number line, showing the frequency of the point.

This is a type of plot in which each value is split into a “leaf”(in most cases, it is the last digit) and “stem”(the other remaining digits). For example: the number 42 is split into leaf (2) and stem (4).

These plots divide the data into four parts to show their summary. They are more concerned about the spread, average, and median of the data.

It is a type of graph which represents the data in form of a circular graph. The circle is divided such that each portion represents a proportion of the whole.

## Graphical Representations used in Math’s

Graphs in Math are used to study the relationships between two or more variables that are changing. Statistical data can be summarized in a better way using graphs. There are basically two lines of thoughts of making graphs in maths:

- Value-Based or Time Series Graphs

These graphs allow us to study the change of a variable with respect to another variable within a given interval of time. The variables can be anything. Time Series graphs study the change of variable with time. They study the trends, periodic behavior, and patterns in the series. We are more concerned with the values of the variables here rather than the frequency of those values.

Example: Line Graph

These kinds of graphs are more concerned with the distribution of data. How many values lie between a particular range of the variables, and which range has the maximum frequency of the values. They are used to judge a spread and average and sometimes median of a variable under study.

Also read: Types of Statistical Data

- All types of graphical representations follow algebraic principles.
- When plotting a graph, there’s an origin and two axes.
- The x-axis is horizontal, and the y-axis is vertical.
- The axes divide the plane into four quadrants.
- The origin is where the axes intersect.
- Positive x-values are to the right of the origin; negative x-values are to the left.
- Positive y-values are above the x-axis; negative y-values are below.

- It gives us a summary of the data which is easier to look at and analyze.
- It saves time.
- We can compare and study more than one variable at a time.

## Disadvantages

- It usually takes only one aspect of the data and ignores the other. For example, A bar graph does not represent the mean, median, and other statistics of the data.
- Interpretation of graphs can vary based on individual perspectives, leading to subjective conclusions.
- Poorly constructed or misleading visuals can distort data interpretation and lead to incorrect conclusions.

Check : Diagrammatic and Graphic Presentation of Data

We should keep in mind some things while plotting and designing these graphs. The goal should be a better and clear picture of the data. Following things should be kept in mind while plotting the above graphs:

- Whenever possible, the data source must be mentioned for the viewer.
- Always choose the proper colors and font sizes. They should be chosen to keep in mind that the graphs should look neat.
- The measurement Unit should be mentioned in the top right corner of the graph.
- The proper scale should be chosen while making the graph, it should be chosen such that the graph looks accurate.
- Last but not the least, a suitable title should be chosen.

A frequency polygon is a graph that is constructed by joining the midpoint of the intervals. The height of the interval or the bin represents the frequency of the values that lie in that interval.

Question 1: What are different types of frequency-based plots?

Types of frequency-based plots: Histogram Frequency Polygon Box Plots

Question 2: A company with an advertising budget of Rs 10,00,00,000 has planned the following expenditure in the different advertising channels such as TV Advertisement, Radio, Facebook, Instagram, and Printed media. The table represents the money spent on different channels.

Draw a bar graph for the following data.

- Put each of the channels on the x-axis
- The height of the bars is decided by the value of each channel.

Question 3: Draw a line plot for the following data

- Put each of the x-axis row value on the x-axis
- joint the value corresponding to the each value of the x-axis.

Question 4: Make a frequency plot of the following data:

- Draw the class intervals on the x-axis and frequencies on the y-axis.
- Calculate the midpoint of each class interval.

Class Interval | Mid Point | Frequency |

0-3 | 1.5 | 3 |

3-6 | 4.5 | 4 |

6-9 | 7.5 | 2 |

9-12 | 10.5 | 6 |

Now join the mid points of the intervals and their corresponding frequencies on the graph.

This graph shows both the histogram and frequency polygon for the given distribution.

## Related Article:

Graphical Representation of Data| Practical Work in Geography Class 12 What are the different ways of Data Representation What are the different ways of Data Representation? Charts and Graphs for Data Visualization

## Conclusion of Graphical Representation

Graphical representation is a powerful tool for understanding data, but it’s essential to be aware of its limitations. While graphs and charts can make information easier to grasp, they can also be subjective, complex, and potentially misleading . By using graphical representations wisely and critically, we can extract valuable insights from data, empowering us to make informed decisions with confidence.

## Graphical Representation of Data – FAQs

What are the advantages of using graphs to represent data.

Graphs offer visualization, clarity, and easy comparison of data, aiding in outlier identification and predictive analysis.

## What are the common types of graphs used for data representation?

Common graph types include bar, line, pie, histogram, and scatter plots , each suited for different data representations and analysis purposes.

## How do you choose the most appropriate type of graph for your data?

Select a graph type based on data type, analysis objective, and audience familiarity to effectively convey information and insights.

## How do you create effective labels and titles for graphs?

Use descriptive titles, clear axis labels with units, and legends to ensure the graph communicates information clearly and concisely.

## How do you interpret graphs to extract meaningful insights from data?

Interpret graphs by examining trends, identifying outliers, comparing data across categories, and considering the broader context to draw meaningful insights and conclusions.

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## Graphical Representation

Graphical Representation is a way of analysing numerical data. It exhibits the relation between data, ideas, information and concepts in a diagram. It is easy to understand and it is one of the most important learning strategies. It always depends on the type of information in a particular domain. There are different types of graphical representation. Some of them are as follows:

- Line Graphs – Line graph or the linear graph is used to display the continuous data and it is useful for predicting future events over time.
- Bar Graphs – Bar Graph is used to display the category of data and it compares the data using solid bars to represent the quantities.
- Histograms – The graph that uses bars to represent the frequency of numerical data that are organised into intervals. Since all the intervals are equal and continuous, all the bars have the same width.
- Line Plot – It shows the frequency of data on a given number line. ‘ x ‘ is placed above a number line each time when that data occurs again.
- Frequency Table – The table shows the number of pieces of data that falls within the given interval.
- Circle Graph – Also known as the pie chart that shows the relationships of the parts of the whole. The circle is considered with 100% and the categories occupied is represented with that specific percentage like 15%, 56%, etc.
- Stem and Leaf Plot – In the stem and leaf plot, the data are organised from least value to the greatest value. The digits of the least place values from the leaves and the next place value digit forms the stems.
- Box and Whisker Plot – The plot diagram summarises the data by dividing into four parts. Box and whisker show the range (spread) and the middle ( median) of the data.

## General Rules for Graphical Representation of Data

There are certain rules to effectively present the information in the graphical representation. They are:

- Suitable Title: Make sure that the appropriate title is given to the graph which indicates the subject of the presentation.
- Measurement Unit: Mention the measurement unit in the graph.
- Proper Scale: To represent the data in an accurate manner, choose a proper scale.
- Index: Index the appropriate colours, shades, lines, design in the graphs for better understanding.
- Data Sources: Include the source of information wherever it is necessary at the bottom of the graph.
- Keep it Simple: Construct a graph in an easy way that everyone can understand.
- Neat: Choose the correct size, fonts, colours etc in such a way that the graph should be a visual aid for the presentation of information.

## Graphical Representation in Maths

In Mathematics, a graph is defined as a chart with statistical data, which are represented in the form of curves or lines drawn across the coordinate point plotted on its surface. It helps to study the relationship between two variables where it helps to measure the change in the variable amount with respect to another variable within a given interval of time. It helps to study the series distribution and frequency distribution for a given problem. There are two types of graphs to visually depict the information. They are:

- Time Series Graphs – Example: Line Graph
- Frequency Distribution Graphs – Example: Frequency Polygon Graph

## Principles of Graphical Representation

Algebraic principles are applied to all types of graphical representation of data. In graphs, it is represented using two lines called coordinate axes. The horizontal axis is denoted as the x-axis and the vertical axis is denoted as the y-axis. The point at which two lines intersect is called an origin ‘O’. Consider x-axis, the distance from the origin to the right side will take a positive value and the distance from the origin to the left side will take a negative value. Similarly, for the y-axis, the points above the origin will take a positive value, and the points below the origin will a negative value.

Generally, the frequency distribution is represented in four methods, namely

- Smoothed frequency graph
- Pie diagram
- Cumulative or ogive frequency graph
- Frequency Polygon

## Merits of Using Graphs

Some of the merits of using graphs are as follows:

- The graph is easily understood by everyone without any prior knowledge.
- It saves time
- It allows us to relate and compare the data for different time periods
- It is used in statistics to determine the mean, median and mode for different data, as well as in the interpolation and the extrapolation of data.

## Example for Frequency polygonGraph

Here are the steps to follow to find the frequency distribution of a frequency polygon and it is represented in a graphical way.

- Obtain the frequency distribution and find the midpoints of each class interval.
- Represent the midpoints along x-axis and frequencies along the y-axis.
- Plot the points corresponding to the frequency at each midpoint.
- Join these points, using lines in order.
- To complete the polygon, join the point at each end immediately to the lower or higher class marks on the x-axis.

Draw the frequency polygon for the following data

10-20 | 20-30 | 30-40 | 40-50 | 50-60 | 60-70 | 70-80 | 80-90 | |

4 | 6 | 8 | 10 | 12 | 14 | 7 | 5 |

Mark the class interval along x-axis and frequencies along the y-axis.

Let assume that class interval 0-10 with frequency zero and 90-100 with frequency zero.

Now calculate the midpoint of the class interval.

0-10 | 5 | 0 |

10-20 | 15 | 4 |

20-30 | 25 | 6 |

30-40 | 35 | 8 |

40-50 | 45 | 10 |

50-60 | 55 | 12 |

60-70 | 65 | 14 |

70-80 | 75 | 7 |

80-90 | 85 | 5 |

90-100 | 95 | 0 |

Using the midpoint and the frequency value from the above table, plot the points A (5, 0), B (15, 4), C (25, 6), D (35, 8), E (45, 10), F (55, 12), G (65, 14), H (75, 7), I (85, 5) and J (95, 0).

To obtain the frequency polygon ABCDEFGHIJ, draw the line segments AB, BC, CD, DE, EF, FG, GH, HI, IJ, and connect all the points.

## Frequently Asked Questions

What are the different types of graphical representation.

Some of the various types of graphical representation include:

- Line Graphs
- Frequency Table
- Circle Graph, etc.

Read More: Types of Graphs

## What are the Advantages of Graphical Method?

Some of the advantages of graphical representation are:

- It makes data more easily understandable.
- It saves time.
- It makes the comparison of data more efficient.

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Very useful for understand the basic concepts in simple and easy way. Its very useful to all students whether they are school students or college sudents

Thanks very much for the information

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## 17 Data Visualization Techniques All Professionals Should Know

- 17 Sep 2019

There’s a growing demand for business analytics and data expertise in the workforce. But you don’t need to be a professional analyst to benefit from data-related skills.

Becoming skilled at common data visualization techniques can help you reap the rewards of data-driven decision-making , including increased confidence and potential cost savings. Learning how to effectively visualize data could be the first step toward using data analytics and data science to your advantage to add value to your organization.

Several data visualization techniques can help you become more effective in your role. Here are 17 essential data visualization techniques all professionals should know, as well as tips to help you effectively present your data.

Access your free e-book today.

## What Is Data Visualization?

Data visualization is the process of creating graphical representations of information. This process helps the presenter communicate data in a way that’s easy for the viewer to interpret and draw conclusions.

There are many different techniques and tools you can leverage to visualize data, so you want to know which ones to use and when. Here are some of the most important data visualization techniques all professionals should know.

## Data Visualization Techniques

The type of data visualization technique you leverage will vary based on the type of data you’re working with, in addition to the story you’re telling with your data .

Here are some important data visualization techniques to know:

- Gantt Chart
- Box and Whisker Plot
- Waterfall Chart
- Scatter Plot
- Pictogram Chart
- Highlight Table
- Bullet Graph
- Choropleth Map
- Network Diagram
- Correlation Matrices

## 1. Pie Chart

Pie charts are one of the most common and basic data visualization techniques, used across a wide range of applications. Pie charts are ideal for illustrating proportions, or part-to-whole comparisons.

