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Presentation on theme: "FREE-WORD COMBINATIONS"— Presentation transcript:
The Structure of Sentences Asian 401
Semantics (Representing Meaning)
Chapter 4 Syntax.
Introduction to the theory of grammar
Fill in the blanks on the following grammar term definitions…
THE STRUCTURE OF SENTENCES Syntax. Learning objectives Explain the notions “language organ” and “Universal Grammar” Explain the similarities and differences.
Syntax (1) Dr. Ansa Hameed.
MORPHOLOGY - morphemes are the building blocks that make up words.
Semantic Structure of the Word and Polysemy. Polysemy The ability of words to have more than one meaning is described as polysemy A word having several.
Lecture 2 The main notions of Grammar The word and the morpheme
Syntax Lecture 4.
Matakuliah: G0922/Introduction to Linguistics Tahun: 2008 Session 10 Syntax 1.
PARTS OF SPEECH 1 The principles of the traditional classification of the English vocabulary 2 Notional and functional parts of speech. 3 The field structure.
Syntax Nuha AlWadaani.
Phrases and Sentences: Grammar
Albert Gatt LIN 3098 Corpus Linguistics. In this lecture Some more on corpora and grammar Construction Grammar as a theoretical framework Collostructional.
PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS IN ENGLISH
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FREE-WORD COMBINATIONS. Definition of a word-group and its basic features Structure of word-groups Meaning of word-groups Motivation in word-groups. Word-Group. the largest two-facet language unit consists of more than one word studied in the syntagmatic level of analysis. Word-Group.
- Celine Leonidas
- word groups
- lexical meaning
- endocentric word groups
- question vital pressing urgent
- More by User
Definition of a word-group and its basic features • Structure of word-groups • Meaning of word-groups • Motivation in word-groups
Word-Group • the largest two-facet language unit • consists of more than one word • studied in the syntagmatic level of analysis
Word-Group • the degree of structural and semantic cohesion may vary e.g. at least, by means of, take place – semantically and structurally inseparable e.g. a week ago, kind to people – have greater semantic and structural independence
Free-Word Combination • word-groups that have a greater semantic and structural independence • freely composed by the speaker in his speech according to his purpose
Features of Word-groups • Lexical Valency • Grammatical Valency
Lexical Valency (Collocability) • The ability of a word to appear in various combinations with other words, or lexical contexts e.g. question – vital/pressing/urgent/etc., question at issue, to raise a question, a question on the agenda
Lexical Valency (Collocability) • words habitually collocated in speech make a cliché e.g. to put forward a question
Lexical Valency (Collocability) • lexical valency of correlated words in different languages is different e.g. flower цветок garden flowers садовые цветы hot-house flowers оранжерейные цветы pot flowers комнатные цветы
Lexical Valency (Collocability) • different meanings of one and the same word may be revealed through different type of lexical valency e.g. heavy table, book heavy snow, rain heavy drinker, eater heavy sorrow, sleep heavy industry
Grammatical Valency • The ability of a word to appear in specific grammatical structures, or grammatical contexts
Grammatical Valency • the minimal grammatical context in which the words are used when brought together to form a word-group is called the pattern of the word-group
Grammatical Valency • restricted by the part of speech e.g. an adjective + noun, infinitive, prepositional group a kind man, kind to people, heavy to lift • limited by the inner structure of the language e.g. to propose a plan – to suggest a plan to propose to do smth -
Grammatical Valency • grammatical valency of correlated words in different languages is different e.g. enter the room - войти в комнату
Classifications of word-groups • according to the distribution • according to the head-word • according to the syntactic pattern
endocentric – central member functionally equivalent to the whole word-group e.g. red flower ( I saw a red flower – I saw a flower) exocentric – the distribution of the whole word-group is different from either of its components e.g. side by side, grow smaller, John runs Word-groups according to distribution
Word-groups according to the head word • nominal groups e.g. red flower • adjectival groups e.g. kind to people • verbal groups e.g. to speak well
predicative– have a syntactic structure similar to that of a sentence e.g.John went, he works non-predicative – do not have a structure similar to a sentence e.g. red flower, running John Word-groups according to the syntactic pattern
coordinative – elements of a word-group are coordinated with each other e.g. day and night, do or die subordinative – one member of a word-group is subordinated to the central element e.g. red flower, a man of wisdom Non-predicative and endocentric word-groups
Meaning of Word-Groups • lexical meaning • structural meaning
Lexical meaning • the combined lexical meaning of the component words • BUT the meaning of the word-group predominates over the lexical meanings of its components e.g. atomic weight, atomic warfare
Lexical meaning • polysemantic words are used only in one of their meanings e.g. man and wife, blind man • stylistic reference of a word-group may be different from that of its components e.g. old, boy, bags, fun – old boy (дружище), bags of fun
Structural meaning • meaning conveyed by the arrangement of components of a word-group e.g. school grammar – grammar school
Structural meaning • structural and lexical meanings are interdependent and inseparable e.g. school children – to school children all the sun long – all the night long, all the week long
lexically motivated - the combined lexical meaning of a group is deducible from the meanings of its components lexically non-motivated – the meaning of the whole is not seen through the meanings of the elements Motivation in Word-groups
lexically motivated e.g. red flower lexically non-motivated e.g. red tape – ‘official bureaucratic methods’ Motivation in Word-groups
Motivation in Word-groups • e.g. apple sauce – ‘a sauce made of apples’ apple sauce – ‘nonsense’
Motivation in Word-groups • Non-motivated word-groups are called phraseological units or idioms
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Create a Word Cloud in a PowerPoint Presentation
< 1 minute read
Word clouds are great visual tools because they help communicate ideas in a very direct way, putting the focus on the most important words. Here’s how to add one to your PowerPoint presentation using the Pro Word Cloud add-in.
