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FREE-WORD COMBINATIONS. Definition of a word-group and its basic features Structure of word-groups Meaning of word-groups Motivation in word-groups. Word-Group. the largest two-facet language unit consists of more than one word studied in the syntagmatic level of analysis. Word-Group.
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- word groups
- lexical meaning
- endocentric word groups
- question vital pressing urgent
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Definition of a word-group and its basic features • Structure of word-groups • Meaning of word-groups • Motivation in word-groups
Word-Group • the largest two-facet language unit • consists of more than one word • studied in the syntagmatic level of analysis
Word-Group • the degree of structural and semantic cohesion may vary e.g. at least, by means of, take place – semantically and structurally inseparable e.g. a week ago, kind to people – have greater semantic and structural independence
Free-Word Combination • word-groups that have a greater semantic and structural independence • freely composed by the speaker in his speech according to his purpose
Features of Word-groups • Lexical Valency • Grammatical Valency
Lexical Valency (Collocability) • The ability of a word to appear in various combinations with other words, or lexical contexts e.g. question – vital/pressing/urgent/etc., question at issue, to raise a question, a question on the agenda
Lexical Valency (Collocability) • words habitually collocated in speech make a cliché e.g. to put forward a question
Lexical Valency (Collocability) • lexical valency of correlated words in different languages is different e.g. flower цветок garden flowers садовые цветы hot-house flowers оранжерейные цветы pot flowers комнатные цветы
Lexical Valency (Collocability) • different meanings of one and the same word may be revealed through different type of lexical valency e.g. heavy table, book heavy snow, rain heavy drinker, eater heavy sorrow, sleep heavy industry
Grammatical Valency • The ability of a word to appear in specific grammatical structures, or grammatical contexts
Grammatical Valency • the minimal grammatical context in which the words are used when brought together to form a word-group is called the pattern of the word-group
Grammatical Valency • restricted by the part of speech e.g. an adjective + noun, infinitive, prepositional group a kind man, kind to people, heavy to lift • limited by the inner structure of the language e.g. to propose a plan – to suggest a plan to propose to do smth -
Grammatical Valency • grammatical valency of correlated words in different languages is different e.g. enter the room - войти в комнату
Classifications of word-groups • according to the distribution • according to the head-word • according to the syntactic pattern
endocentric – central member functionally equivalent to the whole word-group e.g. red flower ( I saw a red flower – I saw a flower) exocentric – the distribution of the whole word-group is different from either of its components e.g. side by side, grow smaller, John runs Word-groups according to distribution
Word-groups according to the head word • nominal groups e.g. red flower • adjectival groups e.g. kind to people • verbal groups e.g. to speak well
predicative– have a syntactic structure similar to that of a sentence e.g.John went, he works non-predicative – do not have a structure similar to a sentence e.g. red flower, running John Word-groups according to the syntactic pattern
coordinative – elements of a word-group are coordinated with each other e.g. day and night, do or die subordinative – one member of a word-group is subordinated to the central element e.g. red flower, a man of wisdom Non-predicative and endocentric word-groups
Meaning of Word-Groups • lexical meaning • structural meaning
Lexical meaning • the combined lexical meaning of the component words • BUT the meaning of the word-group predominates over the lexical meanings of its components e.g. atomic weight, atomic warfare
Lexical meaning • polysemantic words are used only in one of their meanings e.g. man and wife, blind man • stylistic reference of a word-group may be different from that of its components e.g. old, boy, bags, fun – old boy (дружище), bags of fun
Structural meaning • meaning conveyed by the arrangement of components of a word-group e.g. school grammar – grammar school
Structural meaning • structural and lexical meanings are interdependent and inseparable e.g. school children – to school children all the sun long – all the night long, all the week long
lexically motivated - the combined lexical meaning of a group is deducible from the meanings of its components lexically non-motivated – the meaning of the whole is not seen through the meanings of the elements Motivation in Word-groups
lexically motivated e.g. red flower lexically non-motivated e.g. red tape – ‘official bureaucratic methods’ Motivation in Word-groups
Motivation in Word-groups • e.g. apple sauce – ‘a sauce made of apples’ apple sauce – ‘nonsense’
Motivation in Word-groups • Non-motivated word-groups are called phraseological units or idioms
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FREE-WORD COMBINATIONS Lecture # 11
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The Structure of Sentences Asian 401
Grammar: Meaning and Contexts * From Presentation at NCTE annual conference in Pittsburgh, 2005.
Syntax (1) Dr. Ansa Hameed.
English 9 Enhanced. Nouns: person, place, thing (common, and proper) Pronouns: replace nouns (he, she, they, them, that) Verbs: express an action.
MORPHOLOGY - morphemes are the building blocks that make up words.
Semantic Structure of the Word and Polysemy. Polysemy The ability of words to have more than one meaning is described as polysemy A word having several.