Because pie charts are relatively simple and easy to read, they’re best suited for audiences who might be unfamiliar with the information or are only interested in the key takeaways. For viewers who require a more thorough explanation of the data, pie charts fall short in their ability to display complex information.

## 2. Bar Chart

The classic bar chart , or bar graph, is another common and easy-to-use method of data visualization. In this type of visualization, one axis of the chart shows the categories being compared, and the other, a measured value. The length of the bar indicates how each group measures according to the value.

One drawback is that labeling and clarity can become problematic when there are too many categories included. Like pie charts, they can also be too simple for more complex data sets.

## 3. Histogram

Unlike bar charts, histograms illustrate the distribution of data over a continuous interval or defined period. These visualizations are helpful in identifying where values are concentrated, as well as where there are gaps or unusual values.

Histograms are especially useful for showing the frequency of a particular occurrence. For instance, if you’d like to show how many clicks your website received each day over the last week, you can use a histogram. From this visualization, you can quickly determine which days your website saw the greatest and fewest number of clicks.

## 4. Gantt Chart

Gantt charts are particularly common in project management, as they’re useful in illustrating a project timeline or progression of tasks. In this type of chart, tasks to be performed are listed on the vertical axis and time intervals on the horizontal axis. Horizontal bars in the body of the chart represent the duration of each activity.

Utilizing Gantt charts to display timelines can be incredibly helpful, and enable team members to keep track of every aspect of a project. Even if you’re not a project management professional, familiarizing yourself with Gantt charts can help you stay organized.

## 5. Heat Map

A heat map is a type of visualization used to show differences in data through variations in color. These charts use color to communicate values in a way that makes it easy for the viewer to quickly identify trends. Having a clear legend is necessary in order for a user to successfully read and interpret a heatmap.

There are many possible applications of heat maps. For example, if you want to analyze which time of day a retail store makes the most sales, you can use a heat map that shows the day of the week on the vertical axis and time of day on the horizontal axis. Then, by shading in the matrix with colors that correspond to the number of sales at each time of day, you can identify trends in the data that allow you to determine the exact times your store experiences the most sales.

## 6. A Box and Whisker Plot

A box and whisker plot , or box plot, provides a visual summary of data through its quartiles. First, a box is drawn from the first quartile to the third of the data set. A line within the box represents the median. “Whiskers,” or lines, are then drawn extending from the box to the minimum (lower extreme) and maximum (upper extreme). Outliers are represented by individual points that are in-line with the whiskers.

This type of chart is helpful in quickly identifying whether or not the data is symmetrical or skewed, as well as providing a visual summary of the data set that can be easily interpreted.

## 7. Waterfall Chart

A waterfall chart is a visual representation that illustrates how a value changes as it’s influenced by different factors, such as time. The main goal of this chart is to show the viewer how a value has grown or declined over a defined period. For example, waterfall charts are popular for showing spending or earnings over time.

## 8. Area Chart

An area chart , or area graph, is a variation on a basic line graph in which the area underneath the line is shaded to represent the total value of each data point. When several data series must be compared on the same graph, stacked area charts are used.

This method of data visualization is useful for showing changes in one or more quantities over time, as well as showing how each quantity combines to make up the whole. Stacked area charts are effective in showing part-to-whole comparisons.

## 9. Scatter Plot

Another technique commonly used to display data is a scatter plot . A scatter plot displays data for two variables as represented by points plotted against the horizontal and vertical axis. This type of data visualization is useful in illustrating the relationships that exist between variables and can be used to identify trends or correlations in data.

Scatter plots are most effective for fairly large data sets, since it’s often easier to identify trends when there are more data points present. Additionally, the closer the data points are grouped together, the stronger the correlation or trend tends to be.

## 10. Pictogram Chart

Pictogram charts , or pictograph charts, are particularly useful for presenting simple data in a more visual and engaging way. These charts use icons to visualize data, with each icon representing a different value or category. For example, data about time might be represented by icons of clocks or watches. Each icon can correspond to either a single unit or a set number of units (for example, each icon represents 100 units).

In addition to making the data more engaging, pictogram charts are helpful in situations where language or cultural differences might be a barrier to the audience’s understanding of the data.

## 11. Timeline

Timelines are the most effective way to visualize a sequence of events in chronological order. They’re typically linear, with key events outlined along the axis. Timelines are used to communicate time-related information and display historical data.

Timelines allow you to highlight the most important events that occurred, or need to occur in the future, and make it easy for the viewer to identify any patterns appearing within the selected time period. While timelines are often relatively simple linear visualizations, they can be made more visually appealing by adding images, colors, fonts, and decorative shapes.

## 12. Highlight Table

A highlight table is a more engaging alternative to traditional tables. By highlighting cells in the table with color, you can make it easier for viewers to quickly spot trends and patterns in the data. These visualizations are useful for comparing categorical data.

Depending on the data visualization tool you’re using, you may be able to add conditional formatting rules to the table that automatically color cells that meet specified conditions. For instance, when using a highlight table to visualize a company’s sales data, you may color cells red if the sales data is below the goal, or green if sales were above the goal. Unlike a heat map, the colors in a highlight table are discrete and represent a single meaning or value.

## 13. Bullet Graph

A bullet graph is a variation of a bar graph that can act as an alternative to dashboard gauges to represent performance data. The main use for a bullet graph is to inform the viewer of how a business is performing in comparison to benchmarks that are in place for key business metrics.

In a bullet graph, the darker horizontal bar in the middle of the chart represents the actual value, while the vertical line represents a comparative value, or target. If the horizontal bar passes the vertical line, the target for that metric has been surpassed. Additionally, the segmented colored sections behind the horizontal bar represent range scores, such as “poor,” “fair,” or “good.”

## 14. Choropleth Maps

A choropleth map uses color, shading, and other patterns to visualize numerical values across geographic regions. These visualizations use a progression of color (or shading) on a spectrum to distinguish high values from low.

Choropleth maps allow viewers to see how a variable changes from one region to the next. A potential downside to this type of visualization is that the exact numerical values aren’t easily accessible because the colors represent a range of values. Some data visualization tools, however, allow you to add interactivity to your map so the exact values are accessible.

## 15. Word Cloud

A word cloud , or tag cloud, is a visual representation of text data in which the size of the word is proportional to its frequency. The more often a specific word appears in a dataset, the larger it appears in the visualization. In addition to size, words often appear bolder or follow a specific color scheme depending on their frequency.

Word clouds are often used on websites and blogs to identify significant keywords and compare differences in textual data between two sources. They are also useful when analyzing qualitative datasets, such as the specific words consumers used to describe a product.

## 16. Network Diagram

Network diagrams are a type of data visualization that represent relationships between qualitative data points. These visualizations are composed of nodes and links, also called edges. Nodes are singular data points that are connected to other nodes through edges, which show the relationship between multiple nodes.

There are many use cases for network diagrams, including depicting social networks, highlighting the relationships between employees at an organization, or visualizing product sales across geographic regions.

## 17. Correlation Matrix

A correlation matrix is a table that shows correlation coefficients between variables. Each cell represents the relationship between two variables, and a color scale is used to communicate whether the variables are correlated and to what extent.

Correlation matrices are useful to summarize and find patterns in large data sets. In business, a correlation matrix might be used to analyze how different data points about a specific product might be related, such as price, advertising spend, launch date, etc.

## Other Data Visualization Options

While the examples listed above are some of the most commonly used techniques, there are many other ways you can visualize data to become a more effective communicator. Some other data visualization options include:

- Bubble clouds
- Circle views
- Dendrograms
- Dot distribution maps
- Open-high-low-close charts
- Polar areas
- Radial trees
- Ring Charts
- Sankey diagram
- Span charts
- Streamgraphs
- Wedge stack graphs
- Violin plots

## Tips For Creating Effective Visualizations

Creating effective data visualizations requires more than just knowing how to choose the best technique for your needs. There are several considerations you should take into account to maximize your effectiveness when it comes to presenting data.

Related : What to Keep in Mind When Creating Data Visualizations in Excel

One of the most important steps is to evaluate your audience. For example, if you’re presenting financial data to a team that works in an unrelated department, you’ll want to choose a fairly simple illustration. On the other hand, if you’re presenting financial data to a team of finance experts, it’s likely you can safely include more complex information.

Another helpful tip is to avoid unnecessary distractions. Although visual elements like animation can be a great way to add interest, they can also distract from the key points the illustration is trying to convey and hinder the viewer’s ability to quickly understand the information.

Finally, be mindful of the colors you utilize, as well as your overall design. While it’s important that your graphs or charts are visually appealing, there are more practical reasons you might choose one color palette over another. For instance, using low contrast colors can make it difficult for your audience to discern differences between data points. Using colors that are too bold, however, can make the illustration overwhelming or distracting for the viewer.

Related : Bad Data Visualization: 5 Examples of Misleading Data

## Visuals to Interpret and Share Information

No matter your role or title within an organization, data visualization is a skill that’s important for all professionals. Being able to effectively present complex data through easy-to-understand visual representations is invaluable when it comes to communicating information with members both inside and outside your business.

There’s no shortage in how data visualization can be applied in the real world. Data is playing an increasingly important role in the marketplace today, and data literacy is the first step in understanding how analytics can be used in business.

Are you interested in improving your analytical skills? Learn more about Business Analytics , our eight-week online course that can help you use data to generate insights and tackle business decisions.

This post was updated on January 20, 2022. It was originally published on September 17, 2019.

## About the Author

## What Is Data Visualization and Why Is It Important?

The sheer amount of data generated today means we need new ways to understand what’s happening in order to take action faster. Every click, transaction, subscription, loyalty card swipe, and social media interaction contributes to a digital footprint that continues to grow exponentially. The result? A massive explosion of data that is revolutionizing the way we live and work. Data visualization, in particular, plays a critical role in presenting data in a meaningful and understandable format. By using a visual representation of data , it’s much easier to identify patterns, trends, and relationships that may not be immediately apparent when sifting through large data sets.

Here’s what we’ll cover in this guide to data visualization:

- Data Visualization Definition

## Benefits of Data Visualization

Why data visualization is important .

- Types of Data Visualization and Examples
- Evaluating Data Visualization Tools
- Take the Next Step and Start Analyzing With Data Visualization

## Data Visualization Definition

Data visualization is the process of transforming raw data into visual formats, such as charts, graphs, or maps, to help identify patterns, trends, and insights that might not be apparent from numerical data alone.

Additionally, it enables data to be more accessible, understandable, and impactful, especially when communicating with stakeholders, investors, or team members who may not be familiar with the data.

For example, data visualization could help:

- In retail, gaining insights into customer behavior, purchase patterns, and product performance.
- In finance, monitoring market trends, tracking portfolio performance, and conducting risk analysis.
- In public health, showing the geographical distribution of outbreaks and helping track the spread of infectious diseases.
- In supply chain industries, tracking inventory levels, monitoring logistics operations, and optimizing resource allocation.
- In sports, evaluating player performance, game strategies, and match statistics.
- In education, tracking student performance, analyzing learning outcomes, and identifying areas for improvement.

Data visualization has several benefits for businesses including: the ability to process information faster, identify trends at scale, and make data more digestible. Companies regularly use data to make decisions, and through data visualization, can find insights quickly and move to action. Data visualization specifically helps with the following:

- Visualizing patterns and relationships
- Storytelling, including specifically data storytelling
- Accessibility to information

## Exploration

Let’s take a look at each of these benefits in detail.

## Visualize patterns and relationships

Data visualization constitutes an excellent method for the discernment of interconnections and patterns amidst vast collections of information. For example, a scatter plot can be used to display the relationship between two variables, such as the correlation between temperature and sales. This enables users to understand the relationship and identify trends and outliers more quickly and easily.

Read a guide of Sigma’s visual library.

## Storytelling

Your audience, whether it's coworkers or clients, want to hear a coherent story from your data. Storytelling with data cannot be done successfully without visualizations. Colorful charting and dynamic pivots are just as important as characters and plots are in a traditional story, so using them to communicate information makes data that much more engaging and memorable for audiences. Data can be complex and convoluted for some audiences, so data storytelling is an approach to convey important information effectively through a captivating narrative. Good visualizations are a vital part of that narrative.