Installing the add-in.
- In the Office Store, search for Pro Word Cloud . Once you find it, click it. Then click Add > Open in PowerPoint.
- You’ll see an alert about a new Office add-in. Click Trust this add-in.
Generating your word cloud
- To access the add-in in PowerPoint, head to Insert > My Add-ins > See All. From this menu, select Pro Word Cloud.
- Once you open it, you’re going to get a sidebar on the right-hand side of the page where you can control a few options about how your word cloud is going to look. You can select a font, color scheme, layout, case, and importantly, the size of the world cloud that you want to generate.
- Select some text on your slide, and click on Create Word Cloud – and just like that, you’ll get your word cloud.
Saving & using your word cloud
- You have a few options. You can save it to an online gallery, or if you’d rather work with it locally, right-click on the image. If you choose Save picture as, you can save the image of this word cloud locally to your system.
- On the other hand, if you want to just use the word cloud in your current presentation, that’s easy to do. Just right-click again, and this time choose Copy. Then just paste the image into your presentation, and you’ve got a word cloud! It’s that simple.
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Use keyboard shortcuts to create PowerPoint presentations
Many users find that using an external keyboard with keyboard shortcuts for PowerPoint helps them work more efficiently. For users with mobility or vision disabilities, keyboard shortcuts can be easier than using the touchscreen and are an essential alternative to using a mouse.
For a separate list of shortcuts to use while delivering your presentation, go to Use keyboard shortcuts to deliver PowerPoint presentations .
The shortcuts in this topic refer to the US keyboard layout. Keys for other layouts might not correspond exactly to the keys on a US keyboard.
A plus sign (+) in a shortcut means that you need to press multiple keys at the same time.
A comma sign (,) in a shortcut means that you need to press multiple keys in order.
This article describes the keyboard shortcuts you can use in PowerPoint for Windows when creating or editing presentations.
To quickly find a shortcut in this article, you can use the Search. Press Ctrl+F and then type your search words.
If an action that you use often does not have a shortcut key, you can add it to the Quick Access Toolbar to create one. For instructions, refer to Use a keyboard to customize the Quick Access Toolbar .
Get the PowerPoint 2016 keyboard shortcuts in a Word document at this link: PowerPoint 2016 for Windows keyboard shortcuts .
In this topic
Frequently used shortcuts, work with presentations and slides, work with objects and text, copy objects and text, work in objects and text, select text, delete text, move around in text, find and replace text, format text, work with tables, move a slide.
Work with views and panes
Work with the Selection pane
Work with the task pane, ribbon keyboard shortcuts, open the ribbon tabs, work in the ribbon with the keyboard, other useful ribbon keyboard shortcuts, custom keyboard shortcuts.
The following table itemizes the most frequently used shortcuts in PowerPoint.
Top of Page
Tip: To select multiple objects with the keyboard, use the Selection Pane . For more information refer to Manage objects with the Selection Pane .
Before using these keyboard shortcuts, select the text you want to format.
Create a bulleted list using different styles
Do one of the following:
To create a list that uses filled round bullets, press the Asterisk sign (*).
To create a list that uses hyphens, press the Minus sign (-).
To create a list that uses arrow bullets, press the Right angle bracket (>).