Lecture 2 The main notions of Grammar The word and the morpheme
Reference & Denotation Connotation Sense Relations
Syntax Lecture 4.
Matakuliah: G0922/Introduction to Linguistics Tahun: 2008 Session 10 Syntax 1.
1 Introduction to Linguistics II Ling 2-121C, group b Lecture 6 Eleni Miltsakaki AUTH Spring 2006.
P A R T S O F A S E N T E N C E.
Specialized Dictionaries I Dictionaries of Collocations
PLEASE switch off or silence your phone.
Phrases and Sentences: Grammar
PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS IN ENGLISH
FACULTY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE G. TOGIA SECTION ΠΗ-Ω 10/14/2009 Introduction to linguistics II 1.
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Create a hierarchy
If you want to illustrate hierarchical relationships progressing vertically or horizontally, you can create a SmartArt graphic that uses a hierarchy layout, such as Labeled Hierarchy. A hierarchy graphically represents a series of ordered groupings of people or things within a system. By using a SmartArt graphic in Excel, Outlook, PowerPoint, or Word, you can create a hierarchy and include it in your worksheet, e-mail message, presentation, or document.
Important: If you want to create an organization chart , create a SmartArt graphic using the Organization Chart layout.
Note: The screenshots in this article were taken in Office 2007. If you have a different version, your view might be slightly different, but unless otherwise noted, the functionality is the same.
On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click SmartArt .
In the Choose a SmartArt Graphic gallery, click Hierarchy , and then double-click a hierarchy layout (such as Horizontal Hierarchy ).
To enter your text, do one of the following:
Click [Text] in the Text pane, and then type your text.
Copy text from another location or program, click [Text] in the Text pane, and then paste your text.
Note: If the Text pane is not visible, click the control.
Click in a box in the SmartArt graphic, and then type your text.
Note: For best results, use this option after you add all of the boxes that you want.
Add or delete boxes in your hierarchy
Click the SmartArt graphic that you want to add a box to.
Click the existing box that is located closest to where you want to add the new box.
Under SmartArt Tools , on the Design tab, in the Create Graphic group, click the arrow under Add Shape .
If you don't see the SmartArt Tools or Design tabs, make sure that you've selected the SmartArt graphic.
Do one of the following:
To insert a box at the same level as the selected box but following it, click Add Shape After .
To insert a box at the same level as the selected box but before it, click Add Shape Before .
To insert a box one level above the selected box, click Add Shape Above . The new box takes the position of the selected box, and the selected box and all of the boxes directly below it are each demoted one level.
To insert a box one level below the selected box, click Add Shape Below .
The new box is added after the other box at the same level.
Delete a box
To delete a box, click the border of the box you want to delete, and then press DELETE.
When you need to add a box to your hierarchy, experiment with adding the box before, after, above, or below the selected box to get the placement you want for the new box.
Although you cannot automatically connect two top-level boxes with a line in the hierarchy layouts, such as Horizontal Hierarchy , you can imitate this look by adding a box to your SmartArt graphic and then drawing a line to connect the boxes.
To add a box from the Text pane:
Place your cursor at the beginning of the text where you want to add a box.
Type the text that you want in your new box, press ENTER, and then to indent the new box, press TAB, or to negative indent, press SHIFT+TAB.
Move a box in your hierarchy
To move a box, click the box, and then drag the box to its new location.
To move a box in very small increments, hold down CTRL while you press the arrow keys on your keyboard.
Change to a different hierarchy layout
Right-click the hierarchy that you want to change, and then click Change Layout .
Click Hierarchy , and then do one of the following:
Note: You can also change the layout of your SmartArt graphic by clicking a layout option in the Layouts group on the Design tab under SmartArt Tools . When you point to a layout option, your SmartArt graphic changes to show you a preview of how it would look with that layout.
Change the colors of your hierarchy
To quickly add a designer-quality look and polish to your SmartArt graphic, you can change the colors or apply a SmartArt Style to your hierarchy. You can also add effects, such as glows, soft edges, or 3-D effects.
You can apply color combinations that are derived from the theme colors to the boxes in your SmartArt graphic.
Click the SmartArt graphic whose color you want to change.
Under SmartArt Tools , on the Design tab, in the SmartArt Styles group, click Change Colors .
If you don't see the SmartArt Tools or Design tabs, make sure that you've selected a SmartArt graphic.
Click the color combination that you want.
Tip: When you place your pointer over a thumbnail, you can see how the colors affect your SmartArt graphic.
Change the color or style of a line
In the SmartArt graphic, right-click the line or box border you want to change, and then click Format Shape .
To change the style of the box's border, click Line Style , and then choose the line styles you want.
Change the background color of a box in your hierarchy
Right-click the border of a box, and then click Format Shape .
Click the Fill pane, and then click Solid fill .