For example, if an analyst is investigating the performance of e-commerce sales for their retail company over time, they may leverage several data sources such as spreadsheets, calculations, code, etc. to do so. However, when they report these new insights to their stakeholders, the analyst will need to summarize and communicate their findings in a digestible way.

An easy way the analyst could do this is by using the data to create a map of the U.S. with a color gradient overlaying every state that is lighter or darker based on its total sales volume. This visual story tells the least and most successful retail locations at a glance.

## Accessibility / Easily Share Information

Data visualization serves as an invaluable mechanism for the facilitation of accessibility, allowing for the communication of information amongst individuals, even for those who may not usually engage with data , which broadens the audience.

Visualizations help simplify complex information by leveraging people’s ability to naturally recognize patterns. A viewer typically does not have to be taught that bigger means more and that smaller means less. In a case where an analyst wants to highlight the difference in scale between one product’s profitability vs. another, a bar chart can clearly show the user which product is more profitable and by how much, making it easy for even non-technical team members to understand and compare the performance of different products.

Exploration is a key component of successful data visualization. The more flexible charting and dashboarding is, the more follow-up questions end users can ask directly of their data. For example, an interactive dashboard can be used to explore retail sales data over time, enabling users to filter and drill down into the data to identify trends and patterns.

Data visualization exploration is often associated with the concept of “drill downs.” Drill downs in data visualization refer to the process of starting with an overview of data and then narrowing the focus to more specific aspects of it. As an example, one might start with a visualization of global climate data and drill down to data about a specific country, a specific state, a specific city, or even a specific neighborhood within that city. Each drill down reveals more precise, detailed, and nuanced information.

The main goal of data visualization is that it helps unify and bring teams onto the same page. The human mind is wired to grasp visual information more effortlessly than raw data in spreadsheets or detailed reports. Thus, graphical representation of voluminous and intricate data is more user-friendly. Data visualization offers a swift and straightforward method to communicate ideas in a universally understood format, with the added benefit of enabling scenario testing through minor modifications.

By translating information into visual form, it ensures everyone, irrespective of the complexity of the data or the depth of the analysis, can share a unified understanding. Any industry can benefit from using data visualization, because pretty much every industry relies on data to power it. That includes finance, marketing, consumer goods, education, government, sports, history, and many more. Another thing to keep in mind is that data visualization can be a double-edged sword. For example, charts can be manipulated and skewed to force a desired outcome. Ungoverned, static, desktop tools can become the wild west in suggesting an inaccurate outcome “proven by data.” Even in the cases where the visualization builder is acting in good faith, there are still pitfalls to watch out for. Always be considerate of:

- Individual outliers having an outsized impact, skewing the visual direction of a chart
- The need for for business users to see the underlying data
- Allowing for transparency down to row-level detail in data sets

## Types of Data Visualizations & Examples

There is a long list of types of data visualization techniques and methods that can be used to represent data. While no type of data visualization is perfect, we’ll walk through different examples and when to apply each one.

We’ll be looking at:

- Line charts and area charts
- Scatter plots
- Pivot tables
- Box-and-whisker plots
- Sankey charts

Tables, although more commonly thought of as a data source, can also be considered a type of data visualization. Especially when conditional formatting is applied to the table’s rows and columns, the data within the table becomes more visually engaging and informative. With conditional formatting, important insights and patterns can be highlighted, making it easier for viewers to identify trends and outliers at a glance. Additionally, tables offer a structured and organized way to present information, allowing for a comprehensive comparison of data points, which further enhances data understanding and analysis. For example, Sigma’s UI is based on a spreadsheet-like interface, which means almost everything in Sigma begins in a table format. That said, you can also create visual tables that display a smaller amount of data in order to tell a clearer story. In data visualization, tables are a simplified way of representing this interface.

When to use tables:

- For detailed numeric comparisons, or when precision of data is key
- For displaying multidimensional data; tables can handle this complexity quite well

When to avoid tables:

- When patterns, trends, or relationships need to be highlighted at a glance
- When dealing with large amounts of data

Pie charts —similar to stacked bar charts—are useful for displaying categorical data, such as market share or customer demographics. Pie charts are often used to display data that can be divided into categories or subgroups, and to show how each category or subgroup contributes to the whole. For example, a pie chart could be used to show the proportion of sales for different product categories in a given period of time, or the percent of a company's revenue broken down by various regions.

When to use pie charts:

- You want to display a proportion or percentage of a whole
- You’re visualizing only seven categories or less

When to avoid pie charts:

- You’re visualizing more than seven categories
- You want to compare something with more details, rather than just proportion
- You want to display and pinpoint exact values

A bar chart, or bar graph, constitutes a variety of graphs that employ rectangular bars to depict data. These bars can be oriented either horizontally or vertically, with their extent being directly proportional to the numerical values they are intended to embody. Predominantly utilized for juxtaposing data across disparate categories or illustrating shifts in data over temporal progressions, bar charts offer a straightforward, yet potent means of conveying information visually. They frequently function as the initial tool in the exploratory process of data investigation.

When to use bar charts:

- Emphasizing and contrasting different sets of data, making the disparities or similarities between categories clear
- To display a subset of a larger dataset

When to avoid bar charts:

- When a particular field encompasses an overwhelming variety of data types
- When the differences between fields are too subtle, or when these differences exist on different scales, as it could lead to confusion or misinterpretation

## Line Charts & Area Charts

Line charts and area charts are two types of charts that are commonly used to visualize data trends over time. A line chart, also called a line graph, is a distinct type of graphical representation that exhibits information in the form of a multitude of data points, which are interconnected by unbroken lines. These line charts are typically employed to demonstrate transformations in data over a certain duration, where the horizontal axis symbolizes time, and the vertical axis signifies the values under scrutiny. Furthermore, they can serve to juxtapose several series of data within the same chart, or to graphically illustrate predicted time periods.

For example, a line chart can be used to visualize a company's stock prices over the course of a year. Similarly, an area chart can be used to visualize the temperature changes over a day.

When to use line charts:

- When you’re displaying time-based continuous data
- When you have multiple series or larger datasets

When to avoid line charts:

- When you have smaller datasets, bar charts are likely a better way to present the information
- Avoid when you need to compare multiple categories at once

When to use area charts:

- When you want to display the volume of the data you have
- When comparing data across more than one time period

When to avoid area charts:

- Avoid if you need to compare multiple categories, as well as when you need to examine the specific data value

## Scatter Plots

A scatter plot , also called a scatter chart or scatter graph, is a specialized form of chart that demonstrates the correlation between two distinct variables by mapping them as a succession of individual data points. Each data point denotes a combined value of the two variables, with its specific placement within the chart dictated by these values.

Scatter charts prove instrumental in discerning patterns and trends within data, and they also help us understand how strong and in what direction the relationship is between two variables. They also serve as effective tools for identifying outliers, or those data points that deviate significantly from anticipated values based on the pattern displayed by other data points. These charts find widespread use across a range of fields including, but not limited to, statistics, engineering, and social sciences, for the purpose of analyzing and visualizing intricate data sets. In the realm of business, they are frequently utilized to identify correlations between different variables, for instance, examining the relationship between marketing outlays and resultant sales revenue. For example, a scatter plot might be used to visualize the relationship between the age and income of a group of people. Another example would be to plot the correlation between the amount of rainfall and the crop yield for a particular region.

When to use scatter plots:

- Highlight correlations within your data
- They are useful tools for statistical investigations
- Consider scatter plots to reveal underlying patterns or trends

When to avoid scatter plots:

- For smaller datasets, scatter plots may not be optimal
- Avoid scatter plots for excessively large datasets to prevent unintelligible data clustering
- If your data lacks correlations, scatter plots may not be the best choice

## Pivot Tables

While pivot tables may not be what first comes to mind for data visualization, they can give important context with hard numbers and provide strong visual indicators through formatting. Pivot tables can also be enhanced with conditional formatting to provide color scales that make performance trends more visible. Data bars can also be added to cells to run either red or green for positive and negative values.

When to Use Pivot Tables:

- Cohort analysis performance trends or portfolio analysis with a mix of positive and negative values

What Not to Use Pivot Tables:

- When your dataset is too large to get a good understanding of the whole
- When data can easily be summarized with a bar chart instead

An example of a pivot table, where colors are used to show positive or negative progress on a company’s portfolio. The user can pivot the table to show multiple categories in different ways.

A heat map is a type of chart that uses color to represent data values. It is often used to visualize data that is organized in a matrix or table format. The color of each cell in the matrix is determined by the value of the corresponding data point. Heat maps are best used when analyzing data that is organized in a two-dimensional grid or matrix.

For example, a heat map can be used to visualize a company's website traffic, where the rows represent different pages on the website, and the columns represent different periods of time.

When to use heat maps:

- When you need to visualize the density or intensity of variables
- When you want to display patterns or trends over time or space

When to avoid heat maps:

- When precise values are needed; heat maps are better at showing relative differences rather than precise values
- When working with small data sets

A tree map is a type of chart that is used to visualize hierarchical data. It consists of a series of nested rectangles, where the size and color of each rectangle represent a different variable. Tree maps are best used when analyzing data that has a hierarchical structure.

For example, a tree map can be used to visualize the market share of different companies in an industry. The largest rectangle would represent the entire industry, with smaller rectangles representing the market share of each individual company.

When to use tree maps:

- When you want to visualize hierarchical data
- When you need to illustrate the proportion of different categories within a whole

When to avoid tree maps:

- When exact values are important
- When there are too many categories

## Box-and-Whisker Plots

Box plots are useful for quickly summarizing the distribution of a dataset, particularly its central tendency and variability. For example, a box-and-whisker plot can be used to visualize the test scores of a group of students.

Colloquially recognized as a box-and-whisker plot, a box plot is a distinct form of chart that showcases the distribution of a collection of numerical data through its quartile divisions. Box plots serve as efficient tools for rapidly encapsulating the distribution of a dataset, specifically its central propensity and variability.

A box-and-whisker plot consists of a rectangle (the "box") and a pair of "whiskers" that extend from it. The box embodies the middle 50% of the data, with the lower boundary of the box signaling the first quartile (25th percentile) and the upper boundary of the box indicating the third quartile (75th percentile). The line situated within the box signifies the median value of the data. The whiskers project from the box to the minimum and maximum values of the data, or to a designated distance from the box referred to as the "fences." Any data points that reside outside the whiskers or fences are categorized as outliers and are plotted as individual points. When to use box plot charts:

- When you want to display data spread and skewness
- When showcasing the distribution of data, including the range, quartiles, and potential outliers
- When comparing multiple groups or categories side-by-side; they allow for easy comparison of different distributions.

When to avoid box plot charts:

- If you need to show more detail, since box plots focus on a high-level summary
- When individual data points are important to the story you’re telling
- When your audience isn’t familiar with them, since they can sometimes be less intuitive than other types of visualizations

A histogram is a type of chart that displays the distribution of a dataset. It consists of a series of vertical bars, where the height of each bar represents the number of observations in a particular range. Histograms are best used when analyzing continuous data. It’s used the most when you want to understand the frequency distribution of a numerical variable, like height, weight, or age. For example, a histogram can be used to visualize the distribution of heights in a population. Read more about building histograms in Sigma here.

When to Use a Histogram:

- When understanding the shape of a distribution; for example, whether it’s symmetric, skewed to the left or right, or bimodal
- When identifying outliers, like which data points are significantly different from the rest of the data
- When comparing distribution of a variable across different groups, such as males and females, or different age groups.
- To set boundaries for data ranges; for example, you might use a histogram to determine what constitutes a "normal" or "abnormal" value for a particular variable

When to Avoid a Histogram:

- When you need to look at multiple dimensions at the same time
- If your data isn’t all on the same scale

## Sankey Charts

We end our guide with the controversial Sankey chart. A Sankey chart is a type of diagram that illustrates the movement or transfer of data, resources, or quantities through various stages of a system or process. Common applications of Sankey charts include visualizing complex sequences like energy usage, material distribution, or even a website's user journey. The structure of the chart includes nodes and links—with nodes representing the starting points, endpoints, or intermediate steps, and links depicting the transition of quantities or data between these nodes.