To create a list that uses diamonds, press Left angle bracket (<) + Right angle bracket (>).
To create a list that uses arrows, press two minus signs (-) + Right angle bracket (>).
To create a list that uses double arrows, press the Equal sign ( = ) + Right angle bracket (>).
Type the list item, and then press Enter.
The ribbon groups related options on tabs. For example, on the Home tab, the Paragraph group includes the Bullets option. Press the Alt key to display the ribbon shortcuts, called Key Tips, as letters in small images next to the tabs and options.
You can combine the Key Tips letters with the Alt key to make shortcuts called Access Keys for the ribbon options. For example, press Alt+H to open the Home tab, and Alt+Q to move to the Tell me or Search field. Press Alt again to see KeyTips for the options on the selected tab.
In Office 2010, most of the old Alt key menu shortcuts still work, too. However, you need to know the full shortcut. For example, press Alt, and then press one of the old menu keys E (Edit), V (View), I (Insert), and so on. A notification pops up saying you're using an access key from an earlier version of Microsoft 365. If you know the entire key sequence, go ahead and use it. If you don't know the sequence, press Esc and use Key Tips instead.
To go directly to a tab on the ribbon, press one of the following access keys. Additional tabs might appear depending on your selection in the presentation.
Note: Add-ins and other programs might add new tabs to the ribbon and might provide access keys for those tabs.
To assign custom keyboard shortcuts to menu items, recorded macros, and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) code in PowerPoint, you must use a third-party add-in, such as Shortcut Manager for PowerPoint, which is available from OfficeOne .
PowerPoint help & learning
Screen reader support for PowerPoint
Use keyboard shortcuts to deliver PowerPoint presentations
Basic tasks to create a presentation in PowerPoint with a screen reader
Use a screen reader to explore and navigate PowerPoint
This article describes the keyboard shortcuts you can use in PowerPoint for macOS when creating or editing presentations.
The settings in some versions of the Mac operating system (OS) and some utility applications can conflict with keyboard shortcuts and function key operations in Microsoft 365 for Mac. For information about changing the key assignment of a keyboard shortcut, refer to the Mac Help for your version of the macOS, your utility application, or refer to Change a conflicting keyboard shortcut on Mac .
If you don't find a keyboard shortcut here that meets your needs, you can create a custom keyboard shortcut. For instructions, go to Create a custom keyboard shortcut for Office for Mac .
Many of the shortcuts that use the Ctrl key on a Windows keyboard also work with the Control key in PowerPoint on Mac. However, not all do.
To quickly find a shortcut in this article, you can use the Search. Press Command+F, and then type your search words.
Work with tables
Other useful shortcut keys.
The following table itemizes the most frequently used shortcuts in PowerPoint for Mac.
Type the list item, and then press Return.
Work with views and panes
Screen reader support for PowerPoint
This article describes the keyboard shortcuts in PowerPoint for iOS when creating or editing presentations.
If you're familiar with keyboard shortcuts on your macOS computer, the same key combinations work with PowerPoint for iOS using an external keyboard, too.
To quickly find a shortcut, you can use the Search. Press Command+F and then type your search words.
Frequently used shortcuts on iPad
Navigate in PowerPoint for iPad
Move the insertion point within placeholders and notes on iPad
Select content on ipad, edit and format presentations on iphone, navigate and select within a text box on iphone.
This table shows the most frequently used shortcuts for PowerPoint for iPad.
Navigate in PowerPoint for iPad
PowerPoint for iPad is a mobile application, so the keyboard shortcuts and navigation might be different from those in desktop versions of PowerPoint.
To move through the options, press Shift+Right arrow key until the focus is on the ribbon, and then press the Right or Left arrow key. To select an option, press ⌘+Option+Spacebar.
To move the focus to different areas in PowerPoint for iPad (from the ribbon to the thumbnail pane, for example), place the focus on a button, and then press Shift+Right arrow key to move forward or Shift+Left arrow key to move backward.
This article describes the keyboard shortcuts in PowerPoint for Android when creating or editing presentations.
Note: To quickly find a shortcut, you can use the Search. Press Ctrl+F and then type your search words.
Edit and format the presentation
This article describes the keyboard shortcuts you can use in PowerPoint for the web on Windows when creating or editing presentations.
If you use Narrator with the Windows 10 Fall Creators Update, you have to turn off scan mode in order to edit documents, spreadsheets, or presentations with Microsoft 365 for the web. For more information, refer to Turn off virtual or browse mode in screen readers in Windows 10 Fall Creators Update .