To specify how much you can see through the background color, move the Transparency slider, or enter a number in the box next to the slider. You can vary the percentage of transparency from 0% (fully opaque, the default setting) to 100% (fully transparent).
Apply a SmartArt Style to your hierarchy
A SmartArt Style is a combination of various effects, such as line style, bevel, or 3-D, that you can apply to the boxes in your SmartArt graphic to create a unique and professionally designed look.
Click the SmartArt graphic whose SmartArt Style you want to change.
Under SmartArt Tools , on the Design tab, in the SmartArt Styles group, click the SmartArt Style that you want.
When you place your pointer over a thumbnail, you can see how the SmartArt Style affects your SmartArt graphic.
You can also customize your SmartArt graphic by moving boxes , resizing boxes, adding a fill or effect , and adding a picture.
Animate your hierarchy
If you're using PowerPoint, you can animate your hierarchy to emphasize each box, each branch, or each hierarchical level.
Click the SmartArt graphic hierarchy that you want to animate.
On the Animations tab, in the Animations group, click Animate , and then click By branch one by one .
Note: If you copy a hierarchy that has an animation applied to it to another slide, the animation is also copied.
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11 minute read
11 Best Excel Presentation Tips in 2023
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There’s more to a spreadsheet than just the numbers on the page. It is equally important to make your spreadsheets look professional, easy to read, and visually appealing to your viewers.
The same way a lawyer with a crooked tie and disorganized papers might raise an eyebrow in court, your Excel presentation won’t hit the right marks with your audience if it looks clumsy and bland, no matter how many hours of research goes into making it or how important the information contained within it is.
Whether you are creating a spreadsheet for personal use, to pass information to your team or share with your project manager, the secrets locked away in this post will be of immense use to you. Let’s take a look at the best Excel presentation tips to help you create standout spreadsheets .
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1. Get a template online
If you are a busy person, and you cannot fit an Excel presentation design into your schedule, enter the ex machina: pre-made Excel templates. You can choose from an array of purpose-specific templates with beautiful designs, fonts, and colors. Simply enter your values to customize it, and you are ready to go.
Of course, using a template means you will not get better at designing things yourself. If getting things done is your priority instead of getting better at designing presentations, then, by all means, use a template and be done with it. On the other hand, if you want to know how to make your Excel presentation better on your own, then find someone to teach you or stick around until the end of this post.
Check out our 50 best Excel templates to make your life easier and our 33 Excel business templates for workplace productivity .
2. Name your worksheets correctly
Excel presentation is all about clarity. For this single reason, the importance of a correct and reliable project or worksheet name cannot be overemphasized. It could be a sentence, a phrase or just a word. Just make sure it is easy to understand by you or by anyone you will be sharing the file with.
You also must make sure it is distinct from the names of other worksheets stored on your computer. After all, what is the use of all the tips you will learn here today if you will not be able to find the worksheet you applied them on?
3. Define your header/title
Your header and title can be anything but it needs to stand out. Your header must be able to speak to the reader and make the reader know at first glance what the header is.
To do this, try a larger font for your header, underline and embolden it. You should center align it and use a different font color. It has to stand out but also blend with the template color scheme and overall aesthetic look. You can also use a different readable for your header. Just remember, we want to make it distinct, not isolated.
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4. Dos and don'ts of fonts
Full transparency: Fonts make or break your spreadsheet. Always use a uniform font for your data, you can use the same font for your header or you can change that of the header. You can use three fonts in a single presentation and that is the recommended maximum, else you would be pushing it. In this case, less is infinitely better.
These are the guidelines to follow in selecting the right format for your font.
Here is a quick tip, fonts of the sans-serif group are the best for your Excel spreadsheet if readability is your goal. Calibri, Helvetica, Arial or Playfair are few examples. If used with the right alignment, spacing, and color, they can bring out the best in your Excel presentation.
This ultimately depends on your presentation but officially, font 12 is often advised with double spacing to improve readability. As stated earlier, the header font can be larger. The headers should be larger than sub-headers which in turn should be larger than data fonts.
You want to create a sharp contrast between the text color and the background colors e.g. a light color text on a dark background and vice versa. This is where the "zebra stripes" rule comes in, which will be discussed later in the post.
People don’t often use the alignment tool in Excel. If you want to make your presentation look beautiful and business-like , you will need to maximize the alignment feature.
5. Create space for breathing room
When you see tightly packed, clumsy or wordy text or spreadsheet, your brain automatically gets tired of reading it before you even start. But when there is breathing space and the spreadsheet is divided up into categories, it becomes more pleasant to the eyes and ripe for interpretation by the brain.
This brings us to the B2 rule. Try to start your presentation on column B, row 2. Leaving the A column and the first row blank. It works like magic. You should also make sure that the column and row dimensions are the same.