The thickness of the links in a Sankey chart directly corresponds to the volume of data or resources being moved, offering an intuitive comparison of the relative sizes of these transfers. They can be invaluable for recognizing inefficiencies, bottlenecks, or potential areas for enhancement in a system or process. These charts serve as a powerful tool for communicating complex information in a straightforward and comprehensible way. However, if there are too many nodes or links, Sankey charts can become cluttered and challenging to interpret, hence their use should be considerate and targeted.

When to use Sankey charts:

- When you want to show the data as part of a process

When to avoid Sankey charts:

- When it starts to feel too confusing, which can quickly happen when there are too many nodes or links
- When you need to see exact values, it might not be the most intuitive option.

## Evaluating Data Visualization Tools

Data visualization tools have become increasingly popular in recent years, with a wide variety of options available to choose from. However, determining which tool best suits your needs can be challenging with so many options. When evaluating data visualization tools, there are several key questions to consider:

- What are your goals and needs? It's crucial to clearly understand your goals and needs before selecting a data visualization tool. Are you looking to explore your data, communicate a specific message, or both? Understanding your objectives will help you choose the right tool for your project.
- What features do you require? Different data visualization tools come with different features. Before selecting a tool, you should consider what features you need to achieve your goals. For example, do you require interactive capabilities or the ability to create custom visualizations?
- Where will your data come from? The source of your data is another critical factor to consider when selecting a data visualization tool. Some tools are better suited for specific types of data, such as structured or unstructured data, while others may require specific file formats or data storage solutions.
- Where will you need to see your data? Different data visualization tools may be more suitable for specific platforms or devices. For example, some tools may be optimized for mobile devices, while others are designed for desktop computers or specific web browsers. You may also be interested in embedding visualizations elsewhere , such as internal applications or external portals.
- Where would you like to publish your visualization? Finally, consider where you would like to publish your visualization. Some tools may provide built-in publishing capabilities, while others may require you to export your visualization to a separate platform. Selecting a tool that supports your publishing needs is important to ensure your visualization reaches your intended audience.

By considering these key questions, you can evaluate different data visualization tools and select the one that best meets your needs.

Read a side-by-side comparison of Sigma against similar BI tools.

## Take the Next Step & Start Analyzing With Data Visualization

Data visualization is a powerful tool for understanding and communicating complex data. While there are many data visualization tools on the market, Sigma offers an intuitive and familiar spreadsheet interface that allows users to easily explore, analyze, and collaborate on their data.

Explore Sigma’s capabilities and start transforming your data today via a free trial of Sigma .

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- Graphic Presentation of Data

Apart from diagrams, Graphic presentation is another way of the presentation of data and information. Usually, graphs are used to present time series and frequency distributions. In this article, we will look at the graphic presentation of data and information along with its merits, limitations , and types.

## Suggested Videos

Construction of a graph.

The graphic presentation of data and information offers a quick and simple way of understanding the features and drawing comparisons. Further, it is an effective analytical tool and a graph can help us in finding the mode, median, etc.

We can locate a point in a plane using two mutually perpendicular lines – the X-axis (the horizontal line) and the Y-axis (the vertical line). Their point of intersection is the Origin .

We can locate the position of a point in terms of its distance from both these axes. For example, if a point P is 3 units away from the Y-axis and 5 units away from the X-axis, then its location is as follows:

## Browse more Topics under Descriptive Statistics

- Definition and Characteristics of Statistics
- Stages of Statistical Enquiry
- Importance and Functions of Statistics
- Nature of Statistics – Science or Art?
- Application of Statistics
- Law of Statistics and Distrust of Statistics
- Meaning and Types of Data
- Methods of Collecting Data
- Sample Investigation
- Classification of Data
- Tabulation of Data
- Frequency Distribution of Data
- Diagrammatic Presentation of Data
- Measures of Central Tendency
- Mean Median Mode
- Measures of Dispersion
- Standard Deviation
- Variance Analysis

Some points to remember:

- We measure the distance of the point from the Y-axis along the X-axis. Similarly, we measure the distance of the point from the X-axis along the Y-axis. Therefore, to measure 3 units from the Y-axis, we move 3 units along the X-axis and likewise for the other coordinate .
- We then draw perpendicular lines from these two points.
- The point where the perpendiculars intersect is the position of the point P.
- We denote it as follows (3,5) or (abscissa, ordinate). Together, they are the coordinates of the point P.
- The four parts of the plane are Quadrants.
- Also, we can plot different points for a different pair of values.

## General Rules for Graphic Presentation of Data and Information

There are certain guidelines for an attractive and effective graphic presentation of data and information. These are as follows:

- Suitable Title – Ensure that you give a suitable title to the graph which clearly indicates the subject for which you are presenting it.
- Unit of Measurement – Clearly state the unit of measurement below the title.
- Suitable Scale – Choose a suitable scale so that you can represent the entire data in an accurate manner.
- Index – Include a brief index which explains the different colors and shades, lines and designs that you have used in the graph. Also, include a scale of interpretation for better understanding.
- Data Sources – Wherever possible, include the sources of information at the bottom of the graph.
- Keep it Simple – You should construct a graph which even a layman (without any exposure in the areas of statistics or mathematics) can understand.
- Neat – A graph is a visual aid for the presentation of data and information. Therefore, you must keep it neat and attractive. Choose the right size, right lettering, and appropriate lines, colors, dashes, etc.

## Merits of a Graph

- The graph presents data in a manner which is easier to understand.
- It allows us to present statistical data in an attractive manner as compared to tables. Users can understand the main features, trends, and fluctuations of the data at a glance.
- A graph saves time.
- It allows the viewer to compare data relating to two different time-periods or regions.
- The viewer does not require prior knowledge of mathematics or statistics to understand a graph.
- We can use a graph to locate the mode, median, and mean values of the data.
- It is useful in forecasting, interpolation, and extrapolation of data.

## Limitations of a Graph

- A graph lacks complete accuracy of facts.
- It depicts only a few selected characteristics of the data.
- We cannot use a graph in support of a statement.
- A graph is not a substitute for tables.
- Usually, laymen find it difficult to understand and interpret a graph.
- Typically, a graph shows the unreasonable tendency of the data and the actual values are not clear.

## Types of Graphs

Graphs are of two types:

- Time Series graphs
- Frequency Distribution graphs

## Time Series Graphs

A time series graph or a “ histogram ” is a graph which depicts the value of a variable over a different point of time. In a time series graph, time is the most important factor and the variable is related to time. It helps in the understanding and analysis of the changes in the variable at a different point of time. Many statisticians and businessmen use these graphs because they are easy to understand and also because they offer complex information in a simple manner.

Further, constructing a time series graph does not require a user with technical skills. Here are some major steps in the construction of a time series graph:

- Represent time on the X-axis and the value of the variable on the Y-axis.
- Start the Y-value with zero and devise a suitable scale which helps you present the whole data in the given space.
- Plot the values of the variable and join different point with a straight line.
- You can plot multiple variables through different lines.

You can use a line graph to summarize how two pieces of information are related and how they vary with each other.

- You can compare multiple continuous data-sets easily
- You can infer the interim data from the graph line

Disadvantages

- It is only used with continuous data.

Use of a false Base Line

Usually, in a graph, the vertical line starts from the Origin. However, in some cases, a false Base Line is used for a better representation of the data. There are two scenarios where you should use a false Base Line:

- To magnify the minor fluctuation in the time series data
- To economize the space

## Net Balance Graph

If you have to show the net balance of income and expenditure or revenue and costs or imports and exports, etc., then you must use a net balance graph. You can use different colors or shades for positive and negative differences.

## Frequency Distribution Graphs

Let’s look at the different types of frequency distribution graphs.

A histogram is a graph of a grouped frequency distribution. In a histogram, we plot the class intervals on the X-axis and their respective frequencies on the Y-axis. Further, we create a rectangle on each class interval with its height proportional to the frequency density of the class.

## Frequency Polygon or Histograph

A frequency polygon or a Histograph is another way of representing a frequency distribution on a graph. You draw a frequency polygon by joining the midpoints of the upper widths of the adjacent rectangles of the histogram with straight lines.

## Frequency Curve

When you join the verticals of a polygon using a smooth curve, then the resulting figure is a Frequency Curve. As the number of observations increase, we need to accommodate more classes. Therefore, the width of each class reduces. In such a scenario, the variable tends to become continuous and the frequency polygon starts taking the shape of a frequency curve.

## Cumulative Frequency Curve or Ogive

A cumulative frequency curve or Ogive is the graphical representation of a cumulative frequency distribution. Since a cumulative frequency is either of a ‘less than’ or a ‘more than’ type, Ogives are of two types too – ‘less than ogive’ and ‘more than ogive’.

## Scatter Diagram

A scatter diagram or a dot chart enables us to find the nature of the relationship between the variables. If the plotted points are scattered a lot, then the relationship between the two variables is lesser.

## Solved Question

Q1. What are the general rules for the graphic presentation of data and information?

Answer: The general rules for the graphic presentation of data are:

- Use a suitable title
- Clearly specify the unit of measurement
- Ensure that you choose a suitable scale
- Provide an index specifying the colors, lines, and designs used in the graph
- If possible, provide the sources of information at the bottom of the graph
- Keep the graph simple and neat.

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## Descriptive Statistics

- Nature of Statistics – Science or Art?

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## Graphical Representation: Advantages, Types & Examples

Graphical Representation: A graph is a categorised representation of data. It helps us understand the data easily. Data is a collection of numerical figures collected through surveying. The word data came from the Latin word ‘Datum’, which means ‘something given’. After developing a research question, data is being collected constantly through observation. Then the data collected is arranged, summarised, classified, and finally represented graphically. This is the concept of graphical representation of data.

Let’s study different kinds of graphical representations with examples, the types of graphical representation, and graphical representation of data in statistics, in this article.

## What Are Graphical Representations?

Graphical representation refers to the use of intuitive charts to visualise clearly and simplify data sets. Data obtained from surveying is ingested into a graphical representation of data software. Then it is represented by some symbols, such as lines on a line graph, bars on a bar chart, or slices of a pie chart. In this way, users can achieve much more clarity and understanding than by numerical study alone.

## Advantages of Graphical Representation

Some of the advantages of using graphs are listed below:

- The graph helps us understand the data or information even when we have no idea about it.
- It saves time.
- It makes it easier for us to compare the data for different time periods or different kinds.
- It is mainly used in statistics to determine the mean, median and mode for different data and interpolation and extrapolation of data.

## Use of Graphical Representations

The main agenda of presenting scientific data into graphs is to provide information efficiently to utilise the power of visual display while avoiding confusion or deception. This is important in communicating our findings to others and our understanding and analysis of the data.

Graphical data representation is crucial in understanding and identifying trends and patterns in the ever-increasing data flow. Graphical representation helps in quick analysis of large quantities and can support making predictions and informed decisions.

## General Rules for Graphical Representation of Data

The following are a few rules to present the information in the graphical representation:

- Suitable title: The title of the graph should be appropriate that indicates the subject of the presentation.
- Measurement unit: The measurement unit in the graph should be mentioned.
- Proper scale: Choose a proper scale to represent the data accurately.
- Index: For better understanding, index the appropriate colours, shades, lines, and designs in the graphs.
- Data sources: Data should be included wherever it is necessary at the bottom of the graph.
- Keep it simple: The construction of a graph should be such a way that it is effortlessly understood.
- Neat: The correct size, fonts, colours etc., should be chosen so that the graph should be a visual aid for presenting the information.

## Types of Graphical Representation

1. Line graph 2. Histogram 3. Bar graph 4. Pie chart 5. Frequency polygon 6. Ogives or Cumulative frequency graphs

## 1. Line Graph

A line graph is a chart used to show information that changes over time. We plot line graphs by connecting several points with straight lines. Another name is a line chart. The line graph contains two axes: \(x-\)axis and \(y-\)axis.

- The horizontal axis is the \(x-\)axis.
- The vertical axis is the \(y-\)axis.

Example: The following graph shows the number of motorbikes sold on different days of the week.

## 2. Histogram

Continuous data represented on the two-dimensional graph is called a histogram. In the histogram, the bars are placed continuously side by side without a gap between consecutive bars. In other words, rectangles are erected on the class intervals of the distribution. The areas of the rectangles formed by bars are proportional to the frequencies.