To quickly find a shortcut, you can use the Search. Press Ctrl+F and then type your search words.
When you use PowerPoint for the web, we recommend that you use Microsoft Edge as your web browser. Because PowerPoint for the web runs in your web browser, the keyboard shortcuts are different from those in the desktop program. For example, you’ll use Ctrl+F6 instead of F6 for jumping in and out of the commands. Also, common shortcuts like F1 (Help) and Ctrl+O (Open) apply to the web browser – not PowerPoint for the web.
Work with objects and text
Work with comments
Navigate with only the keyboard, navigate the ribbon and panes.
The following table provides the shortcuts that you'll likely use often in PowerPoint for the web.
Tip: To quickly create a new presentation in PowerPoint for the web, open your browser, type PowerPoint.new or ppt.new in the address bar, and then press Enter.
Except for the shortcut for adding a new comment, the keyboard shortcuts listed below work only when the Comments pane is open and in focus.
To move the focus to different parts and areas of PowerPoint for the web (from the ribbon to the thumbnail pane, for example) and in and out of the content of a slide, press Ctrl+F6 (forward) or press Ctrl+Shift+F6 (backward). To navigate options and controls in PowerPoint for the web, press the Tab key to move forward, press Shift+Tab to move backward, and press Enter to select.
Tip: To quickly perform an action while in the Editing mode, press Alt+Q. The focus moves to the Search or Tell Me search field. Then type the action or option you want. Press the Up arrow key or Down arrow key until you find the option, and then press Enter to select it.
The ribbon is the strip at the top of the PowerPoint for the web window. The ribbon is organized by tabs. Each tab displays a different set of tools and functions, made up of groups, and each group includes one or more options. To move the focus to the ribbon, press Alt+Period (.) or Alt+Windows logo key. You can also press Ctrl+F6 repeatedly until the ribbon has the focus.
Other shortcuts for using the ribbon include the following:
To move between tabs, use the Right and Left arrow keys.
To access the ribbon for the currently selected tab, press the Tab key once.
To move between options on the ribbon, use the Right and Left arrow keys.
Options are activated in different ways, depending on the type of the option:
If the selected option is a button or split button, press Spacebar or Enter to activate it.
If the selected option is a list (such as the Font list), to open the list, press Alt+Down arrow key. Then, to move between items, press the Up or Down arrow key. When the focus is on the item you want, press Enter to select it.
If the selected option is a gallery, press the Tab key to go to the More option for the gallery and then, to open the gallery, press Enter. Press the Tab key to move through the items, and then press Enter to select one.
Make your PowerPoint presentations accessible to people with disabilities
Technical support for customers with disabilities
Microsoft wants to provide the best possible experience for all our customers. If you have a disability or questions related to accessibility, please contact the Microsoft Disability Answer Desk for technical assistance. The Disability Answer Desk support team is trained in using many popular assistive technologies and can offer assistance in English, Spanish, French, and American Sign Language. Please go to the Microsoft Disability Answer Desk site to find out the contact details for your region.
If you are a government, commercial, or enterprise user, please contact the enterprise Disability Answer Desk .
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Presentation on theme: "FREE-WORD COMBINATIONS Lecture # 11"— Presentation transcript: · 1 FREE-WORD COMBINATIONS Lecture # 11 · 2 Word-groups Definition of a
Presentation on theme: "FREE-WORD COMBINATIONS"— Presentation transcript: · 1 FREE-WORD COMBINATIONS · 2 Definition of a word-group and its basic
FREE-WORD COMBINATIONS. Definition of a word-group and its basic features Structure of word-groups Meaning of word-groups Motivation in
A Phraseological unit (PU) can be defined as a non-motivated word-group that ... The second group (phraseological combinations) fall into two subgroups:.
FREE-WORD COMBINATIONS. Definition of a word-group and its basic features; Structure of word-groups; Meaning of word-groups; Motivation in word-groups.
Word Study (1) A word is a linguistic unit that can be moved around relatively freely in a sentence; can be stressed; has only one primary stress; – PowerPoint
Learn about how children acquire word meanings; Examine research findings on ... A combination of definitions and contextual examples works better than
Dynamic: Languages change by word absorption, and grammar rules shift. ... Model/Rival Training ... Nim Chimpsky (Terrace, 1981): two-words combination.
Word clouds are great visual tools because they help communicate ideas in a very direct way, putting the focus on the most important words.
Press Ctrl+F and then type your search words. If an action that you use often does not have a shortcut key, you can add it to the Quick Access Toolbar to create