Additionally, don't autofit the height and width of your document. You need to have flexibility and creative control of your workspace. Instead, manually adjust the height and width so that they have just enough white space but not too much to give your presentation some breathing room and improve readability.
6. Add an image
Whether it’s a photograph, an artistic sketch or your logo, images go a long way in making your spreadsheet better. Images make your presentation look official and possess the professional feel in many of the beautiful presentations you have seen. Pictures speak a thousand words. While Excel is not designed to accomplish the kind of presentation you can make in PowerPoint, a picture will help you to drive the point home and make your presentation memorable.
7. Go off the grid
Do you know that erasing all grid lines apart from those of your result will have people asking how you did it and if you used the same Excel software they use? Try it today. In your spreadsheet
Go to the View tab on the ribbon.
- Under the Show section, uncheck the box next to Gridlines .
8. Zebra stripes: Excel jungle law
Zebra stripes are alternating dark and light colors on rows lying on top of each other. This helps in a number of ways. First, it has this aesthetic feel that makes your work seem orderly, especially if you are displaying hundreds of rows of data. Second, it helps correlation and readability. A reader can track a row from the right-hand side to the far left and not lose track of what row his or her eyes are set upon.
You can zebra stripe using many methods. When you create a table in Excel, by default this will be zebra striped (Tip- select your data and use the shortcut Ctrl + T on a PC or ^ + T on a Mac to quickly create a table). On the Design tab, under Table Styles, you can change the color and style of your zebra stripes.
It can also be done using a formula in conditional formatting if desired. Conditional formatting is done by highlighting values that satisfy certain requirements (e.g. all odd-numbered rows). It can be copied from cell to cell using the painter tool in the Home toolbar.
9. Use charts, tables , and graphs
Most presentations are incomplete without some form of visual representation. Whether table, graph or chart, you need to visually represent your raw data in mediums that would be understood in a single glance. Charts, graphs, and tables should not be underestimated, especially if you have cumbersome data spanning many columns and rows.
In the Excel ecosystem, the chart, graph, and table features are like symbiotic siblings. You need them to bring out the beauty in the brevity of your work.
10. Create cell styles
Excel has many preset cell styles but you can create your own custom styles that will be more customized, and easier to use and edit because you created it. This is actually an alternative to getting a template if graphics consistency is your goal. After creating a beautiful spreadsheet with the above information, you can save the style so that you can apply it to future presentations.
Now your presentation is perfect with the right feel and style. Simply highlight the cells with your design for saving, then go to the Home toolbar, click on "more" at the base of the style gallery, then select "new cell style". A style dialog box will open, name the style, edit its properties and save.
If it isn't broken and it works efficiently, why change it? You can, however, add a touch of variability by changing the color palette from time to time.
11. Show restraint
You have learned all of these tips and you are ready to start your presentation - be careful of overdoing it. Use color sparingly and don't combine too many tips at once. You need to tread the fine line between underwhelming and too much to find the "just enough" middle ground. Make sure your presentation is perfectly balanced, as all things should be.
Ultimately, the way your Excel presentation turns out depends on how well you communicate your data to your audience. Although, it does help to know the psychology of colors, good fonts. Browse beautiful spreadsheet presentations online to figure out what the "best" looks like. But at the end of the day, the ball is in your court and we hope that your dedication to practicing, sharpening and perfecting your presentation skills in Excel will be rewarded with cheers.
Ready to design your own Excel presentations?
If you would like to sum up the data on your Excel spreadsheet so that its insights are conveyed in a straight-forward manner, then follow this step-by-step guide. You’ll end up with a presentation that summarizes your data in a way that’s painless to analyze.
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Brandon is a full time CPA specializing in all things tax. When he is not serving clients, he enjoys spending time with his wife and son, real estate investing, and sipping fine bourbon.
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Each silent letter combination includes two worksheets and includes the following activities:1. Color it – Students color or trace
Browse two word combinations resources on Teachers Pay ... Building Words With Vowel Teams - Word Work Worksheets - Google Classroom.
Definition of a word-group and its basic features Structure of ... free word combinations n. ... 2097 Views Download Presentation. FREE-WORD
FREE TRAINING: https://bit.ly/mtp-handouts-freetrainingIn this video, I talk about how to create effective presentation handouts for class
Ansa Hameed. More. Presentation on theme: "FREE-WORD COMBINATIONS Lecture # 11"— Presentation transcript
Get the PowerPoint 2016 keyboard shortcuts in a Word document at this link: PowerPoint 2016 for ... Insert an embedded document or spreadsheet as an object.
By using a SmartArt graphic in Excel, Outlook, PowerPoint, or Word, you can create a hierarchy and include it in your worksheet, e-mail message
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There's more to a spreadsheet than just the numbers on the page. It is equally important to make your spreadsheets look professional, easy to read