Example: Following is an example of a histogram showing the average pass percentage of students.

## 3. Bar Graph

Bar graphs can be of two types – horizontal bar graphs and vertical bar graphs. While a horizontal bar graph is applied for qualitative data or data varying over space, the vertical bar graph is associated with quantitative data or time-series data.

Bars are rectangles of varying lengths and of equal width usually are drawn either horizontally or vertically. We consider multiple or grouped bar graphs to compare related series. Component or sub-divided bar diagrams are applied for representing data divided into several components.

Example: The following graph is an example of a bar graph representing the money spent month-wise

## 4. Pie Chart

The sector of a circle represents various observations or components, and the whole circle represents the sum of the value of all the components. The total central angle of a circle is \({360^{\rm{o}}}\) and is divided according to the values of the components.

The central angle of a component\( = \frac{{{\rm{ value}}\,{\rm{of}}\,{\rm{the}}\,{\rm{component }}}}{{{\rm{total}}\,{\rm{value}}}} \times {360^{\rm{o}}}\)

Sometimes, the value of the components is expressed in percentages. In such cases, The central angle of a component\( = \frac{{{\rm{ percentage}}\,{\rm{value}}\,{\rm{of}}\,{\rm{the}}\,{\rm{component }}}}{{100}} \times {360^{\rm{o}}}\)

Example: The following figure represents a pie-chart

## 5. Frequency Polygon

A frequency polygon is another way of representing frequency distribution graphically. Follow the steps below to make a frequency polygon:

(i) Calculate and obtain the frequency distribution and the mid-points of each class interval. (ii) Represent the mid-points along the \(x-\)axis and the frequencies along the \(y-\)axis. (iii) Mark the points corresponding to the frequency at each midpoint. (iv) Now join these points in straight lines. (v) To finish the frequency polygon, join the consecutive points at each end (as the case may be at zero frequency) on the \(x-\)axis.

Example: The following graph is the frequency polygon showing the road race results.

## 6. Ogives or Cumulative Frequency Graphs

By plotting cumulative frequency against the respective class intervals, we obtain ogives. There are two ogives – less than type ogives and more than type.

Less than type ogives is obtained by taking less than cumulative frequency on the vertical axis. We can obtain more than type ogives by plotting more than type cumulative frequency on the vertical axis and joining the plotted points successively by line segments.

Example: The below graph represents the less than and more than ogives for the entrance examination scores of \(60\) students.

## Solved Examples – Basic Graphical Representation

Q.1. The wildlife population in the following years, \(2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018,\) and \(2019\) were \(300, 200, 400, 600, 500, 400\) and \(500,\) respectively. Represent these data using a line graph. Ans: We can represent the population for seven consecutive years by drawing a line diagram as given below. Let us consider years on the horizontal axis and population on the vertical axis.

For the year \(2013,\) the population was \(300.\) It can be written as a point \((2013, 300)\) Similarly, we can write the points for the succeeding years as follows: \((2014, 200), (2015, 400), (2016, 600), (2017, 500), (2018, 400)\) and \((2019, 500)\)

We can obtain the line graph by plotting all these points and joining them using a ruler. The following line diagram shows the population of wildlife from \(2013\) to \(2019.\)

Q.2. Draw a histogram for the following data that represents the marks scored by \(120\) students in an examination:

\(0-20\) | \(20-40\) | \(40-60\) | \(60-80\) | \(80-100\) | |

\(5\) | \(10\) | \(40\) | \(45\) | \(20\) |

Ans: The class intervals are of an equal length of \(20\) marks. Let us indicate the class intervals along the \(x-\)axis and the number of students along the \(y-\)axis, with the appropriate scale. The histogram is given below.

Q.3. The total number of scoops of vanilla ice cream in the different months of a year is given below:

\(240\) | \(400\) | \(440\) | \(320\) | \(200\) |

For the above data, draw a bar graph. Ans: The following graph represents the number of vanilla ice cream scoops sold from March to July. The month is indicated along the \(x-\)axis, and the number of scoops sold is represented along the \(y-\)axis.

Q.4. The number of hours spent by a working woman on various activities on a working day is given below. Using the angle measurement, draw a pie chart.

\(3\) | \(7\) | \(2\) | \(9\) | \(1\) | \(2\) |

Ans: The central angle of a component\( = \frac{{{\rm{ value}}\,{\rm{of}}\,{\rm{the}}\,{\rm{component }}}}{{{\rm{total}}\,{\rm{value}}}} \times {360^{\rm{o}}}\). We may calculate the central angles for various components as follow:

Household | \(3\) | \(\frac{3}{{24}} \times {360^{\rm{o}}} = {45^{\rm{o}}}\) |

Sleep | \(7\) | \(\frac{7}{{24}} \times {360^{\rm{o}}} = {105^{\rm{o}}}\) |

Cooking | \(2\) | \(\frac{2}{{24}} \times {360^{\rm{o}}} = {30^{\rm{o}}}\) |

Office | \(9\) | \(\frac{9}{{24}} \times {360^{\rm{o}}} = {135^{\rm{o}}}\) |

TV | \(1\) | \(\frac{1}{{24}} \times {360^{\rm{o}}} = {15^{\rm{o}}}\) |

Other | \(2\) | \(\frac{2}{{24}} \times {360^{\rm{o}}} = {30^{\rm{o}}}\) |

Total | \(24\) | \({360^{\rm{o}}}\) |

By knowing the central angle, a pie chart is drawn,

Q.5. Draw a frequency polygon for the following data using a histogram.

\(140-145\) | \(145-150\) | \(150-155\) | \(155-160\) | \(160-165\) | \(165-170\) | \(170-175\) | |

\(35\) | \(40\) | \(55\) | \(50\) | \(40\) | \(35\) | \(20\) |

Ans: To draw a frequency polygon, we take the imagined classes \(135-140\) at the beginning and \(175-180\) at the end, each with frequency zero. The following is the frequency table tabulated for the given data

\(140-145\) | \(142.5\) | \(35\) |

\(145-150\) | \(147.5\) | \(40\) |

\(150-155\) | \(152.5\) | \(55\) |

\(155-160\) | \(157.5\) | \(50\) |

\(160-165\) | \(162.5\) | \(40\) |

\(165-170\) | \(167.5\) | \(35\) |

\(170-175\) | \(172.5\) | \(20\) |

Let’s mark the class intervals along the \(x-\)axis and the frequency along the \(y-\)axis.

Using the above table, plot the points on the histogram: \((137.5, 0), (142.5, 35), (147.5, 40), (152.5, 55), (157.5, 50), (162.5, 40),\) \((167.5, 35), (172.5, 20)\) and \((177.5, 0).\)

We join these points one after the other to obtain the required frequency polygon.

In this article, we have studied the details of the graphical representation of data. We learnt the meaning, uses, and advantages of using graphs . Then we studied the different types of graphs with examples. Lastly, we solved examples to help students understand the concept in a better way.

## Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on Basic Graphical Representation

Q.1: What are graphical representations? Ans: Graphical representations represent given data using charts or graphs numerically and then visually analyse and interpret the information.

Q.2: What are the 6 types of graphs used? Ans: The following are the types of graphs we use commonly: 1. Line graph 2. Histogram 3. Bar graph 4. Pie chart 5. Frequency polygon 6. Ogives or cumulative frequency graphs

Q.3: What are the advantages of the graphical method? Ans: The advantages of using a graphical method are: 1. Facilitates improved learning 2. Knowing the content 3. Usage of flexibility 4. Increases thinking 5. Supports creative, personalised reports for more engaging and stimulating visual presentations 6. Better communication 7. It shows the whole picture

Q.4: What is the graphical representation of an idea? Ans: The graphical representations exhibit relationships between ideas, data, information and concepts in a visual graph or map. Graphical representations are effortless to acknowledge.

Q.5: How do you do frequency polygon? Ans: Frequency distribution is first obtained, and the midpoints of each class interval are found. Mark the midpoints along the \(x-\)axis and frequencies along the \(y-\)axis. Plot the points corresponding to the frequency. Join the points, using line segments in order.

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## Graphical representation of Data: Meaning & Importance

Contents in the Article

## Graphical Representation of Data

Apart from diagrams, Graphic presentation is another way of the presentation of data and information. Usually, graphs are used to present time series and frequency distributions. In this article, we will look at the graphic presentation of data and information along with its merits, limitations, and types.

## Construction of a Graph

The graphic presentation of data and information offers a quick and simple way of understanding the features and drawing comparisons. Further, it is an effective analytical tool and a graph can help us in finding the mode , median , etc.

We can locate a point in a plane using two mutually perpendicular lines-the X-axis (the horizontal line) and the Y-axis (the vertical line). Their point of intersection is the Origin.

We can locate the position of a point in terms of its distance from both these axes. For example, if a point P is 3 units away from the Y-axis and 5 units away from the X-axis, then its location is as follows:

## Points to remember

We measure the distance of the point from the Y-axis along the X-axis. Similarly, we measure the distance of the point from the X-axis along the Y-axis. Therefore, to measure 3 units from the Y-axis, we move 3 units along the X-axis and likewise for the other coordinate. We then draw perpendicular lines from these two points. The point where the perpendiculars intersect is the position of the point P.

We denote it as follows (3, 5) or (abscissa, ordinate). Together, they are the coordinates of the point P.

The four parts of the plane are Quadrants. Also, we can plot different points for a different pair of values.

## General Rules for Graphic Presentation of Data and Information

There are certain guidelines for an attractive and effective graphic presentation of data and information. These are as follows:

- Suitable Title – Ensure that you give a suitable title to the graph which clearly indicates the subject for which you are presenting it.
- Unit of Measurement – Clearly state the unit of measurement below the title.
- Suitable Scale – Choose a suitable scale so that you can represent the entire data in an accurate manner.
- Index – Include a brief index which explains the different colors and shades, lines and designs that you have used in the graph. Also, include a scale of interpretation for better understanding.
- Data Sources – Wherever possible, include the sources of information at the bottom of the graph.
- Keep it Simple- You should construct a graph which even a layman (without any exposure in the areas of statistics or mathematics) can understand.
- Neat – A graph is a visual aid for the presentation of data and information. Therefore, you must keep it neat and attractive. Choose the right size, right lettering, and appropriate lines, colors, dashes, etc.

## Merits of a Graph

The graph presents data in a manner which is easier to understand.

- It allows us to present statistical data in an attractive manner as compared to tables. Users can understand the main features, trends, and fluctuations of the data at a glance.
- A graph saves time.
- It allows the viewer to compare data relating to two different time-periods or regions.
- The viewer does not require prior knowledge of mathematics or statistics to understand a graph.
- We can use a graph to locate the mode, median, and mean values of the data.
- It is useful in forecasting, interpolation, and extrapolation of data.

## Limitations of a Graph

- A graph lacks complete accuracy of facts.
- It depicts only a few selected characteristics of the data.
- We cannot use a graph in support of a statement.
- A graph is not a substitute for tables.
- Usually, laymen find it difficult to understand and interpret a graph.
- Typically, a graph shows the unreasonable tendency of the data and the actual values are not clear.

## Utility of Graphical Presentation

The diagram occupy an important place in statistical method, because

- They are attractive and impressive – Diagrams are attractive and create lasting impression. A person who does not like to devote even a single minute to the study of a page containing numerical tables, in most cases would not like to take his eyes away from an attractively constructed diagram even from the same data. They do not strain the mind of the observer. Besides being attractive, they have propaganda and publicity value. A common man who does not want to indulge in figures, gets message from a well prepared diagram.
- They make data simple and intelligible – Diagrams have the merit of rendering the whole data readily intelligible. The mass of complex data, when depicted through a diagram, an be understood easily. Diagrams bring forth the characteristics of data. For example, if a study is made of the expenditure pattern of two families with the help of figures it will not be very clear, but when figures are translated through the media diagram, the difference between their expenditure patterns will be at once clear.
- They make comparison possible – Diagrams make comparison between two sets of data possible. This is one of the objectives of a diagrammatic presentation. In absolute figures, the comparison is sometimes not very clear, but diagrammatic presentation makes it simpler and easier. For example, the data on prices may not be very clear to a common man, but when they are shown in a diagram, the rise or fall in the prices is visible at a glance.
- They save time and labour- Diagrammatic presentation saves a lot of time which could have been otherwise lost in grasping the significance of numerical data. Without straining one’s mind, the basic features of the data can be understood. The data which will take hours to understand them, their diagrammatic presentation will make their basic characteristics clear in minutes.
- They have universal utility- Diagrammatic presentation of statistical data is practiced universally. It is a widely used technique in economic, business, administration, social and other fields.
- They give more information- A diagram depicts more information than the data shown in a table. It clarifies the existing trend in the data and how the trend changes. Though such information is there in the tables also, but to find out trend from them is a difficult and a time-consuming job.

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## Infographics: Graphic Visual Representations of Information

- April 28, 2020

## The Seven Common Types of Infographics

Infographics are graphic visual representations of information, data, or knowledge intended to present information quickly and clearly. Utilizing graphics enhances our ability as humans to recognize patterns and trends and improves cognition. Infographics are made up of three primary elements, the visual, the content, and knowledge. Useful infographics are well designed, they tell a good story, and they are easy to interpret and understand. They combine written words with visual elements to present a significant amount of information in a clear and organized manner.

After completing your research and collecting your data, you need to determine how to demonstrate and communicate your results to your audience clearly. What better way than through an infographic? So, which infographic design will best represent and communicate your information? Below are seven common types of infographics to consider as you think about your infographic design.

## List Infographic

The list infographic supports a claim through a series of steps. It is best used to support a specific claim or argument. Your list can go from top to bottom, left to right, or it can move across your canvas. List infographics are one of the most straightforward types of infographics as they engage readers and help them to remember information.

## Comparison or Vs. Infographic

The comparison of Vs. Infographic compares two things in a head-to-head study and is typically used to communicate the pros and cons of a product. It is best used to highlight differences between two similar things or highlight similarities between two unlike things. The comparison infographic allows you to display two factors side by side to allow readers to take in all the essential elements and make their comparison in moments. It is also used to prove how one option is superior or inferior to the other option.

## Flowchart Infographic

The flowchart infographic provides a specific answer to reader choices and is excellent for showing a process or decision making. It is best used to offer personalized responses to readers, to show how multiple situations can reach the same conclusion, or to display a process flow of your logistic sequence.

## Visual Article Infographic

The visual article infographic makes writing more visual. It is best used to cut down on text or make an essay more interesting and enjoyable to consume. It also increases sharing potential as a visual article infographic takes a significant amount of information and presents it visually and enjoyably.

## Map Infographic

The map infographic showcases data trends based on location. It is best used to compare places, culture, and people through setting centric data and demographics. A map infographic is used to convey information that is based on location in a visual manner to enhance engagement and comprehension.

## Timeline Infographic

The timeline infographic tells a story through a chronological flow. A timeline infographic helps to create a clearer image of a specific timeframe. It is best used to show how something has changed over time or make a long-complicated story easier to understand. These infographics are used to visualize history, highlight essential dates, or display a project timeline.

## Data Visualization Infographic

A data visualization infographic communicates data through charts and graphs. It showcases data through design by incorporating pic charts, bar graphs, and line graphs with visual graphics to disclose relevant information. It Is best used to make data-driven arguments easier to understand and makes facts or statistics more enjoyable to absorb.

Infographics are a great tool to communicate information quickly and clearly through graphic visuals, imagery, charts, and minimal texts. They are meant to limit the use of written text by using graphics to engage with your audience and present relevant information visually. Now that you have a basic understanding of the seven commonly used infographics, which type of infographic will you use to represent your information best?

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## Types of Graphs and Charts And Their Uses

If you are wondering what are the different types of graphs and charts , their uses and names, this page summarizes them with examples and pictures.

Although it is hard to tell what are all the types of graphs, this page consists all of the common types of statistical graphs and charts (and their meanings) widely used in any science.

1. Line Graphs

A line chart graphically displays data that changes continuously over time. Each line graph consists of points that connect data to show a trend (continuous change). Line graphs have an x-axis and a y-axis. In the most cases, time is distributed on the horizontal axis.

Uses of line graphs:

- When you want to show trends . For example, how house prices have increased over time.
- When you want to make predictions based on a data history over time.
- When comparing two or more different variables, situations, and information over a given period of time.

The following line graph shows annual sales of a particular business company for the period of six consecutive years:

Note: the above example is with 1 line. However, one line chart can compare multiple trends by several distributing lines.

2. Bar Charts

Bar charts represent categorical data with rectangular bars (to understand what is categorical data see categorical data examples ). Bar graphs are among the most popular types of graphs and charts in economics, statistics, marketing, and visualization in digital customer experience . They are commonly used to compare several categories of data.

Each rectangular bar has length and height proportional to the values that they represent.

One axis of the bar chart presents the categories being compared. The other axis shows a measured value.

Bar Charts Uses:

- When you want to display data that are grouped into nominal or ordinal categories (see nominal vs ordinal data ).
- To compare data among different categories.
- Bar charts can also show large data changes over time.
- Bar charts are ideal for visualizing the distribution of data when we have more than three categories.

The bar chart below represents the total sum of sales for Product A and Product B over three years.

The bars are 2 types: vertical or horizontal. It doesn’t matter which kind you will use. The above one is a vertical type.

3. Pie Charts

When it comes to statistical types of graphs and charts, the pie chart (or the circle chart) has a crucial place and meaning. It displays data and statistics in an easy-to-understand ‘pie-slice’ format and illustrates numerical proportion.

Each pie slice is relative to the size of a particular category in a given group as a whole. To say it in another way, the pie chart brakes down a group into smaller pieces. It shows part-whole relationships.

To make a pie chart, you need a list of categorical variables and numerical variables.

Pie Chart Uses:

- When you want to create and represent the composition of something.
- It is very useful for displaying nominal or ordinal categories of data.
- To show percentage or proportional data.
- When comparing areas of growth within a business such as profit.
- Pie charts work best for displaying data for 3 to 7 categories.

The pie chart below represents the proportion of types of transportation used by 1000 students to go to their school.

Pie charts are widely used by data-driven marketers for displaying marketing data.

4. Histogram

A histogram shows continuous data in ordered rectangular columns (to understand what is continuous data see our post discrete vs continuous data ). Usually, there are no gaps between the columns.

The histogram displays a frequency distribution (shape) of a data set. At first glance, histograms look alike to bar graphs. However, there is a key difference between them. Bar Chart represents categorical data and histogram represent continuous data.

Histogram Uses:

- When the data is continuous .
- When you want to represent the shape of the data’s distribution .
- When you want to see whether the outputs of two or more processes are different.
- To summarize large data sets graphically.
- To communicate the data distribution quickly to others.

The histogram below represents per capita income for five age groups.

Histograms are very widely used in statistics, business, and economics.

5. Scatter plot

The scatter plot is an X-Y diagram that shows a relationship between two variables. It is used to plot data points on a vertical and a horizontal axis. The purpose is to show how much one variable affects another.

Usually, when there is a relationship between 2 variables, the first one is called independent. The second variable is called dependent because its values depend on the first variable.

Scatter plots also help you predict the behavior of one variable (dependent) based on the measure of the other variable (independent).

Scatter plot uses:

- When trying to find out whether there is a relationship between 2 variables .
- To predict the behavior of dependent variable based on the measure of the independent variable.
- When having paired numerical data.
- When working with root cause analysis tools to identify the potential for problems.
- When you just want to visualize the correlation between 2 large datasets without regard to time .

The below Scatter plot presents data for 7 online stores, their monthly e-commerce sales, and online advertising costs for the last year.

The orange line you see in the plot is called “line of best fit” or a “trend line”. This line is used to help us make predictions that are based on past data.

The Scatter plots are used widely in data science and statistics. They are a great tool for visualizing linear regression models .

More examples and explanation for scatter plots you can see in our post what does a scatter plot show and simple linear regression examples .

6. Venn Chart

Venn Diagram (also called primary diagram, set diagram or logic diagrams) uses overlapping circles to visualize the logical relationships between two or more group of items.

Venn Diagram is one of the types of graphs and charts used in scientific and engineering presentations, in computer applications, in maths, and in statistics.

The basic structure of the Venn diagram is usually overlapping circles. The items in the overlapping section have specific common characteristics. Items in the outer portions of the circles do not have common traits.

Venn Chart Uses:

- When you want to compare and contrast groups of things.
- To categorize or group items.
- To illustrate logical relationships from various datasets.
- To identify all the possible relationships between collections of datasets.

The following science example of Venn diagram compares the features of birds and bats.

7. Area Charts

Area Chart Uses:

- When you want to show trends , rather than express specific values.
- To show a simple comparison of the trend of data sets over the period of time.
- To display the magnitude of a change.
- To compare a small number of categories.

The area chart has 2 variants: a variant with data plots overlapping each other and a variant with data plots stacked on top of each other (known as stacked area chart – as the shown in the following example).

The area chart below shows quarterly sales for product categories A and B for the last year.

This area chart shows you a quick comparison of the trend in the quarterly sales of Product A and Product B over the period of the last year.

8. Spline Chart

The Spline Chart is one of the most widespread types of graphs and charts used in statistics. It is a form of the line chart that represent smooth curves through the different data points.

Spline charts possess all the characteristics of a line chart except that spline charts have a fitted curved line to join the data points. In comparison, line charts connect data points with straight lines.

Spline Chart Uses:

- When you want to plot data that requires the usage of curve-fitting such as a product lifecycle chart or an impulse-response chart.
- Spline charts are often used in designing Pareto charts .
- Spline chart also is often used for data modeling by when you have limited number of data points and estimating the intervening values.

The following spline chart example shows sales of a company through several months of a year:

9. Box and Whisker Chart

A box and whisker chart is a statistical graph for displaying sets of numerical data through their quartiles. It displays a frequency distribution of the data.

The box and whisker chart helps you to display the spread and skewness for a given set of data using the five number summary principle: minimum, maximum, median, lower and upper quartiles. The ‘five-number summary’ principle allows providing a statistical summary for a particular set of numbers. It shows you the range (minimum and maximum numbers), the spread (upper and lower quartiles), and the center (median) for the set of data numbers.

A very simple figure of a box and whisker plot you can see below:

Box and Whisker Chart Uses:

- When you want to observe the upper, lower quartiles, mean, median, deviations, etc. for a large set of data.
- When you want to see a quick view of the dataset distribution .
- When you have multiple data sets that come from independent sources and relate to each other in some way.
- When you need to compare data from different categories.

The table and box-and-whisker plots below shows test scores for Maths and Literature for the same class.

35 | 77 | 92 | 43 | 55 | 66 | 73 | 70 | |

35 | 43 | 40 | 43 | 50 | 60 | 70 | 92 |

Box and Whisker charts have applications in many scientific areas and types of analysis such as statistical analysis, test results analysis, marketing analysis, data analysis, and etc.

10. Bubble Chart

Bubble charts are super useful types of graphs for making a comparison of the relationships between data in 3 numeric-data dimensions: the Y-axis data, the X-axis data, and data depicting the bubble size.

Bubble charts are very similar to XY Scatter plots but the bubble chart adds more functionality – a third dimension of data that can be extremely valuable.

Both axes (X and Y) of a bubble chart are numeric.

Bubble Chart Uses:

- When you have to display three or four dimensions of data.
- When you want to compare and display the relationships between categorized circles, by the use of proportions.

The bubble chart below shows the relationship between Cost (X-Axis), Profit (Y-Axis), and Probability of Success (%) (Bubble Size).

11. Pictographs

The pictograph or a pictogram is one of the more visually appealing types of graphs and charts that display numerical information with the use of icons or picture symbols to represent data sets.

They are very easy to read statistical way of data visualization. A pictogram shows the frequency of data as images or symbols. Each image/symbol may represent one or more units of a given dataset.

Pictograph Uses:

- When your audience prefers and understands better displays that include icons and illustrations. Fun can promote learning.
- It’s habitual for infographics to use of a pictogram.
- When you want to compare two points in an emotionally powerful way.

The following pictographic represents the number of computers sold by a business company for the period from January to March.

The pictographic example above shows that in January are sold 20 computers (4×5 = 20), in February are sold 30 computers (6×5 = 30) and in March are sold 15 computers.

12. Dot Plot

Dot plot or dot graph is just one of the many types of graphs and charts to organize statistical data. It uses dots to represent data. A Dot Plot is used for relatively small sets of data and the values fall into a number of discrete categories.

If a value appears more than one time, the dots are ordered one above the other. That way the column height of dots shows the frequency for that value.

Dot Plot Uses:

- To plot frequency counts when you have a small number of categories .
- Dot plots are very useful when the variable is quantitative or categorical .
- Dot graphs are also used for univariate data (data with only one variable that you can measure).

Suppose you have a class of 26 students. They are asked to tell their favorite color. The dot plot below represents their choices:

It is obvious that blue is the most preferred color by the students in this class.

13. Radar Chart

A radar chart is one of the most modern types of graphs and charts – ideal for multiple comparisons. Radar charts use a circular display with several different quantitative axes looking like spokes on a wheel. Each axis shows a quantity for a different categorical value.

Radar charts are also known as spider charts, web charts, star plots, irregular polygons, polar charts, cobweb charts or Kiviat diagram.

Radar Chart has many applications nowadays in statistics, maths, business, sports analysis, data intelligence, and etc.

Radar Chart Uses:

- When you want to observe which variables have similar values or whether there are any outliers amongst each variable.
- To represent multiple comparisons .
- When you want to see which variables are scoring low or high within a dataset. This makes radar chart ideal for displaying performance .

For example, we can compare employee’s performance with the scale of 1-8 on subjects such as Punctuality, Problem-solving, Meeting Deadlines, Marketing Knowledge, Communications. A point that is closer to the center on an axis shows a lower value and a worse performance.

Punctuality | Problem-solving | Meeting Deadlines | Marketing Knowledge | Communications | |

6 | 5 | 8 | 7 | 8 | |

7 | 5 | 5 | 4 | 8 |

It is obvious that Jane has a better performance than Samanta.

14. Pyramid Graph

When it comes to easy to understand and good looking types of graphs and charts, pyramid graph has a top place.

A pyramid graph is a chart in a pyramid shape or triangle shape. These types of charts are best for data that is organized in some kind of hierarchy. The levels show a progressive order.

Pyramid Graph Uses:

- When you want to indicate a hierarchy level among the topics or other types of data.
- Pyramid graph is often used to represent progressive orders such as: “older to newer”, “more important to least important”, “specific to least specific”‘ and etc.
- When you have a proportional or interconnected relationship between data sets.

A classic pyramid graph example is the healthy food pyramid that shows fats, oils, and sugar (at the top) should be eaten less than many other foods such as vegetables and fruits (at the bottom of the pyramid).

Conclusion:

You might know that choosing the right type of chart is some kind of tricky business.

Anyway, you have a wide choice of types of graphs and charts. Used in the right way, they are a powerful weapon to help you make your reports and presentations both professional and clear.

What are your favorite types of graphs and charts? Share your thoughts on the field below.

## About The Author

## Silvia Valcheva

Silvia Valcheva is a digital marketer with over a decade of experience creating content for the tech industry. She has a strong passion for writing about emerging software and technologies such as big data, AI (Artificial Intelligence), IoT (Internet of Things), process automation, etc.

## 10 Comments

I have learned a lot from your presentation. Very informative

Nicely described different graphs, I learned a lot.

very useful. exiting

I love this. I learned a lot.

Very good representation of date. I would suggest an addition of “stem and leaf” diagrams.

I have only one thing to say and that is this is the best representation of every graphs and charts I have ever seen 😀

Very well described. Great learning article for beginners on Charts.

Really helpful thanks

Very Helpful text; Thanks Silvia Valcheva for your hard work

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## What Is Data Visualization: Brief Theory, Useful Tips and Awesome Examples

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Updated: June 23, 2022

To create data visualization in order to present your data is no longer just a nice to have skill. Now, the skill to effectively sort and communicate your data through charts is a must-have for any business in any field that deals with data. Data visualization helps businesses quickly make sense of complex data and start making decisions based on that data. This is why today we’ll talk about what is data visualization. We’ll discuss how and why does it work, what type of charts to choose in what cases, how to create effective charts, and, of course, end with beautiful examples.

So let’s jump right in. As usual, don’t hesitate to fast-travel to a particular section of your interest.

Article overview: 1. What Does Data Visualization Mean? 2. How Does it Work? 3. When to Use it? 4. Why Use it? 5. Types of Data Visualization 6. Data Visualization VS Infographics: 5 Main Differences 7. How to Create Effective Data Visualization?: 5 Useful Tips 8. Examples of Data Visualization

## 1. What is Data Visualization?

Data Visualization is a graphic representation of data that aims to communicate numerous heavy data in an efficient way that is easier to grasp and understand . In a way, data visualization is the mapping between the original data and graphic elements that determine how the attributes of these elements vary. The visualization is usually made by the use of charts, lines, or points, bars, and maps.

- Data Viz is a branch of Descriptive statistics but it requires both design, computer, and statistical skills.
- Aesthetics and functionality go hand in hand to communicate complex statistics in an intuitive way.
- Data Viz tools and technologies are essential for making data-driven decisions.
- It’s a fine balance between form and functionality.
- Every STEM field benefits from understanding data.

## 2. How Does it Work?

If we can see it, our brains can internalize and reflect on it. This is why it’s much easier and more effective to make sense of a chart and see trends than to read a massive document that would take a lot of time and focus to rationalize. We wouldn’t want to repeat the cliche that humans are visual creatures, but it’s a fact that visualization is much more effective and comprehensive.

In a way, we can say that data Viz is a form of storytelling with the purpose to help us make decisions based on data. Such data might include:

- Tracking sales
- Identifying trends
- Identifying changes
- Monitoring goals
- Monitoring results
- Combining data

## 3. When to Use it?

Data visualization is useful for companies that deal with lots of data on a daily basis. It’s essential to have your data and trends instantly visible. Better than scrolling through colossal spreadsheets. When the trends stand out instantly this also helps your clients or viewers to understand them instead of getting lost in the clutter of numbers.

With that being said, Data Viz is suitable for:

- Annual reports
- Presentations
- Social media micronarratives
- Informational brochures
- Trend-trafficking
- Candlestick chart for financial analysis
- Determining routes

Common cases when data visualization sees use are in sales, marketing, healthcare, science, finances, politics, and logistics.

## 4. Why Use it?

Short answer: decision making. Data Visualization comes with the undeniable benefits of quickly recognizing patterns and interpret data. More specifically, it is an invaluable tool to determine the following cases.

- Identifying correlations between the relationship of variables.
- Getting market insights about audience behavior.
- Determining value vs risk metrics.
- Monitoring trends over time.
- Examining rates and potential through frequency.
- Ability to react to changes.

## 5. Types of Data Visualization

As you probably already guessed, Data Viz is much more than simple pie charts and graphs styled in a visually appealing way. The methods that this branch uses to visualize statistics include a series of effective types.

Map visualization is a great method to analyze and display geographically related information and present it accurately via maps. This intuitive way aims to distribute data by region. Since maps can be 2D or 3D, static or dynamic, there are numerous combinations one can use in order to create a Data Viz map.

COVID-19 Spending Data Visualization POGO by George Railean

The most common ones, however, are:

- Regional Maps: Classic maps that display countries, cities, or districts. They often represent data in different colors for different characteristics in each region.
- Line Maps: They usually contain space and time and are ideal for routing, especially for driving or taxi routes in the area due to their analysis of specific scenes.
- Point Maps: These maps distribute data of geographic information. They are ideal for businesses to pinpoint the exact locations of their buildings in a region.
- Heat Maps: They indicate the weight of a geographical area based on a specific property. For example, a heat map may distribute the saturation of infected people by area.

Charts present data in the form of graphs, diagrams, and tables. They are often confused with graphs since graphs are indeed a subcategory of charts. However, there is a small difference: graphs show the mathematical relationship between groups of data and is only one of the chart methods to represent data.

Infographic Data Visualization by Madeline VanRemmen

With that out of the way, let’s talk about the most basic types of charts in data visualization.

They use a series of bars that illustrate data development. They are ideal for lighter data and follow trends of no more than three variables or else, the bars become cluttered and hard to comprehend. Ideal for year-on-year comparisons and monthly breakdowns.

These familiar circular graphs divide data into portions. The bigger the slice, the bigger the portion. They are ideal for depicting sections of a whole and their sum must always be 100%. Avoid pie charts when you need to show data development over time or lack a value for any of the portions. Doughnut charts have the same use as pie charts.

They use a line or more than one lines that show development over time. It allows tracking multiple variables at the same time. A great example is tracking product sales by a brand over the years. Area charts have the same use as line charts.

Scatter Plot

These charts allow you to see patterns through data visualization. They have an x-axis and a y-axis for two different values. For example, if your x-axis contains information about car prices while the y-axis is about salaries, the positive or negative relationship will tell you about what a person’s car tells about their salary.

Unlike the charts we just discussed, tables show data in almost a raw format. They are ideal when your data is hard to present visually and aim to show specific numerical data that one is supposed to read rather than visualize.

Data Visualisation | To bee or not to bee by Aishwarya Anand Singh

For example, charts are perfect to display data about a particular illness over a time period in a particular area, but a table comes to better use when you also need to understand specifics such as causes, outcomes, relapses, a period of treatment, and so on.

## 6. Data Visualization VS Infographics

5 main differences.

They are not that different as both visually represent data. It is often you search for infographics and find images titled Data Visualization and the other way around. In many cases, however, these titles aren’t misleading. Why is that?

- Data visualization is made of just one element. It could be a map, a chart, or a table. Infographics , on the other hand, often include multiple Data Viz elements.
- Unlike data visualizations that can be simple or extremely complex and heavy, infographics are simple and target wider audiences. The latter is usually comprehensible even to people outside of the field of research the infographic represents.
- Interestingly enough, data Viz doesn’t offer narratives and conclusions, it’s a tool and basis for reaching those. While infographics, in most cases offer a story and a narrative. For example, a data visualization map may have the title “Air pollution saturation by region”, while an infographic with the same data would go “Areas A and B are the most polluted in Country C”.
- Data visualizations can be made in Excel or use other tools that automatically generate the design unless they are set for presentation or publishing. The aesthetics of infographics , however, are of great importance and the designs must be appealing to wider audiences.
- In terms of interaction, data visualizations often offer interactive charts, especially in an online form. Infographics, on the other hand, rarely have interaction and are usually static images.

While on topic, you could also be interested to check out these 50 engaging infographic examples that make complex data look great.

## 7. Tips to Create Effective Data Visualization

The process is naturally similar to creating Infographics and it revolves around understanding your data and audience. To be more precise, these are the main steps and best practices when it comes to preparing an effective visualization of data for your viewers to instantly understand.

## 1. Do Your Homework

Preparation is half the work already done. Before you even start visualizing data, you have to be sure you understand that data to the last detail.

Knowing your audience is undeniable another important part of the homework, as different audiences process information differently. Who are the people you’re visualizing data for? How do they process visual data? Is it enough to hand them a single pie chart or you’ll need a more in-depth visual report?

The third part of preparing is to determine exactly what you want to communicate to the audience. What kind of information you’re visualizing and does it reflect your goal?

And last, think about how much data you’ll be working with and take it into account.

## 2. Choose the Right Type of Chart

In a previous section, we listed the basic chart types that find use in data visualization. To determine best which one suits your work, there are a few things to consider.

- How many variables will you have in a chart?
- How many items will you place for each of your variables?
- What will be the relation between the values (time period, comparison, distributions, etc.)

With that being said, a pie chart would be ideal if you need to present what portions of a whole takes each item. For example, you can use it to showcase what percent of the market share takes a particular product. Pie charts, however, are unsuitable for distributions, comparisons, and following trends through time periods. Bar graphs, scatter plots,s and line graphs are much more effective in those cases.

Another example is how to use time in your charts. It’s way more accurate to use a horizontal axis because time should run left to right. It’s way more visually intuitive.

## 3. Sort your Data

Start with removing every piece of data that does not add value and is basically excess for the chart. Sometimes, you have to work with a huge amount of data which will inevitably make your chart pretty complex and hard to read. Don’t hesitate to split your information into two or more charts. If that won’t work for you, you could use highlights or change the entire type of chart with something that would fit better.

Tip: When you use bar charts and columns for comparison, sort the information in an ascending or a descending way by value instead of alphabetical order.

## 4. Use Colors to Your Advantage

In every form of visualization, colors are your best friend and the most powerful tool. They create contrasts, accents, and emphasis and lead the eye intuitively. Even here, color theory is important.

When you design your chart, make sure you don’t use more than 5 or 6 colors. Anything more than that will make your graph overwhelming and hard to read for your viewers. However, color intensity is a different thing that you can use to your advantage. For example, when you compare the same concept in different periods of time, you could sort your data from the lightest shade of your chosen color to its darker one. It creates a strong visual progression, proper to your timeline.

Things to consider when you choose colors:

- Different colors for different categories.
- A consistent color palette for all charts in a series that you will later compare.
- It’s appropriate to use color blind-friendly palettes.

## 5. Get Inspired

Always put your inspiration to work when you want to be at the top of your game. Look through examples, infographics, and other people’s work and see what works best for each type of data you need to implement.

This Twitter account Data Visualization Society is a great way to start. In the meantime, we’ll also handpick some amazing examples that will get you in the mood to start creating the visuals for your data.

## 8. Examples for Data Visualization

As another art form, Data Viz is a fertile ground for some amazing well-designed graphs that prove that data is beautiful. Now let’s check out some.

## Dark Souls III Experience Data

We start with Meng Hsiao Wei’s personal project presenting his experience with playing Dark Souls 3. It’s a perfect example that infographics and data visualization are tools for personal designs as well. The research is pretty massive yet very professionally sorted into different types of charts for the different concepts. All data visualizations are made with the same color palette and look great in infographics.

My dark souls 3 playing data by Meng Hsiao Wei

## Greatest Movies of all Time

Katie Silver has compiled a list of the 100 greatest movies of all time based on critics and crowd reviews. The visualization shows key data points for every movie such as year of release, oscar nominations and wins, budget, gross, IMDB score, genre, filming location, setting of the film, and production studio. All movies are ordered by the release date.

100 Greatest Movies Data Visualization by Katie Silver

## The Most Violent Cities

Federica Fragapane shows data for the 50 most violent cities in the world in 2017. The items are arranged on a vertical axis based on population and ordered along the horizontal axis according to the homicide rate.

The Most Violent Cities by Federica Fragapane

## Family Businesses as Data

These data visualizations and illustrations were made by Valerio Pellegrini for Perspectives Magazine. They show a pie chart with sector breakdown as well as a scatter plot for contribution for employment.

PERSPECTIVES MAGAZINE – Family Businesses by Valerio Pellegrini

## Orbit Map of the Solar System

The map shows data on the orbits of more than 18000 asteroids in the solar system. Each asteroid is shown at its position on New Years’ Eve 1999, colored by type of asteroid.

An Orbit Map of the Solar System by Eleanor Lutz

## The Semantics Of Headlines

Katja Flükiger has a take on how headlines tell the story. The data visualization aims to communicate how much is the selling influencing the telling. The project was completed at Maryland Institute College of Art to visualize references to immigration and color-coding the value judgments implied by word choice and context.

The Semantics of Headlines by Katja Flükiger

## Moon and Earthquakes

This data visualization works on answering whether the moon is responsible for earthquakes. The chart features the time and intensity of earthquakes in response to the phase and orbit location of the moon.

Moon and Earthquakes by Aishwarya Anand Singh

## Dawn of the Nanosats

The visualization shows the satellites launched from 2003 to 2015. The graph represents the type of institutions focused on projects as well as the nations that financed them. On the left, it is shown the number of launches per year and satellite applications.

WIRED UK – Dawn of the by Nanosats by Valerio Pellegrini

## Final Words

Data visualization is not only a form of science but also a form of art. Its purpose is to help businesses in any field quickly make sense of complex data and start making decisions based on that data. To make your graphs efficient and easy to read, it’s all about knowing your data and audience. This way you’ll be able to choose the right type of chart and use visual techniques to your advantage.

You may also be interested in some of these related articles:

- Infographics for Marketing: How to Grab and Hold the Attention
- 12 Animated Infographics That Will Engage Your Mind from Start to Finish
- 50 Engaging Infographic Examples That Make Complex Ideas Look Great
- Good Color Combinations That Go Beyond Trends: Inspirational Examples and Ideas

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## Al Boicheva

Al is an illustrator at GraphicMama with out-of-the-box thinking and a passion for anything creative. In her free time, you will see her drooling over tattoo art, Manga, and horror movies.

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The approach utilized historical data from network snapshots at past timestamps to acquire the latent representation of the future network. Anand et al. [ 27 ] proposed a method called integrating node centralities and similarity measures with some machine learning classifiers like the Random Forest, AdaBoost classifier, and ANN-based ...

Scene Graph Generation (SGG) aims to generate a comprehensive graphical representation that accurately captures the semantic information of a given scenario. However, the SGG model's performance in predicting more fine-grained predicates is hindered by a significant predicate bias. According to existing works, the long-tail distribution of predicates in training data results in the biased ...

Introduction. Research in mathematics education shows that students struggle to conceptualize dynamic situations and elaborate appropriate graphic representations or formulas to represent how one quantity may vary in relation to another quantity (Carlson, Citation 1998; Carlson et al., Citation 2002).Among all the cognitive difficulties related to the learning of functions (Eisenberg, Citation ...

The work route's graphical representation is inspired by the foundations of the Essence standard's graphical notation language. The guidelines are grouped into five categories, namely (i) a data analytics dashboard, (ii) student data, (iii) teacher data, (iv) learning activity data, and (v) student progress data.

To address this limitation, this paper proposes Graph representation learning enhanced Semi-supervised Feature Selection (G-FS) which performs feature selection based on the discovery and exploitation of the non-Euclidean relations among features and samples by translating unlabeled "plain" tabular data into a bipartite graph.

The U.S. economy added far fewer jobs in 2023 and early 2024 than previously reported, a sign that cracks in the labor market are more severe — and began forming earlier — than initially believed.

v. t. e. Data and information visualization ( data viz/vis or info viz/vis) [ 2] is the practice of designing and creating easy-to-communicate and easy-to-understand graphic or visual representations of a large amount [ 3] of complex quantitative and qualitative data and information with the help of static, dynamic or interactive visual items.

Examples on Graphical Representation of Data. Example 1: A pie chart is divided into 3 parts with the angles measuring as 2x, 8x, and 10x respectively. Find the value of x in degrees. Solution: We know, the sum of all angles in a pie chart would give 360º as result. ⇒ 2x + 8x + 10x = 360º. ⇒ 20 x = 360º.

Graphical Representation of Data: Graphical Representation of Data," where numbers and facts become lively pictures and colorful diagrams.Instead of staring at boring lists of numbers, we use fun charts, cool graphs, and interesting visuals to understand information better. In this exciting concept of data visualization, we'll learn about different kinds of graphs, charts, and pictures ...

A pie chart showing the composition of the 38th Parliament of Canada.. A chart (sometimes known as a graph) is a graphical representation for data visualization, in which "the data is represented by symbols, such as bars in a bar chart, lines in a line chart, or slices in a pie chart". [1] A chart can represent tabular numeric data, functions or some kinds of quality structure and provides ...

Data visualization is the graphical representation of information and data. By using v isual elements like charts, graphs, and maps, data visualization tools provide an accessible way to see and understand trends, outliers, and patterns in data. Additionally, it provides an excellent way for employees or business owners to present data to non ...

General Rules for Graphical Representation of Data. There are certain rules to effectively present the information in the graphical representation. They are: Suitable Title: Make sure that the appropriate title is given to the graph which indicates the subject of the presentation. Measurement Unit: Mention the measurement unit in the graph.

2.3: Histograms, Frequency Polygons, and Time Series Graphs. A histogram is a graphic version of a frequency distribution. The graph consists of bars of equal width drawn adjacent to each other. The horizontal scale represents classes of quantitative data values and the vertical scale represents frequencies. The heights of the bars correspond ...

Data visualization is the representation of information and data using charts, graphs, maps, and other visual tools. These visualizations allow us to easily understand any patterns, trends, or outliers in a data set. Data visualization also presents data to the general public or specific audiences without technical knowledge in an accessible ...

Bullet Graph. Choropleth Map. Word Cloud. Network Diagram. Correlation Matrices. 1. Pie Chart. Pie charts are one of the most common and basic data visualization techniques, used across a wide range of applications. Pie charts are ideal for illustrating proportions, or part-to-whole comparisons.

A line chart, also called a line graph, is a distinct type of graphical representation that exhibits information in the form of a multitude of data points, which are interconnected by unbroken lines. These line charts are typically employed to demonstrate transformations in data over a certain duration, where the horizontal axis symbolizes time ...

Data Sources - Wherever possible, include the sources of information at the bottom of the graph. Keep it Simple - You should construct a graph which even a layman (without any exposure in the areas of statistics or mathematics) can understand. Neat - A graph is a visual aid for the presentation of data and information.

General Rules for Graphical Representation of Data. The following are a few rules to present the information in the graphical representation: Suitable title: The title of the graph should be appropriate that indicates the subject of the presentation. Measurement unit: The measurement unit in the graph should be mentioned. Proper scale: Choose a proper scale to represent the data accurately.

The graphic presentation of data and information offers a quick and simple way of understanding the features and drawing comparisons. Further, it is an effective analytical tool and a graph can help us in finding the mode, median, etc. We can locate a point in a plane using two mutually perpendicular lines-the X-axis (the horizontal line) and ...

A graphical representation is the geometrical image of a set of data that preserves its characteristics and displays them at a glance. It is a mathematical picture of data points. It enables us to think about a statistical problem in visual terms. It is an effective tool for the preparation, understanding and interpretation of the collected data.

Infographics are graphic visual representations of information, data, or knowledge intended to present information quickly and clearly. Utilizing graphics enhances our ability as humans to recognize patterns and trends and improves cognition. Infographics are made up of three primary elements, the visual, the content, and knowledge.

Data visualisation is the graphical representation of information and data. By using visual elements like charts, graphs and maps, data visualisation tools provide an accessible way to see and understand trends, outliers and patterns in data. In the world of big data, data visualisation tools and technologies are essential for analysing massive ...

Terms in this set (25) The graphical representation of data and information using displays such as charts, graphs, and maps is referred to as _______________. data visualization. Which type of analytics involves the use of techniques such as data queries, reports, descriptive or summary statistics, and data visualization? descriptive analytics ...

The Text Pane includes ________ in which you can type text into a SmartArt graphic. placeholders. The ________ is the range of numbers in the data series and that controls the minimum, maximum, and incremental values on the value axis. scale. The area bounded by the axes, including all the data series is called ________.

The pictographic example above shows that in January are sold 20 computers (4×5 = 20), in February are sold 30 computers (6×5 = 30) and in March are sold 15 computers. 12. Dot Plot. Dot plot or dot graph is just one of the many types of graphs and charts to organize statistical data. It uses dots to represent data.

Infographics (a clipped compound of "information" and "graphics") are graphic visual representations of information, data, or knowledge intended to present information quickly and clearly. [1] [2] They can improve cognition by using graphics to enhance the human visual system's ability to see patterns and trends.[3] [4] Similar pursuits are information visualization, data visualization ...

In a way, data visualization is the mapping between the original data and graphic elements that determine how the attributes of these elements vary. The visualization is usually made by the use of charts, lines, or points, bars, and maps. Data Viz is a branch of Descriptive statistics but it requires both design, computer, and statistical skills.

Preview. Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like = the representation of information in graphical form, _____ is using technology to drill down into charts and graphs for more detail, interactively changing which details are shown and how the summary data are processed, data visualization combines ___ and _____ in a way ...

Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like The graphical representation of data, usually in a visually appealing way, is called _____., Data visualization refers to _____., What is data visualization? and more.